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Moment In Time VERB eBook

Graphic Diagram of Verbal Tenses

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Legend Diagram of Verbal Tenses action that takes place once, never or several times actions that happen one after another actions that suddenly take place action that started before a certain moment and lasts beyond that moment actions taking place at the same time action taking place before a certain moment in time puts emphasis on the result action taking place before a certain moment in time puts emphasis on the course or duration of the action
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moment in time

period of time Result

Course / Duration

Table of Verbal Tenses


tense Affirmative/Negative/Question A: He speaks. N: He does not speak. Q: Does he speak? A: He is speaking. N: He is not speaking. Q: Is he speaking? A: He spoke. N: He did not speak. Q: Did he speak? A: He was speaking. N: He was not speaking. Q: Was he speaking? Use Signal Words action in the present taking place once, never always, every , never, or several times normally, often, seldom, facts sometimes, usually actions taking place one after another if sentences type I (If I talk, ) action set by a timetable or schedule action taking place in the moment of speaking action taking place only for a limited period of at the moment, just, just now, time Listen!, Look!, now, right now action arranged for the future action in the past taking place once, never or yesterday, 2 minutes ago, in several times 1990, the other day, last Friday actions taking place one after another if sentence type II (If I action taking place in the middle of another talked, ) action action going on at a certain time in the past actions taking place at the same time when, while, as long as action in the past that is interrupted by another action putting emphasis on the result action that is still going on action that stopped recently already, ever, just, never, not finished action that has an influence on the yet, so far, till now, up to now present action that has taken place once, never or several times before the moment of speaking putting emphasis on the course or duration (not the result) all day, for 4 years, since 1993, action that recently stopped or is still going on how long?, the whole week finished action that influenced the present action taking place before a certain time in the past already, just, never, not yet, sometimes interchangeable with past perfect once, until that day progressive if sentence type III (If I had putting emphasis only on the fact (not the talked, ) duration) action taking place before a certain time in the past sometimes interchangeable with past perfect for, since, the whole day, all simple day putting emphasis on the duration or course of an action in a year, next , tomorrow action in the future that cannot be influenced If- type I (If you ask her, she spontaneous decision will help you.) assumption with regard to the future assumption: I think, probably, we might , perhaps decision made for the future conclusion with regard to the future in one year, next week, tomorrow

Simple Present

Present Progressive

Simple Past

Past Progressive

Present Perfect Simple

A: He has spoken. N: He has not spoken. Q: Has he spoken?

Present Perfect Progressive

A: He has been speaking. N: He has not been speaking. Q: Has he been speaking?

Past Perfect Simple

A: He had spoken. N: He had not spoken. Q: Had he spoken?

Past Perfect Progressive

A: He had been speaking. N: He had not been speaking. Q: Had he been speaking?

Future I Simple

A: He will speak. N: He will not speak. Q: Will he speak? A: He is going to speak. N: He is not going to speak. Q: Is he going to speak? A: He will be speaking. N: He will not be speaking. Q: Will he be speaking? A: He will have spoken. N: He will not have spoken. Q: Will he have spoken? A: He will have been speaking. N: He will not have been speaking. Q: Will he have been speaking? A: He would speak. N: He would not speak. Q: Would he speak? A: He would be speaking. N: He would not be speaking. Q: Would he be speaking? A: He would have spoken. N: He would not have spoken. Q: Would he have spoken? A: He would have been speaking. N: He would not have been speaking. Q: Would he have been speaking?

Future I Simple (going to) Future I Progressive

action that is going on at a certain time in the in one year, next week, future tomorrow action that is sure to happen in the near future action that will be finished at a certain time in the future by Monday, in a week

Future II Simple

Future II Progressive

action taking place before a certain time in the for , the last couple of hours, future all day long putting emphasis on the course of an action action that might take place action that might take place putting emphasis on the course / duration of the action action that might have taken place in the past if sentences type III (If I had seen that, I would have helped.) if sentences type II (If I were you, I would go home.)

Conditional I Simple

Conditional I Progressive

Conditional II Simple

Conditional II Progressive

action that might have taken place in the past puts emphasis on the course / duration of the action

Chart of Verbal Tenses Moment, Period, Result, Duration/Past, Present, Future

Explanation

Present Present Simple / Simple Present Link

Past Past Simple / Simple Past Link He played football every Tuesday.

Future Future Simple / Future I Simple Link He will / is going to play football every Tuesday. He will play football and then he will go home. He will love football. Future Continuous / Future I Progressive Link He will be playing football.

action that takes place once, never or several times actions that happen one after another state

He plays football every Tuesday.

