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Cooling Load

Principle of cooling load Why cooling load & heat gains are different Design conditions Understand CLTD/CLF method An example

Cooling Load
It is the thermal energy that must be removed from the space in order to maintain the desired comfort conditions HVAC systems are used to maintain thermal conditions in comfort range

Purpose of Load Estimate

Load profile over a day Peak load (basis for equipment sizing) Operation Energy analysis HVAC Construction cost

Principles of cooling Load Estimate

Enclosure heat transfer characteristics
Conduction Convection radiation

Design conditions
Outdoor & indoor

Heat Gains
Internal External or Solar

Thermal capacity

Space Characteristics
orientation Size and shape Construction material Windows, doors, openings Surrounding conditions Ceiling

Space Characteristics
Occupants (activity, number, duration) Appliances (power, usage) Air leakage (infiltration or exfiltration) Lighting (W/m2)

Indoor Design Conditions

Basic design parameters Air temperature
Typically 22-26 C

Air velocity
0.25 m/s

Relative humidity
30-70 %

See ASHRAE 55 2004 Comfort Zone

Indoor Design Conditions

Indoor air quality
Air contaminants Air cleaning

Acoustic requirements Pressurization requirements

Outdoor Design Conditions

Weather data required for load calculation
Temperature & humidity Wind speed, sky clearness , ground reflectance etc

Design outdoor conditions data can be found in ASHRAE Fundamentals Handbook

Outdoor Design Conditions

ASHRAE Fundamentals 2001
Design severity based on 0.4%, 1%, & 2% level annually (8760h) For example at 1% level, the value is exceeded in 0.01x8760h = 87.6 h in a year

Outdoor Design For Cooling

Criteria: 0.4% DB and MWB
Station Cooling DB/MWB

Miri Malaysia

DB (C ) MWB ( C ) 32.2 26.3 DB 31.8

MWB 26.3 DB 31.4

MWB 26.2

Source: ASHRAE Fundamentals 2001

Space- a volume without partition or a group
of rooms

Room- an enclosed space Zone- a space having similar operating


Heat Gain
Space Heat gain
The instantaneous rate at which heat enters into , out of, or generated within a space. The components are: Heat gains Convective Radiant (%)
Sensible gain Latent gain
(%) Solar radiation with internal shading Fluorescent lights People External wall 42 58

50 67 40

50 33 60

Heat Gain

Cooling Load
Space Cooling load
The rate at which heat must be removed from a space to maintain air temperature and humidity at the design values

Cooling load differs from the heat gain due to

delay effect of conversion of radiation energy to heat Thermal storage lag

Heat Gain = Cooling Load

Heat Gain = Cooling Load Thermal storage and Construction Type

Time of the Day: Solar Radiation

Time-delay Effect: Lighting

Extraction Rate
Space Heat extraction rate
The actual heat removal rate by the cooling equipment from the space The heat extraction rate is equal to cooling load when the space conditions are constant which is rarely true.

Heat Balance
The principal terms of heat Gains/Losses are indicated below .

(Source: ASHRAE Handbook Fundamentals 2005)

Coil Load
Cooling coil load
The rate at which energy is removed at the cooling coil Sum of:
Space cooling load (sensible + latent) Supply system heat gain (fan + supply air duct) Return system heat gain (return air duct) Load due to outdoor ventilation rates (or ventilation load)

External Loads
1. Heat gains from Walls and roofs

2. Solar gains through fenestrations


3. Outdoor air
Sensible & latent

Internal Loads
1. People
Sensible & latent

2. Lights

3. Appliances
Sensible & latent

Total Cooling Load

Cooling Load Components

Space cooling load
Sizing of supply air flow rate, ducts, terminals and diffusers It is a component of coil load Bypassed infiltration is a space cooling load

Cooling coil load

Sizing of cooling coil and refrigeration system Ventilation load is a coil load

Refrigeration Load
The capacity of the refrigeration system to produce the required coil load.

