( Reaffirmed 1996

)

NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE

BUREAU

OF

INDIAN

STANDARDS

MANAK BHAVAN. 9 BAHADUR SHAH ZAFAR MARG NEW DELHI 110002

SP 30:1984 First Published August 1985 First Reprint April 1990 Second Reprint September 1992 Third Reprint September 1993 Fourth Reprint November 1998 0 BUREAU OF INDIAN STANDARDS UDC 621.3 : 006.78

The National Electrical Code was adopted by the Bureau of Indian Standards (then Indian Standards Institution) on 15 June 1984, after the draft finalized by the National Electrical Code Sectional Committee had been approved by Electrotechnical Division Council

PRICE Rs 600.00

Printed in India at Central Electric Press, A-12/1, Naraina Industrial Area, Phase-l, New Delhi 110028 and Published by the Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi 110002.

INTRODUCTION
Development programmes are interwoven to a large extent with electrical energy. Realizing the need for harnessing this most useful form of energy available, a great amount of emphasis is being laid on the implementation of the programmes for electrical power generation and a substantial portion of the national budget is being allotted for the purpose. The main feature of this effort is to plan for and execute the economic selection, installation and maintenance of electrical equipment employed in the generation, transmission, distribution and utilization of electric power. The design and practices being followed by the various agencies engaged in this type of activity could be rationalized in the light of newer equipment and processes. to remove any extraneous safety and other factors. Realizing the need for standardizing the requirements of the various Electricity Boards and other bodies; the Electrotechnical Division Council under the Code of Practice for Power Installation and Maintenance Sectional Committee has been formulating Indian Standard Codes of practice on the various aspects of handling the power equipment. These codes have been revised from time to time to align wtth the latest technology made available as well as to incorporate the experience gained in the implementation of these codes. However, time and again the need has been felt for a cogent Electrical Code covering unified practices and procedures and safety requirements to be complied with in the design, execution, inspection and maintenance of electrical installation in different locations. The lndiun E/ecrrici;.v Rules, 1956 contain specific regulations to be adhered to in the supply and use of electrical energy in the interest of safety. Nevertheless, there are several areas which need amplification and complementing. The National Electrical Code is formulated primarily to elaborate the Indian Electricity Rules which are statutory in nature and serve as a comprehensive document an electrical practices in our country. The task of the preparation of the Code is entrusted with the National Electrical Code (NEC) Sectional Committee (ETDC 56). This guiding committee and the expert groups under the same have a broad based representation from central and state government organizations, private bodies and professional institutions having wide experience in the field of electrotechnology, particularly in the field of installation engineering. The object of the National Electrical Code (NEC) is given below : The object of the National Electrical Code is to complement the lndiun E/ectricif~v Rules,. 1956 by way of elaborating as well as recommending practices to comply with their requirements. This code is to provide information in a consolidated form to electrical engineers and contractors in the country who are concerned with the design and operation of electrical installations. The presentation of information in the Code has been broadly organized in the following manner : Part I Part 2 Part 3 Part 4 Part 5 Part 6 Part 7 General and Common Aspects Electrical Installation in Standby Generating Stations and Sub-stations. Electrical Installations in Non-Industrial Buildings Electrical Installations in Industrial Buildings Outdoor Installations Electrical Installations in Agricultural Premises Electrical Installations in Hazardous Areas.

To a limited extent. air-conditioning and lifts). Considering the variety of practices being followed by the Electricity Boards and the need to collect data on the same. apart from the fact that all the required information may not be vi . rather than the occupancy. The information relating to each type of installation identified above is further classified and presented in the following manner : a) Assessment of the general characteristics of the occupancy from the point of view of the electrical installation therein.The National Electrical Code Sectional Committee (ETDC 56) has decided upon the above format as best suited for a compendium like this after considerable deliberations. would find that a one-to-one correspondence does not exist between the building classification made in them. the large generating stations and distribution substations. In the preparation of NEC. adogts a modified approach to this classification taking into account the following broad guidelines : a) The classification of electrical installations should take into account the skill and capabilities of the occupants utilizing the installation. and b) Further classification should be based on the degree of sophistication of the electrical requirements of the building. Product details are also excluded from the compilation work for the time being. that the approach of the National Electrical Code has been primarily to cater to system engineers. Users of IVEC. the efforts of product groups had been taken into account while consolidating t. though elaborate. It should be brought out. and 3) Fire protection signalling systems. Individual product codes are available on specific power equipment for the use of product application engineer. excludes requirements coming under the purview of utilities. The Code. however. The NBC classification 01 buildings/occupancies is based on fire-safety considerations and. NEC. 6) Reactive power compensation as applicable. 4) Metering of consumption. d) Specific requirements for protection and safety. and 7) Guidance on electrical aspects of building services (lighting. a method considered best meeting the needs of practising engineers. who are also familiar with the National Building Code of India 1983. c) Light current installation in the occupancy : 1) Electric bells and clock systems. 2) Cables and accessories for power circuit. namely. efforts have been made to fill certain gaps in consultation with the relevant Technical Committees of ISI. 3) Protective equipment. 5) Emergency electric supply. 2) Electrical audio systems. however. b) Heavy current installation in the occupancy : 1) Power supply and distribution system. as it presents a method of identifying information that is classified on the basis of type of occupancy. and does not constitute fundamental standardization work. it had been felt that at this stage. The Code also does not cover electrical installations in underground mines. The compilation work\ such as the one envisaged for the National Electrical Code. such installations should be -excluded from the scope of the Code.he information in a handbook form. while closely following the same. The NEC is basically a compilation document taking assistance from detailed codes already available.

technological innovations such . with minimum elaboration for their specific purpose. to only draw attention to the relevant standard. for detailed guidance. a continuous programme of review is envisaged. The individual parts of the Code. without calling for too many references to Part I dealing with general and common aspects. Its provisions will not be mandatory but will serve as a model for adoption in the interest of safety and economy.. It contains guidelines. in many instances.as better materials or new and better method also proved as ‘good practice’ would first be introduced in the individual standard as appropriate than in the National Electrical Code. while in others the relevant provisions have been extracted and reproduced. In order to keep pace with such changes and to incorporate the additional knowledge that will be gained through the implementation of the Code.available in a ready format. which framed in unison with the statutory provisions of IE Rules 1956. therefore. should also preferably be self-contained to the extent possible. can be immedia. vii . the provisions of the former shall be considered accurate. It had been possible. In all cases. is made difficult by the need to make a judicious choice of what is to be reproduced in the Code and what is to be referred to in the parent standard. The National Electrical Code (hereafter referred to as the Code) is intended to be advisory. A complete revision of the Code is also intended in due course of time. As a general rule. reference should be made to the individual standard and should any contradiction be observed between the provisions in individual code and those reproduced herein.tely adopted for use by the various interests concerned. which deal with specific occupancies. On the one hand is the need to make the Code selfcontained as a reference document and on the qther hand is the need to keep it less voluminous.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The contributions made by the following individuals/groups and their organizations in respect of the part/sections of the National Electrical Code prepared in collaboration with them are greatly acknowledged. Member 1. Shri D. N. Purandare Organization Electrical Contractors Association of Maharashtra, Bombay Siemens India Ltd, Bombay Chief Electrical Engineer to Government of Maharashtra, Bombay Fact Engineering & Design Organization, Udyogamandal Central Public Works Depart- Part 111 Electrical Installations ment, New .Delhi in Non-industrial Buildin s : ) lmgs Section I Domestic Dwe f. Electrical Contractors Association of Maharashtra, Bombay Part 111 Electrical Installations in Non-industrial Buildings : Section 2 Office Buildings, Shopping and Commercial Centres and Institutions Part 111 Electrical Installations in Non-industrial Buildings : Section 3 Recreational, Assembl; Buildings Part I I1 Electrical Installations in Non-industrial Buildings : Section 4 Medical Establishments Section 5 Hotels Part V Outdoor Installations Section 1 Public Lighting Installations and Section 2 Temporary Outdoor Installations 6. Shri V. S. Bhatia Shri A. N. Dutt Siemens India Ltd, Bombay Electrical Contractors Association of Eastern India, Calcutta General Insurance Corporation of India, Bombay Engineers India Ltd, New Delhi Part VII Electrical Installations in Hazardous Areas Part IV Electrical Installations in Industrial Buildings Part/Section of NEC Part II Electrical Installations in Standby Generating Stations and Captive Substations

Shri V. S. Bhatia Shri M: A. Khan.

Shri K. P. R. Pillai 2. Chief Engineer (Elect)-1

3. Shri D. N. Purandare

4. Shri M. J. Anandamurthv Chief Electrical Insnector. Government of Ta’mil Nadu, Madras 5. Shri M. L. Dongre Bombay Electric Supply & Transport Undertaking, Bombay

Shri A. Chatterjee 7. Shri G. N. Thadani 8. Chief Engineer (Elect)-1

Central Public Works -Depart- Appendix to Part III Specific ment, New Delhi Requirements for Electrical Installations in Multistoreyed Buildings.

NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE SECTIONAL COMMITTEE, ETDC 56
Chairman Shri M. L. Dongre C-214 Casuarina Cooperating Housing Society Best Nagar, Ghatkopar East Bombay. Members Shri M. J. Anandamurthy Electrical Inspector (Technical) (Alternate) Shri V. G. Bapat Shri K. S. Joshi (Alternate) Shri V. S. Bhatia Shri M. M. Shethna (Alternate) Shri ‘D. K. Biswas Federation of Electricity Undertakings of India, Bombay Siemens India Ltd, Bombay Department of Science and Technology (National Committee on Environmental Planning and Coordination), New Delhi Central Public Works Department, New Delhi Representing Chief Electrical Inspector, Government of Tamil Nadu, Madras

Chief Engineer (Elect)-1 Surveyor of Works (Elect)-1 (Ahernate) Shri P. J. Damany Shri J. H. Pate1 (A/female) Shri K. Dasgupta Shri P. Neogi (AIternare) Director of Mines Safety, Dhanbad Director of Mines Safety, Sitapur (A Iternate) ’ Shri A. N. Dutt Shri Abani Dutta (Alternate) Shri G. L. Dua Shri S. K. Sethi (Ahernafe) Deputy Chief Electrical Engineer (G) Shri K. C. Gupta Shri N. Raghavan (Alternate) Brig L. G. Ketkar Lt-Co1 G. R. Mahadevan (Alternate) Shri M. A. Khan Superintending Engineer (inspection) (AIternafe) Shri S. K. Kundu Shri S. R. Chakrabarty (Alfernare)

Gujarat Electricity Board, Vadodara Calcutta Electric Supply Corporation Ltd, Calcutta Directorate General of Mines Safety, Dhanbad

Electrical Contractors Association of Eastern India, Calcutta Rural Electrification Corporation Ltd, New Delhi Railway Board, Ministry of Railways New Delhi h’ational Safety Council, Bombay Directorate General of Inspection, Ministry of Defence, New Delhi

Chief Electrical Engineer to Government of Maharashtra, Bombay

Chief Electrical Inspector to Government of West Bengal, Calcutta

Shri S. V. Madgavkar Shri R. K. Sehgal (Ahcw7ate) Shri B. S. Landalika Shri H. R. Khan (Alternate) Shri K. K. Mondal Shri I. N. Khushu (A/female) Member (Hydroelectric) Director (H ED)-1 (AIIei’nare) Shri M. Muniram Shri S. N. Narasinga Rao Shri M. Ramatar (Alternate) Shri V. H. Navkal S h r i M . R . Iv. Menon (Ahernure) Dr G. M. Phadke Shri K. P. R. Pillai Shri D: N. Purandare Shri S. S. Jhaveri (Ahernute) Shri T. Ramachandran Shri B. M. Reddy Shri T. V. Shankaranarayana Shri V. Venkateshaiah (Alternate) Shri P. D. Sharma Shri S. C. Jain (Alternate) Shri G. N. Thadani Shri S. G. Gokhale (Alrernure) Representative Shri S. Govindaraj (Alternate 1) Shri A. S. R. Sastry (Ahernure II) Shri S. P. Sachdev, Director (Elec tech)

Bombay Suburban Electric Supply Ltd, Bombay Armv Headouarters. Ministry of Defence, h’ew Delhi. General Insurance Corporation of India, Bombay Central Electricity Authority, New Delhi Karnataka Electricity Board, Bangalore Power Project Engineering Division, Department of Atomic Energy, Bombay The Bombay Electric Supply and Transport Undertaking, Bombay Indian Electrical Manufacturers’ Association, Bombay Fact Engineering & Design Organization, Udyogamandal Electrical Contractors Associations of Maharashtra, Bombay Planning Commission, New Delhi Central Electricity Authority, New Delhi Chief Electrical Inspector to Government of Karanataka, Bangalore Delhi Electric Supply Undertaing, New- Delhi Engineers India Ltd, b!ew Delhi Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd, Hyderabad

Director General, IS1 (Ex-officio Member)

Secretary
Shri K. Ganesh Deputy Director (Elec tech), ISI

CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION

PART I GENERAL AND COMMON ASPECTS
0. Foreword SECTION I SCOPE OF THE NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE SECTION 2 DEFINITIONS
0.

3 4

1. 2. 3.

Foreword Scope Definitions List of Indian Standards on Electrotechnical Vocabulary

5 5 5 IO

SECTION 3 GRAPHICAL SYMBOLS FOR DIAGRAMS, LETTER SYMBOLS AND SIGNS 0. I. 2. 3. 4. Foreword Scope Graphical Symbols List of Indian Standards on Graphical Symbols Letter Symbols and signs

SECTION 4 GUIDE FOR PREPARATION OF DIAGRAMS, CHARTS AND TABLES, AND MARKING 0. I. 2. Foreword Scope Preparation of Diagrams, Charts and Tables 20 20 20

SECTION 5 UNITS AND SYSTEMS OF MEASUREMENT 0. Foreword I. Scope 2. Units and Systems of Measurement SECTION 6 STANDARD VALUES 0. I. 2. 3. 4.
0.

24 24 24

Foreword Scope Standard Values of voltages Preferred Current Ratings Standard System Frequency

26 26 26 27 27

SECTION 7 FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES I. 2. 3. Foreword Scope Fundamental Principles Design of Electrical Installation 28 28 28 29

SECTION 8 ASSESSMENT OF GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF BUILDINGS 0. Foreword 32

I. S c o p e 2. Assessment of General Characteristics of Buildings APPENDIX A Types of System Earthing SECTlOh’ 9 SELECTION OF EQUIPMENT 0. Foreword 1. Scope 2. Selection of Equip ment SECTlOh’ 10 ERECTIOh’ AND INITIAL TESTING OF INSTALLATION 0. I. 2. 3. Foreword Scope Erection Inspection and Testing

32 32 38

40 40 40

41 41 41 41

SECTION I I WIRING INSTALLATIONS 0. I. 2. 3. 4. Foreword Scope Equipment, Fittings and Accessories Construction Methods of Internal Wiring 46 46 46 48 51

SECTlOT’! I2 E A R T H I N G 0. Foreword I. Scope 2. General Remarks 3. Earth Electrodes 4. Earth Bus and Earth Wires 5. Measurement of Earth Electrode Resistance 6. Earthing of Installations in Buildings 7. Measurement of Earth Loop ,Impedance APPENDI’X A Representative Values of Soil Resistivity in Various Parts of India APPENDIX B Additional Rules for Earthing SECTION I3 SHORT-CIRCUIT CALCULATIONS ( Under Consideration) SECTION I4 ELECTRICAL ASPECTS OF BUILDING SERVICES 0. Foreword I. S c o p e 2. General Guidelines SECTION l4A LIGHTING 3. Aspects of Lighting Services SECTION l4B VENTILATION 4. Aspects of Ventilation SECTION l4C AIR-CONDITIONING AND HEATING 5. Aspects of Air-Conditioning and Heating Services SECTION l4D LIFTS AND ESCALATORS ‘6. Electrical Aspects of Lifts and Escalator Services
xii

57 57 57 59 62 63 63 64 65 66

69

71 71 71

71

72

72

73

I. Power Factor 4. General 3. Electrical Call Bell Services Clock Systems 78 79 77 75 SECTION I5 LIGHTNING PROTECTION 0. 2. Scope 2. Safety Practices 5. 7. Electrical Aspects of Audio System Services S E C T I O N 14F FIRE ALARM SYS-lEMS 8. Foreword Scope Terminology Exchange of Information Characteristices of Lightning Discharges Determination of the Need for Protection Zone of Protection Materials and Dimensions Design Isolation and Bonding Protection of Special Structures Inspection and Testing 81 81 81 81 82 82 83 83 83 86 87 87 SECTION I6 SAFETY IN ELECTRICAL WORK 0.SECTION 14E AUDIO SYSTEMS 7. Scope 2. Safety Instructions 4. 9. 4: 5. Foreword Scope Terminology General Characteristics of Station installation Exchange of Information Layout and Building Construction Aspects Selection of Equipment IO1 102 102 102 102 102 102 XIII . 3. IO. . 2. IO. 8. Accidents and Treatment for Electric Shock SECTION I7 GUIDELINES FOR POWER-FACTOR IMPROVEMENT 0. 4. Foreword I. Electrical Aspects of Fire Alarm Systems SECTION l4G MISCELLANEOUS SERVICES 9.. 5. I. Power Factor Improvement and Capacitor Rating SECTION I8 TABLES 0. I I. Safety Posters 6. 6. Permit-to-work System 3.. 3. Foreword I. 6. Use of Capacitors 5. Foreword 95 92 92 92 92 93 94 88 88 88 88 91 91 91 PART 2 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS -IN STANDBY GENERATING STATIONS AND CAPATIVE SUBSTATIONS 0.

I I. 16. 14. 8. 7. 4. I. 12.7. 15. Generating Sets Transformer Installations High Voltage Switching Stations Low Voltage Switching Stations and Distribution Panels Station Auxiliaries Wiring in Station Premises Earthing Building Services Fire Safety Requirements Lightning Protection Testing and Inspection 102 103 103 103 103 104 104 104 104 104 104 PART 3 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN NONINDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS 0. 5. 7. APPENDIX Foreword Scope Terminology Classification General Characteristics of. 8. I I. 5. 13. 9. 4. SHOPPING AND COMMERCIAL CENTRES AND 1NSTITUTIOtiS Q. 12. 6. Foreword Scope Terminology Classification General Characteristics of Installations Supply Characteristics and Parameters Testing of Installation Miscellaneous Provisions 117 II7 II7 II7 II7 II8 121 I21 SECTION 3 RECREATIONAL. 6. 7. ASSEMBLY BUILDINGS 0. IO. I. I.6 . 3. 5. 2. IO. 17. . 9. 2.Installation Supply Characteristics and 1 Parameters Switchgear for Control and Protection Service Lines Metering Earthing in Domestic Installations Building Services Fire Protection Testing of Installation Miscellaneous Provisions A Particular Requirements for Locations Containing a Bath Tub or Shower Basin I08 I08 I08 I08 I08 109 I IO Ill Ill III II2 II3 113 II3 II3 SECTlOIS 2 OFFICE BUILDINGS. 13. 2. xiv Foreword Scope Terminology Classification General Characteristics of Installations Supply Characteristics and Parameters Testing of Installation Miscellaneous Provisions 123 123 123 123 123 124 126 126 . 3. 3. 4. Foreword 107 SECTION 1 DOMESTIC DWELLINGS 0.

3. APPENDIX Foreword Scope Terminology Classification General Characteristics of Installation Supply Characteristics and Parameters Testing of Installation Miscellaneous Provisions A Particular Requirements for Swimming Pools 144 145 146 147 148 151 152 152 152 152 152 153 155 155 156 SECTlOh’ 6 SPORTS BUILDINGS 0. 5. 6. 3. Scope 171 172 XV . 7.SECTION 4 M. Miscellaneous Provisions APPENDIX A Zones of Risk in the Operating Theatre When Using Flammable Anaesthetic Mixtures of Anesthetic Gases and Cleaning Agents APPENDIX B Patient Environment APPENDIX C Example of an Electrical Installation in a Medical Establishment APPENDIX D Schematic Representation of Protective Conductors and Equipotential Bonding in Operating Theaters APPENDIX E Safety Supply Systems APPENDIX F Safety Supply System of a Hospital (Example) SECTION 5 HOTELS 0. 2. Building Services 9. 4. 5. 7. 6. 6. Measures against Interference Provision 12.EDICAL 0. ESTABLISHMENTS 127 127 126 129 129 130 131 138 139 140 140 141 142 Foreword Scope Terminology Classification General Characteristics of Medical Establishments Safety Considerations Supply Characteristics and Parameters Additional Requirements for Hazardous Locations in Hospitals 8. 3. I. APPENDIX Foreword Scope Terminology Classification of Sports Buildings General Characteristics of Sports Buildings Supply Characteristics and Parameters Testing of Installation Miscellaneous Provisions TO PART 3 Specific Requirements for Electrical Installations in Multi-Storeyed Buildings 159 -1. 4. 5. 2. 2. 7. Testing of Installation IO. I. 4. I. Foreword I.59 159 159 160 160 163 163 164 PART 4 ELECTRICAL lNSTALLATlONS IN INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS 0. Standby and Special Safety Supply System I I.

Protection and Safety 8. Foreword ‘I. Building Services 9. Selection of Equipment 7. Classification of industrial Buildings 4. 5. Foreword Scope Terminology Classification General Characteristics of Temporary Installations General Requirements for Temporary Outdoor Installations 6. Testing dnd Commissioning 216 216 216 216 216 217 217 219 2:3 196 196 196 I98 I98 199 207 209 210 212 215 I95 SECTION 3 OUTDOOR INSTALLATIONS 0.2. Foreword 3A GENERAL Scope Terminology Types of Permanent Outdoor lnstallatiops General Characteristics of Permanent Outdoor Installations 220 220 220 221 222 SECTION 3B EQUIPMENT AND AUXILIARIES 5. Terminology 3. Supply Characteristics and Parameters 6. Miscellaneous/ Special Provisions APPENDIX A Examples of Industries Based on Fire Safety APPElVDlX B Selection of Wiring Systems APPENDIX C Requirements for Fire Safety in Specific Industries APPElVDlX D Recommended Values of Illumination and Limiting Values of Glare Index-Industrial Buildings APPENDIX E Power Factor in Industrial Installations 172 172 173 174 I78 I78 I79 I 79 180 1x1 183 184 I91 PART 5 OUTDOOR INSTALLATIONS 0. Additional Requirements for Temporary Outdoor Installations 7. System Protection 8. 3. Classification 4.IGHTING I N S T A L L A T I O N S 0. Emergency] Standby Power Supplies 7. 3. 2. SECTION I. Terminology 3. 4. General Characteristics of Industrial Buildings 5. Power Installation Requirements 9. Foreword SECTION I PUBLIC L. Miscellaneous Considerations APPEFDIX A Terminology of Road Types SECTION 2 TEMPORARY OUTDOOR INSTALLATIONS 0. 2. I. 4. Guidelines for Specific Location 8. Scope 2.. Rules for Equipment and Auxiliaries \vi 222 . General Principles 5. Designs 6.

4.rardous Areas Testing of Installation A Indian Standards for Electrical Equipment for Use in Hazardous Atmospheres B Recommendations for the Protection of Diesel Engines for Permanent Installation in Hajrardous Areas C Recommendations for Storage Batteries for Use in Zone 2 Areas D Examples of Industries and their Working Places which Require Considerations in Regard to Hazardous Locations E Lightning Protection of Structures with Explosive or Highly Flammable Contents. 31) RPQ\IIREMt:N t S FO!i INS-I-At. Additional Guidelines for Installations in Specific Areas 231) 227 PART 6 ELECTRICAL 1NSTALLATlONS 1N AGRICULTURAL PR. (iencral Rulc~ lor P r o t e c t i o n i n O u t d o o r I n s t a l l a t i o n 225 S1IC. I. 243 244 244 245 245 246 248 261 261 262 263 APPENDIX APPENDIX 264 265 267 APPENDIX INDEX . 8. 6. I. 7.l.O R SAF-E’IY h. 4. 3. 5.WC t tOS 3C‘ PRO It-C 1 t’OS t . 6. 3. APPENDIX APPENDtX Foreword Scope Terminotogy Statutory Regulations Fundamental Concepts Classification of Hazardous Areas Specific Guidelines for Electrical Installations in Ha.A’l‘IONS 7.t IO?. 2.EMlSES 0. Foreword scope Terminology Classification General Characteristics of Agricultural Premises Supply Characteristics and Parameters Services in Agricultural Premises Testing of Installation Miscellaneous Provisions 235 236 236 236 236 237 239 239 239 PART 7 ELECTRlCAL INSTALLATIONS IN HAZARDOUS AREAS 0. Requirement\ for Permanent Outdoor Installations StICTtON ?tJ AI)t)t-I’IONAL G U I D E L I N E S F O R S P E C I F I C AREAS 8. 5. 2. 7.

NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE PART 1 .

this Page is Intentionally Left Blank .As in the Original Standard.

0. Individual sections of this part would therefore have to be read in conjunction with the relevant Indian Standards from which information has been condensed. Efforts have also been made to ensure that all the relevant details required for the understanding of the Code are available to the extent possible within Part I and references of individual standards have been kept to the minimum. 0. however. felt essential to bring out the fundamental and general principles governing electrical installation practice together with common aspects applicable to all types of installations in a separate part to serve as a reference document on such matters.4 Effort has been made to make this part self-contained.2 The details enumerated in this part are generally applicable to all types of occupancies and are to be read as modified or supplemented with the information provided in the relevant Parts of the Code.PART 1 GENERAL AND COMMON ASPECTS 0. It is. 0. FOREWORD 0. These Indian Standards are listed at the Forewords to each Section.1 Each part/section of the National Electrical Code covers the requirements relating to electrical installations m specific occupancies.3 This part of the Code is basically a compilation of guidelines available in several Indian Standards dealing with the various general aspects relating to electrical installation practice. . so that users of the Code can derive utmost advantage in using it for application in the field even for occupancies not explicitely covered by the scope of subsequent Parts of the Code.

between such recommendations and those concerning the equipment installed. 4 Additional precautions to be taken for use of electrical equipment for special environmental conditions like explosive and activ.SECTION 1 SCOPE OF THE NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 1.Where change in the occupancy places it under the scope of a different section of the Code. 2. k) Agricultural premises. 2. on boardships. motor vehicles.5 The Code covers only electrical aspects of lightning protection of buildings and in so far as the effects of lightning on the electrical installations are concerned. SCOPE OF THE NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 2. b) Recommendations concerning safety and related matter in the wiring of electrical installations of buildings or industrial compatibility promoting structures.Any type of installation not covered by the above shall be classified in the group which most nearly resembles its existing or proposed use.7 The Code also does not cover guidelines on the payment for electrical work done in installations. h) Industrial premises.4 The Code does not apply to traction. shopping and commercial centres and institutions.1 The National Electrical Code covers the following: 4 Standard good practices for selection of various items of electrical equipment forming part of power systems. c) Office buildings. 0 Hotels. NOTE 2 . and m) Installations in hazardous areas.3 The Code applies to circuits other than the internal wiring of apparatus.2 The Code applies to electrical installations such as those in: a) Standby/emergency generating plants and bullding substations. b) Domestic dwellings. N OTE I . 2. 4 Recreational and other public premises. It does not cover lightning protection aspects from structural safety point of view. j) Temporary and permanent outdoor installations. . 2.6 The Code is also not intended to apply to: a) Systems of distribution of energy to public. d Medical establishments. 2. and b) Power generation arid transmission for such systems. 2. and aircraft or installations in underground mines. SCOPE 1. 4 NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE . installations in rolling-stock. and g) Sports buildings.1 This Section of the Code describes the scope of the National Electrical Code.e atmosphere. c) General safety procedures and practices in electrical work. the same installation shall be made to comply with the requirements of the Code for the new occupancy. 2.

1. It may sometimes be felt that the definitions are not sufficiently precise do not include all cases.SECTION 2 DEFINITIONS O. often accompanied by partial volatilization of the electrodes.1 Capacitor A system of two conductors (plates) separated over the extent of their surfaces by an insulation medium which is capable of storing electrical energy as electrical stress. 1. where necessaq definitions of terms and phrases relevant for the comprehensions of the requirements stipulated therein.9 Arc A luminous discharge of electricity across a gas.2 The definitions contained in the Code. do not take account of certain exceptions or are not identical with those which may.16 O\wloatl Operating conditions in an electrically undamaged circuit which causes an overcurrent.2 Cotltluc~rol allows current of electricity to pass continuously.1. Series Parallel.I’ Cirr~Lrirs Series ~~~ An arrangement of elements so that they all carry the same current or flux.1.1. 2.2 Equipment 2. Users may find it convenient to refer to a detailed list of terms and their definitions contained in this section that are relevant to electrical installation practice.I2 Cot?t?rc’tiotl (. taken along a given path. 2. The direction of the current is accepted as opposite to that of the motion of negative electricity. 2.1. 1 . The passage of a disruptive 2.17 Short-Circrrit -~ The intentional or accidental connection of two points of a circuit through a negligible impedance. have been drawn up by the relevant expert groups under the Electrotechnical Division Council with the object of striking a correct balance between absolute precision and simplicity.1.1. A substance or body which 2.15 It~sulation decrease in insulation resistance.13 Earth Fault --.1 .I4 Earlh Leakage Crtrrettl flowing to earth on account of imperfect insulation. _ Parallel ~-~ Electric or magnetic circuits are said to be in parallel (or shunt) when current or flux is d i\ idcd between them.0 For the urposes of the National Electrical Code. 6 Elec-tric Circuit ~. 2. AND COMMON ASPECTS . be found in other publications designed with different objectives and for other readers. in addition to those contained in individual parts sections.1 . 2 .FOREWORD 0. abnormal 2. The term is. Potential D(/fkretwP ~~~ The line of integral from one point to another of an electric field. 5 2. NIIJI.2.Accidental connection 01 a conductor to earth.The electrical machines. Such differences are inevitable and should be accepted in the interest of uniformity and clarity.A n a r r a n g e m e n t o f bodies or media through which a current can flow. conductor divided by the corresponding indefinitely small time. It does not however constitute a treatise on electrical engineering. characterized by a large current and a low voltage gradient.lO Flasho\!et discharge round an insulating material.An arrangement of elements of which some are connected in series and others in parallel.1. recourse should be made to IS : 1885 (series) on electrotechnical vocabulary containing a compendium of terms in the field.1 Electrical Equipnlenl . 2.often applied _to the group of phenomena which accompany a short circuit between points at different .1 This Section of the Code covers definitions of terms.8 Voltage. It may however be noted that for further guidance. DEFINITIONS 2.1 Each part of the Code gives. the deP Initions given below shall apply. 2. 2. the connection is called a dead earth. N OTE ~ A list of ‘Indian Standards on clcctrotcchnicc~l vocabulary relevant for the purposca of the Code i\ gkcn in 3. The principal object of this exercise is to provide definitions which are sufficiently clear so that each term is understood with the same meaning by all concerned.3 Dielectrics ~. Faltll A n 2.1.5 Currenr ~~ The elementary quantity of electricity flowing through a given section of a PAR-I’ I GENERAI.1. A brillinntlv l u m i n o u s phcno2. 2 .1 I Spark mcnon of shol-t d u r a t i o n wII_ich charactcri/cs a disruptive discharge.1 Fundamental Definitions 2. 1 . When the impedance is negligible. 0. 2.A material medium in which an electric field can exist in a stationary state.1. 2. 2. SCOPE 1.I Outdoor electrical equipment are those \uitablc or installation in open air. The current 2.1.1. apparatus and circuits forming part of an electrical installation or a power system.4 Elecrrotle ~~ A conducting element used for conveying current to and from a medium.potentials.7 Electric Current ~ The movement’ of electricity in a medium or along a circuit.

2.2:13 Reia. transmission. such as those of overcurrent and short-circuit.2. carrier. 2. 2.Breaker .2. 6 . ‘provided at its two ends with metal contacts. 2.2.Equipment fastened to a support or otherwise secured in a specific location. 2.Held equipment intended to be held in the hand during normal use.2. the term electrical equipment can in general be used to any item used for such purposes as gtneration. carrying for a specified time and breaking currents under specified abnormal circuit conditions such as those of a short-circuit.8 Electric Motor . the other working by induction. enclosures and supporting structures intended in principle for use in connection with generation. (Including GUS-Operaled Relal!) .A compact mechanical device for making and breaking a circuit both in normal conditions and in abnormal conditions. transmission.Equipment which is moved while in operation or which can easily be moved from one place to another while connected to the supply. 2 . accessories.2. Equipment .14 S~c. in which the motor.18 Circuit. 2.i~chgcar general term covering switching devices and their combination with associated control.A totally enclosed structure.Either fixed equipment or equipment not provided with a carrying handle and having such a mass that it cannot easily be moved.12 Transformer .A piece of apparatus.2.2.5 Stationary Equipment . measuring instruments.2.Transformer . also assemblies of such devices and equipment with associated inter-connections.A transformer in which the primary and secondary windings have common part or parts.2.A mechanical switching device capable of making.10 Motor Generator Set . 2. conversion. heat or motive power. 2. usually cylindrical.T h e part of the fuse including the fuse-element which requires replacement by a new fuse-link after the fuse has operated and before the fuse can be put back to service. a gauge piece and a fuse-link.2. with fuses.Equipment intended to convert electrical energy into another form of energy.2.20 Enclosed Distribution Fuse-Board .24 D.A switching device that by the melting of one or more of its specially designed and proportioned components. NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 2. wiring material and appliances. 2 2 F u s e . distribution and conversion of electric energy. 2 .Portable 2.6 Fixed Equipmenr . A antI Conlro~~eur 2. 2. 2.A non-interchangeable fuse comprising a fuse-base a screw type fuse-.26 Interconnecting Bus-Bar .2.2. without continuously moving parts.2.A fuse-link having a totally enclosed container.Na7W2 ~~ For the purposes of this Code..A machine for converting electrical energy into mechanical energy. 2.2 Current Using Equipmenr . 2.2. 2. protective devices.An enclosure containing bus-bars. Controlgears are switching devices intended in principle for the control of electrical energy consuming equipment. 2. which by electromagnetic induction transforms variable voltage and current in one or more other windings usually at different values of voltage and current and at the same frequency.2.2. 2.16 Switch-Fuse-A switch in which one or more poles have a fuse in series in a composite unit.An alternating current motor without a commutator in which one part only. transformers.19 Fuse.9 I n d u c t i o n M o t o r . for example. used for external connection between &rminals ‘of equipment.2.A machine which consists of an electric motor mechanically coupled to a generator.‘cubicle containing bus-bars connected to incoming and outgoing distribution feeders controlled through links/fuses.. is connected to the supply network.2.A switch in which a fuselink or a fuse-carrier with fuse-link forms the moving contact of the switch. 2. controlling or connecting more than one outgoing circuit fed from one or more incoming circuits.L i n k .A machine for converting mechanical energy into electrical energy.25 Distribution Pillar . carrying and breaking currents under normal circuit conditions and also making.23 Miniature Circuit. 2.4 Hand. the rotor or a stator. 2.2. measuring.15 Switch (Mechanicat) .7 Generator . 2.2.A conductor other than cable. apparatus. for the purposes of protecting.17 Fuse-Switch . protective and regulating equipment. opens a circuit in which it is inserted and’ breaks the current when this exceeds a given value for a sufficient time.2. if any. light.11 Auto.A device designed to produce sudden predetermined changes in one or more phjvsical systems on the appearance of certain conditions in the phJsica/ system controlling it. 2. forms an integral part of the equipment. the shape of which varies according to the type of the fuse.3 Portable Equipment . carrying and breaking currents under normal circuit conditions which may include specified operating overload conditions and also carrying for a specified time currents under specified abnormal circuit conditions such as those of a short-circuit.Breaker ( Mechanic*al) -~~ A mechanical switching device capable of making. 2.2.21 Carrridge Fuse-Link . . distribution or utilization of electrical energy such as machines.ljpe Fuse .

3. duct or groove or.serving as a mechanical protection. appliances and fittings in which conductors are used for of which they m a y form a part.3. which is designed to melt and thus open the circuit.2. and Weatherproof neutral-screened cable. Sub . which are laid up together. 2.3.3 Wiring Practice 2. for example. 2. 3 . Insulated .3.28 Fuse-Element (Fuse.10 Cleat . a fuse.21 Distribution Fuse. 2.A cable provided with a wrapping of metal (usually in the form of tape or wire).A conductor not covered with insulating material.For the maximum diameter and minimum number of wires for flexible cord. 2.3.7 Cable.A box forming a part of wiring installation provided to contain joints in the conductors of cables of the installation. Bare . Final. the diameters of the cores and of the wires being sufficiently small to afford flexibility.2. fusible cut-out.3. N OTE . It includes all branches and extensions derived from that particular way in the board. 2. The fuse-base comprises all the parts necessary for insulation.Any conductor which is supported by insulators above the ground and is directly exposed to the weather.8 Circuit .An outgoing circuit connected to one-way distribution fuse-board and intended to supply electrical energy at one or more points to current-using appliances.2. Earthed . 2.30 Fuse-Carrier-The movable part of a fuse designed to carry a fuse-link. for example. a lampholder. Flexible -A cable containing one -:-or more cores. P A R T I C.Cables are said to be ‘bunched’ when two or more are contained within a single conduit. Covered aerial conductors. if not enclosed.17 Cord.A length of single-insulated conductor (solid or stranded). 2.JN”RAl. 2. or a ceiling rose.3. AND COMMON ASPECTS . The term ‘lightning arrester’ includes any external series gap which is essential for the proper functioning of the device as installed for service. 2.Any device. 4 B u n c h e d . SCP relevant standard.A combination of a plug and socket arranged for attachment to a portable electrical appliance or to a flexible cord.11 Conductor. 2.An insulated incombustible support normally used for insulated cable.19 Dead . a switch.14 Connector Box or Joint Box.Four classes of aerial conductors are recognized: a) b) c) d) Bare aerial conductors. without the intervention of a further distribution fuseboard other than a one-way board.1 Accessory .Board .3. 2.A system of earthmg in which the parts of an installation are so earthed as specified but are not connected within the installation to the neutral conductor of the supply system or to earth through the trip coil of an earth leakage circuit-breaker.2.The fixed part of a fuse provided with terminals for connection to the system. e a c h p r o v i d e d w i t h i t s o w n insulation. a plug.A device designed to protect electrical apparatus from high transient voltage and to limit the duration and frequently the amplitude of followcurrent.That part of a rewirable fuse. or (Ho or more such conductors.18 GUI-0~ Any appliance for automatically interrupting the transmission of energy through any conductor when the current rises above a predetermined amount.13 Conductor.29 Fuse-Base.12 Conductor.3. Insulated aerial conductors.9 Circuit. The fuse-carrier does not include any fuse-link.A flexible cable having conductor of small cross-sectional area. 7 2 .An arrangement of conductor or conductors for the purpose of conveying energy and forming a system or a branch of a system.3. a socket-outlet.3. 2.2.The ends of the electrical conductors situated upon any consumer’s premises and belonging to him at which the supply of energy is delivered from the service line.3. 2.3.At or about earth potential and/or disconnected from any live system. A r m o u r e d .31 Lightning Arrester (Surge Diverter) .A conductor with no provision for its insulation from earth.2 Apparatus -.A conductor adequately covered with insulating material of such quality and thickness as to prevent danger. 2. 2.3.Electrical apparatus including all machines.3 Aerial Conductor .3. each formed of a group of wires.15 Conductor for Portable Appliankes . 2.16 Consumer’s Terminals . 2. 2. are not separated from each other.3.Wire in Rehirable Fuse). regardless of whether or not it is supplied as an integral part of the device.6 &ble. 2. 2.2.35 Cable .20 Direct Earthing System . associated with the wiring and electrical appliance of an installation. 23. 2. Fkxible .3. Two flexible cords twisted together are known as ‘Twin Flexible Cord’ NOTE . 2.27 Bimetallic Connector .A connector dedgned for the purpose of connecting together two or more conductors of different materials (normally copper and aluminium) for preventing electrolytic corrosion. The insulated conductor or conductors may or may not be provided with an overall mechanical protective covering.An assemblage of parts including one or more fuses arranged for the distribution of electrical energy to final sub-circuits.3. 2.

3 3 Point-A point shall consist of the branch wiring from the branch distribution board. or reflector.24 Earth Electrode-A metal plate. switch. Lighting . a single-phase or dc installation which is earthed by the supply undertaking (or otherwise at the source of the supply). resistance or impedance in the earth connection. a pendant with ceiling rose.A device consisting of two portions for easily connecting portable lighting fittings and other current-using appliances to the supply.3.outlet or suitable termination. 2. in the open position it provides an isolating distance between the terminals of each pole. 2. circuit-breaker. etc. A three-pin socket-outlet point shall include. 2. 2.3.3. in addSon.40 Voltage. connecting to the earthing lead or to each other those parts of an installation which are required to be earthed. fluorescent or incandescent) together with any holder. conductors and 2.37 Voltage. specified.22 Earth --A connection to the general mass of earth by means of an earth electrode.3. 2.3. Medium .4 Miscellaneous Terms 2.A system of earthing in which the parts of an installation.3. 2.The voltage which normally exceeds 650 volts (but less than 33 kV).2.37 to 2.3. 2.25 Earthing Lead . b) Of an appliance . part of a building or anything affixed thereto or any wall enclosing or intended to enclose any land or space and signs and outdoor display structures. Extra.31 Multiple Earthed Neutral System .3.An assemblage of switchgear with or without instruments but the term does not apply to a group of local switches or a final sub-circuit where each switch has its own insulating base.39 Volrage.Any structure for whatsoever purpose and of whatsoever materials constructed and every part thereof whether used as human habitation or not and includes foundation. 2. An object is said to be ‘earthed’ when it is electrically connected to an earth electrude.34 Service -.An appliance having accessible metal part is doubly insulated when protective insulation is provided in addition to the normal functional insulation. 2.The voltage which does not normally exceed 250 volts. the conductor of. are connected within the installation to the neutral conductor of the supply system. fixed platforms.1 Building . chimneys.3. 2 .T h e equipment required for delivering energy from the electric supply system to the wiring system of the premises served. floors.27 Flammable . plinth. cornice or projection.23 Earth Continuity Conductor -The conductor.The voltage exceeding 33 kV under normal conditions. as far as and including the ceiling rose or socket. 3 .36 S w i t c h b o a r d . the connecting wire or cable from the earth pm to the earth stud of the branch distribution board. 2. an electrolier.‘solidly earthed’ when it is electrically connected to earth electrode without a fuse.40 are based on the provisions of IE Rules. 2. be noted that voltage ranges as defined internationally are at variance with the above definitions. 2. pipe or other conductor electrically connected to the general mass of the earth.The final conductor by which the connection to the earth electrode is made.3.4.The voltage which normally exceeds 250 volts but does not exceed 650 volts. or a portable unit.A conductor is said to have double insulation when insulating material intervenes not only between the conductor and its surrounding envelope (if a cable) or immediate suport (if bare). 2. for example.3.A material capable of being easily ignited. together with a switch as required.3. 2.32 Neutral or Neutral Conductor Includes the neutral conductor of a three-phase 8 .3. walls.3. N O T E-The definitions given in 2.High . tarpaulin shelters. erected for temporary and ceremonial occasions with the permission of the Authority shall not be considered as building. in order to protect against electric shock in case of breakdown of the functional insulation.3.29 Insulation Double Of a conductor .3. and the middle wire or common return conductor of a three-wire dc or single-phase ac system.A device used to open (or close) a circuit when either negligible current is interrupted (or established) or when the significant change in the voltage across the terminals of each of the pole of the disconnector occurs. shade. but also between the envelope or support and earth.3. balcony. plumbing and building services.30 Live or Alive-Electrically charged so as to have a potential difference from that of earth. verandah. roofs. It may however. four-wire system. SHAMIA NA HS. 2.28 Disconnector . High .26 Fitting. including any clamp. 2. to be earthed are connected to the general mass of earth and. The socket-outlet is designed as a fixed member and the plug portion carries multiple metal contacts which connect with corresponding metal contacts in socket portion.A device for supporting or containing a lamp or lamps (for example. NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 2. Tents. in addition. and a conductor is said to be . Low .3.35 Socket-Outlet and Plug .3.313 Voltage. a bracket.3.

A tariff applicab!: to electricity supplies taken mainly for lighting and other small appliances.14 Supply Terminals-The point at which a consumer received energy. protection against direct contact.4. kWh to kVAh consumed during the specified period. N CTE .4.5 Clearance -The distance between two conducting parts along a string ~ stretched the shortest way between these conducting parts. for the purposes of classification of a building according to occupancy. according to the characteristics of the supply.A line for connecting a current consuming installation to the distribution network.18 Demand .The ratio.2.4.4.A tariff applicable particularly or exclusively to domestic consumers. 2. 2.1 Simultn~eousl~~ A c c e s s i b l e P a r t s Conductors or conduciiveb parts that can be touched Bsimultaneously by a person or where applicable by livestock. of the energy consumption within a specified period (year.9 Enclosure .The magnitude of electricity supply.4. expressed in kW or kVA.An amount to be paid for a specified period for metering. 2. to zero.4.4.3 Room Height-The vertical distance measured from the finished floor surface to the finished ceiling surface. 2. 9 . for example.A statement setting.A part providing protection of equipment against certain external influences and. out the components to be taken into account and the methods to be employed in calculating the amounts to be charged by the supply/distribution undertaking to the consumer.17 Consumer or.4. -extraneous conductive parts.The party supplying electricity to consumers entirely from extrernal sources of power via a distribution network.27 Heating Tar$f . R&e)-.The amount to be paid per unit of energy (kWh) consumed. 2.4.15 Service Line.25 ‘Industrial Tariff .24 Domestic Tariff .A tariff applicable exclusively to industrial consumers. Service .4. Ideally it appioximates a double exponential form. 2. N OTE -The power factor is generally measured by the ratio of. and -earth electrodes.20 C o n n e c t e d L o a d .4. in any direction. expressed as a numerical value or as a percentage. 2. -exposed conductive parts. generally more slowly.22 Meter Rent .21 Kilowatthour Rate (kWh .28 Power Factor Clause .4. N OTE -This current may have a capacitive c o m p o n e n t including that resulting from the deliberate use of capacitors.A part providing protection against direct contact from any usual direction Of access.Usually an aperiodic transient voltage or current which rises rapidly to a peak value and then falls.4. 2. 2.A . 2.A tariff applicable to electricity supplies taken for space heating or for thermal applications or for both. the underside of the joints or beams or tie beams shall determine the upper point of measurement ‘for determining the head robm.A clause setting out increase in charges to be applied if the ratio of the kWh to kVAh consumed by a consumer during a specified period below a set limit. 2.26 Lighting TariJf . 2.12 Leakage Current (in an Installation) ~~~ A current which flows to earth or to extraneous conductive parts in a circuit in the absence of a fault.29 Load Factor . 2.4. 2. 2. 2.4. 2. Customer-The party who receives electricity from the supply or distribution undei-taking for his own needs or for further distribution.4.4. 2.2 Occupancy or Use Group-The principal occupancy for which a building or a part of a building is used or intended to be used.4. 2. Where a finished ceiling is not provided. 2.4. an occupancy shall be deemed to include the subsidiary occupancies which are contingent upon it. Other forms are sometimes’used for special purposes.4 Impulse . PART I GENERAL AND COMMON ASPECTS 2.16 Distribution Undertaking .T h e part of the installed load of consumer supplied by the supply undertaking. fans and radios.A zone extending from any point on a surface where persons usually stand or move about to the limits which a person can reach with the hand in any direction without assistance.11 Obstacle .6 Creepage distance between two conducting parts along the surface of the insulating material or along the joint of two insulatihg bodies.4.23 Tari$f .4.13 Nominal Voltage (of an Installation) Voltage by which an installatio or part of an installation is designated.Simultaneously accessible parts may be: -live parts. 2. 2. 2.4.part preventing unintentional direct contact.4.4. 2.4.8 Arm’s Reach’. 2. and associated equipment installed.4. -protective conductors. but not preventing dehberate action. 2. the same clause may provide for a decrease in charges in the opposite case.4. N O T E-The actual voltage may differ from the nominal voltage by a quantity within permitted tolerances.4.10 Barrier .19 Instailed Load-The sum of the rated inputs of the electrical apparatus installed on the consumer’s premises.The. shortest Distance .

Section I General terms IS : I885 (Part 5 I Set 2)-1979 I n d u s t r i a l electro-heating.Other Parts/Sections of the IS : 1885 series cover terminology relating to the field of electronics and telecommunications.month.1980 Mica (superseding 1s : 1174) IS : 1885 (Part 54)-1980 Insulators IS : 1885 (Part 55)-1981 Electric fans N O T E .I979 Switchgear and controlgear (/irst revision) IS : 1885 (Part 27)-1969 Static power convertors IS : 1885 (Part 28)-1972 I n s t r u m e n t t r a n s formers IS : 1885 (Part 29)-1971 Mining terms I S : 1885 (Part 30)-1971 O v e r h e a d . etc) to the energy consumption that would result from continuous use of the maximum kW demand occurring within the same period. day. Section I General aspects IS : 1 8 8 5 ‘ ( P a r t I6/Sec 2)-1968 L i g h t i n g . t r a n s mission and distribution of electrical energy IS : 1 8 8 5 ( P a r t 32)-1972 Cables. conductars and accessories for electricity supply IS : 1885 (Part 34)-1972 Cinematography IS : 1885 (Part 35)-1973 Rotating machinery IS :. NOTE -The load factor for a given demand is also equal to thelratio of the utilization time to the time in hours within the same period.sion) IS : 1885 (Part 42)-1977 Power capacitors IS : 1885 (Part 43)-1977 E l e c t r i c a l e q u i p ment used in medical practice IS : 1885 (Part 49)1978 I n d u s t r i a l p r o c e s s measurement and control 1s : 1885 ( P a r t 5I1Sec I)-1979 I n d u s t r i a l electro-heating. 10 NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE . L I S T O F I N D I A N S T A N D A R D S O N ELECTROTECHNICAL VOCABULARY IS : 1885 Electrotechnical vocabulary: IS : 1885 (Part I)-1961 Fundamental definitions IS : 1885 (Part 8)-1965 Secondary cells and batteries IS : 1885 (Part 9)-1966 Electrical relays IS : 1885 (Part IO)-1968 Electrical power system protection IS : 1885 (Part I I)-1966 Electrical measurements IS : 1885 (Part l4)-1967 Nuclear power plants IS : 1885 (Part l5)-1967 Primary cells and batteries I S : 1 8 8 5 ( P a r t 16/Set I)-1968 L i g h t i n g . Section 2 General illumination lighting fittings and lighting for traffic and signalling IS : 1885 * ( P a r t l6/ Set 3)-1967 L i g h t i n g . 3. Section 3 Lamps and auxiliary apparatus IS : I885 (Part I 7). 1885 (Part 37)-1974 Tariffs for electricity IS : l&5 (Part 3X)-1977 Transformers (&r’s/ re\ri. Section 2 Resistance heating IS : I885 (Part 53).

the following Indian Standards could be referred to: IS : 3722 Letter Symbols and Signs used in Electrical Technology ( P a r t I)-1983 G e n e r a l G u i d e l i n e s o n symbols and subscripts. 2 Conductors.3 Neutral N 2.1 2.12 Terminals -5OHz PART I GENERAL AND COMMON ASPECTS 0 .6 Direct Current.0 For the purposes of the Code. 415 V. SCOPE 1.1.11 Winding.1 The purpose of the Section of the Code is :o summarize a list of graphical symbols which are to be used for installation diagrams.1 A Positive Polaritj~ + 2. 50 Hz 0. 2. 50 Hz 2. Delta Direct Current A 2.1. 110 V 2 Neutral.1. letter symbols and signs. 3wf. They represent a consensus of opinion in the discipline and are recommended for direct adoption. 0. For further details.7 Dirwt Current.1.5 Negatilv Polarity 2. GRAPHICAL SYMBOLS 2.1. LETTER SYMBOLS AND SIGNS 0. OHz. the graphical symbols given below shall apply. Star a) Alternating Current.1. Three-Phase. Single-Phase.8 Underground Cable 220v 2. Considerable amount of standardization had been achieved in the field of symbols for electrotechnology that it is now possible to device electrical network schematics using them so that these schematic diagrams could be uniformly understood by all converned.15 ” c) Alternating Current. 0.1 Fundamental Symbols 2. I . For additional symbols in the subject reference should be made to IS : 2032 (series) on graphical symbols used in electrotechnology.2 Alternating current.SECTION 3 GRAPHICAL SYMBOLS FOR DIAGRAMS. FOREWORD b) Alternating Current. 1.1. Three-Phase with neutral.1. 3 Conductors including 2N 2.9 Overhead Line 2.1.2 The symbols contained in this Section of the Code have been drawn up by individual expert groups under the Electrotechnical Division Council. (Part 2)-1983 Reference Tables for symbols and subscripts.1 This Section of the Code covers graphical symbols for diagrams. 50 Hz 3Nw50Hz 2. General Symbol 2.1.10 Winding.3 It has also been felt essential for the purposes of this Section to draw the attention of practising engineers to standardized letter symbols and signs. N O T E-A list of Indian Standards on graphical symbols used in electrotechnology relevant to the Code is given in 3. 220 V 110 v 2.