He plays football and then he He played football and then goes home. he went home. He loves football. He loved football. Present Continuous / Present Past Continuous / Past Progressive Link Progressive Link He is playing football. He was playing football.

action going on at that moment actions taking place at the same time

He is playing football and she is He was playing football and He will be playing football and watching. she was watching. she will be watching. Present Perfect Simple Link Future Perfect Simple / Past Perfect Simple Link Future II Simple Link He will have won five matches by then.

action taking place before a He had won five matches certain moment in time; He has won five matches so far. until that day. emphasizes the result Present Perfect Continuous / Present Perfect Progressive Link

Past Perfect Continuous / Future Perfect Continuous / Past Perfect Progressive Future II Progressive Link Link

action taking place before a certain moment in time (and He has been playing football for He had been playing football He will have been playing beyond), emphasizes the ten years. for ten years. football for ten years. duration

The Uses of the English Tenses


Type of Tense Simple Type of Action Expressed - actions occurring at regular intervals - general truths, or situations existing for a period of time - non-continuous actions - continuous, ongoing actions - non-continuous actions completed before a certain time - continuous, ongoing actions completed before a certain time

Continuous Perfect Perfect Continuous

What are verbs, anyway?


In English verbs are KING. The shortest sentence contains a verb. You can make a one-word sentence with a verb, for example: "Stop!" You cannot make a one-word sentence with any other type of word.

Verbs are sometimes described as "action words". This is partly true. Many verbs give the idea of action, of "doing" something. For example, words like run, fight, do and work all convey action. But some verbs do not give the idea of action; they give the idea of existence, of state, of "being". For example, verbs like be, exist, seem and belong all convey state. A verb always has a subject. (In the sentence "John speaks English", John is the subject and speaks is the verb.) In simple terms, therefore, we can say that verbs are words that tell us what a subject does or is; they describe: action (Ram plays football.) state (Anthony seems kind.)

There is something very special about verbs in English. Most other words (adjectives, adverbs, prepositions etc) do not change in form (although nouns can have singular and plural forms). But almost all verbs change in form. For example, the verb to work has five forms: to work, work, works, worked, working

Of course, this is still very few forms compared to some languages which may have thirty or more forms for a single verb.

Forming and Using Verb Tenses


English speakers form many verb tenses by combining one of principal parts of the verb with one or more auxiliary verbs. In order to form verb tenses you need a good grasp of the auxiliaries and the principal parts of the verb. There are four principal parts: the basic form, the present participle, the past form, and the past participle. The basic form (or root of the verb is the form listed in the dictionary and is usually identical to the first person singular form of the simple present tense (except in the case of the verb "to be"): walk paint think grow sing The infinitive form of the verb is a compound verb made up of the preposition "to" and the basic form of the verb: to walk to paint to think to grow to sing To form the present participle, add "-ing" to the basic form of the verb: walking painting thinking growing singing Note that you cannot use the present participle as a predicate unless you use an auxiliary verb with it -- the word group "I walking to the store" is an incomplete and ungrammatical sentence, while word group "I am walking to the store" is a complete sentence. You will often use the present participle as a modifier. The past form of verbs is a little trickier. If the verb is regular (or weak, you can create the past form by adding "-ed", "-d", or "-t" to the present form. When a basic form ends in "-y", you changed the "-y" to "-i-"; in many cases you should also double terminal consonants before adding "-ed" (see the section on Spelling words with Double Consonants). walked painted

thought grew sang The past participle of regular verbs is usually identical to the past form, while the past participle of irregular verbs is often different: walked painted thought grown sung Irregular verbs form the past participle and the past form without "-(e)d" or "-t", and frequently their past form and past participle are different. For example, the past form of the verb "break" is "broke" and the past participle is "broken".

Verb Classifications

Link

Helping Verbs: primary/modal Main Verbs: regular/irregular, transitive/intransitive, linking, dynamic/stative

We divide verbs into two broad classifications:

1. Helping Verbs (Auxiliary Verbs) Link


Imagine that a stranger walks into your room and says: I can. People must. The Earth will.

Helping verbs are also called "auxiliary verbs".

Do you understand anything? Has this person communicated anything to you? Probably not! That's because these verbs are helping verbs and have no meaning on their own. They are necessary for the grammatical structure of the sentence, but they do not tell us very much alone. We usually use helping verbs with main verbs. They "help" the main verb. (The sentences in the above examples are therefore incomplete. They need at least one main verb to complete them.) There are only about 15 helping verbs in English, and we divide them into two basic groups.

2. Main Verbs (Lexical Verbs) Link


Now imagine that the same stranger walks into your room and says: I teach. People eat. The Earth rotates.