Profiles of Offshore Systems Cooling Loads

Components Solar Transmission Occupants Lights Equipment % Load LQ (L) 3 3 5 10 %Load LQ (U) 4 3 5 1 8 79 100 %Load CCR 7 3 8 29 5 48 100 %Load SG/MCC 4 0 4 21 6 64 100

Outdoor air bypassed 7 Outdoor air not bypassed Total 72 100

Heat Load Components

Outdoor air & Electrical Equipment loads (77-85% )

People: 3% Lighting: 4-8% Solar Transmission: 3-7%
Infiltration : 5-8%

Calculation Methods
1. Rule of thumb method
Least accurate eg 100 btu/ft2 for a space

2. Static analysis (Room temperature is constant)

CLTD/CLF method

3. Dynamic analysis
Computer modeling

Cooling load is made up of
Radiation and conduction heat gain Convection heat gain

Convective gain is instantaneous

No delay Heat gain equals cooling load

Conductive and radiation heat gains are not instantaneous

Thermal delay Heat gain is not equal to cooling load Use CLTD & CLF factors

CLTD/CLF Method (ASHRAE 1989)

Cooling load due to solar & internal heat gains Glazing (sensible only)
Radiation & conduction Convection (instantaneous)

Opaque surface ( wall, floor, roof) load (sensible only)

Conduction Convection (instantaneous)

Internal loads (sensible & latent)

Radiation & conduction Convection (instantaneous)

Cooling Load Temperature Difference CLTD

Compare Q transmission = UA (T o T i ) Q transmission = UA (CLTD) CLTD is theoretical temperature difference defined for each wall/roof to give the same heat load for exposed surfaces to account for the combined effects of radiation, conductive storage, etc
It is affected by orientation, time , latitude, etc Data published by ASHRAE

Cooling Load Factor (CLF)

This factor applies to radiation heat gain If radiation is constant, cooling load = radiative gain If radiation heat is periodical, than Q t = Q daily max (CLF) CLF accounts for the delay before radiative gains becomes a cooling load

Q = A (SC) (SHGF) (CLF)
A= glass area SC= shading coefficient SHGF= solar heat gain factor, tabulated by ASHRAE CLF= cooling load factor, tabulated by ASHRAE
glass Solar ray

Q = U x A x CLTD
U= surface U-factor A= surface area CLTD= cooling load temperature difference

transmitted absorbed


Opaque Surfaces
Q 2 = UA (CLTD)
U= surface U-factor A= surface area CLTD= cooling load temperature difference

Tabulated or chart values for CLTD can be referred Offshore enclosure

Light weight Metal frame with insulation Group G wall with U-value about 0.5-1.0 W/m2 K

CLTD for Sunlit Wall Group G

Source: ASHRAE Fundamental

Opaque Surface Calculations

Use Table for wall CLTD Use Table for roof CLTD
Select wall/roof type Look up uncorrected CLTD Correct CLTD CLTD c=(CLTD+LM)+ (25.5-t r) + (t m-29.4)

LM= latitude /month correction (Table ) T r = indoor temperature (22C) T m= average temperature on the design day = (35+22)/2 = 28.5 C Eg. If CLTD=40 C, LM=-1.7 (west face) CLTD c= (40-1.7) + (25.5-22)+ (28.5-29.4) = 40.9 C

Types of Internal Load

Internal loads are
People Lights Equipment or appliances

Consist of convective and radiant components

Light (mostly radiant) Electrical heat (radiant and convective) People (most convective)

Time-delay effect due to thermal storage

Internal Load- Lighting

Heat gain (lighting) = 1.2 x total wattage x CLF Or based on light power density ranging from 10-25 W/m2 (average density, say=20 W/m2) Where light is continuously on, CLF=1
Area Office Corridor Sleeping CCR MCC/SG Kitchen Recreation Light Power Density W/m2 25 10 10 25 25 25 20

Internal Loads- People

Q people-s = No x sensible heat gain/p x CLF Q people-L = No x latent heat gain/p

Internal Load Equipment Heat

Cooling of electrical equipment in MCC/SG is an important function of HVAC system offshore. The components include:
Transformers Motors Medium/high voltage switchgears Cables & trays Motor starters Inverters Battery chargers Circuit breakers Unit panel board etc

Heat dissipation from these equipments are mainly based data published by the manufacturers

Typical Outdoor & Indoor Design Conditions Used Here

Conditions Outdoor air Indoor air Difference
Dry-bulb temperature (C) % RH Moisture content, kg/kg