4 Synchronous Motor 0 MS 2.2.3 Motor k# 2.2.1.2.1.2 Generator 0 G AC generator $2.6 Induction Motor.5 Mechanically Coupled Machines 2.2.8 Auto.14 Impedance * 2.1 Flexible Conductor 2.m Earth - i t Induction Motor with Wound Rotor li 2.Transformer 2.17 Capacitance.2.1.9 II-Phase Transformer with Three Separate Windings-Star-Star-Delta 0 G DC generator G 0 I2 NATIONAL ELECI-RICAL CORE .19 Fault Windings 2. Variable Resistor 2.15 Inductance.1. Capacitor 2.1 r16 Winding LF_ 0 M 2.2.2 Equippent 2.1.7 Transformers with Two Separate 0 0 M 8 2. Squirrel Cage 2.2. Resistor.13 Resistance.1.2. Inductor + 2. Three-Phase.2.

2.z.2.20 Signal Lamp rl A 2.10 Starter 2.18 Isolator 2.Line Starter for Reversing 2.2.Transformer Starter 2. Cubicle Box.12 Star-Delta Starter 2.2.2.2.2.21 Link 2. Main Fuse Board with Switches 2.24 Plug 2.23 Socket Outlet.2.17 Circuit-Breaker PART 1 GENERAL AND COMMON ASPECTS 13 .2. SA.2.19 Fuse 2.22 Distribution Board.2.2.on.14 Rheostatic Starter 2. YoR (4 Socket Outlet.13 Auto.2.2. 1SA A n 2.16 Contactor 2.2.15 Snitch 1 t 2.11 LX.2.

36 Master Clock L 0 W 2.34 Watthour Meter 0 V 2.39 Wiring on the Swface 2.2.33 Integrating Meter X 2.30 Ohmmeter 0 EI L coscp 2.2.41 Lamp cl 2.2.27 Wattmeter 0 2.29 Power Factor Meter 2.2.2.2.2.26 Ammeter tl Wh 2.2.28 Varmeter VCN 0 2.32 Recording Instrument (general symbol) 0 2.2.2.37 Current Transformer 0 2.25 Voltmeter 2.2.31 Indicating Instrument (general symbol) 0 2.2.38 Voltage Tran$ormer LJJ M 2.2.40 Wiring in Conduit R 0 2.2.2.2.35 Clock 0 A 2.2.2.2.42 Lamp Mounted on a Ceiling NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE .

IST O F I N D I A N S T A N D A R D S GRAPHICAL SYMBOLS ON IS : 2032 Graphical symbols used in elcctrotechnology: IS : 2032 (Part 2)-I962 Kind of current distribution system and methods of connection IS : 2032 (Part 3)-1962 Circuit elements and variability IS : 2032 (Part 4)-1964 Rotating machines and transformers IS : 2032 (Part 5)-I965 Generating stations and sub-stations IS : 2032 (Part 6)-1965 Motor starters IS : 2032 (Part 7)-1974 Switchgear and auxiliaries (first revision) IS PART I CENERAI.2.51 Exhaust Fan II I cl 0 0 3 .43 Emergency Lamp 2.2.48 Bell A 2.2.2.pe Water Heaters 2.2.54 Radio Recviling Set I III2.2.44 spot Light X c = 2.2.? Operated Fire Alarm 2.2.2.41 S t o r a g e T.55 Television Receiving Srt 2.2.2.45 Flood Light 2.56 ManualI. 1.53 Aerial C\ 2.57 Automatic Fire Detector Sh?tch R 2.2.2.52 Fan Regulay 2.46 Heater XY 2.2.2. AND COMMON ASPECTS .49 Buzzer 2.50 Ceiling Fan 2.2.

1 Symbols and Subscripts 4.KY . and guidance on the use of subscripts are covered in IS : 3722 (Part I)-l983* Ready reference tables for symbols and subscripts are contained in IS : 3722 (Part 2)1983*.EC’TRI(‘AI. angle (plane angle) 2. the letter symbols and .rca stcradian met re met rc mcl rc met rc mcl rc met rc mcI rc \qu. m m m m m m \otumc tlmc cuhlc mc. names of quantities and of constants and subscripts referred to frequently is given in 4. a list of symbols.0 General technology cover in addition to electricity and magnetism. 4.. In order to enable uniform understanding of t.c WYontl Olhcr unit\ iirc mlnutc . radial d8. (1) NAMt Ok I R EF E RE N C E GABLE c FOR wmoLs AND S U B S C R I P T S SI UN I T h QI. X.111 Table I gives a reference likt of symbols and subscripts used in electrotechnology. representation of vector quantities. numerical values. CODE .. geometry. l L.E Ilk>! No.0.n ships 4. II wlld angle length breadth hclpht.1.S AND SIGNS 4.L’ rnc. dynamics and thermodynamics.c 5. For the purposes of this Code. 3 4. 6 7.2 Guidance on the choice of alphabet and their type. IO. other subjects such as radiation and light.a140 gl\cn a\ hiloponc (hp) I6 \ ‘L\TIONAI. C!ClC wcond per Ihc WI m kIlogramVorcc (kgl’) t’or Height i s .. Several disciplines interact with TABI.. IS : 3722 (Part I)-l983* and IS : 3722 (Part 2)-1983*. the result that terminolo y used’in one disci line becomes clc~sely interre ?ated with that o P the other. Part 2 Rcfcrcncc lables for symbols and subscripts. 4.IS : 2032 (Part IO)-1969 Measuring instruments IS : 2032 (Part I I)-1970 Electrical installations in buildings IS : 2032 (Part IS)-1976 Aircraft electrical symbols IS : 2032 (Part l8)-1976’Symbolsand connection diagrams for integrating meters Es : 2032 (Part 19)-1977 Electrical equipment used in medical practice IS : 2032 (Part 21)-1977. kinematics.ANTII\ (2) Naie (4) radian Symbol ’ (5) rad Other units are degree minute and second I. LETTER SYMB0I.imcrcr ua\clcn~lh arc. 12. \urt. synibols of units. 5. EI.signs used in abbreviatibns for denoting quantltles.1 Quantities and units used in electro- 4.0...Ind haul ‘. tr/ kg AlbO. thtir functions and units shall contorm to those recommended in. Electric welding equipment IS : 2 0 3 2 ( P a r t 22)-1978 Irlstrument t r a n s formers IS : 2032 (Part 23)-1978 Instruments for process measurement and control IS : 2032 (Part 25)-1980 Electrical installations . 9.eltcr symbols and signs used in Electrotcchnology: Parr I General guidance on symbols and subscripts.. dcprh Ihlchnc\\ I-adlu\.he meamng they represent.

29. 31. tension. 48. 46. 33. 36. IS. (2) density (mass density) force torque pressure (3) P F T P (4) kilogram. 49. 35. 43. 37. 42. per cubic IlwR ‘hewton newton metrc newton per squaremetre (Pascal) joule jouk watt N N. 24. Q s A tl N tt K PART I GENERAL AND COMMON ASPECTS 17 .TRUE I REFERENCE TABLE FOR SYMROLS AND SU~RIPTS-Conrd ITEM No. 39. rn’ Wb n fI. work energy power efficiency thermodynamic temperature. 23. 17.. absolute temperature temperature (Celsius) W E P r) T J J W Also expressed in percent kelvin K 25. 32. 21. 38. I a V u E CL c I J e R P G Y Z X 6 P degree Celsius I per kelvin volt volt volt coulomb farad ampere ampere per square mctrc webcr ohm ohm mctre siemens sicmcns per metre ohm ohm radian watt var voltampere OC K“ V V V C F A A. 26. 45. 41. voltage electromotive force electric flux capacitance (electric) current current density magnetic flux r&tancc rcsistivity conductance conductivity impedance reactance loss angle active power reactive power apparent power power factor dissipation factor number of lurns In a winding turns ratio transformation ratio of an instrument transformer 34. 40. 27. 22.m Pa (6) 20. 44.m s S/m R n rad W var VA Temperature Interval of )K ::xzY (clccrric) potential potential difference. 30. 19. 28. OF @hW’lTlTY NAME CHIEF REMARKS (1) 16. 47.

luminous intensity 55. illuminance. ELECTRICAl.For alternatiw symbols and other units of designation. number of phases 53. E candela per square metre lux cd Im cd rn’ Ix NOTE I . St UNIT A NO. . Ill NATIONAI.we IS without the unit symbol. luminous flux 56. luminance 57. transformation ratio of a current lranbformer 52. ‘Letter symbols and signs used in Electrotechnology : 3722 (Part 2)-19X3* NOTE 2 .TABLE I REFERENCE TABLE FOR SYMBOLS AND SURSf?RIPTS-Conrd ITEM N AME OF CHIEF SYMIWI. illumination I I I candela lumen 1. (1) Q U A NT I T Y (2) (3) K Name (4) Symbol (5) I \ REMAUKS (6) 50. (‘ODE . number of pairs of poles 54. the corresponding quantity IS numeric and its value is written as a number : Part 2 Reference tables for symbols and subscripts. transformation ratio of a voltage transformer 51.Wherever symbol for the unit is I.

FOREWORD 0. AND MARKING O.Explanatory diagrams are intended to facilitate the study and understanding of the functioning of an installation or equipment. I Erplottator~~~ Diagrams .3. 0 .3 Wiring Diagrams or Wiring Tables Wiring diagrams are intended to guide the making and checking of the connection of an installation or equipment.D i a g r a m representing all connections within a unit of an installation. 0. 2 . block symbols or pictures without necessarily showing all the connections.2 This Section of the Code covers general guidelines on the subject. 2.1.1.1 Classification According to Purpose 2.1977 General requirements for diagrams (Part 4)-1977 Circuit diagram (Part 5)-1976 Interconnection diagrams and tables 0. Charrs . The contents of this Section are based primarily on the following publications: IS : 8270 Guide for the preparation of diagrams.3. and d) location diagrams or tables. CHARTS AND TABLES.6. 2 Char1 . charts and tables. such as terminal blocks and the wiring between them. I.1 Diagram -~ A diagram may show the manner in which the various parts of a network. Three types are defined below: a) Blocli diagram .0.1.1. It is a diagram in which an installation or equipment together with its functional interrelationships are represented by symbols. For an equipment.0.2 Explanaktry~ Tables Explanatory charts or tables arz’ intended to facilitate the study of diagrams and to give additional information. l-he) provide for a common basis f o r understanding and identifying conductors and tipparatus terminal\: but more important.1 Unit H.I This Section of the Code covers guidelines for preparation of diagrams. 2.1. b) explanatory charts or tables. installation. c) operations and physical quantities.gives the successive operation in a specified order.iring d i a g r a m .Special typ of circuit diagram for the analysis and calculation of circuit characteristics.0 General 2. Two examples are given below: a) S e q u e n c e chart or rahle . 2. The diagrams may sometimes show the layout of the different parts and accessories. It is therefore necessary to define the different types of diagrams.A c h a r t m a y s h o w t h e interrelation between: a) different operations. their purposes and -format and the guiding principles for preparing them for the sake of uniformity. charts and tables for electrotechnology : I)-1976 Definitions and classi(Part fication (Part 2)-1976 Item designation (Part 3).1. b) Circuit diagram .A table replaces or supplements a diagram or a chart.Diagram representing the connections between the different units of an installation. 2.1 Various types of diagrams and charts are required to be prepared during the planning and execution stages of an electrical installation work. b) operations and time. PREPARATION OF DIAGRAMS. charts and tables in electrotechnology and for marking of conductors. Table I of the Section are in line with the guidelines accepted internationally on such matters. c) wiring diagrams or wiring tables. maintenance personnel. and b) Time seywnce charr or rahk .CHARTS AND TABLES 2. PART I GENERAL AND COMMON ASPECTS 2.2 Inrerconnection diagram . cl Equi\~alenr circuir diagram .Explanatory diagram intended to facilitate the understanding of the functioning in detail.SECTION 4 GUIDE FOR PREPARATION OF DIAGRAMS.3 Tab/e . 2. 2. and d) the states of several items. ensure safety to operating. group 01 apparatus or items of an apparatus are interrelated and or interconnected. SCOPE 1 . It shows by sypbols an installation or part of an installation and the electrical connections and other links concerned with its operation. they show the inteknal or external connections or both.is one which in addition takes account of the time intervals between successive operations. 19 .3 The guidelines for marking of conductors gicen in 2.0 The main classifications are: a) explanatory diagrams.Relatively simple diagram to facilitate the understanding of the principle of operation. 2.

1 The method of representation is distinguished bv: a) The number of conductors. T h e f o l l o w i n g arc e x a m p l e s w h e r e topographical representation may bc used: a) Wiring diagrams. The same drawing may form both an explanator) and wiring diagram. 2.raphwal symbols u s e d i n clectrotcchnolog! ( P a r t \ to ‘25). a single line may represent: I) circuits of a multiphase system. 2.According to the number of conductors. unit. ELECTRICAl. 4) circuits which follow the same physical route.2.2 An item designation may be used fol general or special ptirposes depending on the kind o f i n f o r m a t i o n r e q u i r e d .1.2.2. sub-assemblies. b) Multi-line representation . NATIOSAI.Lclines o n assignment of item designation.cparated a n d arranged in such a uay that the circuits ma!’ easily be followed. $(. modules.Each conductor is represented by an individual line.Diagram showing the terminals and the internal and/or external conductors connected to them. forming a mixed diagram.4 General Rules for Diagrams 2.T h e 2.4. which is represented by a graphical symbol on a diagram.2.1.2 of IS : 8270 (Part 2):l976* 2. b) Semi-assembled representation -~~ The symbols for the different parts of an item of apparatus or of an installation are separated and arranged in such a way that the symbols for mechanical linkages between the parts which work together may be drawn easily.1. the methods of representation are given below: a) Assembled representatiorr -.1. and with the topographical layout of the devices (see 2. Any of the wiring diagrams may be replaced or NOI I aupplcmcnted by a table. 2. This designation correlates the Item on different diagrams. devices Or elements represented by a single symbol (see 2.1. etc. and c) Network diagrams.1 Paper sizes_ for drawings shall preferabl! be according to the international A-series (XV IS : 1064-196lt).3). groups together with standard letter codes for the same are covered in IS : 8270 (Part 2)-l976* 2. a n d tahle~ lor electrotcchnolog! Part 2 Item de\lgnation. b) Architectural diagrams. chart.sical) location of items represented.33 Terminal diagram .1). 2) circuits which have a similar electrical function. circuit descriptions and in the equipment.Two or more conductors are represented by a sirigle line.3 Item Designation 2.2. repwserttatiort . different kinds of symbols as well as symbols of different forms are shown. terminal blocks.A c c o r d i n g to the arrangement of the symbols representing the elements or parts of an item of apparatus on 20 . The item designation is shown at an appropriate place near the graphical symbol of the item. It shows the item designations used in related diagrams and tabler. NOI ISe\crtil of the\e method\ of repruentatlon used on the umc dugwm. 2. +SpeclCwatlon ior paprr \IICS.1 Item is a term used for component. plant.1. rhe diagram. for example. N OTE I -A location diagram need not necessarily be to scale. or partly to the topographical (ph\. ma! he b) the arrangement of the symbols representing the elements or parts of an item of apparatus (for example.1. detached o r assembled) (see 2.2 Arrangemen/ c$ swlbols . 3) circuits or conductors which belong to the same signal path.2. Cu. In particular.2. 2.2 Classification According to Method Representation Of 2. CODt.The symbols for the different parts of an item of apparatus or of an installation or equipment are drawn in close proximity on the diagram. plug-in units.3. *GUI& Ior preparation 01 dugram\. cl the placing of the symbols to correspond 2. etc. Several similar items of apparatus may accordingly be represented by a single symbol.2 In IS : 2032:.1. parts list. c) Dctachecl r~~pre:8erltatiorl The symbols for the different parts of an item of apparatus or of an installation are :.A location diagram or table contains detailed information about the location of parts of the equipment.4 Localion D i a g r a m s o r T a b l e s .3 Topo~yraphic~al p o s i t i o n s o f t h e 5)mbols o n t h e d i a g r a m correspond wholly.4.3.2. N OTE 2 -Several typer of diagrams may be combined Intlo a single diagram.1 Number of conducrors . devices or elements represented by a single symbol. equipment. The choice of drawing sizes should be decided after taking into account the necessary factors enumerated in 2. the two methods of representation as given below may be distinguished: a) Single-line representation -. and 5) conductor symbols which would follow the same route on the diagram.2).

.6. the provisions of Table I below shall apply for the general application of marking conductors in installation.5. 2. They are used as ari aid in the fabrication of wiring and for maintenance purposes.6.0. 2.idc a.6.2 according to the system.0. electroteclln~~lop~: *Guide lor preparatton of dlagramb. the neutral shall occupy an outer position.All the powbre examples are also not covered there. .3 Specific guidelines on the application of IS : 2032 from the point of view df choice of alternative symbols. the red shall be on the top or on the left or farthest away is viewed from the front. 2.5.6 Marking and Arrangement of Conductors 2.6. Reference is -also drawn to the provisions contained in relevant Indian Standard.0 Bus-bars and main connections which are substantially in one plane shall be arranged in the order given in either 2. the order shall be red.6. the red shall be on the top or on the left or farthest away as viewed from th’e front. the red shall be on the left or farthest away as viewed from the front. 2.2.3 Guidance on layout. orientation of symbols and met:hods of indicating symbol location are ‘covered In IS : 8270 (Part ?)-1977* 2. equipment and apparatus.durposes of this code.2. Parr 5 lntcrconnwmn diagrams and tablea.6.1 AC . The rules also apply for marking conductors in assembies. and c) to use the chosen form consistently throughout the same set of documentation.2. Main marking is a system o f m a r k i n g charactcri7ing each conductor or group of conductors irrespective of their electrlcal function. Information on the internal connections of units are normally not provided but references to the appropriate circuit diagram [ SEC IS : 8270 (Part 4)-1977*1 may be provided. the neutral shall occupy the middle position. symbol sizes.41wernIs .5 Interconnection Diagrams and Tables 2.2. 2.2.4.1 or 2.1 l-he purpose of marking is to pro\. blue and black.6. b) When the run of the conductors is vertical.2 DC . 2. line thinkness.6.2 The diagrams may employ single or multiple representation and may be combined with or replaced by tables. b) to use a preferred form wherever possible. provided clarity is maintained. The relative order remains applicable even if any poles of the system are omitted. conductors Part 3 General requlrrmPnt\ for diagrams Par1 4 CIKUII diagrams. chart\ and table\ for c) When the system is 3-wire with the conductors in the same place. the red shall be on the left or farthest away as viewed from the front. the same place as the phase connections.vr.\rena -~ Ihe arrangement shall be as follows: When the run of the conducto-rs is horizontal.1 I d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f I n s u l a t e d a n d Bpre konducrors . yellow and blue: a) When the run of the conductors is horizontal. meanb whereby conductors can be id!xntified in a circuit and also after they hake been detached a main marking based on the electrical functiortof each conductor or group of conductors. identification and types of interconnection diagrams and tables are giveri in IS : 8270 (Part 5)-l97h* 2.2 The various methods of marking applicable to electrical installations and the equipment which form part of them are covered in IS : 5578-l970* 2.0 General 2.6. Supplementary marking is used as supplement to b) When the run of the conductors is vertical. C) When the system has a neutral connection in d) Unless the neutral connection can be readily distinguished from the phase connections.6. red. from the terminals to which they ar-e connected. yellow.2.5. *Guldc lor marktng of insulated PART I GENERAL AND COMMON ASPECTS 21 .2 Arrangement qf Conductors 2.The order of phase connection shall be.1 Interconnection diagrams and tables provide information on the external electrical connections between equipment in an installation.For the . The basic rules for the choice of symbols shall be: a) to use the simplest form of symbol adequate for the particular purpose. The latter are recommended when the number of interconnections is large. Any symbol may be composed using the guidanc:e from relevant Part of IS : 2032 and Section 3 Part I of the Code.

6. Noiseless (clean earth) TE Frame or chassis Equipotential Terminal MM CC NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE . GRAPHICAL SYMBOLS AND COLOURS (Clause 2. I) DE>IGNATION OF C ONDUCTORS I~JENTIFICATI~N w 1 A \ Colour (4) Red Yellow Blue Black Red Yellow Blue Black + Red Blue Black Red Black Alphanumeric Notation (2) Graphical Symbol (3) (1) Supply ac system Apparatus ac system Phase I Phase 2 Phase 3 Neutral I Positive Negative I Midwire Phase seutral I Phase I Phase 2 Phase 3 Neutral LI L2 L3 N U V W N L+ LM L N SUPPlY dc system Supply ac system (single phase) Protective Earth conductor PE E Green and Yellow No colour other than the colour of the bare conductor Under consideration.TABLE I ALPHANUMERIC NOTATION.

1.1 The International System of Units (Sl) have received worldwide acceptance and in’ every country legislation for their adoption either exists or is being introduced. 8 Wurf (unit of electric power) -~ T h e power which results in the production of energy at the rate of IJ.1. 1976. together with their expression in terms of other units.3 r~rot/ (unit of ctectric capacitance) capacitance of an electric capacitor having a difference of elect. 1 .2 The electrical units defined in 2. produces a current of one ampere in the conductor. 2. 2. 2 . Use of Sl Units in matters relating to electrical engineering practice has many advantages.1. 2. PART I GENERAL AND COMMON ASPECTS 23 . applied to thehc points. 1 A m p e r e (unit of electric current) A constant current which.2 ~‘cllilol. The 2.1. ITNITS AND SYSTEMS OF MEASUREMENT 2.The difference of electric potential which exists between two points of a conductor carrying a constant current of one ampere. maintained i n t w o parallel straight conductors of infinite Icngth. when the power dissipated between these points is one watt.SECTION 5 UNITS AND SYSTEMS OF MEASUREMENT 0. 2. 2.-ic potential of one LOII hct\+een 2 . composed of a single turn one volt if it is uniformly second. 2.1 Absolute Units 2 .1. 1 . 7 Weber (unit .5 Ohm (unit of electrical resistance) l-he electrical resistance between two points of a conductor when a constant potential difference of one volt.The inductance of a closed circuit in which an emf of one volt is produced when the current in the circuits varies at the uniform rate of one ampere per second. FOREWORD the plates. 1.4 Henry (unit of electric inductance) . of negligible circular CI-W\ section and placed at a distance of one mctrc apart In a v a c u u m will product a force ol 2 X IO ’ newton per metre length between the conductors. recommendations on the selection of their multiples and submultiple\ and supplementary remarks (if any) are enumerated in Table I.9 Siemens (unit of electric conductance) The conductance of a conductor of resistance I ohm and is numerically equal to I ohm-‘.1. provided no emf is generated in the conductor. 2.1. 1 . when it is charged with a quantit.2 This Section of the Code. Reference may therefore be necessary to IS : 10005-1980*. S C O P E 1. of electricity of one coulomb.ll~ The quantit! of elcctricitlj conveyed electricity) in one second by a current of o n e a m p e r e . 01 of quantlt\ (unit 2. It has been introduced in India under the Weights and Measures Act.‘s. is restricted to electrical units only.6 Volt (unit of electric potential difference atid emf) .10 Teslu (unit of magnetic flux density) The tesla is a magnetic flux density of I Wb/m’.1 This Section of the Code covers units and systems of measurement in electrotechnology. 0. magnetic flux) The linked with a circuit produces in it an emf of reduced to zero in one 0.of magnetic flux which.1. for reasons of brevity.

mpere watt (2) (3) A.4 c/v V/A NV V. MW. Itflm. nflm. .s“ s. mV. nC.A“ m’. kS/m MV/m. PH. mV/m.m.A-’ V Farad ohm siemens wcber tesla F n S Wb T H S/m V/m m’. nH/m pF/m.kg.s-‘. WA. rV/m rH/m. nA. k0. PH henry siemens/ mctrc volt/metre m3. W C - (4) EXPRESSION m TE R M S OF SI BASE Uhs (9 S ELECTION OF MIILTIPLES (6) m*.kg. kV/m 01 V/mm. nF/m. PA GW.kg. Ir Volt V m*. mR.A-’ GfTm. J/s .A* m’. Mf-l. PC M V .A’ m. mA. fkm.s-‘. PT.kg. MfLm. PS mWb mT.WI. .S Wb/ m’ Wb/A mW. mz.TABLE I ELECTRICAL UNITS OF MEASUREMENT ~(ClOUSP 2.kg.m m~‘.2) Q UANTITY SpOlOL NAME EXPRESSION TERMS O F OTHER UN I T S IN (1) Electric current Power Quantity of clectricity.A kA. nH.s-‘. nF.kg-‘. potential difference.kg. PF GR. nT mH. electric charge Electric potential.A-* rn-‘.J~R kS. V/m. 24 NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE . electromotive force Capacitance Electrical resistance Conductance Magnetic flux Magnetic flux density Inductance Conductivity Electric ticld .i’A’ MS/m. mfIm.s-‘.kg~‘.PW coulomb kc.s-‘. pF/m henry/ metre farad per metre I per henry ohm. kW.strength Permeability Permittivity Reluctance Resistivity a. PC.A-’ kgs’. mS.S’.kg-‘.s~z. mctrc H/m F/m H-’ f3.A-’ mF. kV.kg.s*. Kfl. rrF.

I Sitl~lc.3 6.These boltages refer to the Ime-Id-line v o l t a g e .rating of equipment with respect to highest system voltages only. PART I GENERAL AND COMMON ASPECTS 25 .1 Standardization of basic parameters such as voltage.2. It is realized that.2 Three. all the standard values of voltages given in IS : 5851962* relating to ac transmission and distribution systems are reproduced in this Section. standarcJ values of nominal voltages were 230 V for singlephahc and 230 400 V for three-phase system.2 This history of standardization of system voltages nart.6 7. it is noted that for most of the types of installations covered in subsequent parts of the Code.1.3 The standard dc distribution . However.voltage shall be 2201440 v. Trcvo. 2. or b) 6 percent on the higher side or 9 percent on the lower side in the case of high voltage.2 I2 24 36 72. the original recommended. The values of voltages recommended as standard in this SeAon are based on the contents of IS : 585-1962*.SECTION 6 STANDARD VALUES 2.0. 2.0.0. because of economic and other co+iderations.3 In the case of voltages above I kV.Phase S_wem *Vol~gc\ systcmb and frequency for tran\mi\\wn a n d distribution This variation in voltage should not be confused Noit with the permissible variarion from the declared voltage as given in 2.\.2. values of 240 V si’nglephase atid 240 415 V *three-phase had been adopted.2. 2. 1.Voltage Limits for AC Systems 2.0 General 2. 2.22 II0 132 220 400 $ kV kV kV kV N O T E I . the limits of boltage between which the system and the equipment used in the system shall bc capable of operating continuously are as follows: Highest Voltage (Uln) 240 415 3. IO percent above the corresponding nominal voltages given in 2.2 . 1.1 Standard Declared Voltage 2.2 For medium and low voltage distribution system. and are applicable to the supply aurhorities.2 For installation design purposes. only the lower voltage values would be relevant. currents and frequency is one of the primary exercises undertaken at the national level. or c) 12. 0. SCOPE 415 v 3. t o a l i g n w i t h I E C rccommcndation\ and in view of’ the economic adbantageh thry offered.1 The voltage at any point of the system under normal conditions shall not depart from the declared voltage by more than the values given below: a) 6 percent in the case of low or medium voltage.Phasr.1.0 IO 20 30 60 I20 200 380 V v kV kV kV kV kV kV kV kV kV 2.1 . 1956.1 This Section of the Code covers standard values of ac and dc distribution voltages.The standard voltage shall be 240 V.6 II 22 33 66 132 220 400 V v kV kV kV kV kV kV kV kV kV 264 457 3. STANDARD VALtiES OF VOLTAdES 2.-rly those of systems operating below medium voltage levels is enumerated in IS : 585. 2.6 kV I I kV f: K (voltage to neutral .Wire System .0 6.1 For the sake of completeness.1. extensions to existing systems at this voltage may have to be made at the same vbltage. d u r i n g 1 9 5 9 . N O T E-The permissible variations given above are in accordance *vith Indian Electricity Rules. preferred values of current ratings and standard system frequency. 2.1.1 The standard voltages for three-phase system shall be as under: 0.2.3 kV 6. This standardization helps in laying a sound foundation for further work reiating to product or installation engineering. is recognized and product standards relate the voltage. NOIE 2 I IO kV is not a standard voltage for transmission purposes but this value has been included for the sake of equipment thal are required for use on the I IO kV systems already in existence. 2.1.Pl*I. which are generalI!.2. Howclcr. the importance of highest system voltage.5 percent in the case of extra high voltage.5 I45 245 420 v v kV kV kV kV kV kV kV kV kV LOWSI Vohage ‘216 374 3.1.

4.ECTRICAI. PREFERRED CURRENT RATINGS 3.2 The limits within which the frequency is to be maintained are governed by the IE Rules. If intermediate values are required. the R5 series. CODE . STANDARD SYSTEM FREQUENCY 4.1 The standard system frequency shall be 50 H7. NATIONAL EI.3. the same shall be selected from RIO series (see IS : lO76-1967*).1 The preferred current ratings shall be selected from. 4.

2 Materials A l l m a t e r i a l s .1. Unless otherwise exempted under the IE Rules. 1 .r~ H*ith I n d i a n E1ecrricir. it shall also be ensured that the current carrying capacity and the condition of the existing equipment and accessories are adequate.rergy. drawn to the general requirements stipulated in Section 14. Measures for achieving protection against the various hazards are under consideration by the National Electrical Code Sectional Committee. 27 2 .3 b+‘orktmn.1. 2. 2 .1 I 2 I.~gr 2. whether the proposed electrical work is a new installation or an extension to the existing one.2 Distance from Electric Lines shall be allowed to be erected or re-erected. the relevant authority shall be consulted.2 In all cases. transformer switchgear rooms. or any additions or alterations made to the existing b u i l d i n g . equipment and their accessories. a recognized authority.0 General 2 . or a modification. in. however. u n l e s s t h e f o l l o w i n g mtnimum clearances are orovided from the overhead electric supply lines: ’ Verricol m Horizonral m a) 1.1. SCOPE electrical engineer shall be ensured from the planning stage of the installation. The workmen shall also hold the appropriate certificate of competency. lift wells and other spaces required to be provided for service cable ducts.ship Good workmanship is an essential requirement for compliance with this Code. It may be added that subsequent requirements of the Code would. 2. 2. Part I. 0. the work on electrical installations shall be carried out under the supervision of a person holding a certificate of competency issued by.FOREWORD 0.0. 1.1. 2.0 c) Fxtra high voltage l i n e s 3. from the point of safety 2. and such other relevant data shall be specified in advance.1.3 Lighting and Ventilation .1. the materials and other items shall be those approved by the competent authority. used in an electrical installation shall conform to Indian Standard Specifications wherever they exist.SECI’ION 7 FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES O. enumerated in 3. that is. however.1.1.1 This Section contains the fundamental principles for electrical installation.From the point of view of conserving e. AND COMMON ASPECTS .rchange q/ It@mation 2. f i t t i n g s . provide sufficient guidelines in respect of achieving the desired level of safety. Part 2 Fundamental principles’ issued by the International Electrotechnical Commission.2 h) High \ 0ltagc Ilnes 3.3 Sufficient coordination shall be ensured with the civil architect in the initial stages itself to ensure that sufficient building space be allotted for electrical installation purposes such as those required for sub-station installation. building engineer and the PART t GENERAI.v Rules .2 The fundamental principles for protection for safetv f r o m v a r i o u s hazards in the use of electricity. 0 . a rertical and horizontal clearance of 0. FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES 2. Attention is. 2. the civil work.1 This -Section of the Code enumerates the fundamental principles of design and execution of electrical installations.7 2. 1 Co~~ornrir. In case an Indian Standard does not exist.5 Up IO and mcludmg 11000 v Abwc I I kV up IO a n d mcludmg 33 kV 3. The basic criteria in the design of electrical installation are enumerated in this Section which could be taken note of in the planning stages. etc.4 The building services plan shall also include at the early stages all the details of services that utilize electrical energy and the requirements of the electrical installation in order to enable the designers and others involved to decide the coordination to be ensured. and also the relevant regulations of the electric supply authority concerned. which would enable use of natural lighting and ventilation to the maximum. In all such cases. openings. it is essential to consider those aspects of design of buildings as vital.1 Coordination No building 2. The specific nature of each occupancy calls for additional i n f o r m a t i o n w h i c h a r e summariired in the respective Sections of the Code.o~ Ilne\ a n d medwm \olt. 0 .The installation shall generally be carried out in conformity with the requirements of the IE Rules (1956) as amended from time to time. 1.0 ( s e e NOTE) (SW NOTE) Nolr F o r e x t r a h i g h v o l t a g e l i n e s a p a r t j r o m t h e mlnimum clearances indicated.30 m for ever) additional 33 kV or part thereof shall he prwided 2.1 Proper coordination and collaboration between the architect.1 ate based on IEC Pub : 364-2 ‘Electrical installations of buildings. etc. I E.7 2. appliances. The provisions that would have to be made for the accommodation of substation.

1. 3 .1 Protection Against Direct Contact Persons and livestock shall be protected against danger that may arise from contact with live parts of the installation. e) Location and requirements of switchrooms.4 Heat Insulation 2. and g) Fannage.1 For information regarding recommended limits of thermal transmit^&nce of roofs and walls and transmission losses due to different constructions.Even though specific provisions regarding the choice of location and space requirements for electrical installation in buildings Protective equipment.2 Proper coordination shall be ensured to provide for necessary arrangements to install and serve the electrical equipment needed for the airconditioning and heating services in the building. and ml Accessibility. 3 P r o t e c t i o n Agpinst Thermal EJfects in Normal Ser\Vce . Part I.2 Protection Against lndirhct Contact - INSTALLATION 3.6 Location and Equipment . through a body to a value lower than the shock current.1 Protection for Safety 3. fires and orher injurious effects. 4 Room/spaces required for electrical utility. and b) excessive temperatures likely lo cause burns. 3. This protection can be achieved by one of the following methods: c) Layout.) Automatic di&onnection of the supply on the occurrence of a fault likely to cause a current to flow through a body in contact with exposed conductive parts. d) Environmental conditioni. 3.4.The . b) Limiting the fault current which can pass C. Persons and livestock shall be protected against dangers that may arise from contact with exposed conductive parts. 3. and b) The proper functioning of the electrical installation for the use intended. two major types of risks exist: a) shock currents.1. This protection can be achieved by one of the following methods: a) Preventing a fault current from ‘passing through the body of any person or any livestock.0.1. Emergency control.1. DESIGN OF ELECTRICAL b) Limiting the current which can pass through a body to a value lower than the shock current.0. where the value of that current is equal to’ or greater than the shock current. have been provided in the relevant parts of the Code the following asp&s shall be taken note of in general while planning the building design: a) Need for and location and requirements of building substation. r) Levels of illumination.1. k) Preventing of mutual influence between electrical and noneiectrical installations.. 2. b) Load centre and centre of gravity of buildings. b) Nature of demand. NOTE . Type of wiring and methods of installations.electrical installation shall be so arranged that there is no risk of ignition of flammable materials due to high temperature or NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE . reference shall be made to IS : 3792-1978’.0 The requirements stated in 3.6 are intended to ensure’ the safety of persons. 3. shall advise of the electrical requirements necessary for the lifts and escalators to be installed in the building.1 The design of the electrical installation shall take into account the following factors: a) The protection of persons. and. the lift/escalator manufacturer in consultation with the building planners. Electrical Space for 2. j) Disconnecting devices. 2. c) Emergency supply or supplies.4.5 Lifts and Escaiators.3. e) r) f3) h) Cross-section of conductors.0 General . 3. 1 .In electrical installations. 4 Preventing a current from passing through the body of any p’erson or any livestock. livestock’ and property against dangers and damage which may arise in the reasonable use of electrical intitallations.1 to 3. G&era1 provisions are outlined in Section 14.Fdr information df the electrIcal engineer.2 The following factors shall therefore be kept in view: a) Characteristics of the :available supply or supplies.1. livestock and property in accordance with 3.2.

N OTE . 2) For dc: i) conductors equivalent to those listed above. 3.4 Environmental Conditions (see Section 8 of Part I) 3.1 Characteristics qf the Available Supply or aj Nature of current: ac -and/or dc.2 Nature of Demand-The number -and type of the circuits required for lighting.1. 3. -and e) the maximum impedance with respect to the functioning of the short-circuit. 3. telecommunication.1. b) the admissible voltage drop.5 Protection Against Fault Currents Conductors.6 g u i d e l i n e s on the methods f o r achieving protection and the choice of a particular protective measure are under consideration.electric arc. ii) neutral conductor. and the methods of installation depend on: a) the nature of the location.4 Protection Against Overcurrent Persons or livestock shall be protected against injury. and any other parts intended to carry a fault current shall be capable of carrying that current without assuming excessive temperature.3 Emergency Supply or Supplies (see also Part 2 of the Code) a) Source of supply (nature. 3. signalling. and iii) protective conductor. for example. NOPE 2 .1 to 3. c) daily and yearly variation of demand.current (see Section 13 of Part I). This protection can be achieved by one of the following methods: a) Automatic disconnection on the occurrence of an overcurrent before this overcurrent attains a dangerous value taking into account its duration. Also. are to be determined by: a) location of points of power demand.6 Profecrion Againsr Overvolrage Persons or livestock shall be protected against injury and property shall be protected against any harmful effects of a fault between *live parts of circuits supplied at different voltages. 2) frequency and frequency tolerances (see Section 6 of Part I). d) other mechanical stresses to which the conductors may be exposed.The choice of the type of wiring 3. N OTE I . 3.1. c) the electromechanical stresses likely to occur due to shortcircuits. b) Nature and number of conductors: 1) For ac: i) phase conductor(s).2 Yupplies Other Factors of Design 3. telecommunication. 3.1. Cross-sectional areas greater than those required for safety may be desirable for economic operation. heating. 3) maximum current allowable.! - While the general principles of protection against hazards in an electrical installation are given in 3. earthed (grounded) neutra P or mid-wire.1. and b) Limiting the maximum overcurrent to a safe value and duration.2.7 Methods for Prorecrion for Safer. Persons or livestock shall be protected against injury and property shall be protected against damage from ‘any excessive voltages likely to arise due to other causes (for example. atmospheric phenomena or switching voltages). compliance with 3. other than live conductors. and property shall be protected against damage due to excessive tempeatures or electromechnical stresses caused by any overcurrents likely to arise in live conductors. etc. 3.2.1. there shall be no risk of persons or livestock suffering burns. includrng overcurrents caused by faults. c) Values and tolerances: I) voltage and voltage tolerances (see Section 6 of Part I). and 4) prospective short-circuit . characteristics).2. b) the nature of the walls or other parts of the building supporting the wire.1. etc. d) any special conditions.6 T)qpe o f W i r i n g arid M e t h o d s o f Installations .5 Cross Section of Conductors -the cross section of conductors shall be determined according to: a) their admissible maximum temperature.2.2. protection.2.The above listed items concern primarily the safety of electrical installations. e) Particular requirements of the supply undertaking.Partxular attention should be given to earth fault currents.For hve conductors. and b) Circuits to be supplied by the emergency source. b) loads to be expected on the various circuits. signalling. power. control. PART I GENERAL AND COMMON ASPECTS 29 . during normaLoperation of the electrical equipment. d) Protective measures inherent in the sup ly.4 assures their protectron against any fault currents. e) requirements for control. 3.

short-circuit). protection against the effects of: a) overcurrent (overload.‘l’oll-rkt~c. 32.9 Disconnecting Delkes -~ Disconnecting devices shall be provided so as t0 p e r m i t disconnection of the electrical installation. fault detection OJ repair.2.cl accessibility of wiring to persons and livestock. and d) undervoltage and no-voltage. testing.10 Prevention ej’ Mutual Injluencv BetH.2. maintenance and repair. there is necessity f o r i m m e d i a t e 4 sufficient space for the initial installation b) accessibility testing. voltage and time which are suitably related to the characteristics of the circuits and to the possibilities of danger. 4 voltage.8 Emergency Control. for example.t~ic. 3. operation. 3. e) the electromechanical stresses likely to occur due to short-circuits. and interruption of supply. in interrupting device shall be installed in such a way that it can be easily recognized and effectively 2nd rapidly operated. b) earth-fault current.11 Accessihilit~~ of Electrical Equipment ~~ The electrical equipment shall be arranged so as to afford as may be necessary: 0 other stresses to which the wiring may be exposed during the erection of the electrical installation or in service. 3.7 Protective Equipment .2.Where in case of danger. The protective devices shall operate at values of current. and later replacement of individual items of electrical equipment. 3.al Iu\~uIIu~~o:?: The electrical instaiiatlon shall be arranged in such a way that no mutual detrimental influence will occur between the electrical installation and nonelectrical installations of the building. circuits or individual items of apparatus as required fOJ maintenance. and 30 NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE .eell Electrical ud .2. for inspection. c) overvoltage.The characteristics of protective equipment shall be determined with respect to their function which may be.

and b) Building design.2 This Section follows the internationally recommended method of identification of the external influences on the electrical installation such as environment. b) Atmospheric humidity.1 This Section of the Code covers guidelines for assessing the characteristics of buildings and the electrical installation therein. f) Preserce o f c o r r o s i v e o r p o l l u t i n g substances.1 Identification of General Characteristics 2. testing and maintenance. WE Appendix A. it is hoped that this Section would also enable understanding of installations not explicitly covered by the Code. 2.1 The characteristics of the following external influences shall be assessed: I) Environments a) Ambient temperature. h) Presence of flora and/or mould growth. d) Conditions of evacuation in an emergency. m) Solar radiation. T h e s e characteristics when assessed shall also be taken into consideration in the selection and erection of equipment. e) Presence of foreign solid bodies.2 of Section 7. SCOPE 1.2.3 The contents of this Section are primarily intended for installations inside buildings though to the extent possible they could be utilized for outdoor sites. electrostatic or ionizing influences. nominal voltage. d) Presence of water. p) Lightning. However mqe severe conditions may prevail at outdoor sites and these require special considerations. 2. utilization and method of construction of the building. and e) Nature of processed or stored material. c) Altitude. which include. safe operation.2 Table I suggests the classification and codification of external influences which require assessment in the design and erection of electrical installation. point of view of economic and reliable design (see 3. j) Presence of fauna. 2. 2. Part I). However.0 An assessment of the general characteristics of buildings as enumerated below is essential from the point of view of design and protection for safety of the electrical installa!ion. prospective shortcircuit currents. 2) Utilization a) Capability of persons..1 An assessment of the general characteristics of buildings is essential before planning for the needs of an electrical installation. PART 1 GENERAL AND COMMON ASPECTS . those which are specifically important for specific occupancies are listed at the relevant Sections of the Code. d) Diversion of installation from the point of view of control.2. g) Mechanical stresses.FOREWORD 0. b) Electrical resistance of human body.The following shall be assessed: N OTE . n) Seismic effects.1 .For t y p e s o f system earthing.O Purposes. NOTE I . 3) Construction of Buitdings a) Constructional materials. k) Electromagnetic. c) Supply characteristics such as nature of current. 0. ASSESSMENT OF GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF BUILDINGS 2.SECTION 8 ASSESSMENT OF GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF BUILDINGS O.Each condition of external influence is designated by a code comprising 2 group of two capital letters and a number as follows: 31 4 Maximum demand and diversity from the b) Type of distribution system. I. types of systems of live conductors and types of system earthing.2 Identification of External Influences on the Electrical Installation 2.2. Out of these influences. 0. Based on the work of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) under IECjTC 64 “Electrical Installations of Buildings’ this section covers a checklist of various factors that require assessment. NOIF. c) Contact of persons with earth potential. standby and safety supply services. and q) Wind.This assessment shall include those characteristics of main. Supplies and Structure .

uhcn operating. Codification for the same (see NOTE I above). a) any periodic inspection and testing and maintenance and repairs like1 to be necessary during the intended lifye can be readily and safely carried out. b) rapidly fluctuatirig loads. For the time being.DINGS \ CLASS (ClNl/\<’ 2 2. . f) high-frequency oscillations. having regard to the frequency and quality of maintenance expected: C = construction of buildings T h e s e c o n d l e t t e r relares t o t h e n a t u r e o f the exrernal injuenre A B c T h e n u m b e r relates to r h e c l a s s w i t h i n e a c h external inJluence I 2 . users of the Code would be familiar with the codification in terms of which the requirements would be stated in future editions. the characteristics of influences (co1 2. c) starting currents d) harmonic currents. that authority shall be consulted.4 Maintainability . Those characteristics are to be taken into account in applying the requirements of this code so that. C H A R A C T E R I S T I C S O F BI’II.T h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s d e f i n e d f o r e l e c t r i c a l installations are those accepted by the IEC and as applicable for electrical installations in buildings. e) dc feedback. Those characteristics include. and g) earth leakage currents. It is hoped that in due course the.NERAI. Influences on outdoor installations are separately defined in the respective parts of the Code.2) CII\K. TABLE 1 ASSESSMENT OF GF.\(‘II~KISI. not taking into account the thermal contrthution of the equipment to he installed.An assessment shall be made of the frequency and quality of maintenance the installation can reasonably be expected to receive. is not intended to be used NOTE 2 . Table I) are given in descriptive language only. and c) the reliability of equipment for proper functioning of the installation is appropriate to the intended life. as recommended by IEC are given in co1 4 for information.T h e jirsr letter external injluence A = environment B = utilization relates IO the general category of 2. 3 For example. IO\\ \\I) I-\ \\ll’l I \ (3) COIN DESIGSI IO\ (1) (4) Environment I) Ambient temperature l-he ambient temperature 10 he considered for the cqulpment is the temperature at the place where the equipment is to he installed resulting from the influence of all other equipment in the hame location. Lower and upper limits of ranges 01 ambient temperature: -WC -400 c -2YC -5°C +5”c t5oc +50 c +5”c +5oc +40” c +400 c +6ooc AAI AA2 AA3 AA4 AA5 AA6 (Conrinued) 32 NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE . during its intended life. the code AC 2 signifies: A = environment AC = environment altitude AC2 = environment altitude > 2 000 m The code given here for marking equipment. the protective measures for safety during the intended life is ensured. for example: a) transient overvoltages. Where an authority is to be responsible for the operation of the installation.~‘\ (2) Awl I( \.An assessment shall be made of any characteristics of equipment likely to have harmful effects upon other electrical equipment or other services or likely to impair the supply. the effectiveness of. 2.3 Compatibility .

heache\ quays. In conditions AEI and AE3. etc.5 mm. (1) CHAI~A~TE~I~TICS (2) The average temperature over a 24 hour period must not exceed 5°C below the upper limits.jets of water from any dIrectIon PosGbihty of water waves Possibility of intermittent partial or total covering by water. Locations where equipment may be subjected lo splashed water.1 h a r ADI under consideration <2OOOm >ZOOOm AC1 A PPLICATIONS E XAMPLES AND C ODE (3) (4) AC2 Free-falling drops Possibility of vertically falling drops AD2 Sprays Possibility of water falling as spray at an angle up to 60’C from the VertlCal Possibility of splashes from any direction AD3 Splashes AD4 Jets Waves lmmeralon Possibility of . 2) Atmospheric humidity 3) Altitude 4) Presence of water Negligible Probability of presence of water is neghgible Locations in which the walls do not generally show traces of water but may do so for short periods. LocatIon\ which may be flooded and or uhere water may be at least I50 mm ahove the highest point of equipment. AD5 AD6 AD7 Submersion Possibility of permanent and total coverlng by water AD8 5) Presence of foreign solid bodies: Negligible The quantity of nature ot dust or foreign sohd bodies i\ not slgmficant. AND COMMON ASPECTS 33 . construction site equipment. car-washing bays).TABLE 1 ASSESSMENT OF GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF’ BUILDINGS . Presence of foreign solid hodIt where the smallest dlmenslon is not less than 2. 1001s and small objects are examples of foreign solid bodies of which the smallest dimension is at least 2. etc. for example. AEI Small Objects AE2 Very small objects AE3 P A R T 1 GENERAI. Locations where hosewater is used regularly (yards. Installations subject to temperatures outside the ranges require special consideration. 10 certain external lightmg fittings. Locations in which water vapour occasionally condenses as drops or where steam may occasionally be present. the lowest part of equipment being not more than I m belou the water surface. S e a s h o r e locatIon\ huch as piers. dust may be present but is not slgmficant to operation of the electrical equipment. ventilation dl les rapidly. for example! in the form of vapour which good.S mm Presence of foreign solid hodies where the smallest dimension is not Ins than I mm. Wires are examples of foreign solid bodies of which the smallest dimenslon is not less than I mm. Combination of two ranges to define some environments may be necessary.Comd (‘I \\\I h\IGSArIO”. NOI I. Locations such as iwlmming pools uhere electrical equipment is permanently and totally covered with water under a pressure greater than 0. Locations in which sprayed water forms a continuous film on floors and ior walls. this applies.

Provisional classification.TABLE 1 ASSESSMENT OF GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF BUILDINGS CI \ss DI+I<. garages. etc). this type of pollution arises especially in the production of abrasive.~‘l-i WiS~II(‘S (2) Presence of dust in significant quantity.\ (1) DtJst 6) Presence of corrosive or polluting substances: Negligible The quantity or nature of corrosive or polluting substances is not significant The presence of corrosive or polluting substance of atmospheric origin is significant. Conrrl I IOX CII . Locations where some chemical products are handled in small quantities and where these products may come only accidentially into contact with electrical equipment. such as chemical works and cement works. AGI AG2 AC3 b) Vibration Low severity Medium severity High severity N OW .\ . other laboratories or in locations where hydra-carbons are used (boiler-rooms. Quantitative expression of vibration severities is under consideration. For example.. AF4 7) Mechanical Stresses: a)’ Impact Low severity Medium severity High severity N OTE .Provisional classification. Usual industrial conditions.w~. laboratories. AF2 Intermittent or accidental Intermittent or accidental subjection to corrosive or polluting chemical substances being used or produced AF3 Continuous Continuously subject to corrosive or polluting chemical substances in substantial quantity. Usual industrial conditions. such conditions are found in factory. Quantitative expression of impact severities is under consideration. AK1 AK2 Under consideration AJ Household and similar conditions where the effects of vibration are generally negligible. IXstrnction should bc made bctvvccn harmful growth of vcgctatton or condittons for promotion of mould grovvth. Severe industrial conditions. APPLI(‘ATIOYS AK. chemical works. Industrial installations subject to severe conditions.. c) Other mechanical stresses 8) Presence of fungus and/or mould growth No hazard Hazard No hazard of fungus and/or mould growth hazard of fungus and/or mould growth The hazard dcpcnda on local conditions and the nature of fungus. AHI AH2 AH3 9) Presence of vermin No hazard No hazard (Conrinued) 34 NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE . EXAMPLM (3) coot (4) AE4 AFI Atmospheric Installations situated by the sea or industrial zones producing serious atmospheric pollution. Household and similar conditions. insulating or conductive dusts.

