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# Chapter 7

Natural Convection
7_001

A bare horizontal steam pipe with an o.d. of 12 inches carries saturated steam at 240 F. The temperature of
the ambient air is 70 F. Calculate the rate of heat loss by natural convection, expressed as Btu per hour per
foot of pipe length.
Solution:
X = NGr,f NPr,f

N Gr,f =
NPr,f =

D o 3 f 2 g f t
f 2
c pf

kf
Table A-25.
Film temperature = tf = (1/2)(ts + ta) = (1/2)(240 + 70) = 155 F
cp = 0.2407
f = 0.0494
kf = 0.01702

NPr,f =

c pf
kf

= 0.6986

2gc p

= 0.858 10 6
k
f = 0.065 lb/cu ft

Y=

Y=

## (0.065)2 (4.17 108 )(0.2407) = 0.858 106

(0.0494)(0.01702)

= 0.001701
Do = 12 in = 1.0 ft
t = 240 F - 70 F = 170 F
(1)3 (0.065)2 4.17 108 (0.001701)(170) = 208,767,123
N Gr,f =
(0.0494)2
X = NGr,f NPr,f

3

hc = 0.27 t
Do

( 1)

hc = 0.27 170

0.25

0.25

= 0.975

## q/L = hcDT = (0.975)()(1)(170)

q/L = 521 Btu/hr-ft . . . Ans.
7_002

The parallel wooden outer and inner walls of a building are 15 ft long, 10 ft high, and 4 inches apart. The
inner surface of the inner wall is 70 F, and the inner surface of the outer wall is at 0 F.
a.
Calculate the total heat loss, expressed as Btu per hr, neglecting any leakage of air through the
walls.
b.
Repeat the calculation for the case in which the air space is divided in half by a sheet of aluminum
foil, 0.001 inch thick, stretched parallel to the walls.
Solution:

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Chapter 7
Natural Convection
A = 15 ft x 10 ft
L = 10 ft
Total heat loss.

a.

NGr,x =

x 3 2 g f t

f 2
tf = (1/2)(70 + 0) = 35 F
cp = 0.2396
f = 0.0419
kf = 0.01408
NPr = 0.713
2gc p

= 2.166 10 6
k
= 0.080 lb/cu ft
(0.080)2 4.17 108 (0.2396) = 2.166 106
Y=
(0.0419)(0.01408)
Y=

-3

= 1.994 x 10
x = 4 in = 0.3333 ft
NGr,x =

## (0.3333)3 (0.080)2 (4.17 108 )(1.994 10-3 )(70 - 0) = 7,856,283 = 8 106

(0.0419)2
L = 10 ft high
5
7
Then, For NGr,x from 2.1 x 10 to 1.1 x 10
C = 0.071, n = 1/3
Equation 7-9b.
hc ' x
C
=
1
kf
L 9
x

( )

x 3 f 2 g f t c p

k
f 2

hc ' (0.3333)
(0.071)
=
(0.01408) 10
0.3333

hc = 0.365

[(7,856,283)(0.713)]

Equation 7-9.

qc = hc A(ts1 - ts2)
qc = (0.3650(150)(70 - 0)
qc = 3,832.5 Btu/hr . . . Ans.
b.

With air space divided in half by a sheet of aluminum foil, 0.001 inch thick.

## qc/A = hc (ts1 - ts2)

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Chapter 7
Natural Convection
Try tsf= 35 F
For 70 F side:
tf = (1/2)(70 + 35) = 52.5 F
Properties of air:
cp = 0.2398
= 0.04300
k = 0.0145
NPr = 0.7111
2gc p

= 1.91 10 6
k
= 0.0774 lb/cu ft
(0.0774)2 4.17 108 (0.2398) = 1.91 106
Y=
(0.04300)(0.0145)
Y=

-3

= 1.989 x 10
x = (1/2)(4 in - 0.001 in) = 1.9995 in = 0.1666 ft
NGr,x =

## (0.1666)3 (0.0774)2 (4.17108 )(1.98910-3 )(70 - 35) = 434,920= 4.35105

(0.0430)2
L = 10 ft high
5
7
Then, For NGr,x from 2.1 x 10 to 1.1 x 10
C = 0.071, n = 1/3
Equation 7-9b.
hc ' x
C
=
1
kf
L 9
x

( )

x 3 f 2 g f t c p

k
f 2

hc ' (0.1666)
(0.071)
=
(0.0145) 10
0.1666

hc = 0.265 at 70 F side.

[(434,920)(0.7111)]

For 0 F side:
tf = (1/2)(35 + 0) = 52.5 F
Properties of air:
cp = 0.2396
= 0.04070
k = 0.01361
NPr = 0.7165
2gc p

= 2.75 10 6
k
= 0.083 lb/cu ft
(0.083)2 4.17 108 (0.2396) = 2.75 106
Y=
(0.04070)(0.01361)
Y=

-3

= 2.213 x 10
x = (1/2)(4 in - 0.001 in) = 1.9995 in = 0.1666 ft

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Chapter 7
Natural Convection

NGr,x =

## (0.1666)3 (0.083)2 (4.17108 )(2.21310-3 )(35 - 0) = 621,123 = 6.21105

(0.0407)2
L = 10 ft high
5
7
Then, For NGr,x from 2.1 x 10 to 1.1 x 10
C = 0.071, n = 1/3
Equation 7-9b.
hc ' x
C x 3 f 2 g f t c p

=
1
k
kf
f 2
L 9

( )

hc ' (0.1666)
(0.071)
=
(0.01361) 10
0.1666

hc = 0.281 at 0 F side.

[(621,123)(0.7165)]

Then:

## qc/A = hc (ts1 - tsf) = hc (tsf - ts2)

(0.265)(70 - tsf) = (0.281)(tsf - 0)
tsf = 34 F
qc/A = (0.265)(150)(70 -34)
qc/A = 1432 Btu/hr . . . Ans.

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