35 22 13

70 55

0.025 0.009 0.016

ASHRAE fundamental Handbook published data, at 0.4%, 1% and 2% design level. At 0.4% design level, Miri has only 35h (out of 8760 h a year) at 32.2 DB & 26.3 WB or higher

Infiltration Air is Cooling Load

Load due to Ventilation air into the space
Sensible load, (W) = mass flow rate x specific heat x (T) = 1.23 x l/s x (To T i) or (1.08 x cfm x T) Where To = Outside temperature, C Ti = indoor air temperature, C

Ventilation Cooling Load

Ventilation latent load, (W) = mass flow rate x latent heat of vaporization x (humidity difference) = 3010 x l/s x () or (4840 x cfm x )

Where = Inside-outside humidity ratio difference of air ( kg/kg)

Total Cooling Load

This is also call the Grand total load Sum of
Space heat gain System heat gain
Room Total Load

load due to outdoor air supplied through the air handling unit
Air bypassed the coil Air not bypassed the coil

System Heat Gain

These are sometimes external to the air conditioned space HVAC equipment also contributes to heat gain
Fan heat gain Duct heat gain

Bypass Factor
Bypass factor is an important coil characteristic on moisture removal performance . Its value depends on: Number of rows/fins per inch Velocity of air

Bypass Factor of the coil

When air streams across the cooling, portion of air may not come into contact with the coil surface BPF = un-contacted air flow total flow BPF is normally selected at 0.1 for offshore cooling and dehumidification.

Typical Coil Bypass Factor

Row Deep Face velocity= 2 m/s 1 2 4 0.52 0.274 0.076 0.56 0.31 0.10 0.59 0.35 0.12 14 fins/inch 2.5 m/s 3 m/s




Source: Refrigeration and Air Conditioning by CP Arora

Effect of Bypass Factor on Ventilation Load

Coil load due to outdoor air

Effective room load


Cooling Load Classroom Exercise

Estimate the cooling load of a portal cabin shown here: Assuming that
Outdoor condition is 35C, 70% RH Indoor condition is 22C , 55 % RH U-factor=0.5 W/m2 K Occupied by 2 persons Electrical equipment heat is 3 kW 100l/s leakage due to pressurization
4x4 Platform x 3 h Lower Deck

Cooling Load Calculations

Items Transmission- sensible Wall- West side Wall- East side Wall North Wall- South Roof Floor Total (T1) Internal load- sensible People Equipment Light Total (T2) Safety Factor (5% of T1+ T2) Fan heat & supply Duct Gain (7 % of T1+T2) RSH (Total of the above) Procedures Q = UA (CLTD)

Coil Load Calculations

Items Room Latent Heat (RLH) People Procedures

Room Total Heat RSH + RLH

Cooling Load Calculations

Items Design conditions Procedures Outdoor 35C, 70% RH Indoor 22C, 55 RH

Ventilation- sensible Bypass air (0.1 bypass factor) Sensible heat of bypass air

10% x outdoor air

Ventilation - Latent Latent heat of bypass air

Cooling Load Calculations

Items Design conditions ERSH RSH Sensible heat of air bypass Effective Room Sensible Heat ERLH People Latent heat of air bypass Effective Room Latent Heat Effective Room Total Heat (ERTH) ERSH+ESLH Procedures Outdoor 35C, 70% RH Indoor 22C, 55 RH

Coil Load Calculation

Items Design conditions Coil Load Sensible Effective Room Sensible Heat SH of Outdoor air not bypassed Total (Coil Sensible heat) Coil Load Latent Effective Room Latent Heat LH of Outdoor air not bypassed Total (Coil latent heat) Total coil load (GTH) Procedures Outdoor 35C, 70% RH Indoor 22C, 55 RH

Sensible Heat Factor (SHF)


Sensible Heat Factor (SHF)

Ratio of sensible to total heat
SHF = Sensible heat/ total heat

= SH/ (SH + LH) A low value of SHF indicates a high latent heat load, which is common in humid climate. In the above example,
Calculate the SHF of the room (RSHF) Calculate the effective room sensible heat factor (ESHF) Calculate the SHF of the coil (GSHF)

Selection of Air Conditioning Apparatus

The necessary data required are:
GTH ( Grand total heat load) Dehumidified air quantity Apparatus dew point

These determine the size of the apparatus and refrigerant temperature.