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Automatic Voltage Regulators

GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION

Outline
Basics of a Practical AVR Control Functions Per-Unitization AVR Control Configurations

GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION

Basics of a Practical AVR


AVR for small generators Microcontroller based Inputs
Voltage sensing Current sensing External voltage adjustment Auxiliary input (+/- 3Vdc) Operating Power

GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION

Basics of a Practical AVR


Internal Adjustments
Voltage Droop Stability Under frequency knee / slope Exciter field voltage

Outputs

GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION

AVR Block Diagram


1 or 3 Ph Sensing 1 or 5 A CT Input Stability Cap/Res External Volts Adj +/- 3 Vdc Aux Input Power Supply Droop Adj Firing Control Stability Adj

Microcontroller

Voltage Adj UF Adj

Power Stage

Feedback

Output To Exciter

Input Shunt / PMG

GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION

Control Functions
Voltage Control Droop Compensation V/Hz Compensation Over Excitation Shutdown Loss of Sensing Protection Build up from Residual Internal Adjustments

GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION

Control Functions
External Adjustments Auxiliary Input Regulation Accuracy Temperature Drift Operating Temperature Range

GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION

Per-Unitization
Goal is to set the gain for each block to 1 except the controller block The gain of each block is determined by dividing the output by the input for that block The gains for the blocks are combined together and the result appears in the controller block

GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION

Per-Unitization

GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION

DC Gain Adjustment

GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION

New Per-Unit Model

GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION

Algorithm
Once we determine the overall loop gain, we compensate for it by introducing Kg, with the inverse of the loop gain Once we have done this, now the PID controller gains reflect what is really happening in the loop

GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION

AVR Control Configurations


Control configurations are different for static excited versus rotary excited generators Static excited generators use:
Pure gain Lag/lead network PI controller Lag/lead and lead/lag networks Rate feedback controller PID controller

Rotary excited generators use:


GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION

AVR Control Configurations


Design of a rotary excited generator controller
Tg = 4s, Te = 1s Mo < 10% ts < 1s ess < 0.5%

GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION

AVR Control Configurations


Pure gain will not achieve our goal

4 4 = 6.4 sec . ts = realpart wn

GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION

Pure Gain
Root Locus 0.8 0.6

0.4

0.2 Imaginary Axis

-0.2

-0.4

-0.6

-0.8 -1

-0.9

-0.8

-0.7

-0.6

-0.5 Real Axis

-0.4

-0.3

-0.2

-0.1

GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION

Lead / Lag Controller Design


Lag/Lead controller, also known as transient gain reduction
1 1 )( s + ) T1 T2 GLead GLag ( s) = GC ( s) = 1 1 (s + )( s + ) * T1 * T2 KC (s +

GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION

Lead / Lag Controller Design


Parameters KC, T1 and alpha make up the lead portion T2 and beta make up the lag portion
*

MO = e

1 2

< 10% = .6

4 ts = < 1sec . wn = 6.7 wn *

GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION

Lead / Lag Controller Design


The desired closed loop poles are given by

s = * wn j * wn 1 2 = 4 j 5.36

GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION

Lead / Lag Controller Design


We place the lead compensator zero to cancel the exciter pole and use the angle condition for the overall system to determine the lead controller as:

K C * ( s + 1) GLead ( s ) = ( s + 7.75)

GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION

Lead / Lag Controller Design


The magnitude condition is used to calculate gain, Kc The results are as follows:
| GLead GPlant ( s ) |s = 4+ j 5.36 = 1

171( s + 1) 42.75 GLead GP ( s ) = = ( s + 7.75)( s + 1)(4 s + 1) ( s + 7.75)( s + .25)

GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION

Lead / Lag Controller Design


Step response of rotary excited generator with lead compensator
Step Response 1.4 System: G1cl Peak amplitude: 1.05 Overshoot (%): 9.54 At time (sec): 0.599 1.2

1 System: G1cl Settling Time (sec): 0.889

Amplitude

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0.5

1.5

2.5 Time (sec)

3.5

4.5

GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION

Lead / Lag Controller Design


Some observations:
Response shows a significant steady state error Transient spec of < 10% overshoot and <1s settling time are met

Steady state error is approx 5%

1 1 1 ess = = = = .045 = 4.5% 1 + K P 1 + lim GLead GP ( s ) 1 + 22


s 0

GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION

Lead / Lag Controller Design


Spec requires steady state error <0.5% We will use the lag controller, with a beta of 10 to achieve the steady state error spec. The value of T2 is chosen based on the following conditions:
3o < GLag ( s ) |s = 4+ j 5.36 < 0o

| GLag ( s) |s = 4+ j 5.36 1

GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION

Lead / Lag Controller Design


The chosen lag compensator becomes:
( s + .2) GLag ( s ) = ( s + .02)

GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION

Lead / Lag Controller Design


The resulting open G loop transfer function becomes: The steady state error is calculate by: e
Lead

GLag GP ( s ) = GC GP ( s ) =

42.75( s + .2) ( s + 7.75)( s + .02)( s + .25)

ss

1 1 1 = = = .45% 1 + K P 1 + lim GC GP ( s ) 1 + 220


s 0

GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION

Lead / Lag Controller Design


Step Response 1.4 System: G12cl Peak amplitude: 1.08 Overshoot (%): 8.97 At time (sec): 0.6 1.2

1 System: G12cl Settling Time (sec): 0.874 Amplitude 0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0.5

1.5

2.5 Time (sec)

3.5

4.5

GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION

PID Controller Design


PID controller G (s ) = P + I + Ds = Ds + Ps + I C s s represented by:
2

GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION

PID Controller Design


Plant described by: 1/(4s + 1)(s +1) Denominator rewritten as: (4s + 1)(s +1) = 4s2+5s +1 = 4 * [s2+1.25s +0.25] PID controller numerator re-written as: Ds2 + Ps + I = D * [s2 + (P/D)s + (I/D)] For pole-zero cancellation we set: P/D = 1.25; I/D = 0.25

GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION

PID Controller Design


We can now choose the value of D to set the loop gain. It is easy to see that D = 20 will place the third closed-loop pole at s=-5 as shown by the following: G(s) Gc(s) = D[s2+1.25s +0.25] / 4s[s2+1.25s +0.25] = -1 D/4s = -1 s=-5 for D=20

GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION

PID Controller Design


Pole-Zero cancellation design results in the following PID values:

P = 1.25D = 1.25 * 20 = 25 I = 0.25D = 0.25 * 20 = 5 D = 20

GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION

PID Controller Design


The resulting peak overshoot and settling time will be as follows:

Mo = 0

t ss = 4 * 0.2 = 0.8 sec

GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION

PID Controller Design


Step Response 1 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 Amplitude 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0

0.2

0.4

0.6 Time (sec)

0.8

1.2

GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION

Summary
Basics of a Practical AVR Control Functions Per-Unitization AVR Control Configurations

GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION

QUESTIONS?

GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION