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Mobile communication

2.14: What are the main reasons for using cellular systems? How is Space Division Multiplexing typically realized and combined with Frequency Division Multiplexing? How Does Dynamic Channel Allocation influence the frequencies available in other cells? Ans: Cellular systems for mobile communications implement SDM or Space Division Multiplexing, which consists of cells organized in sets that are unique within the sets, the cell size could vary and in maximum it has 7 cells, when it is mixed with other systems, and in a usual scenario, it contains just three cells and it is given frequency which is not existing in surrounding neighboring cells, that is what makes it possible to reuse same frequencies inside the area, for continuous times, and this is what makes it possible to reminiscence the effect of scare frequency reserves. Besides this benefit, Among The reasons for its popularity are, Higher Capacity by the possibility to include many users, less Transmission Power, because of the nearness of the Tower, limited interferences also because of close distance, and the best reason for its growth is that one system collapse does not make the whole systems downfall just because many stations are operating at the same time independently. SDM or Space Division Multiplexing is a way of allowing only one frequency within a single cell, and successfully making it interference proof, the surrounding cells are given different frequencies. This set is repeated to form a web where many such sets exist with repeated frequencies among them. When it is done with using both SDM or Space Division Multiplexing and FDM or Frequency Division Multiplexing in one, it becomes even more efficient, here the cells unit can be seven in total, where just single cell contains three different frequencies, making high amount of users in small regions possible. A DCA or Dynamic Channel Allocation is a system where there is a possibility of assigning freely the frequencies to cells, with this way of dynamic assignment of frequencies to cells, there is a possibility of same signal coming under, the closed cells, which can result of collision, among those signals. Therefore, in order to justly tackling these situations, this borrowed frequency has to be blocked in neighboring cells first, which can make this a really useful option in certain credible conditions.

3.11 How can MACA still fail in case of hidden/exposed terminals? Think of mobile stations and changing transmission characteristics. ANS With MACA or Multiple Access with collision avoidance, the sender first sense the medium by sending RTS Request to Send, then it has to receive CTS Clear to Send, and only it can send, this way most transmission collision can be avoided, because the sender knows prior if the medium is free then only it starts transmission. At every case it receives the information as how long the system is busy, so its role pretty secure, it even work for exposed terminals when the system is busy, it knows precisely by the CTS as to whom it is meant finely, then it can supply its transmission to the one who is free this time. Still, after such secured situations exist, collisions can

occur during the sending of an RTS, when two parties send to the same destination, at same time, this what makes this system to fail, because of the system hidden, who is out of range, and the sender is unaware of another senders activities.

3.13 How are guard spaces realized between users in CDMA? ANS CDMA or Code Division Multiple Access system uses codes with special calculations to separate the signal from the different users from the same medium at the same time, without getting mixed, these codes are generated allowing to grab the accurate signal possible, that is why these codes work as the guard spaces here, because the role of the Guard Spaces is to prevent the signal from mixing together, preventing any conflict among signals,

Question number 2
Orthogonality Check Using the page number 83 of mobile Communication PDF

Two senders, A and B, want to send data. CDMA assigns the following unique and orthogonal key sequences: key Ak = 010011 for sender A, key Bk = 110101 for sender B. Sender A wants to send the bit Ad = 1, sender B sends Bd = 0.
When we try to check if these values are orthogonal or not, then we have to consider the vector rule, also mentioned just rightly on the same page, Where it has been stated: Two vectors are called orthogonal if their inner product is 0, as is the case for the two vectors (2,
5, 0) and (0, 0, 17): (2, 5, 0)*(0, 0, 17) = 0 + 0 + 0 = 0. Check below for further information1

To illustrate this example, let us assume that we code a binary 0 as 1, a binary 1 as +1. We can then apply the standard addition and multiplication rules. Both senders spread their signal using their key as chipping sequence (the term spreading here refers to the simple multiplication of the data bit with the whole chipping sequence). In reality, parts of a much longer chipping sequence are applied to single bits for spreading. Sender A then sends the signal As = Ad*Ak = +1*(1, +1, 1, 1, +1, +1) = (1, +1, 1, 1, +1, +1). Sender B does the same with its data to spread the signal with the code: Bs = Bd*Bk = 1*(+1, +1, 1, +1, 1, +1) = (1, 1, +1, 1, +1, 1). Both signals are then transmitted at the same time using the same frequency, so, the signals superimpose in space (analog modulation is neglected in this example). Discounting interference from other senders and environmental noise from this simple example, and assuming that the signals have the same strength at the receiver, the following signal C is received at a receiver: C = As + Bs = (2, 0, 0, 2, +2, 0). The receiver now wants to receive data from sender A and, therefore, tunes in to the code of A, i.e., applies As code for despreading: C*Ak = (2, 0, 0, 2, +2, 0)*(1, +1, 1, 1, +1, +1) = 2 + 0 + 0 + 2 + 2 + 0 = 6. As the result is much larger than 0, the receiver detects a binary 1. Tuning in to sender B, i.e., applying Bs code gives C*Bk = (2, 0, 0, 2, +2, 0)* (+1, +1, 1, +1, 1, +1) = 2 + 0 + 0 2 2 + 0 = 6. The result is negative, so a 0 has been detected.