Main verbs are also called "lexical verbs".

Do you understand something? Has this person communicated something to you? Probably yes! Not a lot, but something. That's because these verbs are main verbs and have meaning on their own. They tell us something. Of course, there are thousands of main verbs. In the following table we see example sentences with helping verbs and main verbs. Notice that all of these sentences have a main verb. Only some of them have a helping verb. Helping verb John You Main verb likes lied coffee. to me.

They The children We I are must do not

are playing. go want

happy.

now. any.

Helping verbs and main verbs can be further sub-divided, as we shall see in the following pages.

Helping Verbs
All helping verbs are used with a main verb (either expressed or understood). There are 2 groups of helping verbs: Primary helping verbs, used mainly to change the tense or voice of the main verb, and in making questions and negatives. Modal helping verbs, used to change the "mood" of the main verb.

Study the table below. It shows the principal forms and uses of helping verbs, and explains the differences between primary and modal helping verbs.

Helping Verbs (13) Primary (3) * do be have (to make simple tenses, and questions and negatives) (to make continuous tenses, and the passive voice) (to make perfect tenses) Modal (10) can may will shall must ought (to) " Do ", " be " and " have " as helping verbs have exactly the same forms as when they are main verbs (except that as helping verbs they are never used in infinitive forms). Primary helping verbs are followed by the main verb in a particular form: do + V1 (base verb) be + -ing (present participle) have + V3 (past participle) Modal helping verbs are invariable. They always have the same form. " Ought " is followed by the main verb in infinitive form. Other modal helping verbs are followed by the main verb in its base form (V1). ought + to... (infinitive) other modals + V1 (base verb) could might would should

" Do ", " be " and " have " can also function as main verbs.

Modal helping verbs cannot function as main verbs.

*Note that the verbs be, do, and have can be used as helping verbs or as main verbs. On this page we talk about them as helping verbs. We use them in the following cases: be o o have to make continuous tenses (He is watching TV.) to make the passive (Small fish are eaten by big fish.)

o do o o o o

to make perfect tenses (I have finished my homework.) to make (-)negatives (I do not like you.) to ask (?)questions (Do you want some coffee?) to show emphasis (I do want you to pass your exam.) to stand for a main verb in some constructions (He speaks faster than she does.)

Modal helping verbs (10 verbs)


We use modal helping verbs to "modify" the meaning of the main verb in some way. A modal helping verb expresses necessity or possibility, and changes the main verb in that sense. Here are the modal verbs. Those underlined include a tutorial. Then proceed to the test/exercises at the bottom of this page can, could may, might will, would, shall, should must ought to Semi-modal verbs (7 verbs/verb phrases) The following verbs are often called "semimodals" because they are partly like modal helping verbs and partly like main verbs: need dare used to had better allowed to have to, have got to

Here are examples using modal verbs: I can't speak Chinese. John may arrive late. Would you like a cup of coffee? You should see a doctor. I really must go now

> Modal Forms. Modal verbs can be used in a variety of different forms. Study the examples below. Modal Simple I could swim at the beach. Modal Continuous I could be swimming at the beach right now. Modal Perfect I could have swum at the beach yesterday. Modal Perfect Continuous I could have been swimming at the beach instead of working in the office. Passive Modal Simple The room should be cleaned once a day. Passive Modal Continuous The room should be being cleaned now. Passive Modal Perfect The room should have been cleaned yesterday. Passive Modal Perfect Continuous The room should have been being cleaned but nobody was there. (Rare form)

>Exercises Modal Exercise 1

can, could, have to, must, might and should Modal Exercise 2 have to and must Modal Exercise 3 might, must, should, could, have to and ought to Modal Exercise 4 couldn't and might not Modal Exercise 5 have got to, had better, may and shall Modal Exercise 6 could, might, should and would Modal Exercise 7 modal verb forms Modal Verb Final Test complete review

More on Modal Verbs

Main Verbs (lexical verbs)

Most main verbs only have only 4, 5 or 6 forms. "Be" is an exception and has 9 forms. V1 infinitive regular (to) work (to) sing (to) make (to) cut irregular (to) do* (to) have* infinitive (to) be* In the above examples: The infinitive can be with or without to. For example, to sing and sing are both infinitives. We often call the infinitive without to the "bare infinitive" or base. base work sing make cut do have base be V2 past simple worked sang made cut did had past simple was, were V3 past participle worked sung made cut done had past participle been present participle working singing making cutting doing having present participle be ing present simple, 3rd person singular works sings makes cuts does has present simple am, are, is

to cut has 4 forms: to cut, cut, cutting, cuts to work has 5 forms: to work, work, worked, working, works to sing has 6 forms: to sing, sing, sang, sung, singing, sings to be has 9 forms: to be, be, was, were, been, being, am, is, are

