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Dialectic Art of: Conversing (in question and answer) refutation Materials that call for discussion Things known to all (no special subject-matter), types Deduction and induction Questioner and answerer opposite common

Rhetoric (counterpart, offspring, branch of dialectic) (Public) speaking

Three Modes of persuasion by speech Required abilities

1 Presentation of speakers character (ethos)

2 Stirring of hearers emotions (pathos)

3 Proof by persuasive arguments (logos) Reason logically

objective scope Object of theorizing Reasoning participants conclusions Places (topoi)

persuasion Regular subjects of debate Things known to all (no special subject-matter), types Enthymeme and example Speaker and audience opposite common

Understand human Understand the character and emotions goodness speaker Decider re future Political / deliberative future Establish action as expedient or harmful Person addressed Judge re past forensic past Establish justice or injustice of some action

elements Types of hearers divisions Kinds of time ends

subject observer Ceremonial (epideictic) present Prove a man worthy of honour or the reverse

Probabilities definition What usually happens (in the contingent and variable) Envious men hate. Those who are loved show affection. (Prior Analytics II 27 70a5-6)

Signs When it is (has come into being), the other is (has come into being) before or after. (Prior Analytics II 27 70a6-10) Fever is a sign of illness. (infallible) Giving milk is a sign of having borne a child. (infallible, complete proof) Socratess being wise and just is a sign that the wise are just. (refutable) Breathing fast is a sign of fever. (fallible) He has a fever, so he is ill. (complete proof, irrefutable if premise true) Socrates is wise and just, so the wise are just. (refutable) He is breathing fast, so he has a fever. (refutable) Infallible: as universal to particular Fallible 1: as particular to universal Fallible 2: as universal to particular


enthymeme He is envious, so he hates.


As universal to particular

Spurious enthymemes (things that look like an enthymeme but are not) 1a. Making a final statement 5. Representing the as if it were a conclusion accidental as essential 1b. Exploiting the fact that a 6. Affirming the consequent similar word is used for different things 2. Composition and division 7. False cause (post hoc ergo proper hoc) 3. Use of indignant language 8. Omission of a qualification (with no argument) 4. Use of a sign or single 9. Confusion of the absolute instance as certain evidence with what is not absolute