If we use this method, then we have to find the inner product of both A and B and check if their values in combination brings the value 0 or other value, therefore we first apply this method to check in the above example, given:

Orthogonality Check (like in book, multiplying inner product)

Ak Bk

-1 +1 -1

+1 +1 +1

-1 -1 +1

-1 +1 -1

+1 -1 -1

+1 +1 +1

Total 0

Using the Total Sum Calculation(Welsh method) as taught in the lecture

Bk

Ak

-1 +1 0

+1 +1 +2

-1 -1 -2

-1 +1 +0

+1 -1 +0

+1 +1 +2

Total +2

This way when we check, we find that in first, we have the value 0, suggesting it orthogonal, but when we try by other way, the total is different from the requiring value 0, to consider them as Orthogonal to one another, Still we go on checking if the values that we are getting is supporting other characteristics also, We know that A is trying to send bit 1, and B is trying to send bit 0 In this respect

Ak Bk
The Present Value

-1 +1

+1 -1 -1 +1 +1 A is sending 1, so we multiply with +1 +1 -1 +1 -1 +1 B is sending 0, so we multiply with -1

As =Ak+1 As Bs C

and
-1 -1 -2 +1 -1 +0

Bs =Bk-1
-1 +1 +0 -1 -1 -2

and

C = As + B s

+1 +1 +1 -1 +2 +0

The Receiver Tunes

Ak C BkC
My Question Is

+2 -2

+0 +0

+0 +0

+2 +2 +0 -2 -2 +0

+6>0, indicating that signal is 1 -6<0, indicating that signal is 0

From the above analysis it is found that even when the signal is not orthogonal, by the method we apply to calculate C still gets the accurate receiving signal as is sent, we see what will happen if we make signal orthogonal

Ak Bk

-1 +1 0

+1 -1 -1 +1 -1 +1 +2 -2 +0

-1 -1 -2

+1 Total +1 +2 0

Here we can see that the value is 0 suggesting it as Orthogonal As we know that A is trying to send bit 1, and B is trying to send bit 0 In this respect

Ak Bk
The Present Value

-1 +1

+1 -1 -1 +1 -1 +1

-1 -1

+1 A is sending 1, so we multiply with +1 +1 B is sending 0, so we multiply with -1

As =Ak+1 As Bs C

and
-1 -1 -2 +1 -1 +0

Bs =Bk-1
-1 +1 +0 -1 -1 -2

and

C = As + B s

-1 +1 +1 -1 +0 +0

The Receiver Tunes

Ak C BkC

+2 -2

+0 +0

+0 +0

+2 +0 +0 -2 +0 +0

+4>0, indicating that signal is +1 -4<0, indicating that signal is 0

This way we have found that in both ways we get the accurate signal, which is enough to indicate that when one of the method of orthogonality works, it means that it works, and C will be correct

Question number 3
First we choose three transmitter devices A, B, and C. then it is needed to assign them some unique 8 digit codes in such a way that each of the codes are orthogonal to all the other codes. For A we choose an arbitrary 8 digit code. Let it be A= 10101010 Based on the code of A we choose the code of B B = 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 and

C=01001011. Now, we need to prove that they are orthogonal to each other. To do that we do some simple calculation according to the welsh method. First we assign -1 for all the zeros in the code and the 1`s remain as 1. Then we add the 2 devices that we want to show as orthogonal and see if the sum is 0 or not. If it is 0 then they are orthogonal to each other. If not then its not orthogonal. So, based on the above statement our A becomes: A = 1 -1 1 -1 1 -1 1 -1 and B is B = 1 1 1 -1 -1 -1 -1 1 ------------------------------------------Now we add each digit of A with the corresponding digit of B. A+B = 2+0+2+(-2)+0+(-2)+0+0 = 0. So, A and B are orthogonal. Similarly we check for orthogonality between A and C or B and C. here we do the checking between A and C. A = 1 -1 1 -1 1 -1 1 -1 C = -1 1 -1 -1 1 -1 1 1 -------------------------------------------A+ C = 0+0+0-2+2-2+2+0 = 0 So, A and C are also orthogonal. So from the theory of orthogonality we can say that B and C are also orthogonal as well. Now, we need to calculate the signal that is sent by A, B and C. for that we assign the same unit if it sends a 1 and we multiply the units with -1 if it sends a 0.then we add all three signals together to get the transmitted signal. A sends 0 1 B sends 0 0 C sends 1 X (x means nothing is changed)

So, we get the following signal:

A = -11-11-11-111-11-11-11-1 B= -1-1-11111-1-1-1-11111-1 C= -11-1-11-111 ----------------------------------------------------So the transmitted signal is -3 1-3 1 1 1 1 1 0 -2 0 0 2 0 2 -2 Now, we assume that the receiver device has the unique identity codes of A,B and C. so, when it detects the signal, it decrypts the signal by multiplying each bit of the transmitted signal with the corresponding bits of A, B and C separately and then adding the product together to calculate the signal sent by each of the devices. For A we get the following: -3 1-3 1 1 1 1 1 0 -2 0 0 2 0 2 -2 [-1 1-1 1-1 1-1 1 ][1-1 1-1 1-1 1-1] Giving the result : [ -3-1-3-1+1-1+1-1 ][0+2+0+0+2+0+2+2] -8<0 = 0 So the receiver detects 0 1 from A. Similarly, we follow the same procedure to find out the signals sent by B 8>0 = 1 adding togather

-3 1-3 1 1 1 1 1 0 -2 0 0 2 0 2 -2 [-1-1-1 1 1 1 1-1][-1-1-1 1 1 1 1-1] Giving us [-3+1-3-1-1-1-1+1= -8] [0-2+0+0-2+0-2-2= -8] -8 < 0, so receiver detects a 0 sent from B It is also less than 0 in both cases so the receiver detects a 0 for both cases. For C, -3 1-3 1 1 1 1 1 0 -2 0 0 2 0 2 -2 [-1 1-1-1 1-1 1 1][-1 1 -1-1 1-1 1 1] Giving us [3+1+3-1+1-1+1+1= 8 ][0-2+0+0+2+0+2-2 = 0] First part gives a positive value so receiver detects a 1 sent from C and the second part gives 0 which means nothing is sent.