At school, students usually learn by heart the base, past simple and past participle (sometimes called V1, V2, V3, meaning Verb 1, Verb 2, Verb 3) for the irregular verbs. They may spend many hours chanting: sing, sang, sung; go, went, gone; have, had, had; etc. They do not learn these for the regular verbs because the past simple and past participle are always the same: they are formed by adding "-ed" to the base. They do not learn the present participle and 3rd person singular present simple by heartfor another very simple reason: they never change. The present participle is always made by adding "-ing" to the base, and the 3rd person present simple is always made by adding "s " to the base (though there are some variations in spelling). * Reminder Note: "do", "have" and "be" also function as helping or auxiliary verbs, with exactly the same forms (except that as helping verbs they are never in infinitive form). There are thousands of main verbs, and we can classify them in several ways:

Regular and irregular verbs

Great Link to study irregular verbs online: with Spanish translations, exercises, pictures.

This is more a question of vocabulary than of grammar. The only real difference between regular and irregular verbs is that they have different endings for their past tense and past participle forms. For regular verbs, the past tense ending and past participle ending is always the same: -ed. For irregular verbs, the past tense ending and the past participle ending is variable, so it is necessary to learn them by heart. regular verbs: base, past tense, past participle look, looked, looked work, worked, worked

irregular verbs: base, past tense, past participle

One way to think of regular and irregular verbs is like this: all verbs are irregular and the so-called regular verbs are simply one very large group of irregular verbs.

buy, bought, bought cut, cut, cut do, did, done

Here are lists of regular verbs and irregular verbs. Here is a link to a free program you can install on your computer to test your understanding. When you master regular and irregular verbs you can uninstall it. I think it is a good program or I wouldnt be telling you about it.

Transitive and intransitive verbs


A transitive verb takes a direct object: Somebody killed the President. An intransitive verb does not have a direct object: He died. Many verbs, like speak, can be transitive or intransitive. Look at these examples: transitive: I saw an elephant. We are watching TV. He speaks English. intransitive: He has arrived. John goes to school. She speaks fast.

Linking verbs
A linking verb does not have much meaning in itself. It "links" the subject to what is said about the subject. Usually, a linking verb shows equality (=) or a change to a different state or place (>). Linking verbs are always intransitive (but not all intransitive verbs are linking verbs). Mary is a teacher. (mary = teacher) Tara is beautiful. (tara = beautiful) That sounds interesting. (that = interesting) The sky became dark. (the sky > dark) The bread has gone bad. (bread > bad)

Dynamic and stative verbs


Some verbs describe action. They are called " dynamic ", and can be used with continuous tenses. Other verbs describe state (non-action, a situation). They are called " stative", and cannot normally be used with continuous tenses (though some of them can be used with continuous tenses with a change in meaning). dynamic verbs (examples): hit, explode, fight, run, go

stative verbs (examples): be like, love, prefer, wish impress, please, surprise hear, see, sound belong to, consist of, contain, include, need appear, resemble, seem

Often the above divisions can be mixed. For example, one verb could be irregular, transitive and dynamic; another verb could be regular, transitive and stative.

Example Sentences - using main verbs in different forms


Infinitive I want to work He has to sing. This exercise is easy to do. Let him have one. To be, or not to be, that is the question: Past simple I worked yesterday. She cut his hair last week. They had a good time. They were surprised, but I was not.

Past participle I have worked here for five years. He needs a folder made of plastic. It is done like this. I have never been so happy.

Base - Imperative Work well! Make this. Have a nice day. Be quiet!

Present participle I am working. Singing well is not easy. Having finished, he went home. You are being silly!

Base - Present simple (except 3rd person singular) I work in London. You sing well. They have a lot of money.

3rd person singular, Present simple He works in London. She sings well. She has a lot of money. It is Vietnamese.

Base - After modal auxiliary verbs I can work tomorrow. You must sing louder. They might do it. You could be right.

See if you can classify these verbs

Verb Forms to sing, sing, sings, sang, sung, singing

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Verb Tenses | > Basic Tenses | > What is Tense? > Tense & Time I sing, I am singing, I have sung, I have been singing, I sang, I was singing

Basic Tenses
For past and present, there are 2 simple tenses + 6 complex tenses (using auxiliary/helping verbs). To these, we can add 4 "modal tenses" for the future (using modal auxiliary verbs will/shall). This makes a total of 12 tenses in the active voice. Another 12 tenses are available in the passive voice. So now we have 24 Tenses past present

24 Tenses!
future *

simple tenses complex tenses formed with auxiliary verb

past past perfect past continuous past perfect continuous past past perfect past continuous past perfect continuous

present present perfect present continuous present perfect continuous present present perfect present continuous present perfect continuous

future future perfect future continuous future perfect continuous future future perfect future continuous future perfect continuous

ACTIVE

PASSIVE

Present tenses Simple, Continuous, Perfect Simple, Perfect Continuous Past tenses Simple, Continuous, Perfect Simple, Perfect Continuous Future tenses Simple, Continuous, Perfect Simple, Perfect Continuous

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Verb Tenses
>What is Tense? The tense of a verb refers to the form of the verb. Often, but not always, they also refer to a particular time. tense (noun): a form of a verb used to indicate the time, and sometimes the continuation or completeness, of an action in relation to the time of speaking. (From Latin tempus = time). To begin with, we can talk about verbs being or taking place in the present, past or future time. Present verbs refer to something happening right now. When a verb is in the past, it generally refers to an action that took place before now. Likewise, a future verb refers to an action that will happen after now in the future. Within these categories we make other distinctions. We talk about simple or continuous (also known as progressive) and perfect forms. We can also use various other forms of the verbs in grammar: the infinitive, bare infinitive, base, imperative.
>Tense & Time It is important not to confuse the name of a verb tense with the way we use it to talk about time. For example, a present tense does not always refer to present time:

I hope it rains tomorrow. "rains" is present simple, but it refers here to future time (tomorrow)

Or a past tense does not always refer to the past time:

If I had some money now, I could buy it. "had" is past simple but it refers here to present time (now)

Heres a Quick Overview about how different tenses can be used to talk about different times.

TENSE
past

TIME
present I want a coffee. future I leave tomorrow. coffee. I am taking my exam next month. in London.

Present Simple She likes I am having dinner. Present Continuous They Present Perfect Simple I have seen ET. I have been playing tennis. Present Perfect Continuous We have been working for four hours. Past Simple Past Continuous Past Perfect Simple Past Perfect Continuous Future Simple Future Continuous I finished one hour ago. I was working at 2am this morning. I had not eaten for 24 hours. We had been working for 3 hours. If I had been working now, I would have missed you. Hold on. I'll do it now. If I had been working tomorrow, I could not have agreed. I'll see you tomorrow. I will be working at 9pm tonight. I will have finished by 9pm tonight. We will have been married for ten years next month. They may be tired when you arrive because they will have been working. In 30 minutes, we will have been working for four hours. >Here are some features of verb tenses starting with my favorite form the continuous otherwise know as the progressive. All Continuous (or Progressive) forms: * refer to things happening now or developing steadily. (relatively speaking anyway) * feature a form of to be {am/is/are, was, will be} + {-ing verb (present participle, doing or action verb)} Present Continuous {am/is/are} + {-ing verb} (+) I am (Im), we are (were), she is (shes), he is (hes), it is (its), you (s.) (pl.) are (youre), they are (theyre) If she loved you now, she would marry you. If you came tomorrow, you would see her. are living I have finished.

Future Perfect Simple

Future Perfect Continuous

(-) I am not (Im not), she is not (shes not), he is not (hes not), it is not (its not), she/he/it isnt, you (s.) (pl.) are not (you arent), we are not (we arent), they are not (they arent) Past Continuous {was/were} {was/were not (wasnt/werent)} + {-ing verb} (+) I was, he/she/it was, you (singular) were, you (all) (plural) were, we were, they were (-) I was not (I wasnt), he/she/it was not (he/she/it wasnt), you (s.) (pl.) were not (you (s.) (pl.) werent), we were not (we werent), they were not (they werent) Future Continuous {will be} {will not (wont) be} + {-ing verb} or {*also am/is/are going to be forms} (+) I will (Ill), he/she/it will (hell/shell/itll), you (s.) (pl.) will (youll (s.) (pl.)), we will (well), they will (theyll) (-) I will not (I wont), he/she/it will not (he/she/it wont), you (s.) (pl.) will not (you (s.) (pl.) wont), we will not (we wont), they will not (they wont)

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All Perfect forms feature: *a form of to have {have/has/had} + past participle (-ed for regular verbs or irregular verb forms) * they focus on the result or the duration, they relate past to the present, and consist of situations up to now especially when how long lasted is stated Present Perfect {have/has} {have/has not (havent/hasnt)} + past participle (+) I have (Ive), you (s.) (pl.) have (youve), we have (weve), they have (theyve), he/she/it has (hes/shes/its) (-) I have not (I havent), you (s.) (pl.) have not (you (s.) (pl.) havent), we have not (we havent), they have not (they havent), he/she/it has not (he/she/it hasnt) focus on the result or the duration, they relate past to the present, an consist of situations up to now especially when how long lasted is stated Past Perfect {had} {had not (hadnt)} + past participle (+) I had, he/she/it had, you (s.) (pl.) had, we had, they had (-) I had not (I hadnt), he/she/it had not (he/she/it hadnt), you (s.) (pl.) had not (you (s.) (pl.) hadnt), we had not (we hadnt), they had not (they hadnt) Future Perfect {will have} {will not (wont) have} + past participle (+) I will (Ill), he/she/it will (hell/shell/itll), you (s.) (pl.) will (youll (s.) (pl.)), we will (well), they will (theyll) (-) I will not (I wont), he/she/it will not (he/she/it wont), you (s.) (pl.) will not (you (s.) (pl.) wont), we will not (we wont), they will not (they wont) *generally uses and an adverbial expression (tells when a future event will be done) Ex: By the end of the, At, When, Before

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All Perfect Continuous forms feature: * a form of to have {have/has/had} + been + present participle, (-ing, doing or action verb)

Present Perfect Continuous {have/has} {have/has not (havent/hasnt)} + been + present participle (+) I have (Ive), you (s.) (pl.) have (youve), we have (weve), they have (theyve), he/she/it has (hes/shes/its) (-) I have not (I havent), you (s.) (pl.) have not (you (s.) (pl.) havent), we have not (we havent), they have not (they havent), he/she/it has not (he/she/it hasnt) Past Perfect Continuous {had} {had not (hadnt)} + been + present participle (+) I had, he/she/it had, you (s.) (pl.) had, we had, they had (-) I had not (I hadnt), he/she/it had not (he/she/it hadnt), you (s.) (pl.) had not (you (s.) (pl.) hadnt), we had not (we hadnt), they had not (they hadnt) Future Perfect Continuous {will have} {will not (wont) (shant) have} + been + present participle (+) I will (Ill), he/she/it will (hell/shell/itll), you (s.) (pl.) will (youll (s.) (pl.)), we will (well), they will (theyll) (-) I will not (I wont), he/she/it will not (he/she/it wont), you (s.) (pl.) will not (you (s.) (pl.) wont), we will not (we wont), they will not (they wont) *also uses adverbial expressions (that tell when a future event will be done) Ex: By the end of the, At, When, Before

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All Past Perfect forms feature: {had /had not (hadnt)}

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>The use of tenses in English may be quite complicated, but the structure of English tenses is actually very simple. The basic structure for a positive sentence is:

[subject + helping verb + main verb ]


An helping verb is used in all tenses. (In the simple present and simple past tenses, the auxiliary verb is usually suppressed for the affirmative, but it does exist for intensification.) The following table shows the 12 tenses for the verb to work in the active voice.

structure to work auxiliary normal simple intensive perfect continuous perfect continuous do have be have been base past participle present participle -ing present participle -ing I do work I have worked I am working I have been working I did work I had worked I was working I had been working I will have worked I will be working I will have been working main verb I work I worked I will work present past future *

* Technically, there are no future tenses in English. The word will is a modal auxiliary verb and future tenses are sometimes called "modal tenses". The examples are included here for convenience and comparison.

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Structure
The basic structure of tenses for regular verbs and irregular verbs is exactly the same (except to be[below]). The only difference is that with regular verbs the past and past participle are always the same (worked, worked), while with irregular verbs the past and past participle are not always the same (sang, sung). But the structure is the same! It will help you a great deal to really understand that. The basic structure is: positive: negative: question:

+ ?

subject + auxiliary verb + main verb subject + auxiliary verb + not + main verb auxiliary verb + subject + main verb

regular verb work

base work

past

past participle

present participle -ing working

worked worked

Present SIMPLE do + base verb (except future: will + base verb) + ? SIMPLE PERFECT have + past participle + ? CONTINUOUS be + ing + ? CONTINUOUS PERFECT have been + ing + ? I do work I work I do not work Do I work? I have worked I have not worked Have I worked? I am working I am not work ing Am I working? I have been working I have not been working Have I been working?

Past I did work I worked I did not work Did I work? I had worked I had not worked Had I worked? I was working I was not working Was I working? I had been working I had not been working Had I been working?

Future I will work I will not work Will I work? I will have worked I will not have worked Will I have worked? I will be working I will not be working Will I be working? I will have been working I will not have been working Will I have been working?

Note the differences in the basic tenses with the irregular verb sing.

base sing

past

past participle sung

present participle -ing singing

sang

Present SIMPLE do + base verb (except future: will + base verb) + ? SIMPLE PERFECT have + past participle + ? CONTINUOUS be + ing + ? CONTINUOUS PERFECT have been + ing + ? I do sing I sing I do not sing Do I sing? I have sung I have not sung Have I sung? I am singing I am not singing Am I singing? I have been singing I have not been singing Have I been singing? I did sing I sang

Past I will sing

Future

I did not sing Did I sing? I had sung I had not sung Had I sung? I was singing I was not singing Was I singing? I had been singing I had not been singing Had I been singing?

I will not sing Will I sing? I will have sung I will not have sung Will I have sung? I will be singing I will not be singing Will I be singing? I will have been singing I will not have been singing Will I have been singing?

> Regular Verbs > Irregular Verbs > Be


************************************************************************************************************************************************ Basic Tenses: Regular Verb Regular verbs list This page shows the basic tenses with the regular verb work. It includes the affirmative or positive form (+), the negative form (-) and the interrogative or question form (?). The basic structure is:

positive: + negative: question: ?

subject + auxiliary verb + main verb subject + auxiliary verb + not + main verb auxiliary verb + subject + main verb

These are the forms of the main verb that we use to construct the tenses: base past past participle present participle -ing

work

worked

worked

working

present SIMPLE do + base verb (except future:: will + base verb) + ? SIMPLE PERFECT have + past participle + ? CONTINUOUS be + ing + ? CONTINUOUS PERFECT have been + ing + ? I did work I worked I did not work Did I work? I had worked I had not worked Had I worked? I was working I was not working Was I working? I had been working I had not been working Had I been working?

past ***** I will work I will not work Will l I work? I will have worked I will not have worked Will I have worked? I will be working I will not be working Will I be working? I will have been working I will not have been working Will I have been working?

future: I will work I will not work Will l I work? I will have worked I will not have worked Will I have worked? I will be working I will not be working Will I be working? I will have been working I will not have been working Will I have been working?

Basic Tenses: Irregular Verb Irregular verbs list This page shows the basic tenses with the irregular verb sing. It includes the affirmative or positive form (+), the negative form (-) and the interrogative or question form (?). The basic structure is:

positive: + negative: question: ?

subject + auxiliary verb + main verb subject + auxiliary verb + not + main verb auxiliary verb + subject + main verb

These are the forms of the main verb that we use to construct the tenses: base sing past sang past participle sung present participle -ing singing

past

present

future:

SIMPLE do + base verb (except future: will + base verb)

+ ?

I did sing I sang I did not sing Did I sing? I had sung I had not sung Had I sung? I was singing I was not singing Was I singing? I had been singing I had not been singing Had I been singing?

I do sing I sing I do not sing Do I sing? I have sung I have not sung Have I sung? I am singing I am not singing Am I singing? I have been singing I have not been singing Have I been singing?

I will sing I will not sing Will I sing? I will have sung I will not have sung Will I have sung? I will be singing I will not be singing Will I be singing? I will have been singing I will not have been singing Will I have been singing?

SIMPLE PERFECT have + past participle

+ ?

CONTINUOUS be + ing

+ ?

CONTINUOUS PERFECT have been + ing

+ ?

The basic structure of tenses for regular verbs and irregular verbs is exactly the same (except to be). The only difference is that with regular verbs the past and past participle are always the same (worked, worked), while with irregular verbs the past and past participle are not always the same (sang, sung). But the structure is the same! It will help you a great deal to really understand that.

Study Irregular Verbs with online flashcards. Each level below contains twenty irregular verbs. | Level 1 | Level 2 | Level 3 | Level 4 | Level 5 |

Basic Tenses: Be
The verb be is particular. It has the most forms of all the verbs.

The basic structure is the same as for regular and irregular verbs, except for simple past and simple present tenses. They are in fact, even easier. There is no auxiliary verb. Here is the structure: positive: negative: question:

+ ?

subject + main verb subject + main verb + not main verb + subject

These are the forms of the main verb be that we use to construct the tenses: base be past simple was, were past participle been present participle being present simple am, are, is

past

present

future

SIMPLE present simple or past simple (except future: will + be)

+ ? +

I was I was not Was I? I had been I had not been Had I been? I was being I was not being Was I being? I had been being I had not been being Had I been being?

I am I am not Am I? I have been I have not been Have I been? I am being I am not being Am I being? I have been being I have not been being Have I been being?

I will be I will not be Will I be? I will have been I will not have been Will I have been? I will be being I will not be being Will I be being? I will have been being I will not have been being Will I have been being?

SIMPLE PERFECT have + been

? +

CONTINUOUS be + being

CONTINUOUS PERFECT have been + being

+ ?

In the following table, we see be conjugated for 12 basic tenses. SIMPLE I singular you he/she/it we plural you they PERFECT I singular you he/she/it we plural you they CONTINUOUS past was were was were were were past had been had been had been had been had been had been past present am are is are are are present have been have been has been have been have been have been present future will be will be will be will be will be will be future will have been will have been will have been will have been will have been will have been future

I singular you he/she/it we plural you they CONTINUOUS PERFECT I singular you he/she/it we plural you they

was being were being was being were being were being were being past had been being had been being had been being had been being had been being had been being

am being are being is being are being are being are being present have been being have been being have been being have been being have been being have been being

will be being will be being will be being will be being will be being will be being future will have been being will have been being will have been being will have been being will have been being will have been being

*************************************************************************************************************************************************

The Big Picture


>Here are some other terms that can be used when discussing verbs and tenses.

Voice
Voice shows the relationship of the subject to the action. In the active voice, the subject does the action (cats eat mice). In the passive voice, the subject receives the action (mice are eaten by cats). Among other things, we can use voice to help us change the focus of attention.

Aspect
Verb tenses may also be categorized according to aspect. Aspect refers to the nature of the action described by the verb, it is related to time, such as completion or duration. There are three aspects: indefinite (or simple), complete (or perfect), continuing (or progressive). Present Simple and Past Simple tenses have no aspect, but if we wish we can stress with other tenses that: the action or state referred to by the verb is completed (and often still relevant), for example: I have emailed the report to Jane. (so now she has the report) (This is called perfective aspect, using perfect tenses.) the action or state referred to by the verb is in progress or continuing (that is, uncompleted), for example: We are eating. (This is called progressive aspect, using progressive [continuous] tenses.)

Mood
indicative mood expresses a simple statement of fact, which can be positive (affirmative) or negative I like coffee.

I do not like coffee.

interrogative mood expresses a question Why do you like coffee?

imperative mood expresses a command Sit down!

subjunctive mood expresses what is imagined or wished or possible The President ordered that he attend the meeting.

More on Mood Now, lets put things together - Link


The Formation of the Indicative Mood of the Active Voice Tense Simple Present Present Continuous Present Perfect Present Perfect Continuous Simple Past Past Continuous Past Perfect Past Perfect Continuous Simple Future Future Continuous Future Perfect Future Perfect Continuous Auxiliary do/does * am/is/are have/has have/has been did * was/were had had been will (shall) **** will (shall) be will (shall) have will (shall) have been Verb Form bare infinitive ** present participle past participle present participle bare infinitive *** present participle past participle present participle bare infinitive present participle past participle present participle

The Formation of the Subjunctive Mood of the Active Voice Tense Simple Present Present Continuous Present Perfect Present Perfect Continuous Simple Past Past Continuous Past Perfect Past Perfect Continuous Tense Simple Present Present Continuous Present Perfect Present Perfect Continuous Simple Past Past Continuous Past Perfect Past Perfect Continuous Simple Future Future Continuous Future Perfect Future Perfect Continuous Auxiliary do * be have have been did * were had had been Verb Form bare infinitive present participle past participle present participle bare infinitive *** present participle past participle present participle Verb Form past participle past participle past participle past participle past participle past participle past participle past participle past participle past participle past participle past participle

The Formation of the Indicative Mood of the Passive Voice Auxiliary am/is/are am/is/are being have/has been have/has been being was/were was/were being had been had been being will (shall) **** be will (shall) be being will (shall) have been will (shall) have been being

Tense Simple Present Present Continuous Present Perfect Present Perfect Continuous Simple Past Past Continuous Past Perfect Past Perfect Continuous

The Formation of the Subjunctive Mood of the Passive Voice Auxiliary Verb Form be past participle be being past participle have been past participle have been being past participle were were being had been had been being past participle past participle past participle past participle

* In the Simple Present and Simple Past tenses of the Active Voice, the auxiliaries are used only for emphasis, and for the formation of questions and negative statements. Auxiliaries are never used with the Simple Present or Simple Past of the verb to be. ** When used without the auxiliary, the third person singular of the Simple Present, in the Indicative Mood of the Active Voice, has the ending s. *** When used without the auxiliary, the Simple Past form of the verb is used. For regular verbs, and for many irregular verbs, the Simple Past has the same form as the past participle. **** The other modal auxiliaries could, may, might, must, should and would form conjugations in the same way as will and shall. Example of all forms of the verb show I hope that helped, Good Luck! Celeste