In general.presence of small animals or birds m harmful quantity or of an aggressive nature. small animals) A PPLICATIONS E XAMPLES AND C ODE (3) The hazard de nds on the nature of the vermin. electrostatic fields. IO) Electromagnetic. Harmful presence of induced currents. seismic effects must be specially considered. AN2 Up to 30 Gal (I Gal = I cm/s’) API AP2 AP3 Vibration which may cause the destruction of the building is outside the classification. if the seismic wave resonates with the building. electromagnetic radiation.TABLE 1 ASSESSMENT OF GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF BUILDINGS . Parts of installation> located outside buildings. Nurseries BAI BA2 ( COrIliflUPd) PART I GENERAL AND C O M M O N A S P E C T S 35 . however. birds. ioni7ing radiation or induction. electrostattc or ionizing influences Negligible No harmful effects from stray currents. . Harmful presence of electromagnetic radiation. AQI AQ2 AQ3 14) Wind (Under consideration) Utilization I) Capability of Persons Ordinary Children Uninstructed persons Children in locations intended for their occupation. AP4 over 30 up to and including 300 Gal over 300 up to and including 600 Gal greater than 600 Gal 13) Lightning Negligible Indirect exposure Direct exposure Hazard from supply arrangements Hazard from exposure of equipment Installations supplied by overhead lines. Harmful hazards of stray currents.presence of insects in harmful quantity or of an aggressive nature. Harmful presence of ionizing radiation. The risks AQ2 and AQ3 relate to regions with a particularly high level of thunderstorm activity. Harmful presence of electrostatic fields. the frequency of seismic acceleration is between 0 and IO H z . gstinction should he made between: (4) AL2 . AMI Stray currents Electromagnetics loni7ation Electrostatics Induction I I) Solar radiation Negligible Significant 12) Seismic effects Negligible Low severity Medium severity High severity AM2 AM3 AM4 AM5 AM6 ANI Solar radiation of harmful intensity and/or duration.Conrd C LASS D E S I G N A T I O N (1) Hazard C%A~AUTERI~~I~~ (2) Hazard from fauna (insects. Frequency is not taken into account in the classification.

Con/d CII 4K \(‘trKISTI(‘S (2) A P P L I C A T I O N S AND CODE EXAMPUS (3) (4) Norm ~. Persons are frequently in touch with extraneous conductive parts or stand on conducting surfaces. High-rise buildings open to the public (hotels. processing or storage of flammable materials including presence of dust. Metallic surroundings such as boilers and tanks. easy conditions of evacuation. old persons) Electrical operating areas Persons adequately advised or supervised by skilled persons to enable them to avoid dangers which electricity may create (operating and maintenance staff) Persons with technical knowledge or Closed electrtcal operating areas. Low density occupation. Locations with extraneous conductive parts. hospitals.TABLE I ASSESSMENT OF GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF BUILDINGS .Certain precautions may be necessary. High density occupation. for example. cinemas). etc. difficult conditions of evacuation. kitchens. difficult conditions of evacuation. Handicapped Persons not in command of all their Hospitals physical and intellectual abilities (sick persons.) BDI BD2 BD3 BD4 Explosion risk Contamination risks BE3 Foodstuff industries. Locations open to the public (theatres. High density occupation. N O T E . to prevent processed materials being contaminated by electrical equipment. paper factories. either numerous or of large area.This class does not necessarily apply to family dwellings. pharmaceutics. Persons are in permanent contact with metallic surroundings and for whom the possibility of interrupting contact is limited. Norr-conducting locations. (Conrinued) 36 NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE . Barns. hydrocarbon stores. sufficient experience to enable them to avoid dangers which electricity may create (engineers and technicians) BA3 Instructed BA4 Skilled BA5 2) Electrical Resistance of the Human Body Classification (Under consideration) 3) Contact of Persons with Earth Potential None Low Persons in non-conducting situations Persons do not in usual conditions make contact with extraneous conductive parts or stand on conducting surfaces. Processing or storage of explosive or low flashpoint materials including presence of explosive dusts. Presence of unprotected foodstuffs. wood-working shops. by broken lamps. and similar products without protection. easy conditions of evacuation. BCI BC? BB Frequent BC3 Continuous BC4 4) Conditions of Evacuation in an Emergency Low density occupation. Oil refineries. High-rise buildings. 5) Nature of Processed or Stored Materials No signifiant risks Fire risks Manufacture. BEI BE2 Buildings of normal or low height used for habitation. in the event of fault.

Second letter indicates relationship of the exposed conductive parts of the installation to earth: T = direct electrical connection of exposed conductive parts to earth. NOTE I . in which neutral and protective functions are combined in a single conductor in a part of the system. displacement between a building and the ground. or one point connected to earth through an impedance. neutral and protective functions combined in a single conductor (PEN conductor). oscillation) Tents. removable partitions. or Contraction or expansion joints.TABLE 1 ASSESSMENT OF GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF BUILDINGS. then exposed conductive parts of the installation being connected to that point by protective conductors. independently of the earthing of any point of the power system.llstem -. CB3 Flexible or unstable CB4 A P P E N D I X A (Clause 2. and N = direct electrical connection of the exposed conductive parts to the earthed point of the power system. and in which neutral and protective functions are c o m b i n e d i n a single conductor throughout the system. I .Constructions of Building I) Constructional Materials Non-combustible Combustible 2) Building Design Negligible risk Prtortgation of Buildings of which the shape and dimensions facilitate the spread of fire (for example. settlement of ground . 37 . (in ac system. Structures which are weak or subjects to movement (for example.The TT power system has one point directly earthed. and I = all alive parts isolated from earth. connection between live parts and earth. TN C-S system: TN-C system: b) TT s. the earthed point is normally the neutral point).Figures I to 5 show examples of commonly used three-phase systems. according to the arrangement of neutral and protective conductors as independent of the earth electrodes of the p o w e r s y s t e m . Flexible wiring. the exposed conductive parts of the installation being connected to earth electrodes electricallv PART I GENERAL AND COMMON ASPECTS s= c= neutral and protective functions provided by separate conductors. Installations needing support.or building foundations). air-support structures. false ceilings. CBI CB2 APPLICATIONS EXAMPLES (3) AND CODE (4) Buildings mainly constructed of combustible materials Wooden buildings CA1 CA2 Movement Buildings of considerable length Risks due to structural movement or erected on unstable ground. _ High-rise buildings.Conld C LASS DESIGNATIOK CHARAUERISTI~S (2) . Three types of TN systems are recognized. Forced ventilation systems. the exposed conductive parts of the electrical installation being earthed. Subsequent letter(s) (if any) indicate arrangement of neutral and protective conductors: c) IT qstem -~ The IT system has no direct follows: TN-S system: having separate neutral and protective conductors throughout the system. (for example. a) TN Systems-TN power systems have one point directly earthed.O) TYPES OF SYSTEM EARTHING The folloGng types of system earthing are taken into account in this Code. chimney effects). NOTE 2 -The codes used have the following meanmgs: First letter indicates relationship of the power system to earth: T = direct connection of one point to earth.

E(.S S Y S T E M N EUTRAL TIVE P R O T E C T I V E C O N D U C T O R S THRO~JGHOIJI I III: SJ~SIIXI FIJN~TIONS CONDIKV~R IN L30 Nt L20 v POWER SYSTEM EARTH CONDUCTIVE PARTS -A‘ = POWER SYSTEM EARTH :-)) -o -* b---l I hPE L-_-_-A & f POSED EX CONDUCTIVE PART F I G. I T N .C . 4 TT SYSTEM SYSTEM EARTH CONDUCTIVE PART FIG. 3 7-N-C SYSTFM. ~Ii~.SYSTEM EARTH SED CONDUCTIVE P&R1 S POWER SYSTEM EARTH CONDUCTIVE PARTS A N D PROTECCO M B I N E D I N A S I N G L E A P ART OF THE S Y S T E M F I G. 5 IT S~.YIW C O M B I N E D I N A SING1.SMM F I G.F C‘~NDI:~T~R ‘TIIROIIGIIOI:T I III: SI.S~M 38 NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE .(‘l’IONS A N D PROI. 2 T N . NEUTRAI.S S YSTEM S EPARATE N EUTRAL AND F I G.

All electrical equipment shall be selected so as to withrtand safely the stresses and the environmental conditions (see 3.2. has an frequency 2.4. 2. 2.1 A series of product codes have been brought out in the field of electrotechnology which covers details of selection. fulfil t h e requirements given in 2. 0.4 Power . however.3 Frequency . as well as overvoltages likely to occur.3 Con.All electrical equipment shall be selected so that it will not cause harmful effects on. SCOPE 1. 1. b) inrush current.1 Voltage .1 Conformity to Indian Standards L. and with respect to the current likely to be carried in abnormal conditions and PART I GENERAL AND COMMON ASPECTS 39 .Iitions of Installation .1 This Section of the Code covers general criteria for selection of equipment.5 Guidelines on the selection of specific equipment are covered in the relevant Indian Standard codes of practice. 2. 2. it may be necessary to take account of the lowest voltage likely to occur.All electrical equipment to be selected on the basis of its power characteristics. likely to be applied.For certain equipment. 2.2 of Section 7 of Part I) is b a s e d a n d s h a l l .If influence on the characteristics of electrical equipment. if any) during which it may be expected to flow. and d) harmonics.2.All electrical equipment shall be selected with respect to the maximum steady current (rms value for ac) which it has to carry in normal service.2 of Section 7 of Part I) characteristic of its location to which it may be exposed. 2. the rated frequency of the equipment shall correspond to the frequency likely to occur in the circuit. If.Electrical equipment shall be suitable with respect to the maximum steady voltage (rms value for ac). 2. In this context. and users of the Code are recommended to make reference to individual product codes for detailed guidelines. The general characteristics of building installations are assessed according to the guidelines given in Section 8. FOREWORD the period (for example.2. NOTE -This Section shall be read in conjunction with the Indian Standard codes on individual equipment. an item of equipment does not have by design the properties corresponding to its location it may be used on condition that adequate additional protection provided as part of the completed electrical installation.SECTION 9 SELECTION OF EQUIPMENT 0. This Section of the Code is prepared in such a manner as to bring out only the essential criteria for selection of equipment. other equipment or impair the supply during normal service including switching operations.2 Current . 2. taking into account the load factor and the normal service conditions.2.1 to 2.2 Characteristics . and maintenance of electric power equipment. shall be suitable for the duty demanded of the equipment. of Part 1 of the Code. the factors which may have an influence include: a) power factor. NOTE . c) asymmetrical load.2.2.Every item of electrical equipment selected shall have suitable characteristics appropriate to the values and conditions on which the design of the electrical installation (see 3. installation. SELECTION OF EQUIPMENT 2. operating time of protective devices.Every item of electrical equipment used in the installation shall conform to the relevant Indian Standard specifications wherever available. i n p a r t i c u l a r .4 Prevention of Harmful effects .

1. characteristics of the electrical 2. these shall be rectified. A complete check shall also be made of all the protective devices.6 All electrical equipment likely to cause high temperatures or electric arcs shall be placed or guarded so as to eliminate the risk of ignition of flammable materials.2 The equipment. This. 2. 1956 have been complied with.4 The contents of this Section are based on iS_: 732 (Part 3)-1982* 1. individual product standards cover more detailed guidelines on precommissioning c h e c k s f o r i n d i v i d u a l equipment.6 of Section 4 of Part I). 2. accessories. used in the installation are of adequate rating and quality to meet the requirements of the load. ERECTION 2. Where the temperature of any exposed parts of electrical equipment is likely to cause injury to persons. is put into service.3 Where an addition is to be made to the fixed wiring of an existing installation the latter s h a l l b e e x a m i n e d f o r c o m p l i a n c e with recommendations of this Code.7 Attention is also drawn to the provisions contained in relevant Indian Standard codes on installation of specific equipment which shall be adhered to during erection of the installation. 1956. These conductors in flexible cords or flexible cables shall be identifiable by colouring or other means throughout their length (see 2. 3.3 Protective conductors and neutral conductors shall be identifiable at least at their terminations by colouring or other means.2. a general inspection shall be carried out by competent personnel to verify that the provisions of this Code and that of Indian Electricity Rules.2 While a complete check list of items to be checked and necessary tests to be done are included in this Section.5 All electrical equipment shall be installed in such a manner that the designed cooling conditions are not impaired. In the event of defects being found. Guidelines on such aspects are outside the purview of the Code. the nature and frequency of such measures depending on the nature of the electrical installation in question.2 service periodic inspection and testing shall be carried out in order to maintain the installation in a sound condition. shall include checking whether all equipment. or an addition to the existing installation.1 This Section of the Code covers general principles of erection of installation and guidelines on initial testing before commissioning. 2.2. wires and cables.3 In addition to initial testing. NATIONAL EI. as soon as practicable. 2. 3. After putting the installation into 3.0 General. contact prcssui-e and contact area. 2. these parts shall be so located as to prevent accidental contact therewith. 0. General workmanship of the electrical wiring with regard to the layout and finish shall be examined for neatness that would facilitate easy identification of circuits of the system. as determined in accordance with Section 9 of Part I shall not be impaired in the process of erection. 0. This Section lists the aspects/parameters that are required to be verified before an installation could be certified as ready for energizing and use.1 Before the completed installation. soundness of termination with respect to tightness. is a necessary prerequisite under the Giutory -provisions.1. INSPECTION AND TESTING 3. inspection and testing shall be carried out in accordance with the Indian Electricity Rules. F O R E W O R D 0.At the completion of wiring. and the installation retested. 2. CODE 40 .1 General Requirements 3. good workmanship by suitably qualified personnel and the use of proper materials shall be ensured. 3.4 Connections between conductors and between conductors and other electrical equipment shall be made in such a way that safe and reliable contacts ire ensured. Inspection of the Installation 3. *Code of practice for electrical wiring installations: Part 3 inspection and testing of installation.1 Testing and ensurmg that the installation conforms to the predetermined conditions before the installation could be energized. SCOPE 1. fittings. a reference could be made to individual equipment codes which cover maintenance schedules: 0. periodic testing and preventive maintenance checks are necessary. range of settings and for co-ordination between the various protective devices. However.ECTRICAI.SECTION 10 ERECTION AND INITIAL TESTING OF INSTALLATION 0.1. among other things.1 For the erection of the electrical installation. adequacy of clearances. with respect to the rating.

oil sumps/pits are free from rubbish and dirt and stone jelly and the earth connections are visible and easily accessible.2. 13) earth pipe troughs and cover slabs are provided for earth electrodes/earth pits. 3. 7) in case of indoor substation. 6) the required number of caution boards. 5) suitable fencing is provided with gate with lockable arrangements. 27) bushings are free from cracks and are clean. 2) all connections to the earthing system are feasible for periodical inspection. 21) clearances in the front. automatic safety shutters/doors interlock. 26) connections to bushings in transformers are tightened and have good contact. 4) suitable linked switch or circuit-breaker or lockable push button is provided near the motors/apparatus for controlling supply to the motor/apparatus in an easily accessible location. 20) safety devices. 15) earth pipe troughs. 1) the installation has been carried out in accordance with the approved drawings. 10) all na. vent pipe. 5) two separate and distinct earth connections are provided for the motor/apparatus. 14) earth electrodes are of GI pipes or CI pipes or copper plates. bus bar tightness.2. all the blades make contact at the same time. For earth connections. 31) in case of cable cellars. rear and sides of the switthboards. Neutral and lightning arrester earth pits are marked for easy identification. 28) accessories of transformers like breathers. 12) oil levels. rubber mats. contactors. relays. are removed. 30) oil and winding temperature are set for specific requirements in transformers. etc. horizontal and vertical barriers. PAHT 22) the gap in the horngap fuse and the size of 23) the switch operates freely. etc. 18) control switchfuses are provided at an accessible height from ground. 8) all cable trenches are provided with nonflammable covers. 2) phase-to-phase and phase-toearth clear3) all equipments are efficiently earthed and properly connected to the required number of earth electrodes. ances are provided as required.are free from cracks. 29) connections to gas relay in transformers are in order.me-plates are fixed and the equipment are fully painted. are adequate. maintenance. and are clean. 4) the required ground *clearance to live terminals is provided. fuse adequate. are in order. are kept in the substation. control switchfuse is provided at an accessible height from ground for controlling supply to overhead travelling crane hoists.1 Substation Installations ~~ in substation installation it shall be checked whether: handle interlock for safe and reliable operation in all panels and cubicles. are in order.2 Installation at Voltage not exceeding 650 V. 3) sharp cable bends are avoided and cables are taken in a smooth manner in the trenches or alongside the walls and ceilings using suitable support clamps at regular intervals. buchholz relay. 25) in the case of transformers. overhead bus bar trunking. 16) Panels and switchgears are all vermin and damp proof and all unused openings or holes are b!ocked properly.3. etc. and 32) all incoming and outgoing circuits of panels are’clearly and indelibly labelled for identifications both at the front and at the rear.It shall be checked whether: all blocking materials that are used for safe transportation in switchgears. 24) Insulators . 19) adequate head room is available in the transformer room for easy topping up of oil. adequate arrangements to pump out water that has entered due to seepage or other reason is provided. Jl I GENERAL AND COMMON ASPECTS . 17) the earth bus bars for tightness and for corrosion free joint surface. there is any oil leak. The arcing horns contact in advance. and tlie handles are provided with locking arrangements. bus bar covers/ shrouds. 11) all construction materials and temporary connections are removed. sufficient ventilation and draining arrangements are made. fire-fighting equipments. transformer tap position. operating rods. etc. brass bolts and nuts with lead washers are provided in the pipes/ plates. 9) free accessibility is provided for all equipment for normal operation. etc.

3) the operation of all protective devices shall be tested by means of secondary or primary injection tests. 7) proper connectors and junction boxes are used wherever joints are to be made in . 8) cartridge fuse units are fitted with cartridge fuses only.42 1) all switchboards shall be tested for di- electric test in the manner recommended in IS : 8623 (Part I)-l977*. IO) the cables are not taken through areas where they are likely to be damaged or chemically affected. fixtures and equipment. 12) the belts of the belt driven equipment are properly guarded. I) spare knockouts provided in distribution boards and switchfuses are blocked. 16) flat washers backed up by spiring washers are used for making end connections. fittings and switchgears used in the hazardous area are of flame proof application.3. 15) the relays are inspected visually by moving covers for deposits or dusts or other foreign matter. and similarly. as necessary. provisions of arc chutes in their respective poles are made. conduit and conduit properly earthed. etc. armoured cable wiring is used.3 Lighting. the third pin being suitably earthed. s u b . or alternatively. IO) the polarity is checked and all fuses and single pole switches are connected on the phase conductor only and wiring is correctly connected to socket outlets.After inspection. 6) a separate earth wire is run in the lighting installation to provide earthing for plug points. and 17) number of wires in a conduit conform to provisions of this Code. 14) ammeters and voltmeters are tested and calibrated. 14) proper terminal connectors are used for termination of wires (conductors and earth leads) and all strands are inserted in the terminals.3 Testing of Installation 1) wooden boxes and uanels are avoided in 2) neutral links are provided in double pole _ factories for mounting the lighting boards and switch controls. the fourth core being used for earthing. 2) all earth connections shall be checked for continuity. fixtures.Switchboards shall be tested in the manner indicated below: 3) the plug points in the lighting circuit are all of 3-pin type.2.m a i n b o a r d s a n d switches.1 Switchboards . the following tests shall be carried out. 8) four core cables are used for overhead travelling crane and portable equipments. 2) ends of conduits enclosing the wiring leads are provided with suitable bushes. 5) lighting wiring in factory area is taken enclosed ir. 4) the operation of the circuit-breakers shall be tested from all control stations. 4) tamper-proof interlocked switch socket outlets are used for locations easily accessible. 13) the fittings and fixtures used for outdoor use are all of weather proof construction. conductors or cross over of conductors take place. 3. 13) adequate precautions are taken to ensure that no live parts are so exposed as to cause danger. any testing of the electrical installation in an already existing installation shall commence after obtaining permit to work from the engineerincharge and after ensuring the safety provisions. 3. the wiring is enclosed to the full lengths. NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE . *Factory built assemblies of switchgear and controlgear: Part I General requirements.the metal rails on which the crane travels are electrically continuous and earthed and bonding of rails and earthing at both ends are done.0 Gerwtd. 9) if flexible metallic hose is used for wiring to motors and equipments. and 16) in the case of air circuit-breakers.The lighting circuits shall be checked whether: 3.3. 15) flat ended screws are used for fixing conductor to the accessories. II) the screens and armours of the cables are earthed properly. and separate supply for lighting circuit is taken. switchboards. and no fuse is provided in the neutral. 3. before an installation or an addition to the existing i. and the hose secured properly. switch fuses which are used for lighting control. tallation is put into service. 9) clear and permanent identification marks are painted in all distribution boards.

43 a) The insulation resistance of each phase winding against the frame and between the windings shall be measured.s as listed in IS : 1002X (Part 2)-1981* shall be car-ricd out. the value shall be corrected to 25°C. Star points should be disconnected. If the resistance is measured at a temperature different from 25OC.4 Motors and Other Equipment .vr r~\~ision).For checking the efficiency of earthing the following tests are recommended (see IS : 3043-1966*). b) The insulathon resistance as measured at ambient temperature does not always give a reliable value.3 C’cihlc~s chcckcd ah laid doun in IS : 125%19X3+. R1 = I 000 + 2P where R. If any suspicion exists on this score.The following tests are made on motor and other equipment: 3. provided that it does not exceed 500 volts for medium voltage circuits. Where the supply is derived from three-wire (ac or dc) or a polyphase system the neutral pole of which is connected to earth either direct or through added resistance. *Code of practice for selection.5) indication/ signalling lamps shall be checked for working.3. +Code of practice for installation and maintenance of power cables up to and Including 33 kV (/ir. Megohmmeter of 500 V or 1 000 V rating shall be used. b) The insulation resistance in megohms of an in?tallation measured as in (a) shall be not less than 50 divided by the number of points on the circuit. d) The insulation resistance shall also be measured betwetn all conductors connected to one pole or phase conductor of the >upply and all the conductors connected to the middle wire to the neutral on to the other pole of phase conductors of the supply. AND COMMON ASPECTS . and all live parts of each rheostat. Such a test shall be made after removing all metallic connections between the two poles of the installation and in these circumstances the insulation resistance between conductors of the installation shall be not less than that specified in (b).The following tests shall be done: a) The insulation resistance shall be measured by applying between earth and the whole system of conductor or any section thereof with all fuses in place and all switches closed. but in that event the insulation resistance between the case or framework. and P = Rated power kW. a dc voltage of not less than twice the working voltage. This certificate shall be in a prescribed form as required by the local electric supply authority.3. countersigned by the certified supervisor under whose direct supervision the installation was carried out. installation and maintenance of transformers: Part 2 Installation.u. may. c) Control rheostats.5 MR.6 Earthing . e) On completion of an electrical installation (or an extension to an installation) a certificate shall be furnished by the contractor. be disconnected from the circuit during the test. = Rated phase-to-phase voltage.3. heating and power appliances and electric signs. appliance and sign shall be not less than that specified in the relevant Indian Standard specification or where there is no such specification shall be not less than 0. *Code of practice for earthing. 3. 3.3.. the insulation resistance will initially drop considerably. provided that the whole installation need not be required to have an insulation resistance greater than IMR.. 7) the closing and opening timings of the ciicuit-breakers shall be tested wherever required for autotransfer schemes. the working voltage shall be deemed to be that which is maintained between the outer or phase conductor and the neutral.\/~).5 Wiring Installation . = Ksuptibn resistance in MR at 0 E. Cable installations shall be 3.~.3. if desired. since moisture might have been absorbed during shipment and storage: When the temperature of such a motor is raised. all lamps in position or both poles of installation otherwise electrically connected together. even below the acceptable minimum. 6) the operation of the circuit-breakers shall be tested for all intedock. Minimum acceptable value of the insulation resistance varies with the rated power and the rated voltage of the motor.I)I~~~. The following relation may serve as a reasonable guide: 2 0 X E. All commissioning tests 3. and 9) the specific gravity of the electrolyte and the voltage of the control battery shall be measured. PART I GE:NERAI. motor winding shall be dried out. and except in earthed concentric wiring.2 ~. 8) contact resistance of main and isolator contacts shall be measured.

b) The earth resistance of earthing grid is measured.a) The earth resistance of each electrode is measured. These tests shall preferably be done during the summer months. c) All electrodes are connected to the’grid and the earth resistance of the entire earthing system is measured. 44 NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE .

0. 2.ring installations.1 Ceiling Roses and Similar Attachments 2 . the sub-circuit leads shall termmate In a ceiling rose or box with connectors from which they shall be carried into the fittings. etc.0 I .SECTION 11 WIRING INSTALLATIOlVS 0.5 0.5 Lampholders . etc. FOREWORD 2. water cooler.2 2410.takitiOnS: Part 2.75 l6/0.5 4 2. 2.8 14.3. PART I GENERAL AND COMMON ASPECTS 2.2 It may be mentioned that the general design guidelines for wiring given in this Section have to be carefully considered while applying them to specific occupancies and a proper selection of the method is to be decided depending on local conditions. 2.3 No flammable shade shall form a part of lighting fittings unless such shade is well protected against all risks of fire.1.2. a socket outlet with plug shall be of three-pin type with the third terminal connected to the earth.2. 2. .The use of fittings-wire shall be restricted to the internal wiring of the lighting fittings.1. Where fittings-wire is used for wiring fittings. 2. only one flexible cord shall be attached to a ceiling rose.3 A ceihng rose shall not embody fuse terminal as an integral part of it. steel chains. 2. it is necessary to install an interlocked plug and socket or alternatively a socket outlet which automatically gets screened by the withdrawal of plug. Guidance on such matters are covered in respective Sections of the Code. 0. This Section of the Code is primarily intended to cover guidelines on design and construction of wiring installations which are commonly applicable to all types of occupancies.Lampholders for use with flexible pendants shall be provided with c o r d grips.3.2.2 Socket Outlets and Plugs 2. N OTE ~ In situations where a socket outlet is accessible to children.3.5 In an earthed system of supply.2 3210. depending upon the type and weight of the fittings.3 Lighting Fittings 2. 1 A ceiling rose or any other similar attachment shall not be used on a circuit the voltage of which normally exceeds 250 V .5 2. Specially designed ceiling roses shall be used for multiple pendants. The requirements specified in this Section are based on safety and reliability considerations. 0.3 8. Design and consiruction. shall be provided with its own individual fuse.4 Ordinary socket outlet may be fixed at any convenient place at a height above 20 cm from the floor level and shall be away from danger of mechanical injury.1 This Section of the Code covers the essential design and constructional requirements for electrical wi.2 4810.2 Where necessary lighting fittings shall be supported by suitable pipe/conduits. 2.4 Fitting-Wire . qQUIPMENT FITTINGS AND ACCESSORIES 2. *Code of practice for electrical wiring iE. Where a lighting fitting is supported by one or more flexible cords.2. the maximum weight !o which the twin flexible cords may be subjected shall be as follows: Nominal CrossSectional Area of Twin Flexible Cord Number and Diameter in mm of Wires Maxrmum Permissible Weight kg mm* 0.1 A major portion of fixed installation design in a building relates to wiring installation.A11 lampholders shall be provided with 45 . Where control at more than one point is necessary as many two-way or intermediate switches may be provided as there are control points.1 A switch shall be provided for the control of every lighting fitting or a group of lighting fittings.2 8010. The socketoutlet shall not necessarily embody the fuse as an integral part of it.1 Each 15A socket outlet provided in buildings for the use of domestic appliances sych as air-conditioner.body of current-consuming devices.2 Normally. 2.the distribution/sub-distribution board. conductors connecting such current-consuming devices shall be of flexible cord with an earthing core and the earthing core shall be secured by connecting between1 the earth terminal of plug and the. SCOPE 1. with suitable discrimination with back-up fuse or miniature circuit-breaker provided in. Celluloid shade or lighting fitting shall not be used under any circumstances.2 Each socket outlet shall also be controlled by a switch which shall preferably be located immediately adjacent thereto or combined therewith. 1 .2.o 1. brackets fabricated from structural steel. 2. When such socket outlets with plugs are connected to any current+onsuming device of metal or any noninsulating material or both. 2.3 The switch controlling the socket outlet shall be on the live side of the line.2 2 : 5.3 The contents of this Section are based on IS : 732 (Part 2)-1982* 1.2 12810.

f) Unless otherwise specified. but in a:1 cases care shall be taken to see that they are rigid and safe.2 Exhaust Fans . The hole shall be neatly plastered with cement and brought to the original finish of the wall.All fan clamps shall be so fabricated that fans revolve steadily.For fixing of an exhaust fan. adequate strength to withstand the dead and impact forces imposed on it.0 mm’ copper or 1. There shall be a spacing of at least 125 mm between live parts and the mounting plane of the fixture.1 Ceiling Fans-Wiring for ceiling fans shall conform to the following requirements: a) Control of a ceiling fan shall be through its own regulator as well as a switch in series. irrespective of being painted to match the surroundings. Care shall be taken during fabrication that the metal does not crack while hammering to shape.1 In wiring other than conduit wiring. the earthed conductor of the circuit. 4 Canopies on top and bottom of suspension e) The lead-in-wire shall be of nominal cross- b) A bushing or the equivalent shall be rods shall effectively hide suspensions and connections to fan motors. 2. brackets.6 Outdoor Lamps .8 Fans. c) Ali wiring shall be free from short-circuits and shall be tested for these defects prior to being connected to the circuit.All lamps unless otherwise required and suitably protected. Metallic guards shall be earthed suitably. Flexible cord and cord grip lampholders shall not be used where exposed to weather.9. sectional area not less than 1.Lamps fitted outdoor shall have weather-proof fittings so as to effectively prevent the ingress of moisture and dust. The minimum clearance between the ceiling and the plane of the blades shall be not !ess than 300 mm.9 Attachment of Fittings and Accessories 2. shall be hung at a height of not less than 2. Fan clamps for reinforced concrete roofs shall be buried with the casting and due care shall be taken that they shall serve the purpose. care being taken that the blades rotate in the proper direction. 2.9. and shall in addition be secured by means of split pins. ceiling on which these clamps are to be fitted. Fan clamps for steel joint shall be fabricated from flat iron to fit rigidly to the bottom flange of the beam.4 m. NOTE .5 m above the floor level. The bushing shall be of insulating material unless a jacketted type or cord is used. Hand lamps shall be equipped with a handle of moulded composition or other material approved for the purpose. The size of such boards shall NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE . Regulators and Clamps 2. b) All ceiling fans shall be wired with normal wiring to ceiling roses or to special connector boxes to which fan rod wires shall be connected and suspended from hooks or shackels with insulators between hooks and suspension rods. Blocks shall not be less than 4 cm deep. In all cases fan clamps shall be fabricated from new metal of suitable sizes and they shall be as close fitting as possible. a circular hole shall be provided in the wall to suit the size of the frame which shall be fixed b y means of &-bolts embedded in the wall. Other fan clamps shall be made to suit the position. provided where flexible cord enters the base or stem of portable lamp.7 Lamps . respectively.8. they shall be of fixed rod type.5 mm* aluminium and shall be protected from abrasion. but if joints are unavoidable then such joints shall be screwed to special couplers of 5 cm minimum length and both ends of the pipes shall touch together within the couplers. Hand lamps shall be equipped with a substantial guard attached to the lamp holder or handle.2 Where teak or hardwood boards are used for mounting switches. The suspension rod shall be s. regulators.8. 4 Portable lamps shall be wired with flexible cord. In verandahs and similar exposed situations where pendants are used. 2. the clearance between the bottom-most point of the ceiling fan and the floor shall be not less than 2. pendants and accessories attached to walls or ceilings shall be mounted on substantial wooden blocks twice varnished after all fixing holes are made in them. 2.shade carriers. the neutral. the outer or screw contacts shall be connected to the ‘middle wire’. all ceiling roses. etc. alternatively the two pipes may be welded. c) Fan clamps shall be of suitable design according to the nature of construction of 46 2. Fan clamps for wood beams shall be of suitable flat iron fixed on two sides of the beam and according to the size and section of the beam one or two mild steel bolts passing through the beam shall hold both flat irons together. these boards shall be well varnished with pure shellac on all four sides (both inside and outside). d) Exposed live parts within porcelain fixtures shall be suitably recessed and so located as to make it improbable that wires will come in contact with them. 2. Brass screws shall only be used for attaching fittings and accessories to their base blocks. The exhaust fan shall be connected to exhaust fan point which shall be wired as near to the hole as possible by means of a flexible cord. There shall be no joint in the suspension rod. Where centrecontact Edison screw lampholders are used.

1. or wooden Gutties and shall he provided with a locking arrangement and an earthing stud. If there are any attachments of bare connections at the back of the switchboard. 3. Rule 5 I(t)(c) of Indian Electricity Rules.For small installations connected to a single-phase 240 volts supply.enable the board to swing open for examination ‘of the wiring at the back. CONSTRUCTION 3. or with unbreakable glass doors in teak 17 PART I GENERAL AND COMMON ASPECTS .Such type of boards are parlicularly suitable for small switchboards for mounting metal-clad switchgear connected to supply at low voltages. to drip or to abnormal moist atmosphere. The wiring throughout the installation shall be such that there is no break in the neutral wire in the form of the switch or fuse unit.1. Where t.1. where.depend on the number of accessories that could conveniently and neatly be arranged. 3.W h e r e S O specified.1 Control at the Point of Commencement of SUPPlY be provided with glands or bushings or adopted tb receive screwed conduit.1 All main switches shall be either of metal-clad enclosed pattern or of any insulated enclosed pattern which shall be fixed at close proximity to the point of entry of supply. The joints shall be welded.2. or within 2.1. the boards shall be painted with suitable.2 The main switchgear shall be easily accessible and shall he situated as near as practicable to the termination of service line. the conductors include an earthed conductor of a two-wire system or an earthed neutral conductor of a multi-wire system or a conductor which is to be connected thereto. the outer casing shall be weatherproof and shall 3.5 mm in thickness.2 M a i n Sn’itches and S~citc~hhoards 3. All wires passing through the metal board shall be bushed. the insulation of the cables is not subjected to damage and no short length of cables is subjected to excessive twisting or bending in any case.2. f-l In case of switchboards unavoidably fixed in places likely to be exposed to weather. woode? hoards may be used as main-boards or sub-boards.1.1.1. 4 In a damp situation or where flammable or explosive dust.5 m of any washing unit in the washing rooms. according to the manner in which the cabks are run. 3. A teak wood board. in dry situations and in ventilated rooms and they shall not be placed in the vicinity of storage batteries or exposed to chemical fumes.3 On the main switchgear. The front shall be fitted with a hinged panel of teak wood or other suitable material. the switchboards shah be recessed in the wall.hete is danger of attack by termite. antitermite paint. There shall be a clear distance of I m in front of the switchboard. g) Adequate illumination shall be provided for all working spaces about the switchboards when installed indoors.5 cm between the teak wood board and the cover. an indication of a permanent nature shall be provided to identity the earthed neutral conductor. b) cl Open type switchboards shall be placed only Fixed-type metal boards . stoves or sinks. These shall be of seasoned teak or other suitable quality timber with all joints dovetailed.1 There shall be ctrcuit-breakei or a linked switch with fuse on each live conductor of the supply mains at the point of entry.1.2 Location The location of the main board should be such that it is easily accessible for fireman and other personnel to quickly disconnect the supply in case of emergencies. 3. b) Main switchboards shall be installed in rooms or cupboards having provisions for locking arrangement so as to safeguard against operation by unauthorized personnel. the distance being increased for larger boards in order that on closing of the cover.1. There shall be a clear distance of not less than 2.2. cl e) Switchboards shall not be erected above gas Wooden boards . thoroughly protected both inside and outside with insulating varnish and of not less than 6. the switchboard shall be totally enclosed or made flameproof as may be necessitated by the particular circumstances. vapour or gas is likely to be present. 1956 shall apply.1.These shall consist of an angle or channel iron frame fixed on the wall. plugs. 3.1. such as bakclite.1 Reception and Distribution of Main Supply 3.23 Metal-clad switchgear shall preferably be mounted on any of the following types of boards: a) Hinged-type metal ‘boards . on the underside instead of pure shellac.4 R e c e s s i n g q/ hoards-. The board shall be securely fixed to the wall by means of rag bolts.1. N O T E-Such type of boards are particularly suitable for large switchboards for mountmg large number of switchgears or higher capacity metal-clad switchgear or both. N OTE . hinged-type metal boards shall be made of sheet covering mounted on channel or angle iron frame. 3. 3. Alternatively. shall bc provided at the back for attachment of incoming and outgoing cables. or on the floor and supported on the wall at the top if necessary.These shall consist of a box made of sheet metal not less than 2 mm thick and shall be provided with a hinged cover to.

6 Arrangemetlr o/’ apparatus 3. circuit. each such switch shall be marked to indicate which section of the installation it controls. In corrosive atmospheres. <‘ODE .3 cm from any edge of the panel. changing of fuses like operation. Power subcircuits shall be designed according to the load but in no case shall there be more than two 15-A outlets on each sub-circuit. including the disposition of the . Power sub-circuits shall be designed according to the load but in no case shall there be more than four outlets on each sub-circuit.mountings. the outer surface of the doors being flush with the walls. The switches shall always be linked. fans and lights may be wired on a common circuit. all circuits and sub-circuits shall be designed by making a provision of 20 percent increase in load due to any future modification. they shall be trcatcd with anti-corrosivc prcservativc.3.3 Branch distribution hoards a) Branch distribution boards shall be provided 4 Equipment which is on the front of a switchboard shall be so arranged that inadvertent personal contact with live parts is unlikely during the manipulation of switches.3 . each such switch shall be marked to indicate which section of the installation it controls. non-flammable insulating material. N A T I O N A L EI. and shall not bc more than 2 m from floor level.1. these fuses shall be so arranged that the fuses are not live when their respective switches are in off position. on the live conductor of each sub-circuit and the earthed n. before proceeding with the actual construction of the boards.1. unless they are effectively screened by substantial barriers of non-hygroscopic.7 Identification and marking a) Marking shall be done as given in Table I of Set 41 Part I of the Code. if exposed to weather or damp situations. c) In installations requiring the use of group 4 The arrangement of the gear shall be such e) In every case in which switches and fuses are 0 No fuses other than fuses in instrument circuit shall be fixed on the back of or behind a switchboard panel or frame.3.5 cm of any edge of the panel and no hole other than the holes by means of which the panel is fixed shall be drilled closer than 1. b) No apparatus shall project beyond any edge b) Lights and fans may be wired on a common cl The.4 Installation on distribution boards 3. or co\cred with \uit:thlc plastic compound. 3.1.C:(‘TWI<‘AI. The load on any low voltage sub-circuit shall not exceed 3 000 watts.eutraI conductor shall be connected to a common link and be capable of being disconnected individually for testing purposes. Looping by cable connections at incoming and outgoing of these devices should be avoided.2. fitted on the same pole. that they shall be readily accessible and their connections to all instruments and apparatus shall also be easily identifiable. or all-insulated type. The load of such circuit shall be restricted to 800 watts. 3. 3.1 Main and branch distribution boards shall be of any type mentioned under 3. with a fuse or a miniature circuit-breaker or both of adequate rating/setting.5 In large installations of medium voltage. 3. the number of P in ans the circuit shall not exceed ten. In case of new installation.3. At least one spare circuit of the same capacity shall be provided on each branch distribution board.3.wood frame with locking arrangement. if need is felt separate circuits may be provided for the I W O. b) These shall be fixed on suitable stanchion or wall and shall be accessible for replacement of fuses. they shall be of the weatherproof type.\lrihirriort Hourcl\ 411 a) The distribution fuse-boards shall be located as near as possible to the centre of the load they are intended to control. 3. or a switch with a fuse on the phase or live conductor and link on the neutral or earthed conductor of each circuit.rmanent.2. b) Where a board has more than one switch. c) All markings shall be clear and pe.1.2 Main distribution board shall be provided with a circuit-breaker on each circuit. Ample room shall be provided at the back for c o n n e c t i o n a n d a t t h e *front b e t w e e n t h e switchgear mountings.1. control for switching operation.3. If a se arate fan circuit is provided.1.2. however.Iltritt trtiil Brutli~h I~i. Such sub-circuit shall not have more than a total of ten points of lights. circuits for socket outlets may bc kept separate from fans and lights. which shall be symmetrically and neatly arranged for arriving at the overall dimensions. various live parts.1. Normally. shall be so spaced that an arc cannot maintain between such parts and earth.ocket outlets.1.2. No fuse body shall be mounted within 2. a proper drawing showing the detailed dimensions and design. of the panel. The main switch shall be marked as such and where there is more than one main switch in the building. fans and 5-A . c) These shall be of either metal-clad type. 3. But. shall be prepared and incorporated in the building drawing.1.

the incoming and outgoing cables shall be fixed at one or more points according to the number of cables on the back of the board leaving suitable space in between cables. avoiding unnecessary crossings. 3.1. e) If required.3. as the case may be. all branch switches shall be placed in the outer or live conductor of the circuit and no single-phase switch or fuse shall be inserted in the middle wire. the rating of the cable shall be the current which the circuit is designed to carry.5 cm is maintained between conductors of opposite polarity or phase and between the conductors and any material other than insulating material. Conductor for final sub-circuit for fan and light wiring shall have a nominal crosssectional area not less than 1.1. d All distribution boards shall be marked Lighting’ or ‘Power’. as far as possible evenly between the number of ways of the board. 3.50 mm? aluminium. a pilot lamp shall be fixed and connected through an independent singlepole switch and fuse to the bus-bars of the board.00 mm2 copper and 1.6.5 Wiring qf tlivrrihurion boards: c) Every fuse shall have in its own case or cover.cable size is increased to avoid voltage drop in the circuit. these distribution boards shall be: The cables between these points shall be of such length as to allow. . I GENERAL ANS) COMMON ASPECTS 3. Care shall be taken to see that wires pass very 49 PAR1 .1.2 If the .6 Fuses apart. the switchboard panel to swing through an angle of not less than 900 3.1 The sizes d conductors of circuits shall be so selected that the drop in voltage from consumer’s terminals in a public supply (or from the bus-bars of the main switchboard controlling the various circuits in a private generation plant) to any point on the installation does not exceed 3 percent of the voltage at the consumer’s terminals (or at two bus-bars as the case may be) when the a) In wiring a branch distributioh board. namely. Cables in each circuit shall be bunched together.1. t % ey are interlocked. In each circuit or sub-circuit the fuse shall be selected to match the cable rating to ensure the desired protection. and distribution is done on the two-wire system.down.Where the supply is derived from a three-wire or four-wire source. Each shall be provided with a circuit . if possible. and also marked with the voltage and number of phases of the supply.1.4 Selection of Size qf Conductor (see Set I8 Part I of the Code). 4.1. NOTE-The wiring of such low voltage distribution boards shall be segregated from each other and not run in the same condvk a) A fuse carrier shall not be fitted with a fuseelement of higher rating than that for which the carrier is designed (see Set 18.1. b) The current rating of a fuse shall not exceed the current rating of the smallest cable in the circuit protected by the fuse.and shall also. or 2) arranged so that it is not possible to o n the two at the same time. conductors are carrying the maximum current under the normal conditions of service. b) c) Cables shall be connected to a terminal only by soldered or welded or crimped lugs using suitable sleeve. Part I c?f the Code).d) Where two or more distribution fuse-boards feeding low voltage circuits are fed from a I) fixed not less than 2 m supply of medium voltage. 3 ) i n s t a l l e d in a room or enclosure accessible to only authorited persons.4. total load of the consuming devices shall be divided. leaving the spare circuit for future extension. 3. 4 All bare conductors shall be rigidly fixed in such a manner that a clearance of at least 2. one.1. following the arrangements of the apparatus mourited thereon. lugs or ferrules unless the terminal is of such a form that it is possible to securely clamp them without the cutting away of cable strands. The cross-sectional areas of conductors for power wiring shall be not less than 2.00 mm? aluminium. 3. be fixed at the corresponding points on the switchboard panel. copper. an indelible indication of its appropriate current rating for the protection of the circuit which it controls.1 Where cond:uctors pass through walls. 3. All connections between pieces of apparatus or between apparatus and terminals on a board shall be neatly arranged in a definite sequence.43 All conductors shall be of copper or aluminium.5 mm?.6 Passing Through Walls and Floors 3.1.50 mm? copper. and the metal case is marked ‘Danger 415 volts’ and identified with proper phase marking and danger marks. The minimum cross-sectional area of conductors of flexible cord shall be 0. 3. 1) In a hinged type board.of the following methods shall be employed. Single-pole switches (other than for multiple control) carrying current of not more than I5 A may be of tumbler tybe or flush type which shall be ‘on’ when the handle or knob is . earth or earthed neutral conductor of the circuit.4. or in an adjacent conspicuous position.list giving details of each circuit which it controls and the current rating of the circuit and size offusedlement.3.5 Branch Switches .

on either ends of such holes: be liable to mechanical injury and where they are less than I.1. shall be used without any further protection. the remainder being finished according to the nature of the surface with plaster or lime punning. teak wood plugs shall be fixed in the walls before they are plastered 3.1.5 cm square on the inner end and 2 cm square on the outer end They shall be cemented into walls to within 6. and the difference in size shall be reasonable.Vulcanized rubber inslulated cables.All cleats shall be of apprqved design and shall consist of two parts. in which cases they shall be adequately protected.1 Where owing to irregular coursing or other reasons the plugging of the walls or ceiling with wood plugs presents difficulties. in such a manner so as to be visible except in positions where they would 50 . wood or other suitable material. metal conduit or cleat (as the case may) shall be attached to the wall or ceiling in a suitable manner that would conform to the requirements given in the Code. cleats shall be attached to plugs arranged in the manner specified under 4. 4.4 Cleats .6. metallic or a fibre fixing plug.1.2 To achieve neatness.25 m run. The batten shall be of seasoned teak or other suitable seasoned hardwood 2 cm thick and 2. 4. the wood casing.1.1. 4. but when owing to irregular coursing or other reasons it is impracticable to fix the cleats in a regular and workman like manner. it shall be chamfered on the edges.7 Fixing to Walls and Ceilings . wherever possible.5 m above the floor.6 Fixing qf Cleats a) A teak wood box extending through the whole thickness of the wall shall be buried in the wall and casings or conductors shall be carried so as to allow 1.3 cm between the NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 4. which will rigidly maintain a distance of at :least 1. so that there may be no risk of the conductors touching the wall owing to sagging or stretching. where conductors pass round corners. 3. a base piece and a cap.1 Cleated Wiring System 4. adopted in the cases of stone walls. c) Insulated conductors while passing through 3. if the cable used in twin-core.2 Where a wall tube passes outside a building so as to be exposed to weather.1. Cleats shall be fixed at distances not greater than 60 cm apart and at regular intervals. b) Where practicable the same method shall be 4. In the case of new buildings. Care shall be taken in selecting size of cleats particularly for branch distribution wiring where two-way and three-way porcelain cleats are essential. 3.This system shall not be employed for wiring on damp walls or ceilings unless suitable precautions in an approved manner are adopted to effectively prevent dampness from affecting the insulation of conductors. wrought all over and varnished with two coats of varnish or painted as may be required.1 General. b) The conductor shall be carried either in a rigid steel conduit or a rigid non-metallic conduit or in a porcelain tube of such a size which permits easy drawing-in.freely through protective pipe or box and that the wires pass through in a straight line without any twist or cross in wires.Plugs for ordinary wails or ceilings shall be of well-seasoned teak or other suitable hardwood not less than 5 cm long and 2. and properly bushed on the open end.1. Under no circumstances two wires shall be placed in one groove of porcelain cleats.1.lJ Crossing yf’ Conductors a) Where cleated conductors cross each other they shall be separated by an insulating biidging piece.5 cm above the floors and flush with the ceiling below. wood.All cleated wiring shall be run.3 Class q/ Cables . conductors shall not be less than 2. 4. plastic (PVC and polyethylene) insulated cables. provided that this rule shall not apply. 4.7.5 Where cleated wiring is laid along iron joists or any metal. This steel conduit shall be earthed and securely bushed.5 cm apart centre-tocentre and in the case of sub-mains not less than 4 cm apart centre-to-centre. braided or unbraided. A special pattern of cleat may be used. a wood batten shall be provided and fixed with not less than one plug per 1.3 cm air space on three sides.7. floors shall be protected from mechanical injury by means of rigid steel conduit to a tieight not less than I. spacing between such metal and porcelain cleats shall be inserted either with varnished wood fillet or varnished wood clamp securely fixed so as to prevent conductors coming in contact with such metal along which they are passing.7. as far as pra&icable. Care shall also be taken that graoves of porcelaicl cleats do not compress the insluation nor be too wide to give a very loose fit. 4. batten.1.1.For circuit voltages up to 250 volts.1.2 Accessihi/ir\* . a) In ordinary cases.5 cm wider than the cleat used.1. The end of conduit shall be neatly bushed with porcelain. the outer end shall be bell-mouthed-and turned downwards.5 cm of the surface. of the casing or conductor. plugging of walls or ceilings may be done by a suitable type of asbestos. cleats shall be of such dimensions that in the case of branch loads.7 Distance Between Wires . if necessary. METHODS OF INTERNAL WIRING 4.

shakes. For sizes above 64 mm similar additional round-head screws shall be fixed on the centre-wall (or alternative walls in cases of 3 grooves) at an interval of 45 cm. NOIV Care shall bc taken in llxing screws on cupping\ w that they do nol picrcr through Ihe walls casing and damage the insulation. 4.fuse cut-outs shall not be inserted for any purpose.conductors except when the cabk used is twincore.4 Bunching q/ Circuits . junction boxes of wooden or other insulating material with porcelain connectors inside shalf be used. 4. shall be of well-seasoned teak wood or of suitable insulating material and shall be of double type. 4 .5 A t t a c h m e n t qf Casing to Wall and Ceihng .1 General. 4. that is. 2 .2. such as boards.6 At/acVwwnl of Capping .9 Prorecrion Near Floor bunched in one groove in wood casing. (both inside and outside) with pure shellac varnish. walls. of 4. Where conductors have to cross corners. and free joints.Conductors of opposite polarity or different phases shall not be PART I GENERAL AND COMMON ASPECTS 4. roof spaces or other concealed spaces in which they are not normally open to view. free from knots.All casing shall be of seasoned teak wood or any other suitable hardwood. partitions. b) As far as possible.7 Join/s in Casing and Capping .2 Wood C&g Wiring System 4. nor fixed in proximity to gas. but where joints are required for connecting or bifurcating the wires.t\ that of capping shall be used with grooves at the bottom for conductors. may be bunched. unless suitable precautions are taken. teak wood solid corner pieces of a radius not less than 7. b) In open type wiring. Casing shall be used only on dry walls and ceilings avoiding outside walls. All joints shall be scarfed or cut diagonally ‘in longitudinal section and shall be smoothed down by fitting to make joints a very close fit as far as possible.1. and spaced with disc insulators. if so desired.2. Where crossing of wire\ is unavoidable and a junction box is not used. 2 Mureriol atltl Buftcrtl 91’ C a s i n g ~. steam or water pipes or immediately below the latter Casing under steel joists shall be securt. no open type of wiring shall run within floors. c) At the time of laying and drawing of conductors.2. two screws shall be inserted on the two dividing walls in a workmanlike manner).3 Dimensions qf Casing . plastic insulated cables or other suitable insulated cables are used in the wiring work and carried within wood casing enclosure.5 mm thick. All casing shall be spaced from the wall or ceiling by means of porcelain disc insulators not less than 6.2. The wooden boards shall be well varnished on all sides (both inside and outside) and may be mounted with suitable porcelain Insulators behind the boards.above floor level. blocks. 4.d by hoopiron or by of wood clamps. 2 .2. tight and rigid without any twist. saps. They shall be secured at joints with two or more screws as would be necessary. care shall be taken to keep’the wires straight. ceilings.5 cm and 01 same width as that of casing with same tini%h . When brought through the floor it shall be enclosed in cOnduit in the manner specified’ in 4. and such pipe work shall be earthed and properly bushed on all open ends to prevent abrasion of cables. keeping mechanical continuity throughout the entire layout. and shall not be buried in walls or ceilings under plaster. d) All wooden fittings.9.5 m. joint cut-outs or.I bridge piece of casing shall be fixed on the top of casing with neat finish and shall pass conductor\ avoiding crossing.s Where conductors pass through floors.8 Ly~wur c?/’ Wood Cuing Wiring I.All casing shall be fixed by means of suitable countersunk head wood screws to plugs at an interval not exceeding 90 cm for sizes up to 64 mm casing and not exceeding 60 cm for sizes above 64 mm casing.All capping shall be attached to the casing (after all insulated wires are laid inside grooves) by round-head screws (rust resisting) fixed on edges and screwed to outer wails of the casing at an interval not exceeding 15 cm crosswise (that is.Casing and capping shall be run in lengths as long as possible. 9 P a s s i n g Thsou~h Fioor. all sides plaqed with smooth finish and all sides well varnish’ed. The conduit shall 51 . 4 . Wood casing wiring system shall not be used in damp places or in illventilated places. 30 cm between two successive screws on each side) for all sizes up to 64 mm casing and capping..2. NOTE--Lengths of conductors of the same polarity or phase. they shall he carried in an approved heavy gauge conduit properly bushed at both ends.2. Joints in capping shall not overlap those in the casing. in such case conductors shall be carried through steel conduit with all screwed accessories.ay~Llt of wood casing wiring shall he such as to avoid corners as far as possible and avoid crossing of conductors inside the casing. separate base and top. .This system of wiring is suitable for low voltage installation where vulcanized rubber insulated cables. The casing shall have grooved~ body with beaded or plain moulded cover as desired. a) No cleated wiring shall be left unprotected up to I. as far as possible. etc.The sizes of casing and capping for various sizes of 250 volts grade insulated cables in a groove shall be in accordance with those specified in Table 2 of Set 18! Part I of the Code. or other defects. 4. Screw heads shall be countersunk within the dividing wall of the grooves (in the case of three-grooved casing.2. 4.

3. if so required.Metal-sheathed wiring system is suitable for low voltage.6 Passing Through Floors .3.All cables taken through floors shall be enclosed in an insulated heavy gauge steel conduit extending I. and shall not be used in places exposed to sun and rain nor in damp places.10 C a s i n g R o u n d Mouldings or Decora/ions -. The conduit shall be securely earthed.If so required. after erection. which shall.4. or by means of any other approved type of metallic covering.The wiring shall not in any circumstances be bent so as to form a right angle but shall be rounded off at the corners to a radius not less than six times the .1 In cases where there are chances of any damage to the wiring such wiring shall be covend with sheet metal protective covering. the tough rubber sheathed wiring shall.3.5 m below ceiling level and neatly entered into the hasing.1 All sheathed cables on brick walls. 4. the flat-head wood screws shall be countersunk within wood batten and smoothed down with file. The protective outer covering of the cables shall be stripped off near connecting terminals.6. where so specified. 4.2. 4. or the wiring shall be drawn through a conduit complying with all requirements of conduit wiring system. clips specially made for dutdoor use from a durable metal.8 B u r i e d C a b l e s .11 Painting and Varnishing .4.All casing and capping shall be given before erection. be suitably protected at the floor level.2 Such protective covering shall in all cases be fitted or all downdrops within 1. In addition all casing together with capping after erection shall be painted or varnished to the 4 desired finish.3. and the PVC-sheathed wiring shall be painted with a synthetic enamel paint of quick drying type. 4. or plaster walls and ceilings.The method to be adopted shall be that laid.Link clips shall be so arranged that one single clip shall not ho&more than two twin-core TRS or PVC-sheathed cables up to I. 4. and shall not be used in situations where acids and alkalis are likely to be present. 4. This system of wiring is suitable in situations where acids and alkalis are likely to be present. stone.9 Stripping of Outer Covering .3.3. Metalsheathed wiring may be used in places exposed to sun and rain NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 4.4 Metal-Sheathed Wiring System 4.This shall be considered as special decoration work and carried out in consultation with the architect or the engineer-in-charge of construction work and with this approval. shall be used.1. they sh‘8il be made moisture-proof 1 with suitable plastic compound.0 Genera/.10 Painting . care shall be taken that the stiarp edge of the cutting instrument does not touch the rubber or PVC sheathed insulation of conductors. The ends of all conduits or pipes shall be neatly bushed with porcelain..3. they may be taken in teak wood channelling of ample capacity or cement chases or conduit buried in the wall. For the wiring and runs of mains exposed to heat and rain.ith one coat of varnish or suitable paint matching with the surroundings. wood or other approved material. installations.be carried 1. or any structural steel work shall he run on well-seasoned aqd varnished. internally and on the back.T h e t o u g h r u b b e r sheathed cables shall not be buried directly in plaster.0 General.5 mm?.5 m from the floor. 4. These battens shall be secured to the walls and ceilings by countersunk head wood screws to coed plugs or other plugs at an interval pot exceeding 75 cm.Wiring with tough rubbersheathed cables is suitable for low voltage installations. antitermite treatment shall be given. and this protective covering shall be maintained up to the close proximity of connecting terminals as far as practicable.5 Bends in Wiring -. 4. above which a single clip shall hold a single twin-core cable. l 4. straight teak wood battens of not less than IO mm finished thickness and the width of which is such as to suit total width of cables laid on the batten.4. 4.3 Tough Rubber-Sheathed or PVC-Sheathed Wiring System 4.3. Wiring with PVC-sheathed cables is suitable for medium voltage’installation and may be installed directly under exposed conditions of sun and rain or damp places. In the latter case there shall be one or more conduits of adequate size to carry the cables. The clips shall be fixed on varnished wood battens with any rustresisting pins or screws and spaced at intervals of IO cm in the case of horizontal runs and I5 cm in the case of vertical runs.3.from Mechanical Damage 52 . be painted with one coat of oil-free paint or distemper of suitable colour over a coat of oil-free primer. The conduits shall be neatly arranged so that the cables enter them straight without b_ending. resistant to weather and atmospheric corrosion. steel joists.While cutting and stripping of the outer covering of the cables. 43. the base of which is made flush with the plaster or brickwork.3.4 Protection of TRS or PVC-Sheathed Wiring . two coats of varnish. these shall be painted \. Care shall be taken to avoid hammering on link clips with any metal instruments. as the case may be. after the cables are laid.5 m above the floor and flush with the ceiling below.overall diameter of the cable.3 Link Clips -.2.down in 3. Where attack from termite is’prevalent. Prior to’erection. 4. 4. 4.1 Passing Through Walls .3. wires are sheathed in protective covering against atmosphere and well protected to withstand dampness.5 m above floor level and 2. Where junction boxes are provided.

a batten shall first be laid on the joists and clipped to it as in. resistant to weather and atmospheric corrosion. 4.5 Join/s .the sharp edge of cutting instrument does not touch the rubber or PVC insulation of conductors. stripped off.10 Earthing ~ Precautions shall be taken to ensure that all metal sheathing including portable appliance with exposed metal parts.icrogap mainswitches or similar fittings. measured from the connection with the earth electrode to any other position in the completed installation shall not exceed IfI.4.4.4. metal-sheathed cables can be run on metallic saddles. or across these boxes.4. 4. Prior to erection these shall be painted with one coat of varnish or suitable paint of colour to match with the surroundings. in comph&nce with Indian Electricity Rules.Where joint-box system is specified. together with all joint-boxes and other similar receptacles are efficiently earthed in accordance with the requirements laid down under 5. with earth continuity conductors (each bonded cables) especially manufactured for the purpose. 4. The wiring shall be fixed to the batten in the ordinary way. all openings in the same shall be sealed. The joint-boxes shall be so constructed as to prevent insects from entering them and to allow the white-washing of the walls without water having access to the connectors. Alternatively. The width of teak wood battens shall be such as to suit the total width of cables -laid on the batten.4. All tape shall be. 4.5 mm2 above which a single clip shall hold a single twincore cable.All cables taken through floors shall be enclosed in an insulated steel conduit extending 1. steel joists or any structural steel work shall be run on well-seasoned and perfectly straight teak wood battens of not less than IO mm finished thickness.These shall be so arranged that one single clip shall not hold more than two twin-core metal-sheathed.4. clips specially made for the outdoor use from a durable metal.2 Arrachment to Walls and Ceilings .The electrical resistance of the metal sheathing together with the resistance of the earthing lead. 4.3 and made electrically continuous throughout their lengths by means of soldered joints or approved suitable clamps or alternatively. The cotton tape covering shall always remain inside lead covering of cables.1 In cases where there are chances of any damage to the wiring. The conduit(s) shall be neatly arranged so that the cables enter them straight without bending.4. For the wiring and runs of mains exposed to heat and rain. care shall be taken to remove cotton !ape covering from the top of rubber insulation of cable. shall be used. the metal sheathing shall be nicked only.7 Passing Through Floors . this system may be installed in damp places with protection against ingress of dampness provided at the open ends of the cables. 1956. joints shall be made by means of connectors. These battens shall be secured to the wills and ceilings by counter sunk head wood screws to wood plugs or other approved plugs a.4.11 Testing .4. stone walls or plastered walls and ceilings. or protected by means of any other approved type of metallic covering.All metal-sheathed cables on brick walls. 4.4.1 When rubber or PVC insulation has to be stripped for joints.t an interval not exceeding 75 cm. not cut. 4. Bonding connections shall be so arranged as not to come in contact with plaster.onspicuously as possible. 53 .4 ProtecGon of Wiring from Mechanical Damage 4. which have been well varnished on four sides. In the latter case there shall be one or more conduits of adequate size to carry the cables.1. the base of which is made flush with the plaster or brickwork.2 While cutting and stripping of the outer covering of the cables.8 Passing Through Walls -The method to be adopted shall be that laid down in 3. All cables shall PART t tiENERAL AND COMMON ASPECTS be bonded through. distribution boards.1 Link Clips .6. as the case may be. and the insulation between the metal sheath and the conductors shall be of rubber or PVC sheath only.4. cables up to 1. 4. Where paper-insulated metalsheathed cable is used. 4. 4. The clips shall be fixed on varnished wood battens with brass pins or brass screws and placed at intervals of IO cm in the case of horizontal runs and 15 cm in the case of vertical runs. 4. The earthing shall extend to all main switches.3 Wiring on Rolled Steel Joists .provided no joint of any description is exposed.9 Buried Cables Metal-sheathed cables shall in no case be buried directly in the plaster or under any masonry work. 4.4. the wood screws shall be counter sunk within wood batten and smoothed down with file.6. well as manufacturers design and inst+uctions in connection with earthing of all insulated m.5 m above the floor and flush with the ceiling below.4. insulated with porcelain. While connecting conductors to the connecting terminals of accessories.6.2 The protective covering shall in all cases be carried right through the entire length of such doubtful positions. such wiring shall be covered with sheet metal protective covering. The ends of all conduits or pipes shall be neatly bushed with porcelain. as.4. wood or other suitabk material.4. 4.4. or the wiring shall be drawn through a steel conduit pipe by complying with all requirements of conduit system of wiring. etc. care shall be taken that .6 Stripping of Insulation and Outer Covering 4.Where wiring is to be carried along the tace of rolled steel joists. or other approved material and enclosed in joint-boxes.4.

All conduit accessories shall be of threaded type and under no circumstances pin grip type or clamp type .5.All outlets .13 C o n d u i r j o i n t s . The entire system of conduit after erection shall be tested for mechanical and electrical continuity throughout and permanently connected to earth by means of suitable earthing clamp. unions. draw boxes. a) Making of chase-The chase in the wall shall be neatly made and be of ample dimensions to p.4.1 . In alI cases. No single-core cable of nominal cross-sectional area greater than 130 mm* enclosed alone in a conduit and used for alternating current. solid type ‘fittings shall be used.5 Conduit Wiring System 4. Fixing qf conduir in chase -The conduit shall be fixed by means of staples or by means of saddles not more than 60 cm apart.All conduit pipes shall be finished with stove enamelled surface. conform to the rbquirements specified below. Fixing of standaid bends or elbows shall be avoided as far as practicable and all curves maintained by bending the aonduit pipe itself with a long radius which will permit easy drawing-in of conductors.5. All threaded joints of rigid steel conduit shall be treated with some.1. saddles shall be fixed at a distance of 30 cm from the centre of such fitting. etc.1. Conduit fittings shall be avoided as far as possible on conduit system exposed to weather.5. In the case of buildings under construction.5. etc.5.1. or by inserting suitable 54 4.7 Bends in conduit . If conduits are liable to mechanical damage. where necessary. insulated conductors of ac supply and dc supply shall be bunched in separate conduits.5. but in such a manner as to prevent the entry of insects as far as possible.5 cm.approved preseivative compound to secure protection against rust.Where required.5. 4. elbows and tees shall be so installed that they remain accessible for such purposes as withdrawal of existing cable< or installation of additional cables. no bare threaded portion of conduit pipe shall be allowed unless such bare threaded portion is treated with anti-corrosive preservative or covered with suitable plastic compound.12 Puinring .5. In long distance straight runs of conduit.the original finish of the wall.-srem with Rigid Steel Conduits .6 Fixing of conduit . 4.5.11 Inspection type conduit fittings such as inspection boxes.accessories be used.2 Bunching of cables . the bends at the outlets not being counted. NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE b) . Threads on conduit pipes in all cases shall be between I I mm to 27 mm long sufficient to accommodate pipes to full threaded portion of couplers or accessories.shall be used.4 Prorection against dampness .ermit the conduit to be fixed in the manner desired.1. inspection type couplers at reasonable intervals Shall be provided or running threadi with couplers and jam-nuts shall be provided. all metalsheathed wiring or its protective covering when such is fitted.1. at the time of their construction and shall be filled up neatly after erection of conduit and brought to . junction boxes.Conduit pipes shall be fixed by heavy gauge saddles. but on either side of couplers or bends or similar fitting. 4.wo’rkman like manner for a perfect continuity between each wire and conduit. 4. 4. efficiently fastened to conduit in a .5 Prortction of conduit against rust The outer surface of ‘the conduit pipes.1. 4.1. including all bends. Radius of such bends in conduits shall be not less than 7. Cut ends df conduit pipes shall have no sharp edges nor any burrs left to avoid damage to the insulation of conductors while pulling them’ through such conduits. 4.1.11 and in tidditional.1.1.4. shall be neatly painted after erection with two coats of any suitable paint. or any other approved outlet boxes for either surface mounting or flush mounting system.5. f&r fittings.1 to 4.8 Ourlets . 4.C o n d u i t shall be joined by means of screwed couplers and screwed accessoeries only.2 Recessed Conduit Wiring S. switches.5. etc.5. No length of conduit shall have more than the equivalent of four quarter-bends from outlet to outlet. ceiling.All necessary bends in the system including diversion shall be done by bending pipes.Unless otherwise specified. forming part of the conduit system shall be adequately protected against rust particularly when such system is exposed to weather. 4. bends. solid or inspection type normal bends.1 7)pe and size of conduit . 4.‘secured to suitable wood plugs or other plugs with screws in an approved manner at an interval of not more than I m.1. The number of insulated conductors that can be drawn into rigid steel conduit are given in Table 3 of set 18/Part I of the Code.1 Surfacp Conduit Wiririg System with Rigid Steel Conduits 4. For lighting and small power outlet circuits phase segregation in separate conduits is recommended.5.All conductors used in conduit wiring shall preferably be stranded. elbows or similar fittings. 4. shall be boxes of suitable meta.5.Recessed conduit wiring system shall comply with’all the requirements for surface conduit wiring system specified in 4.5.9 Conductors . they shall be a‘dequately protected. or fixing cast-iron inspection boxes whichever is more suitable. tees.In order to minimize condensation or sweating inside the conduit all outlets of conduit system shall be properly drained and ventilated.lO Erecrion and earthing of con&t The conduit of each circuit or section shall be completed before conductors are drawn-in. chases shall be provided in the wall. No steel conduit less than 16 mm in diameter.

inspection bends. all outlets of conduit systems shall be properly drained and ventilated.Inspection boxes . Suitable ventilating holes shall be provided in the inspection box covers. may be either of flush mounting type or of surface mounting type.5. as far as possibk. These shall be mounted flush with the wall. 4. b) resistant to moisture and chemical atmospheres. switches etc. elbows or similar fittings. Where there are long runs of straight conduit. 4. Certain types of ri id PVC conduits and their associated fittings are unsuitibe for use where the g ambient temperature is likely to fall below -5°C.1 Outlets -all the outlets for fittings. if necessary. The metal box shall be effciently earthed with conduit by.5. NOTE .5 B e n d s i n necessary. d) Types of accessories to be used .If surface mounting type. 4.outlet box is specified.4 Conduit Wiring Systems wiih Flexibk Non-metallic Conduits .a suitable means of earth attachment. and cl resistant to low temperature and sunlight effects. 4.5. bends or diversions may be achieved by bending the conduits (see 45.5.5. ii) Surface mounting type . For use underground.5.33 Conduit joints . inspection boxes.3. on outdoor systems. cl conduit . For !ighting and small power outlet circuits phase segregation in separate circuits is recommended. they shall be secured at intervals not exceeding I. etc.2(a) to (d) shall apply.10 Non-metallic conduit systems shall be used only where it is ensured that they -are: a) suitable for extremes of ambient temperature to which they are likely to be subjected in service.536 Conduit fittings shall be avoided. In order to minimize condensation or sweating inside the conduit. as far as possible.9) or by employing normal bends.4 Fixing of Conduits .3.Where flexible nonmetallic conduits are unavoidabk. e) When -crossing through expansion joints in buildings. 9 Flush mounting type .5 m and within 300 mm ‘on each side of every outkt box or fittmg. 4. 4. As the material softens ‘when heated. PART I GENERAL AND COMMON ASPECTS .1 Qpe and sire-The conduit may be either threaded type or plain type and shall be used with the corresponding accessories. it shall be of any suitable insulating material. However thts provision is not applicabk where flexible conduit 1s fished and for lengths of not over 900 mm at terminals where flexibility is necessary.9 Heat may be used to soften the conduit for bending and forming joints in case of plain conduit.5. the conduit sections -across the joint may be through flexible conduits of the same size as the rigid conduit. such al switches and sockets. 4.The provision of 4.suitable for use where the normal w&king te. recessed and conceakd conduit wiring.Rigid non-metallic conduits are used for surface.532 Btinching of cables .6 shall apply except that the spacing between saddles or supports is recommended to be 60 cm for rigid non-metallic conduits.3. inspection type couplers shall be provided at intervals.Wherever 4.3. The switches and other outlets shall be mounted on such boxes.53.All outlets.3 Conduit Wiring System with Rigid Nonmetallic Conduits .3.npcrature of the conduits and fittings may exceed WC.g For use with recessed conduit wiring system the provisions of 4.Rigid PVC conduits are not.1. shall be boxes of substantial constru&ion.3.5. The number of insulated cables that may be drawn into the conduits are given in Table 4 of Set 18/Part I of the Code. Cautton should be exercised in the use of this conduit in locations where the ambient temperature is 5oOC or above. but in such a manner as to prevent the entry of insects. The minimum sizes of inspection boxes shall be 75 X 15 mm.5.Conductors of ac supply and dc supply shall be bunched in separate conduits. 4. the material shall be acceptably resistant to moisture and corrosive agents.Suitable inspection boxes shall be provided to permit periodical inspection and to facilitate removal of wires. positioning of conduit in close proximity to hot surfaces should be avoided.Conduits shall be joined by means of screwed or plain couplers depending on whether the conduits are screwed or plain. 4.53. 4.All flush mounting outlets shall be of cast-iron or mild steel boxes with a cover of insulating material or shall be a box made of a suitable insulating material. 45.

Part 2 Design and construction IS : 3043-1966 Code of practice for earthing. 0. If necessary. ynless otherwise specified.1 This Section of the Code covers general requirements associated with earthing in electrical installations. 69. The different types of earthing s stems are listed in Appendix A to Set I/Part r of the Code.0.6 Earth electrodes shall be provided at generating stations. design parameters of earth electrode. xe purpose of this is to ensure thqt in general811 parts of apparatus. 1. there can exist no difference of . other than live parts. if they are poorly made or inadequate for the purpose for which they are initnded.0.This section shall be read in conjunction with the provisions of IS : 3043-1966.7 As far as possible all earth terminals shall be visible. The terms earth and earthing have been used in this Code.0. The earth connection improves service continuity and avoids damage to equipment and danger to human lives.potential in a short distance big enough to shock or injure an attendant when short-circuits or other abnormal occurrences take place.5. 61.1 Earthing provides safety of persons and apparatus against earth faults. Specific requirements for earthing in individual installations are covered in respective Parts of the Code. to denote a low impedance return path of the fault current. The choice of one system or the other would de nd on several considerations as each offer di tl” ferent degree of performance/ safety. shall be at earth potential. 67. These relate to general conditions of soil resistivity.01 All connections shall be canfully made. and the relevant regulations of the electricity supply authority concerned.0. Particular requirements for earthing depending on the type of installation are covered in respective Sections of the Code. 2. 2. while earthing of noncurrent carrying metal work and conductor is essential to the safety of human life.3 Earthing associated with current-carrying conductor is normally essential to the security of the system and is generally known as system earthing. 2. 88 (2) and 90. 2. It is recommended that the value of any earth system resistance shall not be more than 5 n.rthed by not less tgh an two separate and distinct conriections with earth each having its own electrode at the generating station or substation and may be earthed at any other point provided no interference is caused by such earthing. The following Indian Electricity Rules are particularly applicable: 32. 0. As a matter of fact. SCOPE around a station which shall be at a uniform potential and as near1 zero or absolute earth potential as possibk. Also by providing such an earth surface of uniform potential under and surrounding the station.0. 2.2 The object of an earthing system is to provide as nearly as possible a surface under and 51 . of animals and of property and is generally known as equipment earthing. 2. loss of life or serious personal injury may result. 2. substations and consumer premises in accordance with the requirements. 2. In the case of high and extra high volta es the neutral points shall be ea. the earth now . irrespective of reliance being placed on the earth itself. as neatly as possible.3 Additional rules applying to earth leakage circuit-breaker systems are covered in Appendix B.4 Earthing shall generally be carried out in accordance with the requirements of Indian Electricity Rules.9 Each earth system shall be so devised that the testing of individual earth ekctrode is possible. Any system is characterised by the type of distribution system.1 The subject of earthing covers the problems relating to the conductidn of electricity through earth. relaxation may be obtained from the competent authority. the neutral may be earthed through a suitable impedance.1 In cases where direct earthing may prove harmful rather than provide safety (for example. NATIONAL ELEflRICAL CODE I. high frequency and mains frequency corekss induction furnaces).4 The contents of this Section are based on following: IS : 732 (Part 2)-1982 Code of practice for electrical wiring installations. 2.0. 5 1. GENERAL REMARKS 2.0 General 2. 62.5 All medium voltage equipment shall be earthed by two separate and distinct connections with earth through an earth electrode.0.SECTION 12 EARTHING O. which include types of systems of live conductors and types of system earthing.FOREWORD 0. 1956 as amended frdm time to time. 0.2 This Section of the Code summarises the essential requirements associated with earthing in electrical installations. NOTE .0.rarely serves as a art of the return circuit but is being used mainly Por fixing the voltage of system neutrals. earth bus and earth wires and methods of measurements. 2.0. as well as to ensure that operators and attendants shall be at earth potential at all times.

therefore.2 The type of soil largely determines its resistivity and representative values for s’oils generally found in India are given in Appendix A.1.The object of equipment earthing is to ensure effective operation of the protective gear in the event of leakage through such metal work.4 While the fundamental nature and properties of a soil in a given area cannot be changed. 2.1.10 It is recommended that a drawing showin the main earth connection and earth electro!es be prepared for each installation.2 The earth system resistance should be such that when any fault occurs against which earthing is designed to give” protection.3. N OTE -Earthing may not ive protection against faults which are not csrntially earth f auks. 2. The situation is more difficult in the zone immediately outside the periphery where the problems may exist even for the theoretical case of a singk plate covering the substation area. fittings.1.1 System %Irrhing 2.1. the . high and extra high voltage equipment shall be earthed by not less than two separate and distinct connections with earth is designed primarily to preserve the security of the system by ensuring that the voltage on each live conductor is restricted to such a value with respect to the potential of the general mass of the earth as is consistent with the levels of insulation applied.11 No addition to the current-carrying system either temporary or permanent. that a person walking on the ground or touching an earthed objects.1. shall be made. For example. conform to Indian Standard specifications wherever these exist. earth bus-bar. therefore. to secure optimum t%tivit< Reference is drawn to 1s : 3043-1966.0.0. t h a t a n o v e r r i d i n g consideration in deciding which of the alternative method of protection is to be adopted for a particular system or location is the soil resistivity in the area concerned.2. used in earthing shall.0. Many of these factors vary locally and some seasonally and. In the case of underground system there may be no difficulty. In the case of materials for which lndian Standard specifications do not exist.2 Equipment Earthing . it is unlikelv that any protective gcar’iziying on carth%tg wili operate sin& ihe major fault is the open-circuit against which urthing gives no protection. the effective resistivity depends not only on the surface layers but also on the underlying geological formation. -and the‘ part remote from the SUDD~Y falls to the nround. attain a value which would cause danger to life or risk of fire. For this the step potential and touch potential should be Investigated and kept withm safe limits. does not include the case of a switch for use in controlling a generator or a transformer or a link for test purposes. link or switch other than a linked switch arranged to operate simultaneously on the earthed or earthed neutral conductor and the live conductors shall be inserted on any supply system.1.1. 2.13 Soil Resistivity 2X3. 2. etc. which will increase the maximum available earth fault current or’its duration until it has been ascertained that the existing arrangement of earth electrodes. This problem may be serious in small stations where the grid may cover only a 57 2.1. use can be made of purely local conditions in choosing suitable electrode sites and of methods of oreoaring the site sekcted. 2.content of the soil and its chemical composition and concentration of salts dissolved in the contained water. 2. Such dan er may arise if steep potential gradients exist witffin the premises or between boundary of the premises and an accessible point outside. Local values should be verified by actual measurement and this is specially important whete the soil is stratified.33 The soil temperature also has some effect on soil resistivity but is important only near and below freezing point. the protective gear will operate to make the faulty portions of plant harmless. In most cases such operation involves isolation of the faulty main or plant by circuit-breaker or fuses. especially in case of large electrical installations. the material shall be approved by the competent authority. 2.13 All materials. however.1 The resistance to earth of an electrode of givep dimensions is dependent on the ekctrical resistivny of the soil in which it is installed. in or around the premises shall not have large dangerous potential differences impressed across his body in case of a fault within or outside the premises.1.0.4 Potential Gradients . It follows. Within an earthing grid. if a phase conductor of an overhead spur litic*brcaks. but in the case of overhead line s stem protected only by fuses there may be Jifficulty in so arranging the value of the earth resistance that a conductor falling and making good contact with earth shall cause the fuses in the supply to operate. etc. the values given in Appendix A should be taken only as a general guide. 2.It is necessary LO ensure.12 No cut-out. as owing to the disposition of earth current. the potential of which with respect to neighbouring objects may PART I GENERAL AND COMMON ASPECTS . Earth conductivity is.step and touch potentials may be lowered to any value by reducing the mesh interval of the grid.1. Grain sire and distribution and closeness of packing ate also contributory factors since they control the manner in which the moisture is held in soil. This however.3. 2. 2.1 The ngulations that every medium. essentially electrolytic in natun and is affected therefore by moisture . necessitating the installation of earth electrode at depths to which frost ~111 not penetrate. ate capable of carrying the new value of earth fault current which may be obtained by this addition.1 Design Considerations 2.

2 Two conditions of operation require consideration. 1) CURVE A . and b) Short time overloading as under fault conditions in directly earthed system.TOTAL EARTH CIRCUIT WPEDANICE m L ii 5o 40 z L 0 (2) CURVE R-RESISTANCE OF CONSUMER’S EARTH ELECTRODE (ASSUMING SUG. however.electrode shall be kept free from paint. 3. that is. 3. Failure IS fundamentally due to excessive rise of temperature at the surface of the electrode and is thus a function of current density and duration as well as electrical and thermal properties of soil.1 Material 3. it is recommended to use only copper ekctrodes. and.2 Under ordinary conditions of soil. enamel and grease. EARTH ELECTRODES 3. 2. if necessary.1. Special attention should be paid to the points near the operating handles of apparatus. due to electrolytic action which causes serious corrosion.1. 3. to consider the possibility of occurrence of large potential differences. potential equaliser grillages of closer mesh securely bonded to the structure and the operating handle’ should be buried below the surface where the operator may stand when operting the switch. the method of earthing of the object touched.limited area.2 Current Loading 3.1 An earth electrode should be designed to have a loading capacity adequate for the system in which it forms a part. for exampk. when the limitations on step potential become less exacting. Attempts shot& be made to design a substation so as to eliminate the possibility of touch contact beyond the earth-system periphery.4 In direct current system. it should be capable of dissipating without failure. it IS recommended to use either copper electrode or copper clad ekctrode or zinc coated (galvanized) iron electrodes.1.5 The . 32. While assessing the touch potential.1 Although electrode material does not affect initial earth resistance. use of copper. energy in the earth path at the point at which-it is installed under any condition of operation of the system. iron or mild steel electrodes is reco:umended.~ At consumer’s premises where the apparatus is protected by fuses. I. 3. the total earth circuit impedance shall not be more than that obtained by graphs given in Fig. I RECOMMENDED EARTH CIRCUIT IMPEDANCE OR R ESISTANCE FOR D IFFERENT V ALUES OF F USE R ATING NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE .1.STATIDN ELECTRODE OF EQUAL RESISTANCE AN0 2 OHMS IMPEDANCE IN REMAINDER OF CIRCUIT) (2) IN BOTH CASES A SUPPLY VOLTAGE OF 24OV HAS BEEN ASSUMED f 30 d z! 20 a 10 2 4 6 8 13 12 11 16 IMPEDANCE OR RESISTANCE IN OHMS FIG.6 It is recommended to use similar material for earth electrodes and earth conductors or otherwise precautions should be taken to avoid corrosion. 3. 3. care should be taken to select a material which is resistant to corrosion in the type of soil in which it will be used 3.3 In cases where soil conditions point to excessive corrosion of the electrode and the 60 ( connections. whether it is earthed directly below or remotely should be kept in view in order.2. namely: a) Long duration overloading as with normal system opertion.1.1.1.

they shall be separated by not less than 8. :Cast iron. Ideal area is 3.50 m*. In practical case. or alternatively giving rise to danger within the resistance area of the electrode Chich can be reduced only by introducing a good connection with the general mass of the karth. P = resistivity of the medium .TYPE Rod Pipe (Wc N$TE 1) OF E LECTRODES Strip - (1) (2) 38 m m * IO0 mm: 2. buried in the earth is in fact related to the capacitance of that electrode and its image in free space.(soil) in ohm- metre.“‘” (not less than) Size (Ideal 2.5 m) - I5 m I. and ’ C = capacitance of the electrode and its image in free space.2 E f f e c t o f Resistance . and thus dangerous at points remote from the substation. For details regarding their design. 2.5 m 0.15 mm+ N OTE I . the capacitance is divided into two by the plane of earths surface so that.A typical illustration of plate ekctrode is given in Fig. 3. N OTE 2 . reference shall be made to IS : 3W3-I966* 3. The relationship is given by: R=- Elecrro& Shape on 3. c) Plate electrodes. b) For strip or round conductor ekctrodes. The voltage gradient at the surface of the earth may also constitute danger to life.0 mm*7 60X60 cm Thickness - - 6. it should be earthed. If two or more plates are used in parallel.5 m (4) Round Conductor (5) Plate (WC NOTE 2 ) (6) Diameter 16 m m * (not less than) 12.4 Types of Earth Electrodes-The following types of earth electrodes are considered standard: a) Rod and pipe electrodes.1 The design data on the various types of earth electrodes is given in Table I.5 Design Data on Earth Electrodes 3.1 Under fault conditions the earth electrode is raised to a potential with respect to the general mass of the earth.A typical illustration of pipe earth electrode is given in Fig. the formula is loo P R = 2 log.5 mm? L=if@.The resistance of any electrode 100 P 4nC where R = resistance in an infinite medium. 33.0 m. tCoppcr. PART 1 GENERAL AND COMMON ASPECTS 59 .30 mm? 3. b) Strip or conductor electrodes.5.60 mmt 25X4 m m * - 6 mm’* - 3. *Steel or galvanized iron.pL. and d) Cable sheaths. If the’ metal fence is unavoidable. *Code of practice for earthing. 3..5. and d = diameter of rod or pipe in cm. This results in the existence of voltages in the soil around the electrode which may be injurious to telephone and pilot cables whose cores are substantially at earth potential owing to the voltage to which the sheaths of such cables are raised. 212 p loo P R =‘G log y ohms <’ MEASCIREMEI~ TABLE I DESIGN DATA ON EARTH QLECTRODES . loo P R=_ 27rc a) For rod or pipe ekctrodes. y ohms 72 where I = length of rod or pipe in cm.5 m 3 to 3.5 m - 25 X 1.33 Voltage Gradient 33.2 Earth electrodes should not be installed in proximity to a metal fence to avoid the possibility of the fence becoming live.

All dimensions in millimetres.- s C E MEN1 C O N C R E T E (WI))\ I a.’ ‘4 us ROD7 f Cl COVER HINGED TO Cl FRAME /MIRE MESH rCEMENt CONCRETE r912.. It 200&300#-4 ‘-0 12.7 GI PIPE SdlO 01 PIPC 0 1500 (min. FIG.’ f . 2 NOTE -Three and four buckets 6f water to be poured into sump every few days to keep the soil surrounding the earth plate permanently moist.0 12-t ~6OOx600x6*3 GI PLATE bR 6OOx6OOx3~15 COPPER YLAIE SECltbN X X All dimensions in miilimctres. FIG.1 2J I a t F!iKoAL ENLARGED DE LA i _. N OTE -Three or four buckets of water to be poured into sump every few days to keep the soil surrounding the earth pipe permanently moist. 3 A TYPICAL ILLUSTRATION OF PIPE EARTH ELECTRODE A TYPICAL ILLUSTRATION ELECTRODE OF PLATE EARTH .:: .I -@- -ALTERNATE LAYER OF CHARCOAL OR COKE AND SALT HOLE.3 rCI C O V E R H I N G E D TO Cl FRAME I_ ~~- t JygOafcME .7 GI PIPE I 75 8 i 150 1 II.

and t = width (strip) or twice the diameter (conductors) in cm. they shall be run inside metallic conduits.Welded. it shall be so designed and 6 16 18 INDIVIDUAL RESISTANCE IN OHMS F I G.3 Effect of Depth of Burial .1 The mimmum allowable size of earth wire is determined principally by mechanical consideration for they are more liable to mechanical injury and should therefore be strong 4.To reduce the depth of burial without increasing the resistance. For stranded conductors. 4. as far as possible.0.0.4 Interconnections of earth-continuity conductors and main and branch earth wires shall be made in such a way that reliable and good electrical connections are permanently ensured.0. riveted or bolted connectors) are permissible. NOTE .3 They shall be either stranded or solid bars or flat rectangular strips and may be bare provided due care is taken to avoid corrosion and mechanical damage to it. a number of rods or pipes shall be connected together in parallel (see Fig.0 G e n e r a l 4. indented. 4.6 If the metal sheath and armour have been used as an earth continuity conductor the armour shall be bonded to the metal sheath and the connection between the earth wire and earthing electrode shall be made to the metal sheath. bolted and clamped joints are permissible. be out of reach of any person.Aluminium shall not bc used underground. - R =4 where a ohms A = area of both sides of plate in m2. The resistance in this case is practically prdortional to the reciprocal of the number of electfydes used so along as each is situated outside the resistance area of the other. The distance between two electrodes in such a case shall preferably be not less than twice the length of the electrode.where I = length of the strip in cm. NOTE . 4). 4 R E S I S T A N C E OF EL E C T R O D E S A T D E P T H S A N D S O I L RESISTIVITIES P A R T 1 GEKI:RAL A N D C O M M O N A S P E C T S VARIOGS 61 . 35. Bolted connectors and their screws shall be protected against any possible corrosion.0. 4. enough to resist any strain that is likely to be put upon them. Where required. 4.7 If a clamp has been used to provide connection between the earth wire and the metal sheath and armour. sleeve connectors (for example. 4.0. or steel or aluminium. w = depth of burial in cm. c) For plate electrodes. galvanized iron. 4.0.0.5 The path of the earth wire shall.2 All earth wires and earthcontinuity conductors shall be of copper. EARTH BUS AND EARTH WIRES 4.

A reading is taken under this condition.1 Two suitable directions. besides the test electrode. A measured current is passed between the electrode ‘A’ to be tested and an auxiliary current electrode ‘C’ and the potential difference between the electrode ‘A’ and the auxiliary potential electrode ‘B’ is measured. 5.1 If the test is made at power frequency. EARTHING OF INSTALLATIONS IN BUILDINGS 6. a current corresponding to not less than threeand-a-half iimes the rating of the fuse or one-anda-half times the setting of the overload earth leakage circuit-breaker will flow except where voltage operated earth leakage circuit-breakers are used and make the faulty circuit dead. MEASUREMENT OF EARTH ELECTRODE RESISTANCE 5. the following method may. 5.5 Ail the test electrodes and the current electrodes shall be so placed that they are independent of the resistance area of each other.1 may not give sat. at least 90 degrees apart. .1 Fall of Potential Method .1. NOTE . I hese earth testers usually generare direct current and have rotary current-reverser and synchronous rectifier mounted on rhc generator shaft so that alternating current is supplied 10 the lest circuit and the resulting potentials are rectified for measurement by a direct-reading moving-coil ohm meter. 5. In these cases. 6.lnstaikd as to provide reliable connection without damage to the cable.8 The neutral conductor shall not be used as earth wire.lf Ihe testing current is of the same I* uency as the stray current. 4. AMMETER - A\+ TEST ELECTRODE F I G. be adopted. Where fuses are used to disconnect the faulty section of an installation in the event of an earth fault. . tire placed at suitable distances from the test electrode (see Fig. The resistance of the test electrode ‘A’ is then given by: 5.1 The eaithing arrangements of the consumer’s installation shall be such that on occurre.2 Alternative Method 5. 8” POTENTIAL ELECTRODE X+lm CVJ.nce of a fault of negligible impedance from a phase or non-earthed conductor to adjacent exposed metal. pipe or plate.2 The source of current shall be isolated from the supply by a double wound transformer. 50 Hz. 4._ CURRENT ELECTROOE OF 3 METHOD O F M E A S U R E M E N T E LECTRODE R ESISTANCE E A R T H 5.This applies particularly while measuring the combined resistance of large installations. the test electrode shall be separated from the earthing system. The last readings then correspond to the true value of earth resistance. decrease of generator handle speed will cause thi? lo disappear. 5).4 The auxiliary electrodes usually consist of 12.In most cases there will be stray currents flowing in the soil and unless some steps are taken to eliminate their cffecc. 5. The potential Lead is laid in one direction and an electrode is’placed 250 to 300 metres from the fence.1. arr: first selected.isfactory results if the test electrode is of very low impedance (I ohm or less).2. wheri possibk. they may prodlice serious errors in the measured value. The current electrode is then left in the last foregoing position and the potential electrode is moved out in 30-m steps until three consecutive readings are obtained without a change in value. but an increase 0. The current lead is taken in the other direction and the current electrode located at the same distance as the potential electrode.2. 5.1. the to/q!. The current electrode is then moved out in 30-m steps untik the same reading is obtained fdr three consecutive locations.In this method two auxiliary earth electrodes. 5. the test shall be repeated by increasing the distance between electrodes ‘A’ and ‘C’ up to 50 m and each time placing the electrode ‘B’ midway between them. permissjble impedance of the earth fault path may bc computed from the following NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE a 62 . V=F reading of the voltmeter in volts.3 At the time of test.0. this elimination becomes very I? ~cult and it a dl betrer lo use an earth tester incorporating a handdrIven generalor. The uresence ot strav currents in the soil is indicated bv wtndcring of the instrument pointer.6 Unless three consecutive readings ot test electrode resistance with different spacings of electrodes agree.5 mm diameter mild steel rod driven up to I m into the ground. p$ where R = resistance of the test electrode in ohms.1. and I = reading of the ammeter in amperes. the auxiliary current electrode ‘C’ shall be placed at least 30 m away from it and the auxiliary potential electrode ‘B’ shall be placed midway between them.9 The minimum sizes of earth-continuity conductors an4 earth wires shall be as given in the relevant part of the Code.0.1 The method described in 5. that is. the resistance of the voltmeter should be high compared to that of the auxiliary potential electrode ‘B’ and in no case should be less than 20 000 ohms.1.1. 5. If the test electrode is in the form of rod.1.

6. Plain slip or pin-grtp sockets are insufficient to ensure satisfactory electrical continuity of joints. so that considerably less than this might be allowable for the earth-continuity system. z = Phase-toearth voltage of system Minimum Factor fusing current X of of fuse safety where 2 = permissible impedance in ohms. every joint in such sheaths shall be so made that its current-carrying capacity is not less than that of the sheath itself. Slackness in joints may result ih deterioration a n d e v e n c o m p l e t e l o s s o f continuity. the &es of earth-continuity conductors should not be less than half of the PART 1 GENERAL AND COMMON ASPECTS 7. MEASUREMENT OF IMPEDANCE EARTH LOOP 6.5. the size of the earth-continuity conductors should be equal to the size of the current-carrying -conductors and for metal sheathed. The size of earth-continuity conductors to be used along with aluminium current-carrying conductors should be calculated on the basis of equivalent size of the copper current-carrying conductors. 6. in large installations the overall impedance permissible may be less than I ohm. the metal sheath of the cables or the earth-contin ity conductor contained in a cable. for protection against earth-leakage currents is likely to prove satisfactory.1 The factor of safety in the above formula ensures that in most cases the fuse will blow in a time which is sufficiently short to avoid danger and allowing for a number of circumstances.that t h e m a x i m u m sustained v o l t a g e d e v e l o p e d u n d e r f a u l t conditions between exposed metal required to be earthed and the consumer’s earth terminal shall not exceed 32 volts rms. such as a metal strip having a resistance not greater than that of the sheath of the largest cable entering the box. planning an installation to consult the supply authority or an electrical contractor having knowledge of local conditions.6 Pipes and Structural Steel Work . they shall be protected against corrosion. 6.5 mm? .5. 7.should also be used.3 It is recommended .formula (for a normal three-phase system with earthed neutral). NOII .5 Earth-Continuity Conductors 6. 6.Pipes.For flexible cables.4 Only pipe or rod earth electrodes are r e c o m m e n d e d and they shall satisfy the requirements of 3. In the case of screwed conduit. Where necessary. increase in length of the circuit conductors and the earth-continuity conductors.5. PVC and tough rubber sheathed cables the sizes of the earth-continuity conductors shall be in accordance with relevant Indian Standards. Where non-metallic joint boxes are used. earth electrodes at consumer’s premises and substations and any 63 .1 The current which will flow under earth fault conditions and will thus be available to operate the overload protection depends upon the impedance of the earth return loop.1 Connection to earth of those parts of an installation which require to be earthed shall be made by means of an earth-continuity conductor which may be a separate earth conductor. 6.~~ The factor of safety in calculating the permissible Impedance should be left to the discretion of the de‘signer. 6. As regards the sizes of galvanized iron and steel earth-continuity conductors.2 ‘It is desirable when. that is. Joints shall be so made that their current-carrying capacity is not less than that of the conduit itself. This includes the line conductor.3 Earth-Conlinuit!. namely. inevitable extensions to installations involving. such as water pipe.1. etc. 6. in order to ascertain which of the two. largest current carrying conductors. In fact. provided the minimum size of earth-continuity conductors is not less than 1. fault. earth-continuity conductor and earthing-lead. 6. Conductors and Earth Wires Contained in the Cables . such as the grading of fuse ratings.\a Conductors and Earth Wires not Contained in the Cables ~.4 Cable Sheaths Used as Earth-Continuitjx Conduc/ors -~ Where the metal sheaths of cables are used as earth-continuity conductors.Metal conduit pipe should generally not be used as an earthcontinuity conductor but where used a very high standard of workmanship in installation is essential. flexible cableY or flexible cord.1. gas pipe.The size of the earth-continuity conductors should be correlated with the sire of the current carrying conductors. or members of structural steel work shall not be used as earthcontinuity conductor.5 Metal Conduit Pipe Used as on EarrhContinuity Conducror . increase of resistance due to drying out of the earth electrodes in dry weather. 6.for aluminium and need not be greater than 70 mm* for copper and 120 mm? for aluminium.5 mm? for copper and 2. they may be equal to size of current-carrying conductors with which they are used. lock nuts .2 It will be observed that this requirement determines the overall impedance and does not contain a specific reference to any part of the circuit such as the conduit or other earthcontinuity conductor together with the earthing lead. 65. means shall be provided to maintain the continuity.5.5.5.2 Earth-Conrinuit. the use of fuses or overload circuit-breakers.

After the supply has been connected this shall be done by the use of an earth loop impedance tester as shown in Fig. F I G. Dhond. jacks are provided for insertion of plugs for connection to external neutral and/or earth conductors. Kartee 9. Garimenapenta.1.3. for example. 6. shale and limestones. Deccan trap and gneisses Underlying bedrock-Deccan trap do do do Underlying be&ckgneisses Underlying bedrock-sandstone. Delhi a) Najafgarh Agricultural Alluvium a) Black cotton soil b) Moorm Alluvium (highly clayey) a) Alluvium b) Alluvium a) Alluvium (dry sandy soil) b) Loamy to clayey soil c) Alluvium (saline) 3-6 6-40 2-10 I O-50 2 3-5 9-2 I 75-l 70 38-50 1. To test the overall earthing for any installation depending for protection on the operation of dvercurrent devices. 6 C IRCUIT D IAGRAM OF N OTE 2 -Supply system is shown dotted. trap or gneisses do do do (Conrinued) NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 1. Taptee Valley 3 Narmada Valley Clayey black soil Alluvium Alluvium 4. if desired.5-9 . N OTE I -Arrows show current flow in neutral/earth loop. The neutral is used in place of the phase conductor for the purpose of the test. The opencircuit voltage of the loop tester should not exceed 32 volts. Karnataka 7. Purna Valley (Deogaon) 5. Distt Surat. as the transformer winding. E ARTH L OOP I MPEDANCE T E S T E R APPENDIX (Clause 2. Bombay 6. fus& it is necessary to measure the impedance of this loop under practical fault conditions. Kakarapar.parallel metallic return to the transformer neutral as tiell. SL No. LOCALITY T YPE OF S OIL ORDER OF REHSJIVITY ohm-metre 6-23 6-24 4-i I REMARKS Underlying bedrockDeccan trap do Underlying bedrock-sandstones. Bijapur Distt. L-+-J A = ammeter B = neon indicator C = main switch D = test switch E = consumer’s earth electrode F = supply fuses P = polarity switch s = substation earth electrode V = voltmeter At FF. Gujarat 2. Distt Nellore Andhra Pradesh 8 .2) A REPRESENTATIVE VALUES OF SOIL RESISTIVITY IN VARIOUS PARTS OF INDIA.

Mysore 16. Madras 21.1 This system shall be used only where the neutral and earth is low enough to preclude the possibility of a. B-2. and to a separate earth electrode. selective Protection .All parts required to be earthed shall be connected to an earth electrode through the coil of an earth leakage circuit-breaker which controls the supply to all those parts of the installation which are to be protected. The value of earth resistance is under consideration. Bihar 13. Nort. Satara Distt.1 Installation of the Earth Leakage CircuitBreaker System. Banaskantha Gujarat 22.If B-3. K o r b a . Villupuram.2 Selective operation of earth leakage circuit-breaker is required. the earth resistance shall be as low as possible. Koiar G o l d F i e l d s 17.I50 800-l 200 (dry) 4-50 60-200 II 170 2-5 ia:prox) Underlying bedrockgneisses do do Underlying bedrock-sandlaterite or trap Underlying bedrock-sandstone.l . General ( see Fig. ADDITIONAL RULES APPLYING TO THE MULTIPLE EARTH NEUTRAL SYSTEM B-2. electrodes and earthing conductors shall be installed in one of the follbwing ways: 65 . 1 Where a’ driven or buried elstrode is used. Ambaji. Calcutta 12. Ramanathapuram Distt Madras Clayey sands Alluvium a) Alluvium b) Lateritic soil NOTF ~~ The soil resistivities are subject to wide seasonal variation as they depend very much on the moisture content APPENDIX (Clause 0. 7) . Kutch-Kandla (Amjar Area) bvrmx) 9-14 24-46 Underlying bedrock-traps. PART I GENERAL AND COMMON ASPECTS B-3. sand-stones or gneisses Underlying bedrocklaterite. Kerala (Trivandrum Distt.SL No. Wajrakarur. Andhra Pradesh 18. M P I I. ADDITlONAL RULES APPLYING TO THE DIRECT EARTHING SYSTEM B . the circuit-breaker. ADDITIONAL RULES APPLYING TO T H E E A R T H L E A K A G E CIRCUITBREAKER SYSTEM B-3. LOCALITY T Y P E O F SO I L O RDER O F R EMARKS RESISTIVITY ohm-metre Dry soil a) Moist clay b) Alluvium soil Alluvium a) Alluvium b) Top soil Lateritic clay 36-109 2-3 I O-20 > 2 5 Underlying bedrockquartzites Underlying bedrock-sandstone or shale b) Chhatarpur IO. Cossipur. 19. Koyna. charnockite or granites 6-14 60-150 45-185 50. Bharatpur 15. Bhagalpur.3) B ADDITIONAL RULES FOR EARTHINGS B-l.dangerous rise of potential in the neutral. shale or trap do Underlying bedrockgranite Underlying bedrockgranites and gneisses Underlying bedrock-sandstones and gneisses do Sandy loam (Saline) Alluvium Sandy surface Alluvium Lateritic a) Alluvium b) Alluvium (sandy) ’ (clayey) 20.) 14. kalyadi.

Each part to be protected ‘as a unit shall be connected to an earth electrode through the coil of an earth leakage circuit-breaker. etc. earthing conductors. 8) . Ali the separately protected portions of the installations may be connected to one electrode to the earth leakage circuitbreaker. which are to be protected as a unit shall be electrically separated from all other such parts and from any other earthed metal.a) Arrangement Giving Complete SelectivitJ3 (see Fig. 7 CONNECTION OF E A R T H L E A K A G E CIRCIJIT-BREAKER SI M P L E I N S T A L L A T I O N INSULATE0 CdNOLtClOR \INSULAlED CONDUCTOR REINFORCEME ELECTRODE 4 EARTH ELECTRODE 8A By complete separation of the exposed metal of one installation from that of othger installations 88 By use of a double-insulated wiring system. where there are no conduits to be earthed FOR F I G.ING CONDUCTORS MAY BE BARE PLUG OUT L E ARfH E L E C T R O D E S F I G. condutts. F’ INSULATED CONDUCTOR E ARTH.All metal frames. 8 ‘ CO N N E C T I O N S 66 OF E A R T H L E A K A G E CIRWIT.BREAKERS C O M P L E T E SELE~TIVIT\ NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE .

L.A double-Insulated wiring system is used.g. all shall also be connected to another earth electrode through an earth leakage circuit-breaker which controls all the active conductors supplying the whole or portions of the installations concerned. 9) All the conduits and associated fittings shall be bonded together and connected to an earth electrode. NOTL I -. e. Any conduit used does not then NOTE 2 ~ The earthing conductor is insulated from the conduit. All these portions may be connected to one electrode.b) Arrangement Giving Partial Se1ectivir. 9 CONNEC‘TIONS OF EQUIPMENT E A R T H L E A K A G E CIIKIJIT-BREAKERS FOR P ARTIAL S ELECTIVITY PART I GENERAL AND COMMON ASPECTS 67 .. but no Selectivity M’ith Respect to Falls in Wiring in Conduit) (see Fig. Each part to be protected as a unit shall be connected to an earth electrode through the coil of a separate earth leakage circuitbreaker which controls all the active conductors supplying that portion of the installation only. tough rubber-sheathed cables.C.B.v (Complete Selectivit)’ MYth Respect to Faults in Apparatus. ARTHING CONDUMAY BE BARE CONDUCTOR PLUG-SOCKET OUTLETS ELECTRODES f+pF I G. INSULATED f.CONDUCTOR MAY BE 0ARE MAIN E. but this electrode shall be separated from the electrode to w h i c h t h e c o n d u i t s a r e connected. need to be earthed.

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‘SECTION 13 SHORT-CIRCUIT CALCULATIONS (Under Consideration) .

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2 Orientation of Building 2. b) Electric call-bell systems. for which reference shall be made to the relevant part of SP : 7-1983 ‘ National Building Code of India ‘. b) Clouds. 2. The first is to promote the work and other activities carried on within the buildings. These are: a) Electrical audio-systems. From the point of view of conservation of energy and safety in its use. 4 In artificial lighting installations. These services. Reference shall be made to IS : 7662 (Part I)1974* on orientation of buildings. For reasons of restricting the volume of the text.1. . PART I GENERAL AND COMMON ASPECTS 2. SCOPE 1.2. minimizmg flicker from certain types of lamp and paying attention to the cdlour rendering properties of the light. *Recommendations for orientation of building: Part I Non-industrial buildings. c) Electric clock systems. b) Air-conditioning.2.1 Good lighting is necessary for all buildings and has three primary aims. These shall be referred to from the point of view of ensuring good design of building services and early coordination amongst all concerned. the following climatic factors influence the optimum orientation af t h e buildings: a) Solar* radiation and temperature. SECTION 14A LIGHTING 3. GENERAL GUIDELINES 2. 2. 4 Correlating lighting throughout the building to prevent excessive differences between adjacent areas and so as to reduce the risk of accidents. safety and amenity and surroundings.1 Extensive guidelines on building design aspects have been covered from the point of view of ensuring economic services in an . and d) Fire-alarm systems. in conjunction with the structure and decoration. ASPECTS OF LIGHTING SERVICES 3. the second is to promoie the safety of people using the building.1.1 Principles of Good Lighting 3. and Installing emergency lighting systems where necessary. Realization ot these aims involves: 4 Careful planning of the brightness and colour patterns within the working area and the surroundings so that attention is drawn naturally to the important areas. 1. 0. Non-electrical design aspects are not covered in the Code.2 Apart from the three major power consuming services in a buildin there are other functional/safety services ta at are basically light current installations. b) Form and texture in the task area and surroundings.occupancy in SP : 7 (Part 8). this Section is restricted to only the electrical aspects of building services. are: a) Lighting and ventilation.2 From the point of view of lighting and ventilation. and d) Prevailing winds.2 Good lighting design shall take into account the following: a) Planning the brightness pattern from the point of view of visual performance. directional lighting. 3. 0. c) Relative humidity. whose proper functioning is important.1 The chief aim of orientation of buildings is to provide physically and psychologically comfortable living inside the buildings by creating conditions which suitably and successfully ward off the undesirable effects of severe weather to a considerable extent by judicious use of the recommendations and _ knowledge of climatic factors. a pleasing environment conducive to interest and a sense of well-being. broadly. detail is seen quickly and accurately and the room is free frog any sense of gloom or monotony.1 Most of the modern day services in buildings depend on electrical energy. 4 Controlling direct and reflected glare from light sources to eliminate visual discomfort.where b) Using appropriate. and c) Lifts and escalators.1 This Section of the Code covers requirements for installation work relating to building services that use electric *power.SECTION 14 ELECTRICAL ASPECTS OF BUILDING SERVICES O.FOREWORD 0.3 This Section of the Code draws attention to the requirements to be complied with in the design and construction of building services. it is found essential SO draw attention to essential design principles for building services. 71 . and the third is to create. to assist preception of task detail and to give good modelling.1983.

0.0 General 5. For specific occupancies covered in the Code see relevant Part/Section. b) Natural supply and mechanical exhaust of air. to dilute inside air to prevent vitiation by body odours and to remove any products of combustion or other contaminants in air and to provide such thermal environments as will assist I 5 . This may be achieved in one of the following ways: a) Natural supply and natural exhaust of air.The level of illumination for a particular occupation depends on the following criteria: a) Supply of fresh air for respiration.2 The considerations: following govern design g) Maintenance factors in lighting installation.2.2 Design Aspects 3.C) Cornrolling glare. stroboscopic effect and flicker. airconditioning is resorted to. d) Desired space conditions. c) External and internal load patterns.General ventilat’on involves providing a building with relatively laIge quantities of outside air in order to improve general environment of building. 3.2. 72 . provisions for.1 Where desired temperatures and humidities cannot be obtainted by ventilation.2. 1 . 4. In the case of buildings to be air-conditioned. 1 The design of the system and its\ associated controls should take into account the following: a) The nature of the application. and the occupants.2 Designing for Daylight .1 Design Considerations 4 Adequacy for preventing both strain in seeing and liability to accidents caused by poor visibility.3 Guidelines on principles of good lighting design can be had from IS : 3646 (Part I)-1966*. ASPECTS OF VENTILATION 4.3 Lighting Problems and Economics Reference is drawn to Appendices C and D of IS : 3646 (Part I)-1966* SECTION 14B VENTILATION 4.Reference should be made to IS : 3103-1975* and IS : 3362-19777 which cover methods of mechanical ventilation. changes for various occupancies. 4.0. electrical requirements for the system shall be made at the planning stage itself. *Code of practice for industrial ventilation firs/ revision).1 Ventilation of buildings is required to supply fresh air for respiration of occupants. cl Recommended schedule of values of air 4 The limits of comfort and heat tolerance of 4. 3. and Maximum energy effectiveness of the lighting system used consistent with the specific needs of visual tasks performed.0 General 4.1.0. SECTION 14C AIR-CONDITIONING AND HEATING 5. e) Lighting for movement.1 Illumination Levels -. capacity. 4 Colour rendering.2 Mechanical Ventilation . The schedule of recommended values of illumination and limiting values of glare index are given in IS : 3646 (Part 2)-1966t. b) Adequacy for realizing maximum visual c) Adequacy for the performance of visual tasks at satisfactory high levels of efficiency. c) Mechanical supply and natural exhaust of air. 3. ASPECTS OF AIR-CONDITIONING AND HEATING SERVICES 5. b) The type of construction. fl Provision for emergency. the’ maintenance of heat balance oaf the body in order to prevent discomfort and injury to health of the occupants. and 4 Adequacy for pleasantness or amenity. 3. NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE *Code of practice for interior illumination: Part of good lighting and aspects of design. iGuide for daylighting of buildings (secund revision). and d) Mechanical supply and mechanical exhaust of air. 5. b) Removal of combustion products or other contaminants and to prevent vitiation by body odours. tCode of practice for natural ventilation of residential buildings lfirsr revision).Reference shall be made to IS : 2440-19752.1 Methods of Ventilation . Principles tCode of practice for interior illumination: Part 2 Schedule for values of illumination and glare index.

as soon as the temperature of the room reaches a predetermined high level not exceeding 44”C. like wood sheathing or ducts which allow air to pass through around the conductors 5.5 Air-cdnditioning system serving large places of assembly (over I 000 persons). 5.2 In case of air-conditioning plants where re-heating is used.1. Such system shall also be provided with automatic controls to stop fans in case of fire. preferably to 400°C and in any case it shall not exceed 538OC.0. 5. 5.2 The following aspects shall be taken into account to decide the electrical requirements for lifts: a) N u m b e r o f position.2. e) Provisions for ventilation and lighting.2 The operation of the system in the following circumstances should be considered when assessing the complete design: a) In summer. c) Height between floor levels.plant should be limited. 6.0 General 6. The surface temperature of all electric heaters used in an air-conditioned .2.more tnan one floor or tire area shall be provided with dampers designed to close automatically in case of fire and thereby prevent spread of fire or smoke. and h) If extended low voltage conditions persist. in which case these shall be designed to remain in operation. This should be available early in the planning stage to ensure proper electrical provisions to be made for the service. where applicable.Where conduits are used for carrying insulated electrical conductors and. the total system should be separated into smaller increments having similar load requirements so that each area can be separately controlled to maintain optimum operating conditions. . large departmental stores or hotels with over 100 rooms in a single block shall be provided with effective means for preventing circulation of smoke through the system in the case of a fire in air filters or from other sources drawn into the system even though there is insufficient heat to actuate heat sensitive devices controlling fans or dampers. or may be manually operated controls. The same method applies equally to other types of wiring. unless arranged to remove smoke from a fire. f) Under frost conditions. g) Details of wiring and apparatus required.2. Serious harm to the plant and sometimes fires may be caused by negligence in this respect. ventilating 5. ELECTRICAL ASPECTS OF LIFTS AND ESCALATOR SERVICES 6.3 Consideration should be given to changes in building load and the system designed so that maximum operatianal efficiency_ is maintained under part. size capacity and b) Nu’mber of floors served by the lift.e) Permissible control limits. g) Opportunities for heat recovery. unless a higher temperature is required for an industrial process carried on in the air-conditioned enclosure. and h) Economic factors (including probable future cost and availability of power). lifts. the lift/escalator manufacturer should advise the architect/engineer of the building of his electrical requirements. d) Provisions for machine.when such conduits pass from a non-air-condmoned area into an air-conditioned area or into a fan chamber of duct.3 In case of air-conditioning plants where heating by means of an electric heater designed to operate in an air current is used. Such means shall consist of suitable photo-electric or other effective smoke sensititve controls. and the conduit should be sealed round the conductors to prevent air being carried from one area into the other through the conduit and thereby giving rise not only to leakage and inefficiency but also to the risk of condensation of moisture inside the conduits.4 Air-conditioning and systems circulating air to. b) In winter. a safety device shall be i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t h e instal~lation to cut off automatically the source of heating. d) At night. 51. f) Electric supply required. 5.room. e) At weekends. Similarly. such as steam or electricity by means of a theremostat or some other device. a junction box shall be installed or other means shall be adopted to break the continuity of such conduit at the point of entry.1 Conduits . 73 . c) In intermediate seasons.1 For the information of the electrical engineer.2. f) Control methods for minimizing use of primary energy. or just outside. SECTION 14D LIFTS AND ESCALATORS 6.0.2. load conditions. when measured in still air. h) Quantity/quality of service.. a safety device PART 1 GENERAL AND COMMON ASPECTS shall be incorporated in the instailation to cut off the supply of electricity to the heating device whenever there is failure of the air current in which the heater is required to operate.2 Electrical Requirements 5. g) If electricity supply failure occurs and when the supply is restored.

either on the controller or by a. each car is fitted with. The supply may be from a battery (or transformer) fixed in the machine room or.2.52 m/s or more) are employed.2. The car lighting supply should be independent of the power supply mains.2 Electrical Wiring and Apparatus 6 . and accessible from the lower terminal floo’r entrance. Each lift should be capable of being isolated from the mains supply.2. No form of ‘ N O ’ VCJLT’ trip relay should be included anywhere in the power supply of the lift. 4 Lightiqg. m) Control system. 6. from the building fire alarm supply.2. k) Car speed. ‘When a telephone is to be provided in the lift car.7 A trailing cable which incorporates conductors for’ the control circuits shall be separate and distinct from that which incorporates lighting and signalling circuits in the case of buildings less than 30 metres in height. and controlled by a switch in the machine room. When the alarm system is connected to a transformer or trickle-charger.The requirements for main switches and wiring with reference to relevant regulations are given in IS : 4666-19807.6 Circuits which supply current to the motor shall not be included in any twin or multicore trailing cable used in connection with the control and safety devices. tn the case of building more than 30 metres in height or where high speed lifts (I .Reference is drawn to IS : 1860-1980* and IS : 4666-1980t 6. so that correctLy rated fuses can be fitted. 6.2. maker should provide overcurrent protection for power and controi circuits. and n) Operation and maintenance.4 All cables and other wiring in connection with the lift installation shall be of suitable grade for the voltage at which these are intended to be worked and if metallic covering is used it shall be efficiently earthed. operation and maintenance of electric passenger and goods lifts (second rwision). 6. an alarm push which is wired to a terminal box in the lift well at the ground floor by the lift maker. should be fixed in an agreed position and wired to the lift well.$I revision). 6. the lift maker should fit the cabinet in the car and provide wiring from the car to a terminal box adjacent to the lift well.2 All metal casings or metallic coverings containing or protecting any electric supply lines of apparatus shall be efficiently earthed. All conductors should be insulated for the maximum voltage found in the cable.Machine rooms and all other rooms containing lift equipment should be provided with adequate illumination and with a switch fixed adjacent to.5 Suitable caution notice shall be affixed near every motor or other apparatus operating at a voltage exceeding 250 volts.j) Occupant load factors. When an alarm bell is to be provided. For multiple lifts a diversity factor may be used to determine the cable size and should be stated by the lift manufacturer.2. protected. but the following are not included in the contract.1 Design and Operation.2. a separate sub-circuit is required for the common supervisory system. for which should be in the lift well.circuit-breaker. to be supplied by the lift maker (with indicator for more than one lift). should be provided in each room. The supply to the car light should be from a separate circuit. suitable for lamps or tools. 6.2. At least one socket outlet.2. starting current. b) For banks of interconnected lifts. 6. 6. 1 All electrical’ supply lines and apparatus in connection with the lift installation shall be so constructed and shall be so installed.2.2.3 No bare conductor shall be used in any lift car as may cause danger to persons. The lift maker should specify. size of switches and other details to suit requirements. maximum permissible voltage drop. in order that any car may be shut down without isolating the supervisory control of the remainder. Pits should be provided with a light.2. This alarm bell. N A T I O N A L E L E C T R I C A L CuDE 4 Pmver Supp(v Mums . 6. 2 . the supply should be taken from the machine room lighting. TSpecification for electric passenger and goods lifts (/S-. on a schedule.2. 2 . 6.2. particulars of full load current.1 General . use of single travelling cable for lighting and control circuits is permitted. The lift. It is important that the switches at the intake and in the machine room which are provided by the electrical contractor are of correct size. For multiple lifts with a common machine room a separate supply should be provided for each car.2 Electrical Installation Requirements 6. 74 .The lift sub-circuit from the intake room should be separate from other building service.8 Emergency signal or telephone . This means of isolation should be lockable. worked and maintained that there may be no danger to persons therefrom. when available.It is recommended that lift car be proylded either with an emergency signal that is operattve from the lift car and audible outside the lift well or with a telephone. the switch *Code of practice for installation.2.2.the entrance.

containing or protecting any electric supply line or apparatus shall be efficiently connected with earth.0.9 Caution Notice .3. e l e c t r i c a l tubings or wireways which shall be securely fastened to the supporting structure.A l l electric safety switches and controllers shall be enclosed to protect against accidental contact.An enclosed. ELECTRICAL ASPECTS OF AUDIO SYSTEM SERVICES 7.6 All electrical supply.6 .on the driving machine. Where a chain is used to connect the driving machine to the main drive shaft.1 Connection Between Driving Machine and Main Drive Shqft .The terminal for the earthing of the frame of the motor.3 Brake . This brake shall be located either. 6 . All metal casings or metallic coverings.3.2 This applies to sound distribution systems and public address systems but does not cover installations in conference halls where both microphones and loudspeakers are distributed amongst the audience. Where flexible. PART 7. call and control buttons.0 General 7. a coupling.The driving machine shall be connected to the main drive shaft by toothed gearing. The terminal for the earthing of the metallic cases and covers of doors interlocks. door contacts. SECTION 14E AUDIO SYSTEMS 7. conduit is. The cross-sectional area of copper earthing conductor shall be not s’maller than those specified in 5. on the driving machine or on the main drive shaft. 6. The earthing conductor shall be secured to earthing terminal i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e recommendations made in IS : 3043-1966* and also in conformity with the provisions of Indian Electricity Rules. stud or screw.2. car switches. 9 E a r t h i n g .3. 75 I GENERAL AND COMMON ASPECTS . 6.3.3. at least equivalent to a 5 mm brass screw. 6. the frame of the control panel. used for leading into_ a fitting. and between such contacts and earthed parts.An electric motor shall not drive more than one escalator. 1 0 Jnsulation .3 Specific requirements if any.0.3.2 Driving Motor. the cases and covers of the tappet switch and similar electric appliances which normally carry the main current shall be at least equivalent to a 10 mm diameter bolt. worked and maintained that there is no danger to persons from them. Where screwed conduit screws into electric fittings carrying control current and making the case and cover electrically continuous with the conduit. 6.8 E n c l o s u r e qf Electrical Parts -. 6. *Code of practice for earthing.0. It is not required that this brake be of the electrically released type if an electrically released brake is provided . The switch shall be so placed that it is close to and visible from the escalator machine to which the supply is contrdlled.1 This Section covers essential installation design -aspects of electrical audio systems for indoor and outdoor use both for temporary and permanent installations. limit switches. a brake shall be provided on this shaft.Suitable ‘CAUTION’ notice shall be affixed near every motor or other apparatus operating at a voltage exceeding 250 volts. 6. stop buttons. 2 . 2 . or a chain. the fitting and such length of flexible conduit shall be effectively earthed. protected. lines and apparatus in the ezcalator shall be of suitable construction and shall be so installed.2 of Part 1 /Set 12 of the Code.4 No bare conductor shall be used in any escalator as may cause danger to persons. 7. 6. 6. With dc power supplies the main disconnecting switch and any circuit-breaker shall be so arranged and connected that the circuit -of brake magnet coil is opened at the same time that the main circuit is opened. mechanically applied brake capable of stopping the up or down travelling escalator with any load up to rated load.Each escalator shall be provided with an electrically released. the earthing of the conduit may be considered to earth the fitting. for individual occupancies are covered in individual Sections of the Code.3.7 Disconnect SLititch .3. junction boxes and similar electrical fittings which normally carry only the control current shall be. other operating and similar devices. subject to a maximum voltage of 2 000 V when the test voltage is applied between contacts or similar parts in the open position. fused switch or a circuit-breaker shall be mstalled and shall be connected into the power supply line to the driving machine motor.3 Additional Requirements for Escalators 6. Disconnecting switches or circuit-breakers shall be of the manually closed multi-pole type. 3 .The electrical parts of starting and stopping devices.3. the winding machine. such terminal being specially provided for this purpose. controllers and similar other parts shall be efficiently insulated and the insulation shall be capable of withstanding for a period of one minute the continuous application of a ac test voltage equal to ten times the voltage at which these electrical parts are energised. 6.5 Electrical conductors shall be encased in rigid conduits. One side of the secondary winding of bell transformers and their cases shall be earthed.

NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE practice for outdoor installation of public address *Code of practice for the’ installation of indoor amplifying and sound distribution syskems. and c) the ducts are overhead lines required for wiring.2.3 Inspection and Testing .4 In determining the positioning of the microphones and loudspeakers in the installation. This may also. 2 .2.2 of IS : 18811961* and IS : 1882-19617 o n t h e q u a l i t y o f reproduction suitable for different purposes.0 The output from the microphone. The copper braiding should be sheathed with an insulating covering.4 For guidance on selection of equipment and their installation and maintenance.2. When laid in the open.2. 7. the linematching transformers shall be mounted in weather-proof junction boxes. in such a manner that the controls are within easy reach.3 Earrhing .Where necessary. in Table I of IS : 1882-1961* 7. clipped securely to a bearer wire. 7.The completed installation shall be inspected and tested by the engineer to ensure that the work has been carried out in the manner specified.1‘0 All e q u i p m e n t s h a l l b e s e c u r e l y installed in rooms gatirded against unauthorized access. or inside an iron-pipe at that depth if heavy mechanical movement is expected above. Joints in the cables shall be avoided. a m p l i f y i n g e q u i p m e n t / s y s t e m a n d loudspeakers shall be governed by the considerations enumerated in IS : 1881-1961* and IS : 1882-1961 t. Plans shall show: a) details of the installation proposed. All controls shall be mechanically and electrically noiseless. 7. b) the accommodation and location of the central amplifier equipment.1 Wiring for Audio System 7.2.1.sound heard from different loudspeakers do not have any noticeable time lag. The design of this installation shall .2.2 Design Requirements 7.2.2 The supply mains shall be controlled by a switch-fuse of adequate capacity. 7.6 In large open grounds such as an outdoor stadium. 7.2.1. *Code of systems.1. 7.1‘ All present controls should be mounted behind cover plates and designed for adjustment only with the help of tools. 7. 1 The equipment should normally operate from 240 V.be such that.1 The initial and ultimate requirements of the installations should be ascertained as accurately as possible by prior consultations. they shall be either buried in the ground at a depth not less than 20 cm. be laid overhead at a height not less than 3.1.1.2.2.2 PoMjer Supplies 7 . single phase 50 Hz ac mains supply. Microphone cables shall be laid without sharp bends. loudspeaker and telephone cables. Indoor cables can be laid on the floor along the walls or under the carpet. -Precautions shall be taken ‘to keep dust away. the quality of reproduction is as desired. 7.2.Proper equipment shall be made in ar:?rdance with good practice. 76 . 7.7. 7.1 Exchange of Information 7. The choice of equipment such as these for input signals.2 The positioning of equipment shall be such that the lengths of the interconnecting cable’s is kept to the minimum. care shall be taken to ensure that the .7 The plugs and sockets used in e l e c t r i c a l a u d i o s y s t e m s shall n o t b e interchangeable with those meant for power currents. A voltage regulating device shall be provided if the regulation is poorer than * 5 percent.4 Miscellaneous Provisions .8 Microphone and gramophone cables shall preferably use twisted pairs of conductors with sufficient insulation screened continuously with a close mesh of tinned-copper braid.2.13 In case the number of the equipment is large. tCode of practice for outdoor installation of public address systems. 7.1. gramophone. they shall be mounted on racks of suitable dimensions of metal or wood. 7. tape-recorder or radio receiver or from a sound film is amplified and presented through a system of loudspeakers installed at chosen locations. e a r t h i n g o f the 7. advice of an acoustical expert shall be sought for best accuracy and reproducibility.2.2.1. depending on the nature of occupancy. In the absence of ac mains supply the system shall be suitable for operating from a storage battery. and the acoustic power requirements therein.9 The loudspeaker cables shall be so chosen that the line losses do not exceed the values given.2.2. 7. Any wiring required to be run along corridors or outside walls below 1.8 m’shall be protected by a conduit.5 For outdoor installations. 7. The patch cords shall be neatly . Reference is drawn to 5. 7. reference shall be made to IS : 1881-196t* and IS : 188219611. the stand-by equipment shall be readily available.arranged. that is in installations where the breakdown of the sound distribution systems should be restored instantaneously or within a limited time.0. 2 .1. These shall be isolated from power.1.5 m.

with audible alarms in the night quarters of the caretaker of the building should be provided.2. When the premises are extensive. with each indication. For this. 8.2 Wiring for Fire Alarm Systems 8. it is necessary that the origin of a call be indicated. 77 8. For every installation a control point shall be provided. The laying of the cables shall be done in accordance with Part I Set I of the Code. d) PVC or rubber insulated armoured cables.10 For fire alarm systems.2 Alarm sounders shall be of the same kind in a particular installation.2.1 Fire Detectors 8. while specific requirements if any or individual situations are covered in the respective sections of the Code.7 The arrangement of the circuits and the electrical connections shall be such that a call or fault in any circuit does not prevent the receipt of calls on any other circuit. All call points in a section shall be connected to the same indicator.2.0. a number of main indicator boards may be used covering different sectors. b) Smoke detectors: i) Optical detectors. Operation of silencing switches shall not prevent sounding of alarm from any other zone simultaneously. etc.2. 8.0 General 8. The wiring of the fire alarm systems shall be in metallic conduits.2.9 The silencing switches/push buttons in their off position shall give an indication of this fact on the main control panel. stair cases and other flue-like opening. 8.1. 8. Alarms should not sound on the failure of the indicator. 8.3 For large or intricate premises. the premises shall be divided into sections’Tones. 8.8 The indicating device associated with the various call points and sections shall be grouped together on the main indicator board. tHeat WISIIIV~ lire-dctcctors for. NOTF ~~~ These may be of fixed temperature detector or rate of rise detector.UK I” systems.SECTION 14F FIRE ALARM SYSTEMS ASPECTS 8. The main control centre shall be located on the ground floor and should be segregated from the rest of the building by fire-break wall. 8.6 The origin of the calls may be indicated by the use of lamp indicators. b) PV. reference shall be made to Part 4 of SP : 7-1983* and the relevant Indian Standards.5 No section shall have more than 200 fire -detectors connected together. c) Rubber insulated braided cables. ii) loniration chamber detector. where it can be under constant observation. cables of the following types shall be used: a) Mineral insulated aluminium sheathed cables.1 The equipment and wiring of the fire alarm system shall be independent of any other equipment or wiring. If necessary remote indicating panel.2 For guidance on their choice and siting in the installation. or b) one lamp glowing during normal operation of the system for each section and the alarm indicated by the extinguishing of the lamp for the section where the call originates. so arranged that failure of either of the lamps -is readily apparent. OF FIRE drops or lamp indicators shall be grouped together on the main indicator board or control panel.1 This Section is intended to cover the electrical aspects of the installation of fire alarm/protection systems in buildings. or cancel the other indications of the alarm or fault. The various *National Building Code. and shall be spaced at least 5 cm away from each other and other wiring.2. iii) Chemically sensitive detector. depending on the nature of occupancy installation and maintenance aspects.0.3 For total requirements for fire protection of buildings.2. autonx~l~ fire alarm AND COMMON ASPECTS . ELECTRICAL ALARM SYSTEMS 8. PART I GKNERAI. The wiring shall be kept away from lift shafts.2 This Section is applicable in genera1 to all types of occupancies.C insulated cables. including non-electrical aspects such as choice and disposition of fire-fighting equipment. Each indicator shall include: 8.2.1 The following types of fire detectors are a) two lamps connected in parallel associated available for installation in buildings: a) Heat detectors (IS : 217519771): i) ‘Point’ or ‘spot’ type detector ii) Line type detector. 8. 8.1. c) Flame detectors. 8. These shall be supplemented by sector indicators for the various sectors at a central control point. Part 4 of SP : 7-1983* 8.2. and e) Hard metal sheathed cables. see Appendix B.0. 8.4 At the control point the main indicator board or the Tone and section indicating boards a n d a l l c o m m o n control a p p a r a t u s a n d supervisory equipment shall be located.2.

An indicator lamp shall continuously glow in a prominent position to indicate this. 8. 8.3. The capacity of battery shall ‘be such that it is capable of maintaining the maximum alarm load on the system at an adequate voltage for at least I hour plus the standing load or losses for at least 48 hours.1 If wooden bases are used for bells and buzzers. in the substation and in the fire-pump room.for Pumps in H_vdrant and Sprinkler S. b) Multiple Call Be/l S. and b) Details of chases. Suitable overload protective devices shall be provided to prevent discharging of the batteries through the charging equipment. 9. 8.2 On the basis of information collected on the extent of installation of electric bells and buzzers.3 Pumping sets shall be direct coupled type. 9. C) Time Bell Sjtstem . 9.5 1 he starting equipment of the set shall incorporate an immeter and clearly marked to show full load current. arid shall work satisfactorily at varying load. Terminals shall be of adequate size and should be so arranged that the loosening of a terminal screw does not disturb the contact assembly. schools.for small installations having up to 20 call points.For dwellings and small offices (see Fig.3.6 The electric circuit for fire fighting system shall be provided at its origin with a suitable switch for isolation. 8.0. hospitals or similar large buildings where call. *National Building Code. b) For repeating a call indication at a distant point or points.1.1.8.2 Bells and buzzers which have a make or break contact shall be provided with means of adjustir. the following. ducts and condliits required for wiiing.1.1. ELECTRICAL CALL BELL SER%‘lCES 9. etc. SECTION 14G MISCELLANEOCJS SERVICES 9. with facilities for automatic recharging in 8 hours sufficiently to supply the maximum alarm load at an adequate voltage for at least 2 hours.3.1. 9.4 Bell push switches shall be of robust construction.g the contact gap and pressure and means for locking the arrangement.l’pe ~~ where positive indication is required which remain in position until restored.1 Requirements .1.1.where sound of bell is undesirable.2 Sufficient power shall be made available for the purpose and the power source shall be entirely independent of all other equipment in the premises and shall not be interrupted at any time by the main switch controlling supply to the premises. drip-proof with air inlets and outlets protected with meshed wire panels where required motors shall have a suitable fixed warming resistance to maintain them in dry condition. points are numerous (see Fig. or indicator call system in the building. c) Pendulum type . They shall not incorporate no-volt trips. the component parts shall be rigidly held together independently of the base.3. 2). NATIONAL ELECTPICAL CODE . b) Flag t.1.wems 8.4 All motors and electrical equipment shall be continuously rated.0 General 9.1 Full details of the electric supply shall be furnished together with details of generator plant to the appropriate authorities. 8.Factories. Any flexible’chordslattached to them should be covered with hard wearing braid.3 Equipment for outdoor use shall be suitably protected against the environmental conditions. 8.3.1. for example in hospitals or in noisy locations such as forges.1.1 Pela s may following sltua Y Ions: be required for the a) Where mains operated device is to be controlled by a circuit operating at a voltage not exceeding 24 V.3. 9. so that they are unaffected by any warping. 9.0. mills.1 Guidance on installation of electric bells and call systems are covered in IS : 8884-1978t. 1).1.3.2. but overload and novolt protection shall not be provided in the switch.for Electrical Drives .1. locatIon and distribution points.11 The source of supply for the alarm system shall be a secondary battery continuously trickle/float charged from ac mains. aspects shall be ascertained in collaboration with the parties concerned: for control required a) Accommodation apparatus.3.1 Equipment and Materials 9.3 Fire Fighting Equipment 8. and c) For maintaining a call indication until an indication is reset.5 The indications shall be one of the following types: a) L a m p t!‘pe .4.0 The choice of fire fighting equipment and their installation details shall be governed by the requirements specified in Part IV of SP : 7-1983* 8.2 Choice of Call-Bell System-The following guidelines are recommended: a) Simple Call Bell S~~stcrn --. 9. +Code of practice for the installation of electric bells and call systems.!stem ~~ Hotels. 78 9.

2 Where the supply is dc. not less than IO Ah. 10. single battery on ‘constant trickle charge is recommended.30 m 0.The wiring shall be done in accordance with Part I /Set I I of the Code Special conductor shall be provided. Where such openings are necessary.2.30 m 4. FIG.1.7 m of height is acceptable.1. direct connection of the system to the supply mains is not recommended.~ MU L T I P L E C A L L B ELL S Y S T E M PART I GENERAL AND C O M M O N ASPECTS 79 . 3. *Code of practice for the installation and maintenance of impulse and electronic master and slave clock systems.3. A schematic is shown in Fig.4 X 3. 10.6 m.3 To ensure necessary continuity of supply.1 of IS : 89691978*.4 Wiring. The capacity of the battery shall be at least sufficient to supply the installation for 48 hours..3 Wiring. Batteries should always be provided.1 Design Considerations 10.50 m /llooloR CENTRAL SWlTCbtUOOY WITN 10.2.3. though it is preferable for the control circuit to be operated at a\ voltage not exceeding 24 V 9. sufficient protection against accidental contact with live parts shall be provided. two batteries should be provided with changeover switch. accordance with Part l/Set I I of the Code.1 Where the supply is ac.30 m diameter of dial to every 2. 10.70 m 3. The following is adequate: Dia BELL P U S H SWllcHES INDIC ATOR qf Clock Height . L SUPPLY F I G. but from the point of view of readability.1 The master clock shall be placed in a room not smaller than 2.from Floor 0.The wiring shall be done in.1 Reference’is drawn to 5. 10.1.9.3 Power Supply . 10.45 m 0.1.60 m 2. I SI M P L E E L E C T R I C C A L L B ELL S Y S T E M 10. 10.1.2 Location of Clocks 10.The system may be operated at the normal mains voltage. a ration of 0.2 The location and size of slave clocks may frequently depend upon aesthetic requirements. means being provided for charging at a higher rate when necessary. CLOCK SYSTEMS RESET KNO8 10.2 The enclosure of the clocks shall have no openings giving access to live parts or functional insulated parts or functional insulation other than the openings necessary for the use and working of the clocks. or the conduit may be colour coded for distinction from other circuits.

3 IM P U L S E M ASTER CLO<.K SY S T E M ti:ATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE .ASTER CLOCK AVE CLOCKS RELAY TRICKLE CHARGE pk \ t \ ac SUPPLY F I G.

t o p o g r a p h y o f t h e r e g i o n .FOREWORD 0. SCOPE 1. 2. pipe or other conductor or an array of conductors electrically connected to the general mass of the earth.SECTION 15 LIGHTNING PROTECTION O.1 For the purposes of the National Electrical Code. intended to serve qnly as a earth. 2. etc. EXCHANGE OF INFORMATION 311 The architect should exchange information with the engineer concerned when the building plans are hejng prepared. such as electrical installation. Information may also be obtained at an early stage regarding other services. atmospheric conditions. Ali parts below the testing point in a down conductor are included in this term. a number of years. and between various portions of the latter.11 Metal-Roofed Building -.13 Testing Points ~~ Joints in down conductors or in bonds or in earth conductors connecting earth electrodes.The mechanical and electrical junctions between two or more portions of the lightning protective system or other metal bbnded to the system or both. 2.8 Joints . It is.It is the number of days in a year on which the thunder is heard in the particular region averaged over.2 Bonds lightning protective system and other metal work. 1. and account has to be taken of several other local conditions such as variati’ons in the architecture. 2. Electrical connection between the 2.2 Additional guidelines if any. 2. so designed and situated as to enable resistance measurements to be made. 2. 0. these include those portions of the earth terminations that make direct electrical contact with the earth. 2.0 For the purposes of this section.7 Isoceraunic Level . 0. 2. 2.A spark occurring between nearby metallic objects or between such objects and the lightning protective system or to earth. 1.1 This Section of the Code covers guidelines on the basic electrical aspects of lightning protective systems for buildings and the electrical installation forming part of the system.10 Metal-Clad Building -~ A building with sides mtide of or covered with sheet metal.14 Zone of Protection The space within which the lightning cotiductor is expected to provide protection against a direct lightning stroke. 3. the following definitions shall apply. T h e s e a r e summarised in Part 7 of the Code.1 Air Termination (Lightning Conductor) or Air Termination Network --Those parts of a lightning protective system that are intended to collect the lightning discharges from the atmosphere.9 Lightning Protective System .The whole system of interconnected’ conductors used to protect a structure from the effects of lightning.A metal plate.A building with roof made of or covered with sheet metal.12 Side Flash -.6 Fasteners Devices used to fasten the conductors to the structures.i This Section covers the essential design and construction details of lightning protective systems.4 Earth Terminations or Earth Terminations Network ~~ Those part of the lightning protective system which are intended lo distribute the lightning discharges into the general mass of the PART I GENERAL AND COMMON ASPECTS . however. which Conductors 2. 0. The primary object of such an exchange is to obtain information regarding the architectural features of the structure so that due provision may be made to retain the aesthetic features of the building while planning the location of the lightning conductors and down conductors of the’ lightning protective system. require s p e c i a l consideratians.4 The contents of this Section are based on IS : 2309-1969 ‘Code of practice for the protection of buildings and allied -structures against lightning’.3 Down Conductors connect the air terminations with the earth terminations. 2. 2. the fixed installation for lightning protection is considered part of the electrical installation design and constitutes a major area where the installation design enginegr has to ensure proper coordination. for specific occupancies from the point of lightning protection are covered in respective sections of the Code. gas and water pipes as well as climatic and soil conditions 81 guide of general nature on the principles and practices in the protection of structures against lightning.3 Lightning protection of industrial installations which are categorized as hazardous. 2. 2. TERMINOLOGY 2.5 Earth Electrodes -.

the space between the thunder cloud and the lightning conductor.2 Electrical Effects -. however. e) Type of terrain. NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE The thermal effect of 4. and the nature. 5. with due regard to the time relationship. around the earth electrode.1 The principal effects of lightning discharge to lightning conductors should. 4. The examples of such structures are: a) b) c) d) e) r) those in or near which large number of people congregate. Certain values called ‘index figures’. These currents are unidirectional and may vary in amplitude from a _ few hundred amperes to about 200 kA. size and position of. f-l Height of structure.3. 5.In determining how fai to go in providing lightning protection for specific cases or whether or not it is needed at all.2 The lightning current rises steeply lo its crest value (approximately at the rate. c) Contents or consequential effects.1 Appendix C of IS : 2309-1969 gives the details of various factors that affect the risk of the structure being struck and the consequential effects of a stroke.In practice the cross-sectional area of a lightning conductor is determined primarily by mechanical considerations. . a high voltage gradient which may be dangerous to persons and animals. A vertical conductor of the dimensions generally used in a lightning protective system has an inductance of about 16 X IO-‘H/ 100 m.1 The lightning current which is discharged to earth through the resistance of the lightning conductor and earth electrode provided for a lightning protective system. along which the discharge is propagated.When a high ekctric current is discharged through parallel conductors which are in close proximity to each other. of IO kA. within the zone of protection. its duration IS so short that the thermal effect on a lightning protective system is usually negligible. ‘be provided with adequate mechanical fixings. buildings. 4. In addition.1 Risk Index . a) Usage of structure.2 With many structures. 4.an effect. these are subjected to large mechanical forces The a ground plan should show all the tall objects. to the resistive (ohmic) voltage drop across the earthing system. very tall or isolated structures. have been assigned lo these factors which help in arriving at an overall ‘risk index’ to seye as an aid to judging whether lightning protectlon is necessary or not. This ignores the fusing or welding effects which occur locally consequent upon the rupture of a conductor which was previousiy damaged or was of inadequate cross-sectional 82 . b) Type of construction.2 Scale drawings showing plans and elevations of the structure shduld be obtained. The rate of rise of current in conjunction with the inductance of the discharge path produces an inductive voltage drop which would be added.1. 5. it is necessary to take into account the following factors: structure are electrical. tall trees. This results in a. d) Degree of isolation. 4. thermal and mechanical.3 Thermal Effects lightning discharge results in rise in temperature of the conductor throligh which the lightning current is discharged to the earth..2. is suddenly raised lo a very high temperature. and structures containing explosives and highly flammable materials. those concerned with ‘the maintenance of essential public services. structures of historic or cultural importance.The principal eletrical effects of a lightning discharge are two-fold. those in areas where lightning strokes are prevalent. C H A R A C T E R I S T I C S O F L I G H T N I N G DISCHARGES 4. and g) Lightning prevalance. there will be little doubt as to the need for lightning protectibn. D E T E R M I N A T I O N O F T H E N E E D F O R PROTECTION 5.1 A different mechanical effect exerted by a lightning discharge is due lo the fact that the air channel. produces a resistive voltage drop whtch momentarily raises the potential of the protective system with respect lo the absolute earth potential to a very high value. that is.strong air pressure wave which is responsible for damages to buildings and other structures. A complete lightning discharge may thus last a second or even longer. 4. It is not possible to provide protection against such .4. such as. therefore.2. These effects are determined by the current which is discharged into the structure. Although the amplitude of the lightning current may be verb high. all the metal component parts of the lightning protective system should be indicated on them. etc. area. 4. Many lightning discharges consist of a single stroke but some others involve a sequence of strokes which follow the same path and which discharge separate currents of amplitude and duration as mentioned above. The lightning current also produces. ps) and as a first approximation may be regarded as equivalent to high f r e q u e n c y discharge. The current in any lightning discharge rises steeply to its crest value in a few microseconds and decays to zero in a few milliseconds. masts.4 Me&a&al Effects . transmission lowers.

6. ZONE OF PROTECTION 6.1 The zone of protection of a lightnmg conductor denotes the .space within which a . . . . . hghtnmg conductor provides protection against a direct lightning stroke by diverting the stroke to itself. Examples of the protection of different types and shapes of buildings along with zone of protection provided by their lightning protective systems are given in Appendix A of IS : 23091969. 7. MATERIALS AND DIMENSIONS 7.1 Materials - The materials of lightning conductors, down conductors, earth termination
network, etc, of the protective system shall be reliably resistant to corrosion or be adequately protected against corrosion. The following materials are recommended:

TABLE 1 SHAPES AND MINIMUM SIZES OF CONDUCTORS FOR USE ABOVE GROUND

(Clause 7.2)

;:.
I,
2. :: 5. 7?

MATERIAL

AND SHAPE

MINIMUM SIZE

Round copper wire or copper-clad steel wire Stranded copper wire Copper strip Round galvanized iron wire CWvanized iron strip Round aluminium wire
Aluminium strip

6 mm diameta $0 mm.* (or 7/3.(10 m m
diameter)

20X3 mm
8 mm diameter

20X3 mm
9 mm diameter 25 X.3.15 mm

TABLE 2 SHAPES AND MINIMUM SIZES OF
CONDUCTORS FOR USE BELOW GROUND ((-louse 7.2)
2 r). M
ATERIAL AND

SHAPE

MlNlMClM

SIZE

a)

Copper - When solid or stranded copper wire or flat copper strips are used, they shall be of grade ordinarily required f o r comniercial electrical work, generally designated as being of 98 percent conductivity when annealed: They shall conform to relevant Indian Standard specifications.

Round copper wire or copper-clad steel wire 2. Copper strip 3. Round galvanized iron wire 4. Galvanized iron strip

8 mm diameter 32X6 mm IO mm diameter 32X6 mm

b) Copper-clad SW/ - Where copper-clad steel

is used. t h e c o p p e r coverlng shall be permanently and effectively welded to the steel core. The proportion of copper and steel shall be such that the conductance of the material is not less than 30 percent of the conductance of solid copper of the same total cross-sectional a’rea.

due to corrosion 7.3 Corrosion - Where atmospheric, chemical, electrolytic or other causes is likely to impair any part of the lightning protective system, suitable precautions should be taken to prevent its occurrence. The.contact of dissimilar metals is likely to initiate and accelerate corrosion unless the contact surfaces are kept completely dry and protected against the ingress of moisture. 7.3.1 Dissimilar metal contacts can exist where a conductor is held by fixing devices or against external metal surfaces. Corrosion can arise also where water passing over one metal comes into contact with another. Run-off water from copper, copper alloys and lead can attack altiminium alloys and zinc. The metal of the lightning protective system should be compatible with the metal ‘or metals used externally on the structure over which the system passes or with which it may make contact. 8. DESIGN

c) Gal\qnizd Steel- Where steel is used it
shall be thoroug,hly p r o t e c t e d a g a i n s t corrosion by a 71nc c o a t i n g w h i c h w i l l satisfactorily withstand the test specified in Appendix D of IS : 2309-1969. Copper is preferred to galvanized iron where corrosive gaich. industrial p o l l u t i o n or saltladen atmospheric condition\ ;trc ,cncountcrcd.

d) .Illrt~~irlilrt~r

Aluminlum ~irc :I& strips arc increasingly linding fa\our for u\e a s lightning conductor\ in \ic.\\ of the fact that aluminium has ;I conduct~\~t!~ almost double that of copper mahs for no\\. When used, it shall be at least 09 perccnr pul-e. (:f sufficient m e c h a n i c a l s t r e n g t h :Ind eflccti\ely protected against corrosion.

8.0 General

e) A1lo.1~~ -- Where a l l o y s o f m e t a l s a r e used they shall .be substantially as rchistant t o c o r r o s i o n a s c o p p e r u n d e r similar conditions. The recommended shape 7.2 Shapes and Sizes and minimum sizes--o& conductors for USC above ground and below ground are given in Table I and Table 2 rc\pcctl\cly.
P A R T I CENERAI. AND C O M M O N ASPEUTS

l.ightning protective systems should be installed with a view to offering least impedance to the passage of lightning current between air-t_erminalh and earth. There shall be at icast two parts. and more if practicable. This is d:lne bv connecting the conductors to form a cage cnc!osing t h e building. T h e b a s i c d e s i g n considerations for lightning protective systems are given in 9.2 of IS : 2309-1969. The principal component of a lightning protective system are: a) air terminations, b) down conductors,
83

c) joints and bends, d) testing points, e) earth terminations, f) earth electrodes, and g) fasteners. 8.1 Air Terminations - For the purpose of lightning protection, the vertical and horizontal conductors are considered equivalent and the use of pointed air terminations or vertical finials is, therefore, not regarded as essential except when dictated by practical considerations. An air termination may consist of a vertical conductor as for a spire, a single horizontal and vertical conductors for the protection of bigger buildings. 8.1.1 A vertical air termina’tion need not have more than one point and shall project at least 30 cm above the object, salient point or network on which it is fixed, 8.1.2 Horizontal air terminations should be so interconnected that no part of the roof is more than 9 m away from the nearest horizontal conductor except that an additional 30 cm may be allowed for each 30 cm by which the part to be protected is below the nearest protective conductor. For a flat roof, horizontal air terminations along the outer perimeter of the roof are used. For a roof of building with larger horizontal dimensions a network of parallel horizontal conductors should be installed as shown in IS : 2309-1969.
NOTC Salient points even if less than 9 m apart should each be provided with an air termination.
8.1.3 Horizontal air terminations should be coursed along contours, such as ridges, parapets and edges of flat roofs, and where necessary over flat surfaces in such a way as to join each air termination to the rest and should themselves form a closed network.

The method and nature of the fixings should be simple, solid and permanent, due attention being given to climatic conditions and possible corrosion. 8.2 Down number and Conductors - The spacing of down conductors shall largely depend upon the size and shape of the building and upon aesthetic considerations. The minimum number of down conductors may, however, be decided on the following considerations:

4 A structure having a base area not exceeding

100 m* may have one down conductor only if the height of the air termination provides sufficient protection. However, it is advisable to have at least two down cond.uctors except .for very small buildings. For structures having a base area exceeding 100 m*, the number of down conductors required should be worked out as follows: i) One for the first 100 m* plus one more for every additional 300 m* or part thereof, or

b)

ii) One for every 30 m of perimeter. The smaller of the two shall apply.

C) For a structure exceeding 30 m in height
additional consideration IS : 2309-1969 shall apply. as given in

8.2.1 Down conductors should be distributed round the outside walls of the structure. They shall preferably be run along the corners and other projections, due consideration being given to the location of air terminations and earth terminations. Lift shafts shall not be used for fixing down conductors. 8.2.2 It is very important that the down conductors shall follow the most direct path possible between the air termination and the earth termination. avoiding sharp bends, upturns and kinks. Joints shall as far as possible be avo&d in down conductors. Adequate protection may be provided to the conductors against machanical damage. Metal pipes should not be used as protection for the conductors. 8.2.3 Metal pipes leading rainwater from the roof to the ground may be connected to the down conductors but cannot replace them. Such connections shall have disconnecting joints for testing purposes. 8.2.4 Where the provision of suitable external routes for down conductors is impracticable or inadvisable, as in buildings of cantilever construction, from the first floor upwards, down conductors may be used in an air space provided by a non-metallic non-combustible internal duct. Any covered recess not smaller than 75 X I5 mm or any vertical service duct running the full height of the building may be used for this purpose, provided it does not contain an unarmoured or non-metal-sheathed cable.
NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE

8.1.4 The layout of the network may be designed to suit the shape of the roof and architectural features of the buildings. 8.1.5 The air termination network should cover all salient points of the structure. 8.1.6 All metallic finials, chimneys. ducts. vent pipes, railings, gutters and the like. on or above the main surface of the roof of the structure shall be bonded to, and form part of, the air termination network. If portions of a structure vary considerably in height, any necessary air termination or air termination network of the lower portions should, in addition to their own conductors, be bonded to the down conductors of the taller portions. 8.1.7 All air terminals shall be effectively secured against overturning either by attachment to the object to be protected or by means of substantial braces and fixings. which shall be permanently and rigidly attached to the building.
84

8.2.5 Any extended metal running vertically through the structure should be bonded to the lightning conductor at the top and the bottom unless the clearances are in accordance with

IS : 2309-1969 for tall structures. 8.26 A structure on bare rock, should be provided with at least two down conductors equally spaced. 8.2.7 In deciding on the routing of the down conductor, its accessibility for inspection, testing and maintenance should be taken into account. 8.3 Joints and Bonds 8.3.1 Joinrs - The lightning protective system shall have as few joints in it as necessary. In the down conductors below ground level these shall be mechanically and electrically effective and shall be so made as to exclude moisture completely. The joints may be clamped. screwed, bolted, crimped, riverted or welded. With overlapping joints the length of the overlap should not be less than 20 mm for all types of conductors. Contact surfaces should first be cleaned and then inhibited from oxidation with a suitable non-corrosive compound. Joints of dissimilar metal should be suitably protected against bimetallic action and corrosion. 8.3.1.1 In general, joints for strips shall be tinned, soldered, welded or brazed and at least double-riveted. Clamped or bolted joints shall only be used on test points or on bonds ,to existing metal, but joints shall only be of the clamped or screwed type. 8.3.2 Bonds - External metal on or forming part of a structure may have to discharge the full lightning current. Therefore. the bond to the lightning protective system shall have a crosssectional area not less than that employed for the main conductors. On the other hand, internal metal is not so vulnerable and its associated bonds are, at most, only likely to carry a portion of the total lightning current, apart from their function of equalizing potential. These latter bonds may, therefore, be smaller in crosssectional area than those used for the main conductors. All the bonds should be suitably protected against corrosion. Bonds shall be as short as possible. 8.4 Testing Points- Each down conductor shall be provided with a testing point in a position convenient for testing but inaccessible for interference. No connection, other than one direct to an earth electrode, shall be made below a testing point. Testing points shall be phosphorbronze. gunmetal, copper or any other suitable material. 8.5 Earth Terminations - Each down conductor shall have an independent earth termination. It should be capable of isolation for testing purposes. Suitable location for the earth termination shall be selected after testing and
PART I GENERAL AND

assessing the specific resistivity of the soil and with due regard to reliability of the sub-soil water to ensure minimum soil moistness. 8.5.1 Water pipe system should not be bonded to the earth termination system. However, if adequate. clearance between the two cannot be obtained, they may be effectively bonded and the bonds should be capable of isolation and testing. The gas pipes, however, should in no case be bonded to the earth termination system. 8.5.2 It is recommended that all earth terminations should be interconnected. Common earthing, besides equalizing the voltage at various earth terminations also minimizes any risk to it of mechanical damage. The condition for limiting earthing resistance given in 11 does nobapply and in such a case no provision need be made for isolation in earth. e 8.5.3 A structure standing on bare rock should be equipped with a conductor encircling and fixed to the structure at ground level and following reasonably closely the contour of the ground. This conductor should be installed so as to minimize any risk to it of mechanical damage.’ The condition for limiting earthing resistance given in 11 does not apply and in such a case no provision need be made for isolation in earth termination for testing. Where there is a risk to persons or to valuable equipment. expen advice should be sought. 8.6 Earth Electrodes - Earth electrodes shall be constructed and installed in accordance with Part I /Set I2 of the Code. 8.6.1 Earth electrodes shall consist of rods, strips or plates. Metal sheaths of cables shall not be used as earth electrodes. 8.6.2 When rods or pipes are used they should be driven into the ground as close as practicable but qutside the circumference of the structure. Long lengths in sections coupled’ by screwed connectors or socket joints can be built up where necessary to penetrate the substrate of low resistivity. Where ground conditions are more favourable for the use of shorter lengths of rods in parallel, the distance between the rods should preferably be not less than twice the length of the rods. The arrangement of earth electrodes are given in Fig. 6 of IS.: 2309-1969.
8.6.3 When strips are used, these should be buried in trenches or beneath the structure at a suitable depth, but not less than 0.5 m deep to

avoid damage by building or agricultural operations. The strips should preferably be Laid radially in two or more directions from the point of connection to a down conductor. But if this is
not possible they may extend in one direction only. However, if the space restriction requires the strips to be laid in parallel or in grid formation the distance between two strips should not be less than 2 m. 8.6.4

When plate electrodes are-used they shall
85

COMMON ASPECTS

oc ourled mto the ground so that the top edge of the plate is at a depth not less than 1.5 m from the surface of the ground. If two plate electrodes are to be used in parallel the distance between the two shall not be less than 8 m. 8.6.5 In the neighbourhood of structure where high temperatures are likely to be the encountered in the sub-soil, for example brick kilns, the earth electrodes may have to be installed at such a distance from the structure where the ground is not likely to be dried out. 8.7 Fasteners - Conductors shall be securely attached to the building or other object to be protected by fasteners which shall be-Substantial m construction. not subject to bi’eakage. and shall be made of galvanized steel or other suitable material. If fasteners are made of steel, they should be galvanilcd to protect them against corrosion. If they are made of any other material suitable precautions shou!, be taken to avoid corrosion. Some samples of fasteners are shown in IS : 2309-1969. 8.8 Earth Resistance - Each earth termination should have a resistance in ohms to earth not exceeding numerically the product of IO and the number of earth terminations to be provided. The whole qf the lightning protective system should have a combined resistance to earth not exceeding IO ohms before any bonding has been effected to metal in or on the structure or to surface below ground. 9. ISOLATION AND BONDING

total clearance required is the sum of the two distances and may be expressed by the following simple equation : D=0.3Ri where K l5n

D = required clearance in metres, R= the combined earthing resistance of the H = structure height in metres, and n= number of down conductors connected to a
earth termination

in ohms,

common air termination.

9.1.2 The above clearance may be halved if a . ^ . - . slight risk ot occurence ot a side Hash c a n b e accepted. 9.1.3 The drawback of isolation lies in obtaining and maintaining the necessary safe clearances and in ensuring that isolated metal has no connection via the water pipes or other services with the earth. In general, isolation can be practised only in small buildings. 9.2 Bonding - In structures which contain electrically continuous metal. for example, a roof. wall. floor or covering, this metal, suitably bonded, may be used as part of the lightning protective system. provided the amount and arrangement of the metal render it suitable for use in accordance with 8. 9.2.1 If a structure is simply a continuous metal frame without external coverings it mrfy not require any air termination or down conductors provided it can be ensured that the conducting path is electrically continuous and the base of the structure is adequately earthed. 9.2.2 -A reinforced concrete structure or a reinforced concrete frame structure may have sufficiently low inherent resistance to earth to provide protection against lightning and if connections are brought out from the reinforcement at the highest points derring construction. a test may be made to varify this at the compktion of the structure. 9.2.3 If the resistance to earth of the steel frame of a structure or the reinforcement of a reinforced concrete structure is found to be satisfactory, a suitable air termination’should be installed at the top of the structure and bonded to the steel frame or to the reinforcement. Where regular inspection is not possible. it is recommended that a corrosion resistant material be used for bonding to t%e steel or to the reinforcement and this should be brought out for connection to the air termination. Down conductor and earth terminations will, ot course. be required if the inherent resistance of the structure is fdund to be unsatisfactory when tested. 9.2.4 Where metal exists in a structure as reinforcement which cannot be bonded into a continuous conducting network, and which is not or cannot be equipped with external earthing NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE

9.0 When a.lightning protective system is struck
with a lightning discharge. its electrical potential with respect to earth is raised. and unless suitable precautions are taken. the discharge may seek alternative paths to earth by-side flashing to other metal in the structure. Side flashing may be avoided by the following two methods :

a) Isolation. and
b) Bonding. 9.1 Isolation - Isolation requires large clearances between the lightning protective system and other metal parts in the structure. To find out the approximate clearances. the following two factors should be taken into account :

a) The resistive voltage drop in the earth
termination. and b) The inductive voltage drop in the down conductors. 9.1.1 The resistive voltage drop require> a clearance of ‘0.3 m,‘ohm of earthing resistance while the inductive _,voltage drop requires a clearance of I m for each I5 m of structure height. For two or more down conductors with a common air termination this distance should be divided by the number of down conductors. The 86

connections, its presence should be disgarded. The danger inseparable from the presence of such metal can. lx mipimized by keeping it entirely isolated from the lightning protective system. 9.2.5 Where the roof structure is wholly or partly covered by metal, care should be taken that such metal is provided with a continuous conducting path to earth. 9.2.6 In any structure. metal which is attached to-the outer surface or projects through a wall or a roof and has insufficient clearance from the lightning protective system, and is unsuitable for use as pa0 of it, should preferably be bonded as directly as possible to the lightning protectives system. If the metal has considerable length (for example, cables, pipes, gutters, rain-water pipes, stair-ways, etc) and runs approximately parallel to a down conductor or bond, it should be bonded at each and but not below the test point. If the metal is in discontinuous lengths, each portion should be bonded to the lightning protective system; alternatively, where the clearance permits, the presenee of the metal may be disregarded. 9.2.7 Bonding of metal entering or leaving a structure in the form of sheathing or armouring of cable, electric conduit, telephone, steam, compressed air or other services with earth termination system, should be avoided. However, if they are .required to be bonded. the bond& should be done as directly as possible to the earth termination at the point of entry or exist outside the structure on the supply side of the service. The gas pipes should in no case be bonded with other metal parts. However. water pipes may be bonded to other metal parts, if isolation and adequate clearance cannot be obtained. In this operation all the statutory rules or regulations which may be in force should be followed and the competent authority should be consulted for providing lightning protection in such cases. 9.2.8 Masses of metal in a building, such as bell-frame in a t6wer. should be bonded to the nearest down conductor by the most direct route available.
9.2.9 Metal clading or curtain walling having a continuous conducting path in all directions may be used as part of a lightning protective system. 9.2.10 In bonding adjacent metalwork to the lightning protective system careful consideration should be given lo the possible effects such bonding would have upon metalwork which may be cathodically protected.. 10. PROTECTION OF SPECIAL STRUCTURES 10.1 For guidance on design of lightning protection systems for special structures, reference shall be made to IS : 2309-1969. Guidance for the appropriate authorities shall also be obtained.

systems shall be exammed by a coinpetent engineer after completion, alteration or extensions, in order to verify that they are in accordance with the recommendations of the Code. A routine inspection shall be made at least once a year.
11.2 Teathg 11.2.1 On completion of the installation or of any modification, the resistance of each earth termination or section thereof, shall. if possible, be measured and’the continuity of all conductors and the efficiency of all bonds and joints shall be verified. 11.23 Normally annual measurement of earth resistance shall be carried out but Local circumstances in the light of experience may justify increase or decrease in this interval but it should not be less than once in two years. In the case of structures housing explosives or flammable materials, the ‘interval shall be six months. 11.23 Earth resistance shall be measured in accordance with Part I/Set I2 of the Code. 11.2.4 The actual procedure adopted for the test shall be recorded in detail so that future tests may be carried out under similar conditions. The highest value of resistance measured shall be noted as the resistance of the soil and details of salting or other soil treatment, should be recorded. 11.2.5 The record shall also contain particulars of the engineer. contrzictor or owner responsible for ‘the installation or upkeep or both of the lightning protective system. Details bf additions or alterations to the system, and dates of testing together with the test results and reports, shall be carefully recorded.

11.3 Deterioration - If the resistance to earth of a lightning protective system or any section of it exceeds the lowest value obtained at the first installation by more thah 100 percent, appropriate steps shall be taken to ascertain the causes and to remedy defects, if any.
1.1.4 Testing Continuity and Efficacy of Conductors and Joints 11.4.1 The ohmic resistance of the lightning protective system complete with air termination, but without the earth’ connection should be measured and this should be a fraction of an ohm. If it exceeds I ohm, then there shall be some fault either electrical or mechanical, which shall be inspected and the defect rectified. 11.4,2_For this system .is best hivided into convement sectlons at testmg oints by suitable joints. A continuous curre.nt oPabout IO A shall be passed through the portion of the system under test and the resistance verified) against its-calculated or recorded value. Suitable portable precision testing sets for this purposes should be used.
87

11. INSPECTION AND TESTING II.1 Inspection - All lightning protective
PART I GENERAL AND COMMON ASPECTS

engineers. The real benefit to be derived from the guidelines covered in this Sec!‘!on will be realized only when the safety instructions it contains are regarded as normal routine duty and not as involving extra and laborious operations. All sheets in the permit books and the books themselves should be seriaily numbered. 3. For further allocation of work by the permit receiving officer. It covers basic approaches to-electrical work from the point of view of ensuring safety which include inbuilt safety in procedures such as permit-to-work system. The permit-to-work certlflcate from the person-incharge of operation to the person-in-charge of the men selected to carry out any particular work ensure that the portion of the installation where the work is to be carried out is rendered dead and safe for working. 2. In extenuating circumstance. N OTE 2 The original permit will be issued to the personin-charge of work and the duplicate will be retained in the permit book. tokens may be issued to the workers authorizing them individually to carry out the prcscribcd work.6 A model form of permit-to-work certificate is given in IS : 5216 (Part I)-1982 ‘Recommendations on safety procedures and practices in electrical work : Part I General’. In such cases all possible precautions shall be taken to ensure the safety of the staff engaged for such work. by specially trained and experienced persons who are aware of the danger that exists when working on or near live mains or apparatus. N OTE I -~ The permit is to be prepared in duplicate by the person-inxharge of operation on the basis of message. ‘23 On completion of the work for which the permit-to-work is issued. etc. from the person-in-charge of the work.SECTION 16 SAFETY IN ELECTRICAL WORK O. Part I 1982 General Part 2 1982 Life saving techniques IS : 2!5 I-1982 Specification for danger notice plates IS : 8923-1978 Warning symbol for dangerous voltages 2.action taken shall be reported to the person-in-charg: _. and also of others who may be directly or indirectly connected with the work. a permit-to-work should be issued to the person-in-charge of each department. operation and maintenance work. the original shall be returned to the issuing officer duly discharged for cancellation. after taking necessary precautions. the person-in-charge of the maintenanqe staff should return the permit duly discharged to the issuing authority.Unless a person is authorized to work on live imains and apparatus all mains and apparatus to be worked upon shall N-ATIONAL E L E C T R I C A L C O D E aa . unless standing instructions are issued by the competent authority to follow other procedures.1 All work on major electrical installations shall be carried out under permit-to-work system which is now well established. such as for the purpose of saving life or tjme in the event of an emergency. All work shall be carried out under the personal supervision of a competent person. safety insturctions and safety practices. PERMIT-TO-WORK SYSTEM 2. SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS 3. No page should be detached or used for any other except bonafide work.FOREWORD 0 .1 Work on Dead LOHI and Medium Voltage Mains and Apparatus .7 Permit books should be treated as important records. 1 T h i s Sect. Such work shall only be carried out with proper equipment provided for _the purpose and. 03 This Section of the Code shall be read in conjunction with the following standards : IS : 5 2 1 6 R e c o m m e n d a t i o n s o n s a f e t y procedures and practices in electrical work.2 No work shall be commenced on live mains unless it is specifically intended to be so done by specially trained staff. 2. who might be required to work adjacent to live electrical mains or apparatus. duly logged.1. the issue and return of permits shal! bc recorded in a special register provided for that purpose. in such cases.1 Safety Instructions for Working on Mains and Apparatus up to and including 650 V 3.as soon as possible. 2. If any sheet is detached. 2.4 In all cases. SCOPE 1. it may become necessary to start the work without being able to obtain the necessary permit-to-work.on i s i n t e n d e d t o c o v e r recommendatiops on safety procedures and practices in electrical work. 1. If more than one department is working on the same apparatus.2 It is essential that safety should be preached and practiced at all times in the installation. but also to the staff of other departments. 2. i. contractors.The words permit-to-work’ and ‘permit’ are Bynonymous for the purpose of this Section. N O T E.1 This Section of the Code covers guidelines on safety procedures and practices in electrical work. N OTE 3 On completion of the work. the.5 The ermits shall be issued not only to the staff of t Re supply under takings. a dated and initialled statement shall then and there be recorded in the book by the person responsible for it.8 Permit books shall be kept only by the person-in-charge of operation who shall maintain a record of the receipts and issues made by him. 0.

Immediately before starting work. If any part which will thus become alive is exposed. Measures shall be taken against. the procedure prescribed in 3.2 Safety Instructions for Working on Mains and Apparatus at Voltages Above 650V 3. ah connections to the live parts shall be made last.2 Work on Live Mains and Apparatus Only competent. a safety sergent could be posted. or in any way interfere with. the person-incharge of the test shall take due precautions to ensure that the exposed live portion does not constitute danger to any person. proved dead. 3. if used.2.1.Isolation of mains shall be effected by the following methods : 4 The electrical circuits shall be broken only by authorized persons by disconnecting switches. Each rod is fitted with an indicating neon tube or other means which glows when the contact end of the rod comes in contact with exposed live parts.1. platforms or other accessories and safety devices. any mains or conduits or through containing a live mains except under the persotutl instructions and supervision.23 Isolation of Mains . For earthing and short-circuiting. Before inserting fuses or links in a feeder or distribution pillar controlling the cable on which a fault has been cleared. No live part should be within’unsafe distang of a person working on live low at&medium voltage mains so that he does not come in contact with it unless he is properly protected.4 Connecting Dead Mains to Live Mains When dead mains are connected to live mains.4 .2 Contact indicator and phasing rods are provided-for phasing and proving exposed mains and apparatus dead. If necessary.4 shall be scrupulously followed.1. _ . Devices .set consists of two rods a9 a) No person shall work on. the isolation should be visibly checked. person shall work within the minimum working distance from the exposed live mains and appartus.be isolated from all sources of supply before starting the work. 3. It does not apply to operations carried out on mains and apparatus which are so constructed as to permit safe operation within these distances. and in all cases the phase sequence should be checked to ensure that only like phases are connected together. the following precautions shall be taken : 1) No person. 3.2. of competent person.2. 3. The cardoning off shall be done in such a way that it does not hinder the movement of the maintenance personel. after receiving a permitto-work. Exposed live equipment in the viscinity shall be cordoned off so that persons working on the released equipment in service. each phase shall first be connected through a test switch fuse. The minimum working distance depends upon the actual voltages. mats. Each rod is clearly marked for the maximum voltage .No __ .1 High voltage neon lamp contact indicato& rods are often used for proving exposed mains and apparatus dead. c) While working on mains. except for the purpose of connecting the testing apparatus.for Proving Mains and Apparatus Bead 3.3 Testing of Mains and Apparatus-No person shall apply test voltage to any mains unless he has received a permit-to-work and has warned all persons working on the mains of the proposed application of test voltage. be used on higher voltapes.All mains and apparatus shall be regarded as live and a source of danger and treated accordingly. and such persons should take all safety measures as may be required.2.2. ‘3.4. test or earth mains or apparatus unless covered by a permitto-work and after proving the mains dead. on the ‘site of work. A . experienced and authorized persons shall work on live mains and apparatus. carried out only by an authorized person under the instructions of the person-in-charge of maintenance. stools. shall be thoroughly examined to see whether they are in sound condition. and b) Where the means of isolation are provided with a device to prevent their reclosure by unauthorized persons.4. such a device shall be used. Warning boards shall be attached on or adjacent to the live apparatus and at the limits of the zone in which work may be carried out.1 General . under any circumstances. the inadvertent energizing of the mains and apparatus. Under no circumstances shall be person work with unsound gauntlets.2. earthing and short-circuiting of any mains shall be PAW t GENERA L AND COMMON ASPECTS . 3. specified on the permit-to-work shall not be removed or interfered with except by authority from the person-in-charge of the work. rubber gauntlets. 3. It should also be ensured before the application of test voltage. etc. only recognized methods should be used. 2) When any live mains is to be earthed. b) The operations of proving dead. 3.2 _Minimum Working Distance . that no other permit-to-work has been issued for working on this mains.on which it may be safely used and shall not. unbolting connections or switches which are racked out Where possible. and 3) The earths and short-circuits. earthed and short-circuited. which is specially designed for connecting to the live parts. isolating links. unless it is positively known to be dead and earthed. shall work on.

2.8 Sqfety precautions . the end of the earthing device attached to the conductors of the earthed mains or apparatus shall be removed first and the other and connected lo earths shall be removed last. but the Indicating tube should glow on this test or tlFa.Where the electrical. the indicating tube shall glow. d 4 N OTE I -All the above iperations shall be carried out at rhe same place and at the same time. d After testing the cable with dc voltage.It shill be ensured that all devices for proving high voltage mains and apparatus dead are marked clearly with the maximum voltage for which they are intended and should be tested periodically. be used on higher voltages. Both rods are fitted with contact tips and indicating tubes. owing to dielectric absorption which is particularly prominent in the dc voltage testing of high voltage cables. b) Use only earthing switches or any. 4 a) W cl Ensure that the rod is clean and dry. Except for the purpose of ‘testing. Apply the rod to’each phase required lo be proved dead.4.2. the indicating tube shall not glow. a steel wedge shall be carefully driven through it at the point where it is to be cut or preferably by means of a spiking gun of approved design. The cable shall be dischaiged for a sufficiently long period to prevent rebuilding up of voltage.4.5 Idcnt~ficotion of cables to be worked upon . following precautions should be taken : b) If a cable is required to be cut. 3. under any circumstances. A non-contact indicating rod. 3.While using the high voltage contact indicator and phasing rods for proving the mains or apparatus dead.2. appearing in the indicating tube.4. removal of the earthing and short-circuiting devices shall be carried out in the reverse order to that adopted for placing them (see 3.7 Removing the eorth conntictions . rods up to II kV may be tested by applying them to the top of the spark plug in a running motor car cngme. 3.4.On completion of work. the earthing and short-circuiting devices shall remain connected for the duration of the work. d All the three phases should he effectively 3. Check the rod by applying it to known live parts of the correct voltage.4. 3.‘open’ or ‘closed’.4 Testing ond morking of devices -. and earthed and short-circuited though work may be proceeding on one phase only.for earthing . When the contact tip of one rod .2. that is.6 Earthing and short-circuiting mains a) High voltage mains shall not be worked u on unless they are discharged to earth aPter making them dead and are earthed and short-circuited with earthing and shortcircuiting equipment is adequate to carry possible short-circuit currents and specially meant for the purpose.3 Use of Conrocr Indicator and Phasing Rods . The conductor shall not be touched after the earthing device has been removed from it. one on each side of the work zone. induction testing set or spiking device may be used for proving the cable dead.2A. agam the indicating tubes shall glow. 3. d) Earthing should be done in such a manner that the persons doing the job are protected by earth connections on both sides of their working zone.circuit cannot be broken visibly as set out in 3. if no live parts are available on the site.2.is NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE . phasing. If the rod is in order the indicating tube will glow each time the plug sparks. 90 c) Verify that the circuit is dead by means of discharging rod or potential indicator. etc.4. All earthing switches wherever installed should be locked up. The earthing device when used shall be first connected lo an effective earth.is applied to ixposed live parts and that of the other to earth or other exposed live parts provided there is sufficient voltage difference between the. The other end of the device shall then be connected to the conductors lo he earthed. if any.The precautions mentioned below should be adopted to the extent applicable and possible : a) Examine earthing devices periodically and always prior lo their use.od is. other special apparatus where provided for earthing. The indicator itself should first be tested on a live circuit before and after the verification.2.4.2. the indicating tubes should glow. two.A cable shall be identified as that having been proved dead prior to cutting or carrying out atiy operation which may involve work on or movement of the cable. Each set of rods is normally marked for the maximum voltage on .which it may be used and shall not. 3. the cable shall be discharged through a 2 megohms resistance and not directly.6). Therefore.useleu as a means of proving the mains or apparatus L N OTE 2-The rod should be tested both before and after the use.3 the circuit may be broken by two circuit opening devices. Be very careful lo be in a position to see the glow.2.9 W o r k i n g o n mains H*hew visible isolation connot be carried out .connected in series by a length of insulated cables. and Again check the rod by applying it to live parts as in (2) above. the glow will to intermittent. where duplicate feed is available and by one circuit opening device where duplicate feed is not available provided the following conditions are fulfilled : a) The position of the contacts of the circuit oF~ning device(s) -.

6.above shall be locked in the open position before the work on the mains and apparatus is commenced. It has been fc. 5. available. 5.10 W o r k o n tttains wilh mw or more secrions .2. d In cases where duplicate feed is not The circuit opening devices mentioned . all supports or high and extra high voltage etc. Recommendation on safety procedures and practices in electrical work: Part 2 Life saving techniques. The details of such practices are given m Appendix C of IS: 5216 (Part I)-1982. FART I CENERAI.1 The owner of every medium. transformer. it is very necessary that certain elementary safety practices are observed.2 It is also recognized as good practice to indicate by means of the symbol recommended in IS : 8923-1978 ‘Warning symbol for dangerous voltages’ on electrical equipment where the halards arising out of dangerous voltage exist.2 Equipment.4.When the mains to be worked upon are to be divided into two or more sections.2.2.n a danger notice in Hindi or English and the local language of the district on every motor.2. The danger notice plate shall conform to IS : 2551-1982 ‘Specification for danger notice pla te.(see IS : 5216 (Part 2)1982. ACCIDENTS AND TREATMENT FOR ELECTRIC SHOCK . high and extra high voltage installation is required to fix permanently.md that quite a large number of accidents occur due to the neglect of these practices.4. the circuit opening device is between the mains to be worked on and any source of supply.6 and 3. Devices and Appliances General guidelines regarding the same as given in l’S : 5216 (Part 1)~1. the provisions of 3. both the circuit opening devices are in series between the mains and apparatus to be worked on and any source of supply. cl The mains and apparatus to be worked on 4 In cases where duplicate feed is available.9 shall be observed with regard to each section.clearly indicated by the position of the operating handle or by signal lights or by other means. 3. any short-circuiting and earthing removed and’ the permit-to-work form duly returned and cancclled. SAFETY PRACTICES 4.s (first revision)‘. generator.1 In all electrical works. SAFETY POSTERS W The circuit opening device(s) can be locked’ mechanically in the open position. AND COMMON ASPECTS 91 . The locking devices shall be removed only by a compete_nt person and not until the work has been completed. in a conspicuous positi0. 4. 4.982.4. are adequately earthed and short-circuited between the circuit opening device and the position of the work. 5.3 and 3.

namely : medium vbltage for improvement of power factor at the installation in their premises.1 Conditions of supply of electricity boards or licensees stipulate the lower limit of power factor which is generally 0. the total c_urrent taken by almost every item of electrical equipment. for individual 1. For higher voltage installations. 2. Induction furnaces and heating coils.3.2 The principal cause of a low power factor is due to the reactive power flowing in the circuit. b) cl 4 e) f-l Power transformers and voltage regulators.2 Power factor is dependent largely on consumers apparatus and partly on system components such as transformers. This component is power is available for transmission and utilization without any extra cost. 0. The reactive power is indispensable and constitutes an additional demand on the system. 3. 3. GENERAL 2.1 This Section has been prepared with a view to providing guidance to the consumers of electrical energy who take supply of low and 23 In case of ac supply. 92 not convertible mto useful output. SCOPE 1. conform to these conditions.2 Specific guidelines. Arc welders. neon. A power factor of unity (100 percent) deiotes 100 percent utilisation of the total current for useful work whereas a power factor of 0. is made up of two parts. etc. improvetient. rebate for lowi high power factor. More useful a) the in-phase component of the current (active or useful current) which is utilized for doing work or producing heat. 0.lce and capacitance of the apparatus. in the power factor would effect savings in the energy bills.1 The majority of ac electrical machines and equipment draw from the supply an apparent power (kVA) which exceeds the required useful power (kW).1 This Section of the Code covers causes for l o w p o w e r f a c t o r a n d guIdelines for use of capacitors to improve the same in consumers installations. 3. The ratio of usefol power (kW) to apprarent power (kVA) is termed the power factor of the load. 2. 3. cables. 2.1. 1. The reactive power depends on the inducta. Moreover. and b) the quadrature component of the current (also called ‘idle’ or ‘reactive’ current) and used for creating magnetic field in the machinery or apparatus.1 The disadvantages of low power factor are as follows : a) OvtJoading of cables and transformer.2 The various advantages of maintaining a high power factor of a system reflects on the national economy of a country.3. 0. transmissioti lines.2 The power factor indicates the portion of the current in the system performing useful work.85 and consumer is obliged to improve and maintain the power factor of his installation to. This is due to the reactive power (LVAR) necessary for alternating magnetic field. additional or more specific rules apply.3 Principal Causes of Lower Power Factor 3.1 When the tariffs of Electricity Boards and the licensees are based on kVA demand or kW demand with suitable penalty.1 The following electrical equipment and apparatus have a lower factor : a) Induction motors of all types particularly when they are underloaded. Choke coils and magnetic systems. The available resources are utilized to its fullest possible extent. Fluorescent and discharge lamps. 3. NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE . capacitance and resistance.4 Effect of Power Factor to Consumer 3.4 The contents of this Section are based on “Guide I)-1975 for t tic I S : 7752 (Part improvement of power factor in consumers’ installations: Part I Low and medium suppI voltages”.3 1 he guidelines provided in this Section are basically intended for installation operating at voltages below 650 V. etc. System components have fixed parameters of inductance.70 shows that only 70 percent of the current is performing useful work. signs.4. if an installation on improvement 0 r*power factor are covered in the respective sections of the Code. except that of incandescent lighting and most forms of resistance heating. The choice of these components to bring up fhe power factor depends on economics.SECTION 17 GUIDELINES FOR POWER-FACTOR IMPROVEMENT &FOREWORD 0. POWER FACTOR 3. the life of individual apparatus is considerably increased and the energy losses reduced.

that is. that is. c) Reduced losses in the transformers and d) Lower loading of transformers. 3. cables.4.Capacitors may also be installed at a central point.1 Static caGacitors. U S E O F C A P A C I T O R S 4. it is most important to remember that any power factor improving equipment will.5. 4. compensate for losses and lower the loadings on supply equipment. ease of installation loss maintenance. generating plant. depreciation and maintenance. the load growth.2 The average values of the power factor for different types of 3 phase electrical installations as measured by one of major utilities in the country are given in respective Sections of the Code. these capacitors may be operate! manually or automatically as required. switchgears. A bank of capacitors may be installed to connect them to the distribution centre of main bus-bars of the group of machines. at the incoming supply or service position.power factor prescribed in the conditions of supply of Electricity Boards or Licensees and the reduction in charges offered in supply tariffs fortfurther improvement of power factor shall.4 I n d i v i d u a l C o m p e n s a t i o n possible the capacitor should be connected directly across the terminals of the low power factor appliance or equipment. transformers. In order to overcome problems of drawing leading currents on light loads.1 In order to improve the power factor.5 Economics of Power Factor Improvement 3. and d) Penal power rates.5 Group Compensation .5. 4.2 The use of the static capacitors is an economical way of improving power factor on account of their comparatively-low cost. This ensures the control to be automatic through the same switching devices of the apparatus of applianct. The automatic control is preferred as it eliminates human errors. the value of economic improved power factor (Cos & ) may be obtained as foliows : Let th: tariff be Rs A per kVA of maximum demand per annum plus Rs P per kWh PART I GENERAL AND COMMOh ASPECTS 4. N OTE . relieve distribution system before the point of its installation from carrying the inductive reactive power to that extent.6 Central Compensation . installation of capacitors also improve the voltage. and Reduction in voitagc dips caused by welding and slmiiar ‘equipment.In industries where a large number of small motors or other appliances and machines are installed and whose operation is periodical it is economical to dispense with individual installation of capacitors. 43 Capacitors for power factor improvement may be arranged as described in IS : 7752 (Part I)-1975. 3. _ 3. etc. cables. cables. etc. The successful operation of power factor i m p r o v e m e n t d e p e n d s v e r y largel-y on the positioning of the capacitor on the system. provide necessary Capacitive reactive power. c) inefficient operation of plant. switchgear. Ideal conditions are achieved when the highest power factor is maintained under all load conditions. d e t e r m i n e t h e kVAR c a p a c i t y o f t h e capacitors to be installed. 3. Improvement in voltage conditions and apparatus performance.5. the consumer shall install capacitors where the natural power factor of this installation is low.4 The minimum permissible . b) Reduction in power cost.2 The advailtages of high power factor are as follows : cos is the improved power factor after installing the capacitors qbl Cos $Q is the imttal power factor.b) Decreased line voltage at point of appiicatioll. along with orher considerations such as reduction of losses. The economic power factor Cos & is obtained from the expression 4 Reduction in the current. regulation and reduces amperes loading and energy losses in the supply apparatus and lines.5 In case of two port tariff with kVA demand charged. Wherever 4. 3.5. e) Increased capability of the ‘power system (additional load can be met without additional equipment). in general. 3. Automaiic operation may be arranged by means of suitable relays in which a 93 . also called static condensers.The explanation for the derivation of the formula for economic power factor Cos $17 is given in Appendix A of IS : 7752 (Part I)-1975 ‘Guide for improvement of powerfactor in consumers’ installation: Part I Low and medtum supply voltages. etc. 4. when installed at or near the point of‘ consumption. where B is the total cost per kVAR per year of capacitor installation ihclusive of interest.3 When considering the economics connected with power factor correction. low losses and the advantage of extension’ by addition of requisite units to meet.5.

5. TO STAR DELTA STARTER F I G. 4. AS RECOMMENDED tSUIlABLE FOR GROUP OPERATION1 F I G.OR FUSE SWITCH. I M E T H O D S OF P OWER F ACTOR C ONNECTING C APACITORS TO FOR MOTORS IMPROVEMENT OF CIRCUIT BREAKER. kVAR in the circuit. 2 M ETHODS OF C O N N E C T I N G C APACITORS FOR I MPROVEMENT of P O W E R F ACTOR TO S UPPLY L I N E 94 NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE . CONTACTOR.1 For calculating the siqe of the capacitor for power factor improvement ref&cacc rhould be made to Table 5 of Part 1 /Sac 18 of the Code.7 The methods of connecting power factQr capacitors to supply line and motors is given in Fig.contactor controls the capacitors bank ana maintains the correct amount of. 1 and 2. POWER FACTtlR 1MPROYEMENT:AND CAPACITOR RATING 5.

60’ I/2.5 4 6 IO l/1.005 6 (5) flim 0.5 to 3.037 0. mm Length.40 lil.85 I .029 6 3 0. frequent need arises to make reference to certain data.009 t 0. mm Thickness of outer wall.20 0.0 1. AND NUMBER OF CABLES THAT MAY BE DRAWN IN ONE GROOVE OF THE CASING Width of casing of capping.183 4 8 0.004 0.a. TINNED COPPER RATC~ CLlRREhT O F Fr:trWlRF (A) Nominal Number and Diameter Cross(in mm) Sectional Area.009 0.Oi8 f 0.80 2.12* l/l. mm Thickness of casing.020 (4) Dim 0.24 712.0 C ARLES THAT E SIZE O F CAHLE A W N IN ON M A GROOVE Y H E In view of ihe fact that this data is voluminous and are themselves being extensively reviewed for possible up-dating by the concerned expert group.06 I / 3.50 0.2 The recommended current rating of cables are covered in the form of tables in the following Indian Standards. This Section of Part I gives in one place such of those tables which basically provide fundamental data not necessarily required for the understanding of the Code that they should appear along with relevant text.006 9 9 0.50 7/3. mm Width of dividing fillet.63 0.040 0 I 0. The data when finalized will form part of the Code.031 0.00 I I I I *For copper conductors only. which. this Section merely draw a reference to IS : 3961 (series).056 6 0.40 7/ 1.011 _t t 0.25 1 I so .j5t 711.173 0.80 31 I .OOt 191 1.85* I/2. mm Thickness of the back under the groove.014 3 0. TABLE 1 DIAMETER AND MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE RESISTANCE OF FUSE-WIRES.:.35 0.70 712.006 4 5 0.009 0.089 0. mm Thickness of capping.015 O.75 0.005 f 0.525 0 0. of grooves Width of grooves.013 6 0.008 0. 0.1 In electrical engineering work.24 71 I .1967 PVC insulated and PVC sheathed heavy duty cables (Part 3)-1968 Polyethylene insulated cables (.80 2 2 3 2 2 2 9 8 5 5 4 I2 12 IO 8 6 I2 12 IO 9 6 I I - I I - I i - N OMINAL D IAMETER T O L ERANCE PERMISSIRLE RESlSrANcE AT 20°C Max Min : 16 mm (2) (3) mm t 0.SECTION 18 TABLES 0.053 5 0. m NI’MRER D R OF 0. tFor aluminium conductors only PART I GENERAL AND COMMON ASPECTS !n .003 + ? 0. FOREWORD TAPLE 2 SIZE OF WOOD CASING AND CAPPINb. but are required to be referred to in designing the installation.564 4 0. 4)-1968 PVC insulated light duty 38 2 6 12 7 16 6 44 2 6 12 51 2 9 I3 64 2 13 18 76 2 16 24 89 102 2 16 35 2 19 38 IO IO IO IO 16 6 19 IO 19 IO 25 Ill I I 32 13 1: 32 13 6 6 6 IO IO 10 I3 2. mm’ of Wires I. when made available in the form of ready reference tables facilitates the work. IS 3961 Recommended current ratings for cables (Part I)-1967 Paper insulated lead sheathed cables (Part 2).5 2.084 0 8 0.80 71 I .005 3 25 35 50 - - 6 t: 20 :: 40 :: 100 0. mm No.006 t t 0.

of . ’ 16 io 32 40 25 CrossDiameter NUMBER OF CABLES. MUX Sectional (in mm) -+.80 3/1. l/l.5 2. I6 20 25 N UMRER OF 32 C A B L E S.50 7/3.The table shows the maximum capacity of conduits for the simulataneous drawing of cables. .70 712.70 712.80 31 I. 711. m m 40 Max / Nominal CrossSectional Area mm* I.0 I/ 1.50 19/1.3 4 6 10 I6 25 35 50 l/l.1 kV GRADE SINGLE-CORE CABLES THAT MAY BE DRAWN INTO RIGID NON-METALLIC CONDUITS SIZE OF CABLE S IZE OF C O N D U I T.80 71 I.85* r/2.40 l/l. TABLE 4 MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE NUMBER OF 1. 5 IO 20 I4 5 13 1. m m 50 S (13) B‘ (14) 63 \ -Nominal N u m b e r and.5 4 6 IO 16 25 35 Number and Diameter (inwm. The columns headed B apply to runs of conduit which deflect from the straight by an angle of more than ISo *For copper conductors only.400 I /3.06* l/2.copper conductors only.oot 19/1.85* 4 3 3 2 3 2 2’ _7 0 4 3 5’ 5 3 2 I2 IO 7 6 5 4 2 IO 8 0 5 4 3 20 I8 I2 IO 14 I2 IO 8 - - 1. ?For. S B S Area of Wires B S B‘ S B B‘ S mm2 (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (9) (10) (11) (12) (8) 4 7 t.24 712.:.6” .24 712.12.40 l/l. w. The columns headed S apply to runs ot conduit which have distance not exceedlnp 4.oot - : - : 3 2 - s 7 5 4 2 : 6 4 3 8 7 5 6 5 4 9 8 9 NOTE .0 I. and which do not deflect from the straight by an angle of more than IS”. The table applies to I: I kV grade cabks.55t 711. tFor aluminium conductors only.25 m between drawin-boxes.129 111. 50 ..40. w NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE .80 5 4 3 2 7 6 5 3 2 I3 IO IO 6 5 4 20 I4 I4 IO 9 7 4 2 I4 II 9 5 2 2 I2 6 5 : .TABLE 3 MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE NUMBER OF 1.24 7/0.060 I(224 7/0.5 2.80 7/3. rluminium conductors only.\. - - 2 - 50 2 2 *For .wgr 711. .1 kV GRADE CABLES THAT CAN BE DRAWN INTO RIGID STEEL CONDUITS SIZE OF CABLE SnE OF CO N D U I T .

426 0.532 1.40 0.369 I::.685 0.196 I.533 I.338 1.79 0.529 1.618 0.078 0.257 0.973 0.397 1.246 0.716 0.329 0.982 0.271 1.117 0.905 0.515 0.085 2.243 0.164 I.234 0. POWER FA(.041 1.620 0.56 0.407 0.58 0.266 8:.123 I.651 1.798 0.507 0.942 0.283 0.655 0.501 I.585 1.779 0.714 0.843 0.288 0.778 I.030 0.283 0.600 1.079 0.TABLE EXIST -.052 0.421 0.The consumer a advised to make proper allowance for lower supply voltages where these exist during th working hours and may choose slightly higher kVAR than recommended in the table for such cases.474 I.213 0.034 1.749 0.466 0.836 0.027 0.063 0.66 0.090 0.936 0.971 0.537 1.480 0.408 0.320 0.86 0.452 0.400 0.295 0.054 0.198 0.183 0.277 0.811 0.112 0.192 0.405 I.794 0.048 I.712 1.209 0.769 0.976 0.076 I.594 0.086 0.043 1.276 1.582 0.769 0.281 0.480 1.803 0.624 I.53 0.857 0.608 0.5Og 0.424 0.691 0.996 0.91 (5) 0.063 1.878 0.059 0.855 1.64 0.478 0.894 0.829 0.308 1.2% :::rl: 0.479 0.740 0.786 1.939 0.301 0.737 1.083 0.316 0.65 0.684 0.565 0.357 I.870 0.781 0.55 0.209 0.567 I.269 0.027 0.395 0.684 1.186 0.837 1.399 0.754 0.750 0.575 I.549 0.809 0.251 0.500 0.220 0.679 0.782 1.970 0.487 0.97 0.538 0.809 0.701 0.881 1.904 0.743 a.614 .593 0.I71 .289 0.453 0.228 I.939 0.499 0.963 0.z I:160 I.740 0.620 0.393 1.066 0.097 0.159 0.037 2.343 0.936 0.481 1.800 1.959 1.538 0.515 0.578 0.677 1.156 0.884 0.079 0.343 0.114 0.725 1.90 (4) 0.677 1.433 0.230 I.882 0.998 1.563 0.966 0.202 I.355 0.964 I.248 1.613 0.079 1.95 (9) 0.026 - I.374 0.661 0.176 0.447 0.647 1.368 1.265 1.988 1.939 0.961 I.2 2 0.485 1.544 1.TOR (1) ING 5 CAPACITOR SIZES FOR POWER FACTOR IMPROVEMENT I MPROVED POWER FA C T O R 0.454 :z .103 1.117 I.192 I.652 0.225 2.60 0.973 I.552 1.204 0.909 0.453 I.84 085 0.131 1.303 I .742 I.164 0.809 0.936 0.899 8:E 0.189 I.460 0.850 0.136 I.329 0.912 0.299 1.242 0.124 0.458 I.369 0.680 .077 1.299 0.020 0.618 0.138 I.49 0.00 (14) - (11) 2.238 0.047 I.089 0.526 0.514 0.860 1.420 1.321 0.784 1.698 0.186 0.154 I.151 I.600 1.441 1.169 1.654 0.022 1.319 0.230 I.257 .61 0.769 1.005 0.82 0.489 0.840 0.042 - (12) 2.I.85 (3) 0.750 0.48 0.167 0.935 I.353 1.417 0.%6 0.849 0.005 0.373 0.591 0.421 1:g 1.741 0.713 0.878 0.634 0.268 1.43 8.230 I.121 0.326 1.341 0.68 0.381 0.51 0.200 I. PART I GENERAL AND COMMON ASPECTS 97 .188 I.290 1.484 0.014 0.149 0.309 1.712 0.134 0.369 0.082 2.525 0.98 0.483 01450 0.679 0.913 1.620 0.446 1.058 0.645 0.902 0.785 0.654 0.50 0.896 1.310 0.713 0.672 0.600 0.429 0.546 0.730 0.96 0.83 0.790 1.591 0.345 0.672 0.645 0.997 0.230 0.447 0.558 I.692 0.488 0.727 0.268 1.035 0.974 0.673 0.434 0.837 0.085 .335 0.519 1.329 0.473 I.729 0.744 0.95 0.292 0. 0.377 1.530 0.225 0.584 0.623 0.440 0.72 0.371 0.303 0.549 0.861 I.90 0.720 0.519 I.836 1.113 0.085 0.78 0.037 1.92 @?6) 0.191 0.:: 11297 I.748 0.058 0.41 0.936 0.235 0.031 - I.453 0.143 0.136 0.464 1.242 0. _ - NOTE .437 0.94 (a) 0.685 0.356 I.758 1.639.657 0.317 0.441 1.233 1.847 0.534 1.593 0.252 0.309 0.69 0.480 0.370 1.024 0.556 0.686 1.98 0.713 0.288 2.724 0.788 0.508 0.130 0.644 1.294 0.149 0.607 0.130 1.536 0.030 0.771 0.561 .758 0.580 0.536 0.217 0.277 1.164 2.658 0.349 1.870 0.958 0.483 I.677 1.57 0.604 0.013 0.395 0.652 0.80 (2) 0.634 0.777 0.595 0.453 0.87 0.742 1.937 0.929 I.659 I.94 0.114 1.903 1.992 0.93 0.93 (7) MULTIPLI~NG 0.347 0.924 I.141 0.008 0.578 1.899 1.70 0.92 0.687 0.91 0.398 0.413 I.161 0.815 0.67 0.806 0.907 0.507 0.112 1.502 I .058 1.732 1.534 0.421 0.826 1.262 0.388 0.878 0.459 0.871 0.190 I.316 1.530 I.165 I.590 1.636 1.74 0.682 0.435 1.425 1.949 0.160 I.091 1.817 0.785 0.230 0.060 2.203 0.390 ::E 0.474 0.650 0.564 0.144 I.309 0.202 I.355 0.949 0.172 0.738 1.337 KB I:205 I.442 1.686 0.107 0.042 1.709 0.623 1.216 0.343 0.300 1.840 0.75 0.347 0.904 0.239 1.663 0.99 (13) 1..075 1.512 0.275 0.567 0.417 1.229 I.361 0.071 0.463 0.59 0.146 2.315 I.564 0.626 1.3669 0.838 0.473 0.541 0.592 1.631 0.381 0.132 0.140 0.81 0.489 I.625 0.426 0.887 0.492 0.71 0.403 1.372 0.425 0.363 0.518 0.935 0.387 I.996 0.026 - It! I.805 1.76 0.113 1.: 0.145 0.80 0.: 0.395 0.270 0.681 1.62 0.559 I.191 I.519 0.262 0.63 0.986 0.88 0.855 0.386 1.89 0.97 0.629 1.921 0.027 - I:771 I.553 0.160 0.076 1.745 0.804 0.263 1.053 0.215 .062 1.175 0.116 1.126 0.909 0.573 0.568 0.395 1.709 I.832 1.028 1.918 0.716 0.629 0.580 0.485 0.798 1.395 0.049 1.567 0.: 1.179 I.459 0.089 t-z .190 0.774 0.157 I.512 0.695 1.775 0.162 0.400 0.821 0.183 0.42 0.413 0.905 0.713 1.588 1.497 1.874 I.430 1.751 1.502 .109 0.104 0.024 0.105 0.021 I.77 0.250 0.426 0.151 I.648 0.624 0.96 (10) 0.816 I.450 0.54 0.223 0.980 0.268 0.291 0.155 0.552 0.700 0.188 0.079 1.541 0.47 0.597 0.083 1.358 0.103 0.108 1.850 0.237 I.192 0.73 0.876 0.487 I.329 0.846 1.130 I :!? I.226 I.419 0.124 1.032 __ _.010 0.52 0.982 0.117 1. 1.039 1.066 1.107 2.99 1.317 0.828 0.096 1.776 0._ __ _.395 0.870 0.46 0.356 1.334 1.805 0.264 0.047 - FKTOR I.544 I.

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NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE PART 2 .

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It is essential to take recourse to the assistance of local authorities for further details. U. As the general provisions relating to such installations are common and are themselves elaborate in nature. note has been taken of the requirements stipulated in installation codes of individual equipment as well.FOREWORD 0. 0. installation and maintenance of transformers : Part 2 Installations IS : IO1 I8 (Part 3)-l 982 Code of practice for selection. even though to some extent the requirements stipulated herein could also be applicable to them.ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN ST iNDBY GENERATING STATIONS AND CAPTI\ E SUBSTATIONS O.5 Specific requirements pertaining to standby generating stations and captive substations for multistoreyed/high-rise buildings are covered in Appendix to Part III of the Code.6 This Part shall be read in conjunction with the following publications : IS : 1641-1960 Code of practice for fire-safety of buildings (general) : General principles and fire grading IS : 1646-1982 Code of practice for fire-safety of buildings (general) : Electrical installations IS : 2309-1969 Code of practice for the protection of buildings and allied structures against lightning IS : 3034-1981 Code of practice for fire-safety of industrial buildings : Electrical generating and distributing stations (/i’r. 0.4 In the preparation of this Part. This Part does not include the switching stations and other large generating plants coming solely under the pet-view of the electric supply authority of a metropolis.sr revision) IS : 3043-1966 Code of practice for earthing IS : 10028 (Part 2)-I981 Code of practice for selection. 0.PART 2. it was felt essential to cover them in a separate part preceeding the other parts which cover the requirements for specific installations.2 Generating stations covered by this Part are the standby or emergency supply and captive substations normally housed in or around the building in question. 0. for generating and switching substations for individual buildings that might vary depending on the nature of the occupancy or the size of the building are enumerated in the respective Sections of the Code.3 Specific requirements. It is generally not feasible to draw very strict guidelines for the design and layout for such installations owing to the complexity of the needs of building installations and hence only the essential safety considerations are listed out for compliance.as the fire-safety codes for generating stations and substations. if any.1 This part of the National Electrica! Code is primarily intend+_ to cover the requirements relating to standby generating stations and capttve substations intended for serving an individual occupancy. installation and maintenance of switchgear : Part 3 installations .

NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE .2 This part is not intended to cover ‘captive generator sets’ of very large capacities which-are main or supporting mode of power supply. including such building features as access doors. 5. GENERATING SETS 7. ventilating arrangement. oil pumps. 7. 4. : 2. a n d s u c h electrical operating areas fall under the category of BA4 utilisation for instructed Frsonnel (see Part I /Set 8). 102 of spread of possible fire exists. For instance in case of hospitals such loads comprise operation theatres and their supporting auxiliaries.2 Switchgears.4 The foundation of the standby generating sets shall preferably be isolated from that of the other structures of the building so that vmrations are not carried over.of power failure. etc. 4. Icold storage in laboratories.room and the transport ways shall be agreed to between the architect and electrical contractor. intensive care units.3 Construction of fire separation walls shall cunform with the requirements of relevant Indian Standards. etc. buildings (general): Electrical installations. the dimensioni of the power plant . 7. cable trenches. An assessment shall also be made of the civil construction needs of the station equipment keeping in view a possible expansion in future. N OTE . In the case of built up areas in cities. and depending on whether the equipment are installed indoor or outdoor. tlie rooms shall be well ventilated and provided with air exhaust equipment. tCode of practice for fire-safety of industrial buildings. 5.E OF INFORMATION 4. 3.Noise level limitation for generator sets are under study. multistoreyed construction may also be adopted. 5.ricted areas not metint f o r u n a u t h o r i s e d p e r s o n s . In the case of industries having continuous p r o c e s s e s .0 Stationary generating sets of about.2 Before ordering the equipment. emergency lifts.1. interconnecting doors should be of fireproof construction. Similarly the substatlons up to the capacities of 5 MVA and 33 _kV ‘are covered. o i l c i r c u i t . I. Electrical generating and distributing stations f&r revision). This Part also does not apply to stations BUILDING AND 5. 5 kVA and above are normally driven by diesel engine as this drive is most economical. Doorway openings in seperating walls of transformer or switchgear rooms shall be provided with sills not less than 15 -cm in height. Locating of substation in basements is generally not recommended.1 The selection of equipment shall be done in accordance with the guidelines provided in Part I /Set 9 of the Code.of characteristics of the buildings based on its occupancy shall be taken note of as specified in individual Parts/Sections of the C&je. lifting beams. Construction of such buildings shall conform to IS : ‘l&6-1982$.1 For the purposks of this Part.3 It is generally presumed that generating stations and substations are rest. the definition given in Part I/Set 2 of the Code shall apply. regarding the installation and location conditions.1 This Part of . This Part covers only the standby generating sets up to the capacity & I MW. Smaller sets are driven by petrol. GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF STATION INSTALLATIONS 3. EXCHAF*I.1 In determining the general characteristics of standby generating plants and building substations in a building. During the planning of the building. the assessment . *Code of practice for fire-safety of buildings (general)‘: General principles and fire grading. 6.nt shall be determihed based on the guidelines provided in Part 1’/Sec 8 of the Code.1 Information shall be exchanged amongst the personnel involved regarding the size and nature of substation and supply station requirements to be provided for an occupancy So that the type of equipment and their choice. foundation details for heavy equipment. Reference is drawn to IS : 3034-1981t where risks coming under the jurisdiction of the electric supply authority in a city or metropolis. SCOPE I. information shall be exchanged. 3.1 The constructional features of all buildings housing the sta_tion installations shall comply with IS : 164l-1960* and IS : 3034-1981t. TERMINOLOO\Y 2. SELECTION OF EQUIPMENT 6. the degree of external influence of the environme.the C o d e c o v e r s e s s e n t i a l requirements for electrical standby generating stations and captive substations intended to serve a building or group of buildings.2 Depending on the exact location of the station in the building premises. tCode for fire-safety of. the essential loads can be supplied power. which are adequately advised or supervised by skilled persons to avoid dangers that may arise owing to the use of electricity.b r e a k e r a n d transformers (except outdoor types) shall be housed preferably in detached single storey buildings of Type 1 construction.1 In case of large capacity sets which generate appreciable heat. 3. LAYOUT TRUCTION ASPECTS CONS- 5. as well as their installation shall be governed by the same.2 The capacity of the standby set for an installation should be such that in an event. 7.

1 Reference is drawn to’ the requirements stipulated in IS : 10118 (Part 3)-1982:.1.1 Batteries 11. batteries for short time emergency lighting. 11. Any subcircuit shall be provided with a fuse in each live conductor.2 Battery Charging Equipment 11.3 The charging control panels shall be of durable.0 Station auxiliaries could consist of: W b) cl 4 e) 0 batteries for standing diesel sets. The batteries not exceeding 20 V shall not be bunched or arranged in circular formation. non-flammable material. 10. changeover to generator supply. 11.4 As a transformer station normally has a high voltage and a low voltage switchgear. Such sets can either be manually started and switched on to essential loads with the use of changeover switches or they could be auto-start on mains failure and loads autochanged over to generator supply. porcelain or glazed earthenware.2. 7. 11.5 The requirements for oil and gas fired installations shall conform to IS : 3034-1981*.2. shall conform to 73 of IS :3034-1981*. N OTE .1. transformers and supports for resistance of lamps. installation and maintenance of switchgear and controlgear: Part 3 installation. 7. LOW VOL?AGE SWITCHING STATIONS AND DISTRIBUTION PANELS 10. The larger ones. STATION AUXILIARIES 11. 11. 11. :Code of practice for selection. ventilating euipment. non-ignitable. non-absorbent and nonconducting material. If constructed of wood it shall be slatted and treated with anti-sulphuric enamel. 8.6 All equipment of prime mover shall conform to relevant Indian Standard for construction. temperature risk. any battery shall be protected with hard asbestos sheets.4 The batteries shall be so arranged on the bench that a potential difference exceeding 12 V shall not exist between adjoining cells. The enclosure shall be free from dust and well ventilated.0 m measured vertically above. installation and maintenance of transformers: Part 2 Installation.3 Transformer housed in cabins will require adequate ventilation to take away as much heat as possible. overload and performance. 8.1.I Reference is drawn to the requirements stipulated in IS : 101 18 (Part 3)-1982:. because of their size. 9. In commercial premises and high-rise buildings.2 The charging circuit shall be provided with double or triple pole switches and fuses. nonconducting material and together with rectifiers.1. or within 2.1 Batteries shall have containers of glass or any other non-corrosive. either manually or through auto-ctiangeover contactors. TRANSFORMER INSTALLATIONS 8. non-ignitable. non-absorbent. HIGH VOLTAGE SWITCHING STATIONS 9.2. I03 PART 2 GENERATING STATIONS AND CAPTIVE SUBSTATIONS .such loads are required to be supplied with power all the time.. a few lifts and circulation area lights and fire-fighting equipment have to be kept working by supply from standby sets. all such equipment should be adequately separated.2 Batteries shall be installed in a separate enclosure away from any other auxilliary equipment or switchgear. Care shall be taken to ensure that direct sunlight does not fall on the batteries. 11.1.2 Transformer of capacity up to 1 MVA may be housed indoor or outdoor. the motor shall be provided with double or triple pole switches and fuses and an automatic battery and cut-out shall be placed in the generator circuit. fuel oil pumps. Oil drainage facilities and partition walls between transformers and between transformer and other equipment such as oil circuit-breakers is necessary to reduce the risk of spread of fire. battery to prevent the accumulation of an explosive mixture. such as glass. 11. 7. are usually of outdoor type. tCode ot practice for selection. 7. 11.1 Motor generator sets and converters or rectifiers together with necessary switch and control gear shall be mounted separately and away from the batteries. Similar is the case of essential loads in large hotels. battery charging equipment. Where a motor generator is employed. These materials shall rest on a bench which shall be kept dry and insulated from earth.5 All combustible materials within a distance of 60 cm measured horizontally from.3 The’ batteries shall stand directly on durable. 11.4 The fuel oil storage requirements.Provision shall be made for sufficient diffusion and ventilation of gases from the. 8.3 In case of large electrical installation in which essential loads are widely scattered it becomes necessary to run the generating set supply cables to these essential loads and in the event of mains failure. *Code of practice for fire-safety in industrial buildings: Electrical generating and distrihuting stations CjTrsr revision). and fire-fighting equipment. 8.1 Reference is drawn to the requirements in IS : 10028 (Part 2)-19817.

it is necessary that such sets.1 The engine room shall be fitted with hot-air extractors. blowers.3 Fuel Oil Pump 11.2 The battery room shall be fitted with exhaust fans. BUILDING SERVICES 14.1 The provision of 17 of IS : 3043-1981* shall apply (see also Part 1 I Set 12).3. 14.1 Lighting 14. 12. t&de of practice for the protection of building and allied structures against lightning @r. *Code of practice for fue-safety of industrial buildings. such resistance or lamps unless enclosed in metallic enclosure. Electrical generating and distributing stations yirsr revision). 11.4 l. *Code of practice for fire-safety of industrial buildings.2 The luminaires used shall be of dust-proof construction.1.f batteries are charged through resistance or lamps. are regularly checked run up and the mechanical and electrical system tested to ensure that the set isjn operable condition all the time. LIGHTNING PROTECTION 16. 14. 15. 17. 13. FIRE-SAFETY REQUIREMENTS 15.1 The general principles of good lighting for any occupancy shall be as given in Part I/ Set 14 of the Code.4.1 Fuel oil pump shall be installed close to the engine room or inside the engine room.2 The electric cable provided to run the pump motor shall be protected with oil-resistant outer sheath. 15. shall be at least 60 cm away from the nearest battery. 11. battery room. it shall be slatted and treated with anti-sulphuric enamel.1 The provisions of IS : 3034-I 98 I* shall apply for station installations.2 All wiring for automatic fire-fighting installation shall be of fire-resistant outer sheath.2. sets which come into operation only in emergency as standby sets. 11.4.shall be on a bench which shall be kept dry and insulated from earth. I I.3. For the purposes of station installations the values of illumination and limiting ‘value of glare index shall be as given in Table I.1 The provisions of 138 of IS : 230%19697 shall apply.1 The guidelines provided in Part I /Set 10 of the Code shall apply. switchgear and transfdrmer chambers c) Basements d) Control rooms : i) Vertical conlrol panels ii) Control desks _ iii) Rear of control panel Our&or Locations a) Fuel oil storage area b) Transformers. 11. 16. TABLE 1 RECOMMENDED VAtUEs OF ILLUMINATION AND GLARE INDEX bCATION ILL. TESTING AND INSPECTION 17.1 All cabling and electrical wiring inside generating’ or substation premises shall be done in accordance with the practice recommended in Part I /Set I I of the Code.rr m+.4 Ventilating Equipment 11. EARTHING 13. In the case of diesel. The exhaust gases shall be let off to atmosphere where no other equipment is installed.UMINATION (1) indoor Locations (2) lux 200 100 70 200-300 LIMINTING GLARE INDEX (3) a) Standby generator hall b) Auxilliary equipment.rr wvision). WIRING IN STATION PREMISES 12.sion). electrical generating and distribution stations uir. If constructed of wood. 104 NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE . outdoor switchgear 2s I9 ix - 300 I50 1.

NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE PART 3 .

this Page is Intentionally Left Blank .As in the Original Standard.

It is therefore necessary to consider for initial assessment of the installation the guidelines given in Part l/Set 8 of the Code. While a majority of installations could be categorically classified as non-industrial.3 Part 3 of the Code. residential quarters and support services which are housed or fall in the category of non-industrial buildings. therefore covers requirements for major types of nonindustrial occupancies. The requirement stipulated in Part 3 and Part 4 of the Code would therefore require judicious application.PART 3 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN NON-INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS 0 FOREWORD 0. which are better defined than the earlier terminology used for classifying installations. an industrial complex would necessarily incorporate sub-units such as offices. recourse shall be made to the general guideliines stipulated in Part 1. 0. It is recognized that from the point of view fire-safety of buildings more than 15 m height require specific considerations. and for typical buildings which do not strictly fall into any of these. 0.1 For the purposes of the Code. 0. These are summarised in Appendix to Part 3.2 With the current trend in power utilization. .4 The various Sections of Part 3 cover requirements applicable to buildings which are of nominal heights less than 15 m. it would also be extremely difficult to classify electrical installations based on power requirement or the voltage of supply as large buildings of non-industrial use consume sufficient power to consider them at par with the consumption of light industrial establishments. electrical installations in buildings have been broadly classified as those in non-industrial and industrial buildings. It is felt that a large number of occupancies would fall in one of the categories.

2 Utilization -The following aspects of utiliration shall apply: Ulilizarion f-1) Capablity of persons Characrerisrics (2) Uninstructed persons Remarks (3) Applies to ail domestic installations These shall include any buildings in which sleeping accommodation is provided for normal residential (domestic) purposes with cooking and dining facilities. SCOPE 1.1 This Section of the Code covers requirements for electrical installations in domestic dwellings. the characteristics defined below specifically apply. Besides these. be noted that lodging and ro. b) Apartment Houses (Flats) . other considerations such as efficiency and reliability.Household and tion of low similar conditions severity Depends on the location of the building Mechanical stresses Siesmic effect and lighting 4. FOREWORD shall include any private dwelling which is occupied by members of a single family and has a total sleeping accommodation for not more than 20 persons. though uti)ized as living accommodation for short periods of time (by different occupants) are covered under the scope of Part 3/Set 5 of the Code. Use of ekctrical appliances. 1.3 Domestic installations are characterized mainly by a circuit voltage of 250 V to earth except in thecase of large power consumers where three-phase supply is given. namely. 3. such as hotels. 0. TERMINOLOGY 2.1 Environment .1 For the purposes of this section.’ GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF INSTALLATIONS 4. 10. For example apartment houses.If accommodation is provided for more than 0. the definitions given in Part I/Set 2 of the Code shall apply. living independently of each other and with independent cooking facilities.The following environmental factors shall apply to electrical installations in domestic dwellings: Environmennr Characrerrsrics Remarks (1) (2) (3) Presence of water Probability of presence of water is negligible Presence of foreign The quantity or solid bodies nature of dust or foreign solid bodies is not signiticant Presence of corrosive or polluting substances The quantity and Applicable for most nature of of the locations corrosive or except for dwellpolluting subsings situated by tancer is not sea or in industrial significant zone in which case categorization AF2 applies (see Part I /SW 8) Impact and vibra. For the purposes of installations falling under the scope of this Section..0 General guidelines on the assessment of characteristics of installations in buildings are given in Part I /Set 8 of the Code. These requirements also apply to similar locations in other occupancies. CLASSIFICATION 3.1 Electrical installations in domestic dwellings and in buildings providing living accommodation for people are by far the simplest form of installation. 0. 4. NOTE .oming houses. both portable and fixed has now become very common and popular even in slngk family dwejlings. these requirements form part of Section I.These shall include any building or structure in which living quarters are provided for three or more families. convenience and provisions for future expansion are also valid. bathrooms are separately covered in Appendix A to this Section. Such buildings shall be further classified as follows: a) One or Two Family Private Dwelling -These II Contact of persons Persons in normally conducting situations NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE .(dormitorics) and the provistons of Part 3/See 5 sgall apply. mansions and chawls.2 ‘The primary considerations in planning the electrical layout in domestic dwellings are economy and safety.4 Specific requirements for installations in rooms containing a bath tub or shower ‘basin. It may. 4. 2. The optimum benefits from the use of electricity can be obtained onl if the installation is of suffkient capacity and axords enough fkxibility.1 The electrical installations covered in this Section. are those in buildings intended for the following purposes: Domestic Dwellings/ Residential Buildings - 20 pqsons. For convenience. however. such buildings are considered lodging or rootntng hottscs. A brief description of the type of installations covered in this Section is given m 3.SECTION 1 DOMESTIC DWELLINGS 0.

however. For this purpose.The extent and form of electrical installation i n domestic dwellings is basically designed to cater to light and fan loads and for electrical appliances ‘and gadgets.4 Electrical installation in a new building should normally begin immediately on the completion of the main structural building work. kitchen.: . painting.0 Exchange of Information electrical installation are enumerated in Part I/Set 7 of the Code. current to be carried by any branch circuit unless the actual values are known.1._. However.3 While consideration should be given to the anticipated increase in the use of electricity for lighting. TABLE 2 RECOMMENDED SCHEDULE OF SOCKET-OUTLETS D ESCRIPTION ’ N UMBER 5A OF SOCKETO UTLETS *I (1) Bedroom Living room Kitchen Dining room Garage For refrigerator For air-conditioner Varandah Bathroom (2) 2 to 3 2 to 3 : I ISA (3) : 2 ’ I per IU m2 I i 1 (for each) f PART 3 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN NON-INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS . servicelines.l fitimation of Load Requirements . 5.Apartment houses including highpstion. 2 indicate the rccommcnded number of points and the number of fans. etc.0. Exumple . loo0 5. the following points shall be noted particularly in respect of domestic dwellings. . etc. For surface wiring system.3 Number of Socket Outlets-The recommended schedule of socket-outlets for the various sub-units of a domestic dwelling are-given in Table 2.hIcult rise flats conditions of evacuation Nature of processcd or stored material No significant risks 5. (1) I.1 . T A BL E I NUMBER OF POINTS D ESCRIPTION FOR DWELLING UNITS SL No. (2) 35 45 55 85 140 (3) (4) (5) (6) t7) * A REA OF THE M A I N D W E L L I N G U N I T (ml) . 5.I 2 3 $ Call-bell (buzzer) .Building of normal evacuation during ption.. 5.For main dwelling unit of 55 m2. Light points 2-i 3_. Ceiling fans (see Nom below) 5A Socket outlets 2 3 4 5 7 ISA Socket outlets . but where electric wiring is to be concealed withirl the structures. types of a paratus that ma be connected under each tarif P requirement o? space for mstallmg ? meters.0. designing the 5. both of which are not recommended. 3.1 General aspects to be taken note of before tubes: ’ 600mm I2OOmm I5OOmm Power socket outlcc (I5A) Fl~ore&ent Length 5.2 Before starting wiring and installation of fittings and.5.I I I N~TE-T~~ tigures in table against SI No. the work should start before finishing woik like plaster. sufficient coordination shall be ensured amongst the coqcerned parties._. easy con.2 Number of Points in Branch Circuits The recommended yardstick for dwelling units for determining the number of points is given in Table I. for the householder may otherwise be tempted to carry out extension i of the installation himself or to rely upon use of multiplug adaptors and long flexible cords. 4 points with 3 fans are reco?mended. information should be exchanged between the owner of the building or architect or electrical contractor and the locdl supply authority in respect of tariffs applicable. the necessary conduits and ducts should be positioned after the shuttering is in place and before the concrete is poured. general purpose socket+utlet. evacuation.0. if extended in this way. 4. no installation work should start until the building is reasonably weatherproof.or low height used for one or two ditions of emergency. heating. installation. 5. . these shall be calculated based on the following recommended ratings: Irem Retwmmended Raring (in Watts) Incandescent lamps 60 60 loo 25 . switches. A fundamentally safe installation may be rendered dangerous.1 Branch Circuits Conditions of Low dcmity occu. 2. provision being made lo protect conduits from damage. fans and power. family dwellings Low dcnsit occu. For conduit wiring system.0. SUPPLY CHARACTERISTICS AND PARAMETERS 5. It is essential that adequate provision should be made for all the services which may be rEqutred immediately and during the intended useful life of the building. work should begin before final finishing work like white washing. In estimating the. etc.1. Usually. and for total load requirement of lights. accessories.. planning an 5. dl.ing has begun.

2 Open type switch boards shall be placed only in dry situation and in well ventilated rooms. their outer casing shall be weatherproof and shall be provided with glands or bushings or adopted to receive screwed conduit according to the manner in which cables are run.1.1. floor.1.7 A switch board shall not be installed so that its bottom is within I. with a master double-pole switch for the subcircuit in addition to the individual switches. to drip. or to abnormal moist atmosphere.5 cm of any edge of the panel and no hole other than the holes by beans ~. terrace. the swi!ch boards shall be totally enclosed or made flame-proof as may be necessitated by the particular circumstances.5 ‘Power’ sub-circuits shall be kept separate and distinct from ‘lighting-and-fan’ sub-circuit. 6. SWITCHGEAR FOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION 6. 6. damp s i t u a t i o n o r where In a 6.1. All wiring shall be done on the distribution system with main and branch distribution boards located at convenient physical and electrical load centres. PVC and double flanged bushes shall be fitted in the holes of the switches for entry and exit of wires. unless the front of the switch board is completely enclosed by a door.1. The surface wiring when run along the walls should be as near the ceiling as possible. Part I of the Code). 5. 6. 1 . 6.2 General Requirements of Switchboards 6.6 Switch boards. 6. changing of fuses or similar operations.5 Switch boards shall not be erected above gas stoves or sinks or within 2.1. The wiring for 15 A plug outlets (power Gircuits) shall invariably be carried out either in surface/ recessed conduit wiring system where genera1 wiring is on wood batten. All types of wiring. walkways. driveways.7 It is recommended to provide at least two lighting sub-circuits in each house. carpark.3 Main switch boards shall be installed in rooms or cupboards having provision for locking so a s t o s a f e g u a r d a g a i n s t o p e r a t i o n b y unauthorized persons.1. if unavoidably fixed in places likely to be exposed to weather. 6. 6.1. 6. etc. They shall not be placed in the vicinity of storage batteries and exposed to chemical fumes.2 Selection of Wiring .25 m alone the.1 All main switches or miniature circuit110 breakers shall be either of metal-clad enclosed pattern or of any insulated enclosed pattern which shall be fixed at close proximity to the point of entry of supply. 6. if aesthetics is the main consideration. or the switch board is located in a position to which only authorized persons have access. 5.1. a) Tough rubber sheathed or PVC insulated PVC sheathed wiring on wood batten. In all types of wirings due consideration shall be given for neatness and good appearance and safety.4 of Part I /Set I I of the Code shall apply. NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE . the switch boards shall be recessed in the wall.f which the panel is fixed shall be drilled closer than 1. 5. If the points between which a voltage exceeding 250 volts is present are 2 m or more apart. 5.1.9 Equipments which are pn the front of a switchboard shall be so arranged that inadvertant personei contact with live parts is unlikely during the manipulation of switchgears. vapour or gas is likely to be present. In each case. unless they are effectively screened by insulating material shall be so spaced that an arc cannot be maintained between such parts and earth. Wiring for staircase lights and garage lights may be done in recessed conduit wiring systems.1 Location 6.2.1. 5.1.5 m of any washing unit in the washing room. The conductors shall be so enclosed in e a r t h e d m e t a l o r i n c o m b u s t i b l e insu$ting material that it is not possible to have ready access to them.10 No mounting shall be mounted within 2.4 inflanimable or explosive dust.5 .8 Where so required. However.1 The various live parts. it shall be controlled by an isolator switch or miniature circuit-breaker. and c) PVC insdlated wiring in steel/non-metallic recessed conduits. it is recommended that all socket-outlets in a room are connected to one phase. recesged conduit wiring system may be adopted.Any one of the following types of wiring may be used in a residential building (see Set I I. porch.8 Wherever the load to be fed is more than I kW. 6. The arrangement of the gear shall be such that’ t h e y s h a l l b e r e a d i l y a c c e s s i b l e a n d their connections to all instruments and apparatus shall also be traceable.1.6 Balancing of circuits in three-wire or polyphase installation shall be planned beforehand. 4 Selection of Size of ConductorsProvisions of 3. the covers or access doors shall be clearly marked to indicate the voltage present. It is also recommended that a separate lighting circuit be u t i l i z e d ’ fFr all external lighting of steps.1.3 cm from aPy edge of the panel.1. whether recessed or surface should be capable of easy inspection. The depth of recess provided at the back for connection and the space at the front between the switchgear mountings shall be adequate. b) PVC insulated wiring in steel/non-metallic surface conduits.

t h e m e t a l c l a d switchgears shall preferably be mounted on any of the following types of boards: earthed neutral conductor shall be connected to a common link and be capable of being disconnected individually for testing purposes. shall be installed in accordance with 3. 6.1 The relevant. Where there is more than one main switchboard in the building.2 Lighting Fittings If the bracket type lamp holders are of metallic construction. Wooden hoards --~~ For small installations connected to a single phase 240 volts supply. III a) Hinged-t)pe metal boards ~ Such boards shall be suitable for mounting of metal clad switchgear consisting of not more than one switchgear and ICDB 4 way or 6 way. 6. The main switchgear shall be ma’rked as such.3. 3 . 6. 6.4 All metal switchgears and switchboards shall be painted prior to erection.3 No fuse other than fuses in instrument circuit shall be fixed on the back of or behind a switchboard panel or frame. 6. 6.8 The main switch shall be easily accessible.3 Types of Switchboards (see also Part I Set ll) 6 . cl Where a board has more than one switchgear. 9. 8. 1 In d w e l l i n g u n i t s .2 In every case in which switches and fuses are fitted on the same pole.6 The wiring throughout the installation shall be such that there is no break in the neutral wire in the form of a switch or fuse unit.4. it is recommended that they should be earthed.2.3 Means for isolating the supply to the building shall be provided immediately after the energymeter.2. Each outgoing circuit shall be provided with a fuse on the phase or live conductor. installation and maintenance of service lines up to and including 650 V’ shall apply. provisions of IS : 8061-1976 ‘Code of practice for design. At least one spare circuit of the same capacity shall be provided on each branch distribution board.Such boards b) shall be suitable for large switchboards for mounting large number of switchgears and: or higher capacity switchgear.3 Branch distribution boards shall be controlled by a linked switchfuse or circuitbreaker. I5 A per way.7 The neutral shall also distinctly marked. it should preferably not be installed at a height less than I m from the ground. enclosing it completely.2.6.4 Triple pole distribution boards shall not generally be used for final circuit distribution.2 Main distribution boards shall be controlled by a linked switchfuse or circuitbreaker. one for lights and fans and the other for high wattage (power) appliances particularly when the tariff is different for light and power.4. each such switchgear shall be marked to indicate the section of the installation it controls.5 All switchboards connected to medium voltage and above. 6. Where use of triple pole distribution boards is inevitable. 6. SERVICE LINES 7. All pedestal lamp fittings of metallic construction shall be earthed.4 Distribution Boards 6. except the glass window through which the readings are noted 01 should be mounted inside a completely enclosed panel provided with a hinged or sliding doors with arrangement for locking it.1. one of the pins being connected to earth.All plugs and sockets shall be of three-pin type. these fuses shall be so arranged that the fuses are not alive when their respective switches are in the ‘off’ position.1 It is recommended to have two distinct circuits.4.y . The energymeters should either be provided with a protective covering.4..\‘pe metal board.6 The distribution boards tor light and power circuits shall be different. they shall be of HRC fuse type only. EARTHING IN DOMESTIC INSTALLATIONS 9.2. METERING 8.1 Distribution boards shall preferably’ be of metal clad type.2. 9.4 of Part 1 /Set 11 of the Code. 6. Each outgoing circuit shall be provided with a fuse or on the phase or live conductor. 6. 7. 9.4. These should be installed at a height where it is convenient to note the meter reading. 6. The PART 3 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN NON-INDL'STRIAL Bl'ILDINGS .5 All distribution boards shall be marked ‘Lighting’ or ‘Power’ as the case may be and also with the voltage and number of phases of the supply. these boards may be used as main board or sub-boards.2. 6.4.2. These shall be of seasoned and durable wood with solid back impregnated with varnish with joints dove-tailed. 8. F i x e d t. 8. 6. each switchboard shall be marked to indicate the section of the installation and building it controls.1 Plugs and Sockets .0 Means shall be provided for proper earthing of all apparatus and abpliances in accordance with Part I lSec 12 of the Code.2 Energymeters shall be installed at such a place which is readily accessible to both the owner of the building and the authorized representatives of the supply authority.

kettles. if fixed wiring has been done. hallways L.1 Whenever lifts are required to be installed in residential buildings.1 The general rules laid down in Part l/Set 14 of the Code shall apply. the following types of aircooling equipment are used: a) Evaporative cooler>. exhaust fans. air-conditioners and coolers. three or four flats per floor. BUILDING SERVICES TABLE 3 RECOMMENDED LEVELS OF ILLUMINATION FOR DIFFERENT PARTS OF DOMESTIC DWELLINGS LCWZAT~ON ILLUMINATION LEVEL IUX :: 150 300 200 100 E 300 200 :Ez :: 100 70 300 Entrances.From the point of view of good reception it is recommended that radio sets should be earthed through an electrode different from that of the main earth system for other electrical appliances.5 ml s. sinks and tanks shall be bonded together and earthed.3 Lifts 10. shall all be earthed by the use. 10.3. 9. electric radiators. as in cases of direct-coupled motordriven 4as boosters and motorized gas valves. and b) Large flats (No. by and large. shall be earthed by the use of three-pin plugs. shall be bonded to the metal or pipework of. heaters. the metal work of the electrical equipment. in kitchens.3 Fans and Regulators . the general rules laid down in Part 1 /Set 14 of the code shall apply. the gas supply shall be introduced through a non-conducting plastic pipe from a point not in proximity to earthed metal work.2. would afford a desirable safeguard against fault current transfer specially where the rating of the plant is of a size and capacity which entails correspondingly high ratings for the normal overload protective devices.5. for example.7 Miscellaneous ances utilizing gas and electricity are in use. the inlet end of the gas supply shall be either fitted with a strong insulating bush. gas-heated electricity-driven washing machines.2. designed to operate at low values of fault current. 10. etc. In such cases the addition to the motor control gear of a differential or currentbalance type of circuit-breaker.Bodies of hot-plates. where it is desirable or necessary that metal work in proximity to electrical apparatus be bonded to ihe earthed metal work of the latter.1 Lighting.~mg room Dming room Bedroom : General Dressing tables.6 Radio Sets . However. of three-pin plugs.For residential (domestic) dwellings.ts the estimated population that has to be handled m the buildings in the S-minute peak period. electric irons. The choice of lamps. 103. the lift may be placed NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 10. the occupant load (the number of persons within any floor area) expressed in gross area in mZ/person shall not be less than 12. if fixed wiring has been used.1. if it is not possible to have separate earth electrode..5 Bath Room -The body of automatic electric water heaters shall be earthed by the use of a three-pin plug or by a separate earth wire.Where appli9.The general rules laid down in Part l/‘&c 14 of the-Code shall apply.2 Where a lift is arranged to serve two.1. lighting fittings shall be based on the recommended values of illumination given in Table 3. 9. However. 112 .4 Domestic Electric Appliances . etc.2 The power requirements.12) 0. then a separate earth wire shall be used for earthing these appliances. radio sets may be earthed through the main earth system. for example.Bodies of all table fans. and c) Room airconditioners. For domestic dwellings. as for example. gas equipment. 9. bed heads Games or recreation room Table games Kitchen Kitchen sink Laundry Bathroom Bathroom mirror Sewing Workshop Stairs Garage Study 10. However.3. 103. The covers of the regulators. Apparatus . toasters. of floors served 6. the design of lifts shall take into account the following recommendations. ‘10. b) Packaged air-conditioners. metal pipes.13 Car speed-Car speed for passenger lifts shall be as follows: a) In low and medium class flats 0. or. 10.2 Passenger handling capacity (H) Expressed . All non-electrical metal work including the bath fub. substantial enough to stand a flash test of 3 500 V and so designed as to be difficult to detach.3.1 Occupant load . The refrigerators. layout and design of electrical installation shall take into account the number and type of such equipment. Where separation is not easily achieved. the passenger handling capacity for residential’ buildings shall be 5 percent. if of metallic construction shall be earthed by means of a separate earth wire.9.5 m/s. pedestal fans.75-I .2 Ak-Conditioning 10. 10. ovens and water boilers shall all be earthed by the use of three-pin plugs.

3 Guidelines on Power Factor Improvement in Domestio Dwellings . 9. 6.82 0. NO. 12. AVERAGE N A T U R A L P O W E R FAC.1 The following protection systems are recommended: a) One or Two Family Private Dwellings detection: extinguishing systems required. TAB1. 10.6 0. f-l The clearance between the bottom most point of the ceiling fan and the floor shall be not less than 2. 30 cm X I5 cm riser shall be provided for telephone wiring cables.2 S a f e t y R e q u i r e m e n t s --~ Some of the important safety requirements in electrical installations in domestic dwellings are summarized below: a) All outlets for domestic electrical appliantes shall be of three-pin socket type. For guidance on ‘natural power factor available for single phase. 8. II.85 0. b) All the single pole switches shall be on phase cl The electrical outlets for apphances in the bathrooms shall be away from the shower or sink (see Appendix A). e) The electrical outlets shall not be located above the gas stove. shall be earthed effectively.65 0.62 to 0. 7.adjoining the staircase.5 to 0.8 0. Wmdow type air-conditioners 0.8 0.75 0.5 to 0.1 Tele hone Wiring ~~ Facilities for telephone wiring sR all be provided in all residential buildings where telephones are likely to be installed. Fire not 13. d) Wiring for power outlets in the kitchen shall be preferably done in metallic conduit wiring. PART 3 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN NON-INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS II3 . ii) 3 sroreys and ahove I) Floor area less than 300 m? ~ N o t required. appliances and equipment used in domestic dwellings. TESTING OF THE INSTALLATION 12. MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS 13. 2) F l o o r a r e a m o r e t h a n 3 0 0 m2 -Manually operated electric fire alarm. (1) APPLIANCL EQUIPMENT 0) . third socket being connected to the earth.7 0. 4.E 4 POWER FACTOR FOR SINGLE PHASE ELECTRICAL APPLIANCES AND EQUIPMENT (Clau. Minimum (3) (W) 500 750 POWFK OUTPllT h . see Table 3. or live conductor only.8 3. 13.65 0. In high rise residential buildings. h) It is preferable to provide earth leakage circuit-breaker at the intake of power supply at the consumer’s premises (see Part I Set I2 of the Code).6 to 0.4 m.7 0. N e o n s. FIRE PROTECTION 11.68 to 0.\r 13. b) Apurtment Houses/ Flats i) C/p to 2 storeys N o t r e q u i r e d .75 to 0.1 The provisions of Part I /Set IO of the Code shall apply.5 0. 13. with the lift entrances serving direct on to the landings. Hair dryers Liquidiser Mixer Coffee grinder Refrigerator Free7er Shaver Table fan Ceiling fan I50 2000 450 350 400 x00 I 000 250 I20 100 I 50 I50 200 200 600 x0 25 60 I I.7 to 0. Where the lift is to serve a considerable number of flats having access to balconies or corridors.TOR (5) 0.3) Sl. Maximum (4) (W) 5 000 2 000. 5.55 I . it may be conveniently placed in a *well ventilated tower adjoining the building.General guidelines on principal causes of low power factor and methods of compensation are given in Part I: Set I7 of the Code. (Conrim&) *Start dropping when compressor motor not in circuit. g) The metallic body of the fan regulator if any.gn 2.

and b) by the floor and the horizontal plane 2. PROTECTION FOR SAFETY A-3. Zone I -. 16.40 m external to Zone 2. CLASSIFICATION OF ZONES A-2.6 0.1 Electrical equipment shall have at least the following degrees of protection: ZoneO: IPX7 Zone I: IPX5 Zone21 IPX4 IP X 5 in public baths.8 to 0. 13.is limited: a) by the vertical plane circumscribring the bath tub or shower basin.2 A local supplementary equipotential bounding shall connect all extraneous conductive parts in Zones I.2(c)] PARTICULAR REQUIREMENTS FOR LOCATIONS CONTAINING A BATH TUB OR SHOWER BASIN A-l.25 m above the floor. C O D E . IS.is the interior of the bath tub or N OTE -The d i m e n s i o n s are measured taking account of walls and fixed partition. (1) APPLIANCE/EQUIPMENT (2) P OWER O U T P U T ’ Minimum (3) (W) 75 I50 80 300 25 IO 200 40 5 cleaner Maximum ’ (4) (W) 100 350 120 450 100 I5 450 100 IO A V E R A G E NATURAI POWER FA C T O R (5) 0. by the vertical plane 0.7 12.is limited: a) by Zone I and the vertical parallel plane 0. A-2. 20. 18. SELECTION OF EQUIPMENT A-4.7 to 0.6 0.7 0.7 0. or for a shower without basin. A-3. A-3. wiring systems shall be limited to those necessary to the supply of appliances situated in those zones. SCOPE A . ELECTRICAl. I and 2.3) SL No.25 m above the floor.Conrd (C/uuse I 3. 17.6 m from the shower head.TABLE 4 POWER FACTOR FOR SINGLE PHASE ELECTRICAL APPLIANCES’ AND EQUIPMENT . I and 2. or b) insulation capable of withstanding a test voltage of 500 V for I minute.1 The requirements given.25 m above the floor. they are permitted if the necessary degree of protection is available. and b) by the floor and the horizontal plane 2. 14.2 In Zones 0.uum Clock Tube light APPENDIX A [Clauses 0.6 0. Junction boxes are not permitted in Zones 0. Z o n e 3 : 1PX I shower basin.9 to 0. in this Appendix are based on the dimensions of four zones as described in Fig.60 m external to Zone I. protection against direct contact shall be provided by: a) barriers or enclosures affording at least the degree of protection IP2X. whatever the nominal voltage.8 0. I and 2 no switchgear and accessories shall be installed.4 and 13. Z o n e 0 .2. Cabin fan Exhaust fan Sewing machine Washing machine Radio Night lamp Vac. Zone 3 -.6 to 0. A-4. 19. 1 The particular requirements of t h i s Appendix apply to bath tubs. Zone 2 . > A-4.is limited: a) by Zone 2 and the paraltel vertical plane 2. and b) by the floor and the horizontal plane. In Zone 3.1 Where safety extra low voltage is used. A-4.I .5 0.3 In Zones 0. shower basins and the surrounding zones where susceptibility of persons to electric shock is likely to be increased by a reduction in body resistance and contact with earth potential. NATIONAI. 2 and 3 with protective conductors of all exposed conductive parts situated in these zones.5 0. I and 2.

60 m from door of the shower cabinet. In Zone 1 only water heaters may be installed. or c) protected by a residual current protective device. socket-outlets are permitted only if they are either: a distance of at least 0. a) supplied individually by an isolating transformer. or b) supplied by safety extra-low voltage.A-4.40 m ZONE 2 ZONE 3 [ZONE 1 i Shower without Basin but with Fixed Partition LFIXED PARTITION WALL FIG. In Zone 2 only water heaters and Class I1 luminaires may be installed.5 Any switches and socket outlets shall be at Bath Tub ZONE 3 ZONE 1 Shower Basin 2. only electrical appliances specially intended for use in the bath tub are permitted. . 1 ZONE DIMENSIONS (Elevation) PkRT 3 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN NON-INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS .4 In Zone 3.A46 In Zone 0. A-4.

Fixed Partition f SHOWER HEAD HEAD \ ZONE 3 \ YO 9 F I G. 116 2 Z ONE D IMENSIONS (Plan) NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE .LOn / 1’ I Z O N E 1 ZONE 3 _/ -_-c) Shower Basin d) Shower Basin with Fixed Partition e) Shower without Basin f) Shower without Basin but with.ffffffff f ZONEI Z O N E 3 2 I I I I I 2.a) Bath Tub b) Bath Tuh with Fixed Partition ?f.

1 This Section of the Code covers requirements for electrical installations in office buildings. Reference may. For office and other buildings covered by this Section situated b) the se.~ (2) Presence of water Probability of presence of water is negligible The quantity or nature of dust or foreign solid bodies IS not significant Remarks (3) Presence of foreign solid bodies Presence of corrosive or polluting substances The quantity and Locations where nature of corrosome chemical sive or nollutine oroducts are substances is not handled in small significant quantities.2 In small buildings with comparatively moderate loads. departmental stores. 0. they are identified at the relevant clauses.1 For the purpose of this Section.0 General guidelines on the assessment of charactuistics of installations in buildings are given in Part I /Set 8 of the Code. 0.The following environmental factors shall apply to office buildings. INSTALLATIONS IN NON-INDUSTRIA’L BUILOIN(. banks. educational and other institutional buildings are also covered here. b) Shopping/ Comtnercial Centresj Mercantile 6uiltling. in the case of multistoreyed office-cum-commercial complex. etc. 0. are those in buildings intended for the following purposes: a) Qffice Buildings] Business Buildings These include buildings for the transaction of business. calling for a coordinated planning while designing the electrical services therein. CLASSIFICATiON 3. etc.1 Environment . supply is normally at medium voltage and the distribution of power is less complex. laboratories in schools and colleges) will be categorired as AF3. 1.S II7 . the definitions given in Part I Il Set 2 of the Code shall apply. SHOPPING AND COMMERCIAL’ CENTRES AND INSTITUTIONS 0. However. 4.SECTION 2 OFFICE BUILDINGS. market. stores. where the large number of amenities is to be provided calls for a more complex distribution system.4 It is not .. Impact and vlbration of IOU Lererlt! Depends on the location ol the building Mechanical >t rc5\e\ Sekmlc effect and lightning PART 3 EI. be made to 3 wherein a description is provided for the various types of installations covered in this Section. For the purpose of installations falling under the scope of this Section the characteristics defined b e l o w generally apply. GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF INSTALLATIONS 4. 4. however.3 For editorial convenience. or in industrial Tones. the categorication A F 2 applies (WP Part 3 See 8). research establishments data processing installations. for display and sale of merchandise. Some of such buildings has to incorporate a standby/emergency power plant for essential service needs. shopping and commercial centres and educational/institutional fluildings: C‘horacrerrsrrc. shopping and commercial centres and educational and similar institutional buildings. S C O P E I. FOREWORD 0.C:CTRICAI. producing serious pollution.1 The electrical installations covered in this section. High-rise buildings housing office complexes are common. TERMINOLOGY 2. wholesale or retail.possible to define strictly the type of buildings covered in this Section except in broad terms. (for example. shopping and commercial centres can be of various types depending on the size of the civil structure or the extent of activity involved in the building. professional establishments. NOTE L a r g e r a s s e m b l y b u i l d i n g s r e c r e a t i o n a l occupancies are covered in Part 3 Set 3 of the Code. etc. colleges and daycare purposes for more than 8 hours per week involving assembly of people for instruction and education (including incidental recreation).These include buildings used for schools. Should any special provisions apply to them. 3. and keeping in view the similarity with the type of buildings covered in this section.1 Office buildings.s ~~ These include buildings used as shops. for the keeping of accounts and records and similar purposes. 2. offices. cl Educational Buildings . an attempt has been made to identify the nature of the occupancy.

5. calculators. mains and sub-mains. zonal indicators. clock systems. From the point of view of the design of the various installations. the interior decoration normally include false ceiling.. SUPPLY CHARACTERISTICS A N D PARAMETERS 5.0 Exchange of Information 5. 5. 5. f-l Nature of the external influences (see 4). location of sectionalized control switches.Small offices and shops pation. for special cases such as for communication networks.1. 4 Prospective short-circuit current at the supply intake point. e) Division of the installation. 2) Air-conditioning. the specific demands of the lighting. A complete drawing of layout of the electrical .5 Areas where corrosive or polluting substances a r e p r e s e n t i n t e r m i t t e n t l y o r continuously. easy conditions of evacuation High density occupation. difficult conditions of evacuation Departmental stores m) CCTV for information display and security. However. such as school laboratories and other buildings located in high industrial pollution zones. However.1 The general design of wiring of branch circuits shall conform to those laid down in Part l/Set II of the Code. underground shopping arcades. installation shall be prepared together with associated floor plans indicating the details mentioned in (a) to (p) above.1 Branch Circuits 5.The following aspects of utilization shall apply: Urilizorion (1) Capability of persons Chorocrerisrics (2) Remarks (3) j) Other details as relevant such as.Efl R I C A . the recommendations of the manufacturer shall apply.0. distribution boards. to avoid trailing of wires and use of multiple outlets from one socket.4 Adequate number of socket-outlets shall be provided for electrically operated office machines such as electric typewriter. carpets and curtains. 118 . persons Children Persons adequately advised or supervised by skilled persons Uninstructed of occupants Applies to schools Applies lo areas A major percentage such as building substations and for operating and maintenance staff k) Telephone circuits including extensions and intercom. furniture shops.1. office buildings. bells. I ) Lighting.pu. difficult conditions of evacuation High density occupation. 5. b) Type of distribution system. Contact of persons Conditions of evacuation during emergency Persons in nonconducting situations Low density occu. facilities. fire-alarm system and wiring for data-processing equipment. building contractor and the electrical engineer on the various aspects of installation design. pumps for fire fighting. They shall be run at skirting level and encased for mechanical protection. appliance and motor loads as well as special loads encourtpred in the types of buildings covered in this Section shall be taken into account.No significant risk Small shops sed or stored In view of large Existance of fire material volume of paper risk and furniture (for example. etc Nature of proces. 8) Maintainability of the installation. exhaust fans. Wires shall not be covered by carpets. the dc circuits be identifiable in the layout diagram.1 Proper coordination shall be ensured between the architect.1.1. Any wiring laid above the false ceiling should be adequately protected such as by drawing the wires in metallic conduits and not run in open. sockets.d installation facility where appliP) Metering system for different loads. C O D E High rise office commercial centres.6 Lighting circuits shall preferably be combined in switched groups so that lighting can N A T I O N A L EI. telephones. 5. and 3) Lifts. public address system for fire fighting. .3 In offices and showrooms. etc.2 Utilization .2 The branch circuit calculations shall be done according to the general provisions laid down in Part 3/Set I of the Code. etc N OTE -. etc) 5. The wiring diagram shall include outlets for lights. central conrrol console. the following shall be considered: a) Maximum demand and diversity. call-bells. cable runs and their segregation from the other cable system.1. In special occupancies such as school or college laboratories.4. Cl Nature of supply (current. fire-alarm systems. lighting. etc.Five protection system shall include such details such as locations of detectors. nominal voltages). 5. socket-outlets shall preferably be of metal clad weatherproof type with covers.1. ceiling fans. frequency. n) zb. h) Nature and details of building services.

5 System Protection . Such pipes shall be properly sealed at both ends to reduce the possibility of rain water flowing through the pipes and flooding the trenches. banks. installation and maintenance of service lines up to and including 650 V PART 3 ELECTRIC-AI. For the purposes of office buildings.3. Essential services include amongst others. it can be in the form of separate and independent feeder from the undertaking terminated in equipment isolated from the regular supply line.5. water pumps.3 Building Substations 5.3.Wherever emergency supply is considered necessary. a well ventilabed cabin segregated from the utility’s supply shall be provided.All current carrying equipment ishall he totally enclosed.3.5.3.4 E m e r g e n c y Supply . requiring supply at high voltage. Other loads are taken to local distribution boards. heating (air-conditioning) Power plant (drives) Lighting Lifts I .’ Cables leading from the substation to the main-building shall preferably be carried underground through ducts or pipes of adequate dimensions.3.5. a number of o Brices. 5. Main switch room will serve feeders to various lpad centres such as air-conditioning plant.3.3. Shall be of weatherproof onstruction or 1 or cabin.4. essential lighting and lifts. 5.1 . therefore.f k i o s Switchboards shall be of open type or cubicle type.0 General.5. The general rules given below shall apply. and for laboratories with II9 Ventilation.95 I. Typical fire fighting installation requirements are also covered therein. INSTALLATIONS IN NON-INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS .2 The transformer power rating for the supply of the building shall be sufficient to cater to the highest simultaneous power requirements of the building. Typical proportions of power usage are given below: Purl of Elerrrrc~al in ~rallaritin Parr qf the Toral Power Requirement Percent 45 5 :: Diversirj Factor of mains failure.1 In office buildings.be limited to desks which are occupied. 5. the-meterroom normally is situated in the ground floor. These are governed by the rules and regulations of the respective authorities.1. Boards .for general rules 5.I Educational buildings (Group B) Educational buildings above 2-storeys having an area of more than 500 ml per floor shall have besides fire-fighting equipment. accommodation for substation equipment will be #required. 5. where the buildings are more than 2 storeys with floor area above 500 rn? per floor. 5.0 Genera/ . Group E (business buildings) and Group F (mercantile buildings) from the point of view of fire safety classification (see SP : 7-1983). 5.6 Selection of equipment shall be made according to the guidelines laid down in Part I/ Set 9 of the Code. Switchboards shall be located away from areas (likely to be crowded by the public.65 0. Electrical load for each of them would have to be metered separately. 5. shopping and commerctal centres.and vermin-proof and if mounted outdoor. All switches shall bear labels indicating their. automatic fire alarm systems are recommended for offices. Airconditioning in office buildings absorbs an especially high proportion of the total power used. etc. manually operated electrical fire alarm and automatic fire alarm systems. The substation room shall be well ventilated and inaccessible to birds and reasonably reptile-. 5. certain safety and essential services shall be supplied even in the case *Code of practice for design. etc.1 The type of buildings covered in. 5. Cubicle type boards shall be with hinged doors interlocked with switch-operating mechanisms. professional establishments. h o u s e d i n weatherpro0. Reference is also drawn to SP : 7-1983 on guidelines for fire protection of buildings.The protection for safety laid down in Part I/Set 7 of the Code shall apply.1 If the load demand is high.and insect-proof.o 0.In multistoreyed buildiggs. this Section fell under Group B (educattonal buildings).3 The location and layout of building substation shall conform to the general rules laid down in Part 2 of the Code.0 5.. miniature circuit-breakers of adequate capacity shall be preferred to switchfuse units. 5. Consequently. 5. The power requirement of these essential loads is generally about 25 percent of the total power requirement of the building. be decided accordingly.2 Business buildings (tiroup E) Besides fire-fighting equipment. such occupancies have to be provided with their own substation with vertical and horizontal forms of power distribution.4 Meterin . They can also be effectively used in place of fuses in a distribution board. and commercial centres occupy various areas. 5.3. waterpressure pumps. 5.2 Service Lines -The general provisions laid down in IS : 8061-1976* shall apply. ventilation installations. The electrical needs for the appropriate type of installation shall. elevators. ‘dust.5 Switchboard9 and Panel.The designer of power supply for office buildings and commercial centres shall take into account the great concentration of power demand of the electrical loads. functions. In case of standby supply from diesel generator sets. Only authorized persons be allowed to enter the substation for operations/maintenance of any kind. rodent.

Schools and collenes : a) Assembly hallsi) General ii) When used for exams iii) Platforms b) ClaSs and lecture rooms : i) Desks ii) Black board Emb&idery and sewing rooms Art rooms Libraries Manual training Offices Staff rooms.1. lighting fittings and general lighting design together with power requirement shall be planned based on the recommended values of il!umination .ighting d e s i g n i n s h o w r o o m s includes high level c. Shops and Storest a) General areas b) Stock rooms 19 22 22 I9 19 I9 I9 16 -- 200 I50 :: I50 :zz 300 200 to 300 I6 It I6 :: lo 16 (see SI No.lnd l i m i t i n g values of plarc i n d e x given in Table I.1 -The general rules laid dotin in Part TABLE I RECOMMENDED VALUES OF l1. (1) (2) I.1. 2 above) (see appropriate trades in 1:&3&G? (Part 2)-19y9*) 150 1.3 Mercantile buildings (Group n’ ~ Besides fire-fighting eyuipment. INIWX (4) No. depending on the merchandise exhibited. Offices : a) Entrance halls and reception area b) Conference rooms. a fairly high level of glare free lighting on working planes and s u b d u e d l i g h t i n g i n circulation areas are necessary. stock rooms 3. 5. typing accounting book areas b) Public areas 70 150 300 300 I50 300 IS0 to to lo lo to I50 300 300 450 450 70 IFl 150 300 700 700 300 I9 I9 2.f lighting in the vertical and horizontal planes. 5. premises and shopping lines with central corridors open to sky. transport booking agencies.1 Lighting 5. etc. automatic sprinklers and automatic fire alarm systems are recommended for wholesale establishments. Underground shopping centres shall be provided with atitomatic sprinklers. The choice of lamps.5. as well as for shopping areas inside buildings with area more than 500 rn? on each floor. automatic fire-alarm systems shall be installed.IMl?lNG GI ARt.1‘2 In commercial premises.6. tDoes not cover display (showroom lighting). I9 -- : I50 to 300 200 :: *Code of practice for interior illumination: Part 2 Schedule for value of illumination and glare index. NATIONAL ElJX-TRICAl.1~UMINATlON SL BUILI)ING A N D G L A R E INDKX ILLUMINATION (3) IUX ~.6. L. Banks : a) Counters. CODE . sorting. warehouses. Colour temperature characteristics of the light source shall also be taken into account in the case of showroom lighting.6. Asthetics and interior decoration also play a part. Libraries : a) Shelves b) Reading rooms (newspaper. common rooms Corridors Stairs 5. and their layout.Manual exchange rooms (on desk) ii) Main distributton frame room 4. executive offices c) General offices d) Business machine operation e) Drawing offices f) Corridors and lift cars g) Stairs h) Lift landings j) Telephone exchanges: i).delicate instruments as well as computer installations. magazines) c) Readirig tables d) Bodk repair and binding e) Catalogging. 5. For other I/Set I4 of the Code shall apply.6 Building Services 5.

3 Lifts and Escalators 5.5 5. However. When two lifts are installed side by side.3.1 The general rules laid down in Part IiSec 14. the type of equipment to be used. 7. TESTING OF INSTALLATION 6. such as in large offices. 7.6.5-0.3 Passenger handling capacit. In order to ensure proper coordination with design of the building for daylight use of devices such as photoelectric switches shall be encouraged for controlling lighting groups near windows.2 Air-Conditioning 5.2 A simple call bell system is suitable for small offices whereb. 5. 7.LANEOUS 7. All equipment rooms shall have provision for mechanical ventilation. The design of the air-conditioning system.6. regarding installation of electric bells and call system shall be referred to.I 2 13-20 Shops and departmental atorea 0.1 The general guidelines laid down in Part I/ Set 14.1 The general rules laid down in Part l. it is advisable to have at least two lifts side by side at the main entrance and one lift each at different sections of the building for inter-communication.2 In case of large air-conditioning installations (So0 tonnes and ahove) it is advisable to have a separate isolated equipment room together with electrical controls. Time bell systems shall be installed in schools to give Start-work and Stop-work signals. shall take into account the requirements stipulated in the following clauses.4.4 Clock Systems 7. with a battery having sufficient voltage to ensure satisfactory operation.1 The general guidelines contained in Part l/Set I4 shall apply regarding installation and maintenance of master and slave clock systems. wiring and other details shall be agreed to. Each of which is connected to a pair of contact on a relay which is operated from the contacts of master clock.3. MISCEI. 121 PROVISIONS 5. 7. the design of lifts shall take into account the following recommendations. the impulse clocks may be arranged in number of series circuits. These shall be as follows: 0tTice bullding 4-5 6.56. When call points are too numerous on a single indicator panel. The layout in such a case would be determined by the size of building and staff.3.1. impulse clocks designed to operate at the same current may be connected in one series circuit.’ it is desirable to have at least a battery of 2 lifts at two or more convenient points. All machines and switchgear may be housed in one machine room.\.3.4. entirely under the control of the user. A visiblecum-audible indicator/bell panel shall be used.6.75-1.1 Group Control 7. In a more complex installation like multistoreyed office buildings with large number of slave clocks.3.2 In simple installations. of the Code shall apply. the machine room shall be suitably planned.These shall be as follows: a) Educational b) Business c) Mercantile : i) Ground floor and sales ii) Upper sale floor 4 IO 5.2 Telephones/Intercoms 7. PART 3 ELECTRICAl INSTALLATIONS IN NON-INDIISTRIAL Bl:II. The switching points may be combined centrally at the entrance. it is necessary to preplan the coordination of external and intercom systems.DINGS . For private intercom systems. If this is not possible.6.2.2.5 2-2.6.4 II IO-15 percent 15-25 pcrccnt Car speed -.y service staff may be called to a particular position by the caller.75 0. passageways. 6.1 The various tests on the installation shall be carried out as laid down in Part I See IO of the Code.6.2. multiple call system shall be preferred. 5.1 Adequate coordination shall be ensured right from the planning stages with the telephone authorities to determine the needs for the telephone system catering to the various units in office buildings.3. ( H) -These are expressed in terms of percent of the estimated population that has to be handled in the building in the 5 minute peak period as follows: Ouupanc~t a) Diversified (mixed) ol’f~ce occupancy b) Single purpose office occupancy 5.‘Sec 14 of the Code shall apply.6. 7.3. Depending on the final requirements of the type of occupancy.6.5 For office buildings.1 The lighting circuits shall preferably be combined in switched groups as well as coordinated to functional groups of desks in an open plan office.5 above I. 7.2 Occupant load.3 Electric Call Bell System 7.

3 Master clock shall be placed in a dust free location.5.4.7. Reference shall be made to good practice for installation of such facilities. 7. Educational/institutional buildings may use CCTV as a teaching aid for pre-recorded educational programmes.1 Commercial buildings may require the installation of CCTVs for one or more of the following purposes: a) Security. and b) Information display. readily accessible for maintenance at all times. 122 NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE .5 Closed Circuit T V 7.

s Electrical operating areas Small thcatres and cinemas Multiple cinema halls.are also classified further as permanent (air-conditioned and non-airconditioned). clubs. etc.1 This Section of the Code covers requirements for electrical installation in buildings.The following environmental factors shall apply to recreational an’d assembly buildings: &n~Vro.3 Sports buildings. t h e definitions given in Part I ‘Set 2 of the Code shall apply. recreation. social or religious. 3. the primary feature being a congregation of people of all age groups for a short period of ‘time during a day or a group of days. I. 2. Presence of foreign solid bodies Presence of corrosive o r polluting substances Mechanical stresses Seismic effect and lighting following 4. assembly halls. are those in buildings intended for the following purposes: Assetnhl!~/ Recreational Buildings ~~ These shall include any building where groups of people congregate or gather for amusement. in view of their unique nature. restaurants. museums. The type of buildings covered in this Section are enumerated in 3. In view of the nature of use of such occupancies. required to be properly coordinated with the electro-acoustic demands. amusement. theatres. are covered separately under Part 3’ Sec. difficult condltions o f evacuation Nature of processed or stored material Existence of fire risk aspects of Remarks (3) Majority of the 0ccupant. 4.2 This Section does not cover sports buildings.2 Utilization . places of worship.Theatres . auditoria and the like.1 The electrical installations covered in this Section. exhibition halls. certain specific safety and reliability considerations become necessary for the electrical installation. These include cinema halls. such as those meant for recreational and assembly purposes.1 For the purposes of this S e c t i o n . social.The utilization shall apply: Uriliiarion (1) Capacity o f persons Characteri. motion-picture (cinema) houses. Buildings such as those catering to display of regular programmes demands a continuous power supply.2 The lighting design of such buildings are generally sophisticated. T E R M I N O L O G Y 2. easy conditions of evacuation High density. religious. 4.r (1) Presence of water Characrerbrics (2) Probability of presence of water negligible The quantity or nature of dust or foreign solid bodies is not significant The quantity and nature of coirosive or polluting substances is not significant Impact and vibration of low severity Depends on the location of the building Remarks (3) 0. For t h e purpose of installations falling under the scope of this section the characteristics defined below generally apply.1 NOTE -. say.1 Environment . which are also basically assembly buildings. it is recominended that assistance should be derived from specialists as such details are beyond the scope of this Code. 6 of the Code. dance halls. GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF INSTALLATIONS 4. On the physical aspects of lighting and sound systems i n r e c r e a t i o n a l b u i l d i n g s . educational or officecommercial-curzl-cinema c o m p l e x s h a l l a l s o comply with this Section. ASSEMBLY BUILDING!5 & F O R E W O R D A variety of buildings are being used for public a s s e m b l y f o r p u r p o s e s t h a t a r e recreational. SCOPE 1. 1. cultural and theatrical buildings In view of large quantum of furniture and drapings P A R T 3 E L E C T R I C A L I N S T A L L A T I O N S I N NON-INDI:STRIAL BUILDINGS 123 . auditoria. Part 1 of the Code. civil and similar purposes. It shall also be noted that assembly buildings forming part of other building complex.1meJ. 0. Temporary installations shall also conform lo the additional provisions laid down in Part S/SK 2 of the Code. patriotic.SECTION 3 RECREATIONAL. temporary or travclling depending on the nature or construction of the premises. theatres. 0.0 General guidelines on the assessment of characteristics of installations in buildings are given in Section 8.stics (2) Uninstructed persons Persons adequately advised or supervised by skilled persons Condition\ of evacuation during emergency High density occupation. CLASSIFICATION 3. for example.

1 Proper coordination shall be ensured between the architect.17 In case of travelling cinemas. corridors and stairs.8 Branch and main distribution boards shall be mcunted at suitable height not higher than 2 m from the floor level. 5. and auditorium.1.2 The installation work shall conform to the provisions of Indian Electricity Rules as well as other Rules applicable for assembly buildings formulated by the State Authorities. 5. PVC conduits may be used in the auditorium and other places.1. iii) Lifts. Within the enclosure. 5.4 Wiring shall be of the conduit type. exit and parts of the building open to the public. etc. work place dressing rooms.16 The plug points shall be provided at a height of about 1.2 The control of the circuits in respect of the two halves of the auditorium referred to in 5. c) Emergency supply.25 m.18 When a tapping is taken from the open yard wiring.1 Branch Circuits 5. The reel insulators shall be spaced 0. 5. in particular on the following aspects: a) Audio-visual systems.0. b) Lighting: i) In front of the theatre. passage ways.5 Temporary wiring shall not be allowed in cabin. control gears.10 All the lighting fittings shall be at a height of not less than 2.6 The cabin equipment shall be accessible at all times.1. 5.Y(Y 2. Ends of conduits shall enter and be mechanically secured to the switch.1.1. stairways. For large projecis.1. rewinding room. 5.14 For outdoor lighting.0. workshops and storehouses. passage ways. o n e f e e d i n g t h e c a b i n 124 and air-conditioning 5.1. Exchange of Information AND equipments and the other lights and fans.1. 5. foyer. it should be taken only at a point of NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE . b) For one half of the auditorium.3 The cabin shall be provided with two separate circuits. such as general lighting of outdoor.5 metres from each other. 5. 5. b) Stage lighting and control.0 The branch circuits shall-in general cater to the following individual load groups: a) Power installation: i) Stage machinery. Ends of conduits shall be provided with screwed bushes. SUPPLY PARAMETERS 5.5 m from the floor. A front clearance of I m ‘should alsd be provided. exit and parts of the building open to the public. the advice of the appropriate specialists shall be obtained.2 of Part I I Set 7 of the Code).7 Linked tumbler switches shall not be used for the control of circuits. water-tight fittings shall be used and fittings may be so mounted without spoiling the aesthetic view of the recreation buildings. and iv) Additional power connections. stairways. Nothing shall impede access to any part of the equipment or its controls. 1 The electrical lighting of the main building shall have atleast three separate and distinct main circuits as follows: a) For the enclosures (cabin) and hence through a dimmer regulator to the central lighting of the auditoriurp. bulk head fittings shall be used. 1 . queue sheds and similar places.11 The single pole switches for the individual lights and fans shall be mounted on sheet steel boards suitably earthed. 5. in assembly buildings. building contractor and the electrical engineer on the various aspects of the installation design in a building intended for recreational or assembly purposes. ii) Ventilation installation.9 Wood work shall not be used ‘for t‘he mounting of or construction of the framework for iron-clad switch and distribution boards and controlgear. and ii) In the rear of the theatre for stage. 5 .1 shall be remote from each other. stage and portable 5.1.1.13 In the queue sheds. 5. equipment terminal boxes.1. 5.1. and c) General auditorium lighting and other special service needs.1.15 The installation in a travelling cinema should generally c o n f o r m t o t h e a b o v e requirements a n d t h e b u i l d i n g s h o u l d b e sufficiently away from the near? conductor of power lines (.1.1.1.1.1. the wiring for the ‘open yard lighting shall be done with weather-:proof cables threaded through porcelain reel insulators suspended by earthed bearer wire at a height of not less than 5 m from ground level. 5. 5. audio systems lights.0.12 Suitable socket outlets shall be provided on the side walls for tapping supply to screen focussing lights. with controls near the stage motor. all cables shall be enclosed in screwed metal conduits adequately earthed. 5. 5. 5. and c) For the remaining half of the auditorium.CHARACTERISTICS 5.1. 5.

Theatres: a) Foyers b) Auditoria c) Corridors d) Stairs 100-150 450 70 I00 I50 :: I00 I50 Special Lighting - c) It is desirable that the transformer which contains a large quantity of oil is not located in the basement as there is risk of fire. the substation should be located away from the area where people and vehicles move about. 125 PART 3 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN NON-INDlJSTRIAL BUILDINGS . size of the building. The choice of lamps.5 k 2.2. 5.1 The general rules laid down in Part I/ Set I4 of the Code shall apply.4 In the event of a breakdown of the airconditioning plant. fixed to the supporting pole. The following shall be provided besides fire-fighting equipment: a) Buildings having a theatrical stage and fixed seats *Code of practice for design installation and maintenance of service lines~ up to and including 650 V +National Building Code. 5.The general rules laid down in Part I /Set 14 of the Code shall apply.5. Museums: a) General b) Display 4. alarm system canteen and storage b) Buildings without a stage but no permanent seating arrangement c) All other structures designed for assembly 5. Reference may also be made to SP : 7-19837 on guidelines for fire protection of buildings. 5.6. alternate arrangements should be available for ventilation and air circulation. 5.2. lighting fittings and /Igeneral lighting design together with power r&$nrement shall be planned based on the recommended values of illumination and glare index given in Table I.2 In air-conditioned assembly buildings. 5.6.4 Building Substation 5. Such occupancies can’ be further classified into groups depending on the capacity of the theatre/auditorium to hold the congregation (see SP : 7-1983*).2. 5.2.4.1 Lighting .6. corridor.Service lines shall conform to the provisions laid down in IS : 8061-1976* 5.6.2 Air-Conditioning 5. P A R T OF BU I L D I N G ILLUMINATION Automatic fire alarm system Manualy operated electrical fire-alarm system L IMITING VALUE OF G.note of while deciding the location of substation: i) Stage Automatic sprinkler Automatic fireii) Auditoria. 5.0 The rules for protection for safety laid down in Part !/Set 7 of the Code shall apply.0 The electrical power demand of an assembly building can vary from 30 kVA to more than I 000 kVA according to the. (1) (2) lux (3) (4) b) The substation should not be in the way of people and fire-fighting vehicles and personnel where they are -likely to attend to an emergency.1 Feeder circuits shall generally conform to the requirements laid down in Part I /Set I1 of the Code. Usually. inside temperature shall be 25.1 Tile type of occupancies covered in this Section fall under Group D (assembly buildings) from the point of view of fire safety classification. green rooms.4. auditoria b) Platforms c) Corridors d) Stairs 2.5 System Protection 5. lifts and the lighting and fan circuits.1 The following aspects shall be taken .75”C.2.2 Feeders 5. The general rules given below shall apply. supply at voltages above I kV is given for large theatres and auditoria. Building substations shall conform to the general requirements specified in Part 2 of the Code.3 Provisions shall be made to record the temperature inside the auditorium. Art Galleries: a) General b) Paintings 5. 5. TABLE 1 RECOMMENDED VALUES OF ILLUMINATION AND GLARE lNDEX SL NO.6 Building Services 5. Typical fire-fighting installation requirements are also covered therein. I.6.3 Service Lines .2.support through-porcelain connectors housed in a junction box.6. I6 I6 :i I50 :: 100 IO IO - N OTE . 5. Cinemas: a) Foyers b) Auditoria c) Corridors d) Stairs 3. 5.5.The above is meant for general guidelines apd does not include special lighting effects.2 Separate feeders shall be taken to airconditioning units. Assembly and concert: a) Foyers. preferably at the rear of the building.LARE INDEX a) A s t h e r e w i l l b e c o n c e n t r a t i o n a n d movement of people.

1 The various tests on the installation shall be carried out as laid down in Part l/Set IO of the Code. are required for illumination.1 Emergency Supply . For same lighting schemes.3 G r o u p C o n t r o l --The lighting in the auditorium shall be suitably combined into control groups to facilitate group switching.3 Lifts and Escalators -The general rules laid down in Part I /Set 14 of the Code shall apply. the lighting operator shall have a good view of the stage in order to be able to follow the performance. 7.1 In all recreational and assembly buildings. The changeover of supply arrangements should be reliable and easy to operate. etc. System . The various possibilities of switching each fittings shall be kept in view while designing the lighting circuits. the design of the lifts shall take into account the following recommendations: a) Occupant load. the control-room shall be situated in a convenient position. including portable light sources. with the provision for automatic switching-on in case of 126 NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE .6.2 Stage Lighting -On the stage of a theatre.2 Depending on the total capacity required for-standby supply for the occupancy. 7. Gross Area in m2/ Person 0. a great number of spotlights.This shall be as follows: Occupancy./ Set . border lights. suitable standby generator set shall be installed. MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS 7.5 b) Passenger handling capacity and car speed .See also Part 2 of the Code. TESTING OF INSTALLATION 6. Occupant Load.1.6 failure of main’ supply shall be provided. 14 of the Code.5. 7. The location of the standby supply shall preferably be on the ground level away from the auditorium so that noise from the generator reaching the audience could be minimised. dimmer-control equipment may be required.1. 7.4 Audio-Visual of amplifying and sound distribution systems shall conform. However. 6. sufficient number of emergency lights fed from independent source or sources.Installation 7.to the guidelines contained in Part I. Therefore. 7. projectors. Assembly halls with fixed or loose seats and dance floors Without seating facilities including dining rooms 1.As given in Part 3/Set 2. In the special case of stage lighting control.

These are enumerated in 4. b) The electrical resistance of the skin.1. operating plaster room and surgeries.1.1 Anaesthetic Room . 1 . 2. 2 . which is normally an important protection against harmful electric currents is bypassed in certain examinations or treatments. water with gases. stored or computed. mud. Examples o f a p p l i e d procedures are measurement o f a c t i o n p o t e n t i a l s o f t h e haemodynamics of the heart. i n j e c t i o n o f c o n t r a s t a g e n t s o r application of pacemakers.\drorherap.1 Rooms 0. performed under anaesthesia. multidisciplinary hospital in big cities.v Roonr -. call for special treatment. in which medical equipment and utensils are sterilized. inhalation therapy. electrotherapy in water*.6 Endoscopic Room .1.3 Central Monitoring Room . if necessary.ATlONS IN NON-INDI’STRIAI. In the preparation of this Section considerable assistance has also been derived from IEC 62A (Secretariat) 55 ‘Requirements for electrical installations in medical practice’ issued by the International Electrotechnical Commission. 8 Hemoclial~~sis R o o m ---. The latter type will have 2.1. PART 3 ELECTRICAL INSTAI. NOTE .Room in which the output signals of several patient monitors are displayed. Additional safety provisions in the electrical installations of medically used rooms and medical establishments are covered in this Section of the Code. where flammable atmosphere exists. 7 H e a r t Catheterizarion Rooter -~. by signal transmission lines) between the rooms of such a group exists. drawing of blood samples. methods are E x a m p l e s o f endoscopic cystoscopic.5 Deliver.Koom in n hich patients are treated by hydrotherapeutlc mcthodh.d in medical practice (Parts I to 3).* Room . the breakdown of which may cause a dangerous situation. 2 . 2. steam. brine. Room in . brine with gases. Examples of such methods are therapeutic treatments with water. *General and safety requirements for electrical equipn nt . This Section is also applicable to rooms for veterinary medicine and dental practice. SCOPE 1. NOTE . with contrast media.1 This Section of the Code applies to’ the electrical installations. This Section is based on the following considerations: The patient may not be in a condition’ to react normally to the effects of hazardous events. laryngoscopic. clay. 0. several units functioning simultaneously with a variety of support services to cater to the needs of doctors and patients.I.Anaesthetic room comprises for instance the actual operating theatre.1. 9 H. in water* Swimming pools for general use and normal bath-rooms are not considered as hydrotherap!. 1 . if a conductive connectlon (for example. Bl’ILDlNGS 127 .3 The basic aspects of the safety philosophy for installations in hospitals have been standardized at the IEC Level. 2.Room. rooms ‘With o r wIthout addfitl\cr c) Medical electrical equipment may often be used to support or substitute vital body functions. slime. and d) Specific locations in medical establishments d Electric and magnetic interference may disturb certain medical examinations or treatments.4 Central Sterilization Room .2 A n g i o g r a p h i c E x a m i n a t i o n R o o m Room intended for displaying arteries or veins. etc.Room intended for application of endoscopic methods for the examination of organs through natural or artificial orifices. sand.R o o m intended for the examination or treatment of the heart using catheters. operating preparation room. massage thermotherapy and thermothcrap!. 0. 2. 1 .2 Safety requirements for electrical equipmen! used in medical practice are covered in IS : 8607 (in Parts)*.1. FOREWORD 2.SECTION 4 MEDICAL ESTABLISHMENTS 0. 2. 2 .0 In addition to the definitions contained in Part I/Set 2 of the Code the following shall apply. 1. T E R M I N O L O G Y 2. in medical establishments. 2. not spatially connected to a medically used room.1 Hospitals in the country vary in size from simple premises used for medical purposes in villages to a wekquip’ped.Room in which the actual birth takes place.Medically used room in which general inhalation anaesthetics are intended to be administered.A central monitoring room is considered to be part of a Room Group. gastroscopic and similar methods.a medical establishment intended to connect patients to medical electrical equipment in order to detoxicate their blood. bronchoscopic.

2. Nort Such a room belongs 10 the operating room group and is spatially connected IO It. 2. transport. 2. etc) of human beings or animals.nt enclosure where ieakage may occur because such parts are: .17 Operating Plaster Room -. such as X-ray equipment.2. 2 F l a m m a b l e Anaeslheric Mi.2 Zones of Risk --(see also Appendix A)..10 Intcwsi\v Care Room . 2 . 2. 2.parlally connected IO i t .1.R o o m i n w h i c h patients are prepared (waiting) for delivery.27 Urolog.1 OFlantntahle Anaesthetic A t m o s p h e r e Mixture of a flammable anaesthetic vapour and or a vapour of a flammable disinfection or cleaning agent with air in such a concentrStion that ignition may occur under specified conditions. endoscopic equipment and highfrequency surgery equipment.vsiotherapj. if required.si\y Monitoring Room R o o m i n which operated patients are monitored. but not for the purpose of several simultaneously to treatment. by administering anaesthetics.1.\.Room in which patients are treated by physiotherapeutic methods.2.16 Minor Surgical Thearre .4 Zone M -~ Volume in a medically used room in which small quantities of flammable anaesthetic atmospheres of flammable N A T I O N A L E L E C T R I C A L COL)E 2.I4 Medical Estahlishmenr -.Room in which medical staff at an operation can wash for disinfection purposes.1. to the operaring room group NoIt a n d I\ . . Such a room belong.R o o m i n which plaster of Paris or similar dressings are applied while anaesthesia is maintained. 2.1. Body actions may be stimulated if required.2. 2.1. 128 .Room 2. Where the leakage occurs into another enclosure which is not sufficiently (naturally or forcedly) ventilated and enrichment of the leaking mixture may occur. Room .26 R o o m G r o u p used rooms linked with each other in their function.Room intended for the use of ionizing radiation for display of internal structures of the body by. respiration) may be stimulated.18 Operating Preparation Room . or in any other medical establishment. for example..Room in which minor operations are performed on ambulant or non-ambulant patients. 2.1 . Body actions (for example.1.1. guided or used including the surroundings of a completely or partly enclosed equipment or equipment part up to a distance of 5 cm from parts of the equipme.3 Zone G .Room in which bed patients are monitored independently of an operation by means of electromedical equipment.l. monitoring. gamma radiation or corpuscular radiation or by the use of radio-active isotopes. IO the operating 2.Establishment for medical care (examination. 2. NOT k Such a room IS usually very close room group but not necessarily part of it.24 Radiological Diagnostic Room .21 Operating Thearre . treatment. by their designated medical purpose or by intcrconnectcd medical electrical equipment.1. Room . 2.23 Ph.1. 2. 2 .1 I Intensi~~e E.Room in which the patient under observation recovers from the influence of anaesthesia. 2.Room in which utensils required for an operation are sterilized.subject to a high rate of deterioration.22 Operating Wash Room .1. electromedicai measuring or monitoring devices. heart circulation.Room in which surgical operations are performed.R o o m i n w h i c h diagnostic or therapeutic procedures are performed on the urogenital tract using electromedical equipment. dental or veterinary examination.1.R o o m in which patients are connected for the purpose of intensive examination.Room in which patients are prepared for an operation.25 Radiologkal Therapy R o o m . R o o m . treatment or monitoring of persons or animals. or .ramination R o o m . if necessary using anaesthetics or analgesics.1.rture Mixture of a flammble anaesthetic vapour with oxygen or with nitrous oxide in such a concentration that ignitign may occur under specified conditions. using electromedical equipment. 2.12 Intett.1.R o o m intended for the use of ionizing radiation to obtain therapeutic effects on the surface of the body or in internal organs by means of Xradiation. such an enclosure \ and possibly the surroundings of it (subject to possible leakage) up to a distance of 5 cm from said enclosure or part of it is regarded as a Zone G. NOI1 Such a room helong~ IO the operating a n d I\ u~uall! \patiall) connected to I I room group 2.1113 Lahour R o o m .liable to inadvertent disconnection. 2.Volume in a medically used room in which continuously or temporarily small quantities of flammable anaesthetic mixtures may be produced. Nork Such a room belongs 10 the operating room group and is spatially connected to it.1.1 .unprotected and liable to be broken.19 Operating Recover. Group of medically 2. 2.2..28 Ward . 2.Medically used room or room group in which patients are accommodated’for the duration of their stay in a hospital. Room .I5 Medicall.1. 2. nursing. means of radiography or fluoroscopy or by the use of radio-active isotopes or for other diagnostic purposes.1. Used intended to be used for medical.20 Operating Sterilization Room .

CLAGSIFICATION 3. 4. 3 .0 General guidelines on the assessment of characteristics of installations in buildings are g i v e n i n Part I/Set X. 2. Voltage appearing. Where a Zone M is caused by leakage.3.Self-contained energy convertor including all essential components to Supply electrical power (for example.This includes any building or. NOTE Provisions f o r s u p p l y o f such arcuat wparatcl! f r o m t h e r e m a i n d e r o f t h e electrical lnbtallation arc prcwnr likelihood of discontinuity of supply in case of a failure tb earth in the isolated power source or in equipment connected to it. engine driven generator). 2. The following hazard currents are recognized: Tolal hazard current . mental hospitals.Circuit for supply of equipment which is kept in operation during power failure.Hazard current of the line isolation monitor. 2. of the C o d e . 2. 2 .Voltage not exceeding a nominal value of 25 V ac or up to and including 60 V dc or peak valee at rated supply voltage on the transformer or convertor between conductors is an earth-free circuit isolated from the supply mains by a medical safety extra-low voltage transformer or by a convertor with separate windings. 7 I n s u l a t i o n .Hazard current of an isolated system with all supplied equipment.6 I n s u l a t i o n M o n i t o r i n g D e v i c e Instrument indicating the occurrence of an insulation fault from a live part of an isolated electrical supply system to the protective conductor of the installation concerned.3.3. which is used for housing treating persons s u f f e r i n g from physical limitations because of health. convalescents and the aged. between simultaneously accessible parts. orphanages.I n s t r u m e n t m e a s u r i n g t h e o h m i c resistance between the monitored isolated circuit and earth providing an alarm when the value of this resistance becomes less than a given limit.isolated conductor and earth.10 Operaring Residual Current . except the line isolation monitor. This also includes infirmeries.5 Insularion I m p e d a n c e M o n i t o r i n g Device .Electrical connection intended to bring exposed conductive parts or extraneous col’ductive parts to the same or approximately the hame potential.LoHv V o l t a g e (Mselv) . 2 . such as children -(excluding schools). for example.Hazard current of an isolated system with all supplied equipment.Value of a residual current causing a protective device to operate under specified conditions. connected.ment in order to minimize the a) Ho. etc. Bl:ILDINGS I29 . A Zone M may be caused by leakage of a flammable anaesthetic mixture from a Zone G or by the application of flammable disinfection or cleaning agents. F o r t h e purpose of installations falling under the scope of this section. Fauh hazard curren! .2 Essenrial Circuir ~.vpira1.yfijrmer -Electrical equipment used in medical practice intended to supply isolated power to medical electrical equip. age.1 Equipotenrial Bonding .3.ded for the following purposes: 2. Moniror hazard current .group of buildings which is used for the custody and care of persons. convalescent homes. sanatoria and nursing homes. including the line isolation monitor.3 Special Terms 2.3. Resislance Moniroring Dellice .9 M e d i c a l Safe07 Extra. NOTE ~ T h i s c u r r e n t i s e x p r e s s e d in milliampere\.3 Generalor Se. G E N E R A L C H A R A C T E R I S T I C S O F MEDICAL ESTABLISHMENTS 4.5 m distance from the intended location of the paticnl in which intentional or unintehtional contact between patient and equipment or some other person touching the equipment can occur (sre Appendix H).3. 4.1 Environment ~~~ The following environmental factors shall apply to hospitals: PART 3 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN NON-INDIbTRIAI.4 H a z a r d Currenr . .11 Patient Environmen! .1 The electrical installations covered in this section are those in buildings inten.s~i~utions . home for the a g e d a n d i n f i r m . the characteristics given below apply. 2. it comprises the space srrounding the leakage area of a Zone G up to a distance of 25 cm from the leakage point 2.3.anaestneucs with air may occur.3.3. connected. 3 . 8 M e d i c a l I s o l a t i n g Tran. injury or disease. 2.A device measuring the ac impedance at mains frequency from either of the conductors of an isolated circuit to earth and predicting the hazard current that will flow when an earth fault occurs and providing an alarm when a preset value of that current is exceeded. Cusrodial In. 3. 2.3.12 Touch Volrage during an insulation fault.Total current for a giveh set of connections in an isolated power system that would flow through a low impedance if it were connected between either.v a n d Sonaloria This includes any building or group of buildings.A n y a r e a up t o I. 2.

In addition the following provisions may be required.The following aspects of utilization shall apply: Utili:arion (1) Capabthty o f persons Characrerrtrtrs (2) Children in locations intended for their occupation Handicapped Remarks (3) Applies to child-care homes.0.Environmen: (1) Presence of fcci~. that could lead to excessive currents through the patient. 5.0. Seismic effect and lightning - Depends on the location of the building 4. laboratories in hospitals) will be categorized as in Part l/Set 8 Mechanical stress Impact and vibration of low severity. meaning pi-. operation thcatre. connection 01 lhc Iarious p o t e n t i a l equalization ccnIrc\ to ‘a central potential equali/nrion hu4har. Ail accessible extraneous conductive parts in the zone shall be connected to this potential equalization bar. sanatoria. some parts of the installation may be present in the patient’s environment. Restriction of voltage differences by supplementary equipotential bonding. solid Characteristics (2) The quantity or nature of dust or foreign solid bodies is not significant The quantity and nature of corrosive or polluting substances is not significant Remarks (3) - 5. etc Applies to hospitals in general. must be avoided. operations and matntenance staff Persons adequately advised or supervised by skilled persons Contact of persons with earth potential Persons do not in usual condttions make contact with extraneom conductive part\ or stand on conductmg surfaces b) Conditions of evacuation during emergency Nature of process or stored materials Difficult condttionr Apphes in general to of evacuation ho\pual\ and stmtlar buildings. Presence of corrosive or polluting substances Locations where some chemical products are handled (for example. During the application of equipment with direct contact to the patient.2 Generally a power supply system including a separated protective conductor is required (TN-S-system).0 In the context of this Section ‘installation’ means any combination of interconnected electrical equipment within a given space or location intended to supply power to electrical equipment used in medical practice. For this purpose a combination of earthing of equipment and potential equalization in the installation seems to provide the best solution.0 General 5. nursing homes. etc. available solutions are the reduction of the duration of fault currents to earth by special devices or the application of a power supply which is isolated from earth. 5. w h i c h s h o u l d prcferahl! he connected to the protective earth >!. X-Ray block fall under BE 2 and BE 3 (.1 As such. casualit) mcdtcine store. orphanages. where potential differences.~tcrn 01 the po\\er s u p p l y f o r t h e gl\cn . the fault current may cause a considerable voltage drop over the protective earth conductor of the relevant circuit. A disadvantage of. E L E C T R I C A L CODE I30 . zone to the /one around one patient. irrebpectivc of denbtty of occupation Fire or risk M a n y locarton\ rn hospnal butldtngs tn gcncral uould fall under category B E I of no stgnificant fire or explosion risk. Since a reduction of such a voltage drop by the application of increased cross-sectional areas of protective conductors is usually impractical. protective conductors and protective devices to restrict continuous voltage differences.2 Utilization . where the occupants are not in command of all their physical and intellectual abihties Applies to areas such as building substations.such a system is that in the case of an insulation fault in circuits directly connected to supply mains. at least a potential equalized zone around the patient shall be provided with a patient centre bonding bar to which the protective and functional earth conductors of the equipment are connected.t. spcctfic locations like.wc~ P a r t 1 St2 X ol the Code) cl Restriction of the potential equalization d) If more than one patlent is present in an‘ a r e a .tctic:tll! around one operation table or around one bed in an intensive care room.irc. In its completed lorm the equipotential sAl-Ios.\i. SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS 5. depending upon the nature of the examinations or treatments performed: a) A d d i t i o n a l requirements concerninp.0.

anti-static precautions and careful layout of the installation. Suppression of electroma netic interference achieved by the layout o fg the building and wiring a n d p r o v i s i o n o f s c r e e n i n g arrangements. data processing equipment. k) Special safety supply system for critical 6.0 Exchange of Information 6. 6.1.1 Circuit Installation Measures for Safety Provisions -(See Table I.1. usually a diesel-powered generator.2 Provision PI : Medical TN-S system 6.1 Safety Provisinw $1. Limits for magnetic fields of mains frequency are necessary tor a number of sensitive measurements. or c) only medical electrical equipment is used which is internally powered or of protection Class II.. where medical electrical equipment is not used. j) Safety supply system for major parts of the hospital.1. The power supply is taken over by these devices in a short time.3 Exposed c o n d u c t i v e p a r t s o f equipment being part of the electrical installation used in the same room shall be connected to a common protective conductor.1.3 Guidance on the application of the provisions are given in Table 2. (b) and (c) may be massage rooms. 5. BUILDINGS 131 PART 3 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN NON-INDUSTRjAL .4 A main equipotential bonding with a main earthing bar shall be provided near the main service entrance.1. T-T or IT power system. equipment as life-supporting equipment and operating room lamps. doctor’s examining room (office. d) the conductive water supply line. Other requirements of this Section. The necessary terminals for these bonding conne**ions should be present on equipment and in the installation. h) Prevention of ignitions and tire in rooms where flammable anaesthetics or flammable cleaning or disinfection agents are used by ventilation. r) Continuity of power supply to certain equipment in the case of a first insulation fault to earth and restriction of transient voltage differences by application of isolating transformers. N O T E.1.0. 4 Restriction of the duration of transient voltage difference by the application of residual current operated protective devices (earth leakage circuit-breakers).2. ‘b) earthing systems of the electric power distribution system.1 S a f e t y measureS a r e d i v i d e d i n t o a number of provisions as given in Table I. shall be applicable for all medically used rooms.1 All buildings in the hospital area which contain medically used rooms shall have a TN-S. The device may consist of rechargeable batteries possibly combined with convertors or special generating sets. 5.1 Provision PO : General 6. Recommendations for essential cirouits to be connected to it. co1 3. 2 .2. or b) patients do not come intentionally in contact with medical electrical equipment during 4 lightning-conductor. etc. Provision P. consulting room). Connections shall be made to the -following parts by bonding conductors : 5.2 Provision PC.1 Proper coordination shall be ensured between the architect.1. diagnosis or treatment.1. The necessary special features of installations shall be ascertained beforehand with reference to Table 2. SUPPLY CHARACTERISTICS AND PARAMETERS 6.1. 6.The use of TN-C-S system (in which the PEnconductor may carry current in normal condition) can cause safety hazards for the patients and interfere with the function of medical electrical equipment.1 The conventional touch voltage limit (LIL) is fixed at 25 V ac. l3) Monitoring of a first insulation fault to earth in an IT-system (the secondary side of an isolating transformer) with sufficiently high impedance to earth.1. The conventional touch voltage limit (UL) is fixed at 50 V ac. 6 . 6. shall be applicable to all buildings containing medically used r o o m s . 2 P r o t e c t i v e c o n d u c t o r s inside a medically used room shall be insulated: their insulation shall be coloured green-yellow (see Part I 1 Set 4 of the Code). signal transmission lines.) 6. c) the central heating system. 1 . The rooms mentioned under (a).bonding network may consist partly of fixed and permanently installed bonding and partly of a number of separate bondings which are made when the equipment is set up near the patient. building contractor and the electrical engineer or the various aspects of installation design. 6.2. need not be complied with if: a) a room is not intended for the use of medical electrical equipment. general wards. 5.4 A typical example of an installation in a hospital is given in Appendix C.

TABLE I SAFETY PROVISIONS (Cbusr 5.1.1) PllovlsloNs (1) PO PI S P RINCIPAL R~QUIRHUIENT~ (2) Dupm~f touch voltages ratricted to 8 As I?0 but 8dditiorully : touch volt8ga in p8tient environment restricted to 8 s8fe limit As PI but 8dditiotully : Resist8nce between extmn&us conductive parts md the protective conductor bus b8r of the room not exceeding 0.1 fl INSTALLATION Msluurn (9 TN-S, m or IT system Addition81 to p0 : Supply system with additional requirements for protective cuthing. etc Additiorul to PI : Suppkmentrry quipotenti8l bonding

I

As P, or Pz : Meuurement neccas8ry. A s PI or Pz but 8ddition8Uy : Potenti difference between expo&d conductive p8rts, rtion possibly neccssuy exttmneous aDnductiw p8rts md the protective conductor bus brr not exceeding t0 mV in normal condition (WC Note b&w)

corrective

p1 A P6

As PI or A. Addition81 protection ryinst ckctric shock by ,limit8tion of dironnccting time Continuity of the timins su ply m8intllined in cue of 8 rurt insuktion P rult to earth and currents to euth restricted Reduction of f8ult currents 8nd touch volt8ges in case of 8 f8ult in ths b8sic insuktion Prevention of dangerous touch voltages in norm81 condition rnd in singk f8ult condition (WC Note below) No interruption of the power sup ly of the or essential circuits of the hospit8l P more th8n 15 seconds N? interruption of ,the power supply of \;e-ss%po$mg qurpment for more th8n No in~rruption of the power supply of the oper8tmg kmp for more thur 0.5 seconds Prevention of cxpbsions. fue and ekctrostatic c barges

Additions1 to PI or P2 : Residual current oper8ted protective device Addition81 to PI, 4, or Pa : kol8ted supply system with isol8tion monitoring Additional to P, or P2 : Medical isolating transformer supplying one individually piece of equipment Additioilal to PI or P2 : Supply with medical S8fCty. extra low voltage spfety supply system

P7

G E

El

Special safety supply system

4
A. I ~

Special s8fety supply system for operating lamp Measures concerning explosion and fire hazards Layout of building nnd installation, scmning

No excessive interference from ekctric and
nugnetic folds

NOW - Normal condirlon means .without any fault’ in the installation. TABLE 2 EXAMPLES OF APPLICATION OF SAFETY PROVISIONS (Clausr 5. I .3) SL Ms0ICAL.Lv USED R00M P~~TE~w~E MEASURES , P./A Pa (4) 0 X 0 x X x X X 0 P, (3) M w8sh M M M * I S AFETY SUPPLY SYSTEM h E XPLOSIONS M EASURES AND F I R E AGAWST EM FIELDS

.

P4
(5)

Ps

P6
(6)

A
(7) (8) 0 0 0 0 0 0

GE
(9) xx x x x x 0

EI

El

A
(13)

I
(14)

(0
I. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

(2)
Murage room Operating room w8rd general Delivery room ECG. room

(lo) (11) (12)

x

0

0 X

EEG, Q4G M room

Endoscopic

M X

0 (Conrinued)

132

NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE

TABLE 2 EXAMPLES OF APPLlCATlON OF SAFETY PROVISIONS-Conrd SL No. MEDICALLY USED RoOM PROTECTIVE MEWIRES SAFEN SUPPLY SYSTEM E XPLOSIONS U EAWRES AND F IRE A GAINST EM F IELDS A (13) I 04)

p.1 PI

S
(4) 0 X 0 X

P3

P.

6
(7) 0 0

P6

Pl
(9) 0 0 0 0

GE

El

(1)

(2)

(3) M M M M

(5)

7. Examination or tratmcnt room 8. hbour room 9 . Opcmting rtixiliition room 10. Urology room (not
being an operating theotre)

(6) X X X X X

(8)

(10) X X X X X

(11)

& (12) 0

0

0

I I.

Radiological diagnostic and therapy

M

X

0

room, other than mentioned under SI No. 20 and 24 12. Hydrotherapy
room 13. Physiotherapy room

M U

X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X

X X X X X
Xl Xl Xl X,
0 X X X X X X X X X X X X X

0’

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X
X X X X X X X X 0 X 0 X X X X X X X X 0 X
0 0

14. Anaesthetic room 15. Operating theatre 16. Operating preparation room 17. 18. 19.
20. 21. Operating plaster room Operating recovery room Outpatient operating theatre

U U
U

0 X X
0

X X X X X

U U U U U
M U U
M M

X

XI X,

X X X X
0

Heart catheterization room Intensive care room Intensive examination room Intensive monitoring room Angiographic examination room Hemodialysis room Central monitoring room (see Note)

X 0 0 0 0 X 0

XI
Xl

22. 23. 24. 25. 26.

X
Xl XI Xl XI

X
0

0

0

N OTE - Only if such a room is part of a medical room group and therefore m\talled III the same way as an intensive monitoring room. Central momtoring room having no conductive connection 10 the medically used room (for example. by use ol isolating coupling devices for \~gnal tran\m~\von) ma) hc ln\talled ab non-mcdlcally used room (provl,lon PU only).
Explanation: M = X= X, = 0 = Mandatory measure. Recommended measure As X, but only lor equlpmenr de\crlhed III 6 . 1 . 6 . 7 . AdditIonal measure. ma! he con\ldered desirable.

e) the conductive parts of the waste water Ilne: f, the conductive parts of the gas supply; and g) t h e s t r u c t u r a l m e t a l f r a m e w o r k o f t h e building, if applicable.

Main euuipotential bonding conductors shall

have cross:se&tional areas not-less than half the c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l a r e a of the largest p r o t e c t i v e
c o n d u c t o r o f t h e i n s t a l l a t i o n , -subjict to a

minimum of 6 mm?. The cross-sectional area need
BUILDINGS 133

PART 3 ELECTRICAL INSTAI.I.ATIONS IN NON-INDIISTRIAL

not, however, exceed 25 mm* if the bonding conductor is of copper or a cro~s-s&ctional area affording equivalent current-carrying capacity in other metals. 6.1.2.5 Each medically used room or room group shall have its own protective conductor bus bar. which should have adequate .mechanical and electciCal properties and resistance against corrosion. This bus bar may be located in the relevant power distribution box. The leads connected to terminals of such a protective conductor bar shall be identified and shall be similarly designated on . drawings of the installation system. 6.1.2.6 The impedance (Z) between the protective conductor bar and each connected protective conductor contact in wall sockets or terminals should not exceed 0.2 n. if the rated current of the overcurrent protective device is 16 A or less. In case of a rated current exceeding I6 A the impedance should be calculated using the formula: Z+ fl, in all cases Z shall not exceed.0.2 0.

- 2.5 mm2 if mechanical protection is provided, and - 4 mm2 i.f mechanical protection is n o t
provided. 6.1.28 It may be necessary to run the protective conductor separate from the phase conductors. in order lo avoid measuring probkms when recording bioelectric potentials. P2 : Supplemenrary 6.1 .3 Provision Equiporenrial Bonding 6.1.3.1 In order to minimize the touch voltage, all extraneous conductive parts shall be connected lo the system of protective conductors. An equipotential conductor bar shall be prqvided. It should be located near the protective conductor bar (see aho 6.1.2.5). A combined protective conductor and equipotential bonding bar may be used, if all conductors are clearly marked according to 6.1.2.5 and 6.133 (e). 6.1.3.2 Connections shall be provided from the- equitiotential bonding bar to extraneous conductive parts, such as pipes for fresh water. heating. gases. vacuum and other parts with a &onductive surface area larger than 0.02 rn? or a linear dimension exceeding 20 cm. or smaller parts that may be grasped by hand. Additionally the foilowing requirements supply:

. I

where I, = rated current of overcurrent protective device in amperes.
The measurement of the protective conductor impedance should be performed with an ac current not less than IO A and not exceeding 25 A from a’source of current with a no-load voltage not exceeding 6 V. for a period of at least 5 seconds.
Non --

a) Such connections need not be made to:
I) Extraneous conductive parts inside o f walls (for example structural metal frame work of buildings) having no direct connection to any accessible conductive part inside the room. and 2) conductive parts in a non-conductive enclosure.

a r e a o f the 6.1.2.7 The cross-sectional protective conductor shall be not less than the appropriate value shown in Table 3.
TABLE 3 CROSS-SECTIONAL AREA OF CONDUCTORS
CRCKS-SEUIONAL A R E A OF PIME COND~UW S. mm’ MISIMI!M CROSS-SM.TIONAL AR E A O F TllE CORRESWNDING PROTWTIVE CONMKTOR. PE. mm?

b) In locations where the position of the
patient can be predetermined this provision may be restricted to extraneous conductive parts within the patient environment (see Appendix B)

Sd 16

c) In operating theatres. intensive care rooms,
heart catheterization rooms and rooms intended for the recording of bioelectrical actiol potentials all parts should be connected to the equipotential bonding bar via direct and separate conductors. 6.1.33 The following requirements shall be fulfilled:

16 < S G 35 s > 35

; -r

N O T E - If the application of this table produces norm standard si7es. conductors having the nearest standard crosssectional area are to be used.

The values in Table 3 are valid only if the protective conductor is made of the same metal as the phase conductors. If this is not so. the crosssectional area of the protective conductor is to be determined in a manner which produces a conductance equivalent to that which results from the application of Table 3. The cross-sectional area of every protective conductor which does not form part of the supply cable or cable enclosure shall be, in any case, not less than: 134

a)

T h e i m p e d a n c e betwe’en e x t r a n e o u s conductive parts and the equipotential bonding bar shall not exceed 0.1 fI.

I

N OTE - The measurement of this impedance should be performed with a current not less thin IO A and not exceeding 25 A during not less than 5 seconds from a current source with a no-load potential not,exceeding 6 V ac.

b)

All equipotential bonding conductors shall be insulated. the insulation being coloured green/ yellow.
NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE

NorI. lnbulation of the equipotential bonding cqnduclor4 IS necessary. lo avoid loops by contact and 10 avoid picking up of stray currents.

b) d

insulated so that it is not possible to touch them unintentionally, and provided with isolating joints at those places where they enter and leave the room.

cl Equipotcntial

conductors between permanently installed extraneous conductive parts and the equipotential bonding bar shall have a cross-sectional area of not less than -4 mm’ copper or copper equivalent.

Exposed conductive parts of permanently installed equipment may be isolated from the conductive building construction. 6.1.5 Provision PJ : Application tif ResidualCurrent Prohrive Devices 6.1.5.1 The use of a residual-current protective device is not r&ognized as a sole means of protection and does not obviate the need to apply the provisions P I and Pz. 6.1.5.2 Each room or each room group shall be provided with at least one residual-current protective device. 6.1.5.3 A residual-current protective device shall have a standard rated operating residualcurrent I A N < 30 mA. 6.1.5.4 A medical isolating transfbrmer and the circuits supplied,from it shall not be protected by a residual-current -protective device. 6.1.5.5 Electrical equipment such as general lighting luminaries. installed more than 2.5 m above floor level need not bc protected by a residual-current protective device. 6.1.5.6 Fixed and permanently installed electromedical e q u i p m e n t .wit h a p o w e r consumption requiring an overcurrent protective device of more than 63 A rated value may be connected to the supply mains by use of a residual-current protective device with I A N d 300 mA’. 6 . 1 . 6 Pro\isiou P5 : Metlicul IT-S,wem 6.1.6.0 The use of a medical IT-system for the supply, of medically used rooms for example operatmg theatres. may be desirable for different reasons :

4 The equipotential bonding bar. if any,
should have adequate mechanical and electrical properties. and resistance against corrosion.

e) T h e c o n d u c t o r s c o n n e c t e d t o t h e
equipotential bonding bar shall be marked and shall be similarly designated on drawings of the installation system. A separate protective conductor bar and an equipotential bonding bar in a medically used room or in a room group shall be interconnected with a conductor having a cross-sectional area of not less than 16 mm? copper or its equivalent (see also 6.1.3.1). An adequate number of equipotential bonding terminals other than these for protective conductor contacts or pins of socket outlets should be provided iq each room for the connection of an additional protect& conductor of equipment or for reasons of functional earthing of equipment. 6 . 1 . 4 Pro\si.siorl PJ : R e s t r i c t i o n of Touch Voltage irr Roon~ Equipped ,fiw Direct Cardiac Application 6.1.4.1 The continuous current through a resistance of I 000 R connected between the equipotential bonding bar and any exposed conductive part as well as any extraneous conductive part in the patient environment shall not exceed IO PA in normal condition for frequencies from dc to I kH7. For a description of patient environment. see Appendix B. Where the measuring device has an impedance and a frequency characteristics as given in Appendix D, the current may also be indicated as a continuous voltage with a limit of IO mV between the parts mentioned above. - During the test it is assumed that fixed and permanently installed medical electrical equipment is operating. -- ‘Normal conbitions* means ‘without airy fault in the installation and in the medical electrical equipment’.
N OTE -- To comply with this requirement it pay be
necessary lo apply one or more of the following methods:

a) A medical IT-system increases the reliability
of power supply in areas where an interruption of power supply may cause a halard to patient or user;

b) A medical IT-system reduces an earth fault
current to a low value and thus also reduces the touch voltage across a protective conductor through which this earth fault current may flow;

cl A medical IT-system reduces leakage
currents of equipment to a low value. where the medical IT-system i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y symmetrical to earth. It is necessary to keep the impedance to earth of the medical IT-system as high as possible. This may be achieved by: I) restriction of the physical dimensions of t\he medical isolating transformer. 135

Extraneous* conductive parts may be: a) connected to the equipotential bonding bar by a conductor of a large cross-sectional area in order to reduce the voltage drop accross sueh a conductor.
PART 3 ELECTRICAL INSTAI.LATIOP;S

IN NON-INDUSTRIAL Bl;ILDINCS

4

restriction of the system supplied by this transformer,

checking the response of the monitor to a fault condition as described in 6.1.6.4.

3) restriction of the number of medical electrical equipment connected to such a system, and 4) high internal impedance to ‘earth of the iinsulation monitoring device connected to such a circuit. If the primary reason for the use of medical ITsystem is the reliability of the power supply, it is not possible to define for such a system a hazard current and an insulation resistance monitoring device should be used. If,on the other hand the restriction of leakage current of equipment is the main reason for the use of the medical IT-system. an insulation impedance monitoring device should be used. 6.1.6.1 For each room or each room group at least one fixed and permanently installed medical isolating transformer shall be provided. 6.1.6.2 A medical isolating transformer shall be protected against short circuit and overload. In case of a short circuit or a double earth fault in parts of opposite polarity of the medical ITsystem the defective system shall be disconnected by the relevant overcurrent protective device. If more than one item of equipment can be connected to the same secondary winding of the transformer. at least two separately protected circuits should be provided for reasons of continuity of supply. 6.1.63 Overcurrent protective devices shall be easily accessible and shall be marked to indicate the protected circuit. 6.1.6.4 An insulation monitoring device shall be provided to indicate a fault of the insulation to earth of a live part of the medical IT-system. 6.1.6.5 Fixed and permanently installed equipment with a rated power input of more than 5 kVA and all X-ray equipment (even with a rated ower input of less than 5 LVA) shall be protected 1 y provision Pd. Electrical equipment such as general lighting, more than 2.5 m above floor level. may be connected directly to the sup’ply mains. 6.1.6.6 General requiremenrs ./or insulorion mohiroring devices - A separate insulation resistance or impedance monitoring device shall be provided for each secondary system. It shall comply with the requirements given below: a) It shall not be possible to render such a device inoperative by a switch. It shall indicate visibly and audibly if the resistance or impedance of the insulation falls below the value given Gn 6.1.6.7 and 6.1.6.8. The arrangement may be provided with a stopbutton for the audible indication only.

cl The visible indication mentioned in (a) of
the insulation monitoring device shall be visible in the monitored room or room group.

d)

The insulation monitoring device should be connected symmetrically to the secondary circuit of the transformer.

6. I .6.7 lnsulorion resi.wonc*e monitoring device-The ac resistance of ,an insulation resistance monitoring device shall be at least 100 kR The measuring voltage of the monitoring device shall be dc exceeding 25 V. and the measuring current (in case of a short circuit of an cxtcrnal conductor to earth) shall not exceed I mA. The alarm shall operate if the resistance bctwccn the monitored isolated circuit and earth is 50 kfI or less. setting to a higher value is recommended. impedance m o n i t o r i n g 6. I .6.8 lnsulolion device - An insulation impedance monitoring device shall give readings calibrated in total hazard current with the value of 2 mA near the centre of the meter scale. The device shall not fail to alarm for total hazard currents in excess of 2 mA. In no case. however. shall the alarm be activated until the fault hazard current exceeds 0.7 mA.
N O T E - T h e v a l u e s o f 2 mA or 0.7 mA a r e b a s e d o n practical experience with I10 IO I20 V power supplies. For a 220-240 V power supply it may be necessary IO in’crease these values to 4 mA and 1.4 mA because of the higher leakage current of equipment.

During the checking of the response of the monitor to a fault condition the impedance between the medical IT-system and earth shall not decrease. 6. I .7 Pro vision Pf. : Medical Elecrricol Seporor ion lndividuol

6.1.7.0 Individual electrical separation of a circuit is intended to prevent shock currents through contact with exposed conductive parts Which muy be energized by a fault in the basic insulation. 6.1.7.1 The source of supply. shall be a medical isolating transformer. 6.1.7.2 Only one item of equipment shall be connected to one source of supply. 6.1.73 The voltage of the secondary circuit shall not exceed 250 V. 6.1.7.4 Live parts of the separated circuit shall not be connected at any point to any other circuit or to earth. 6.1.75 To avoid the risk of a fault to earth, particular attention shall be paid to the insulation of such circuits from earth. especially for flexible cables and cords.
NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE

b) A test button shall be provided to enable 136

2 The main supply. medical safety extra-low voltage circuits shall be insulated.8. for the highest voltage present. 6. *Code of practice for design.8.2. individually or collectively. and b) Socket-outlets shall not have a protective conductor contact.6 In corridors and spaces accessible to public provisions shall be made for lighted signs. 6. or b) protective conductors or exposed conductive parts of another system.1. conductors shall preferably be brought into the building underground to reduce the possibility . 6. auxiliary switches and any part of a circuit with . 6.1. or where electrical equipment is inherently required to be connected to extraneous conductive parts.2 All panel boards and switchboards shall preferably be of dead front type. : Medical Sqfkts Errra-Low Vu/rage ( M S E L V ) 6. The lighting points shall be so grouped so that minimum lighting may be switched on during night time. etc.8.8.3 Circuit-breakers are preferred to switchfuse units in power and lighting feeders.8 Pt-m*isiorl P.of interruption of power supply.In he above arranBcments.7.4 Inside the wards only silent type waH mounted switches should be used to reduce noise.1. 6.2 A supply transformer for medical safety extra-low voltage shall comply with relevant Indian Standards. a) earth.Sec I I of the Code shall apply. d Where circuits at different voltages a r e contained in a multi-conductor cable or other grouping of conductors.7.4.4 Live parts at medical safety extra-low voltage shall not be connected to live parts or protective conductors forming part of other circuits or to earth.6 Flexible cables and cords shall be visible throughout any part of their length where they are liable to mechanical damage.1 The general design of wiring shall conform to Part I /Set I I of the Code.2. 6. Arrangements shall ensure electrical separation not less than required between the input and output of a medical safety extra-low voltage transformer. enclosed in metal cabinet.83 A source of medical safety extra-low voltage other than .6 Live parts of circuits at medical safety extra-low voltage shall be electrically separated from other circuits.4.3 Feeders-The general provisions laid down in Part I . 6.5 Separate circuits shall be provided for Xray. electrical separation not less than that provided between the input and output windings of a medical safety extra-low voltage transformer shall be provided between the live parts of electrical equipment such as relays. electrocardiograph. 6. conductors.2.8.1.2.1.7 Special convenience outlets in corridors spaced about I2 m apart are desirable for portable treatment equipment and cleaning machines. shall either be physically separated from those of any other circuit or where this is impracticable.1. cannot attain a voltage exceeding medtcal safety extra-low voltage.oltagc.7 Medical safety extra-low voltage circuit conductors.1.8.2 Wiring 6. electrotherapy.8 Plugs and socket-outlets shall comply with the following requirements: a) Supply systems ot different voltages or different kinds or nature shall not have interchangeable plugs and sockets. In particular. one of the following arrangements is required: a) Medical safety extra-low voltage circuit conductors shall be enclosed in a nonmetallic sheath additional to their basic insulation.1 The general provisions laid down in IS : 806l-1976* shall apply. 6.1. 6. installation and maintenance of service lines up IO and including 650 V.4 Service Lines 6.8. 6.I higher \.2. All conductors shall be physically separated from those of other circuits. 6. 6. PART 3 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN NON-INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS 137 . b) Conductors of circuits at different voltages shall he separated by an earthed metallic screen or an earthed metallic sheath.5 Exposed conductive parts shall not intentionally be connected to: NOTI+. 6. it is ensured that those parts. all locks should be keyed alike. Advjce of equipment manufacturers shall also be sought in their installation. 6.1.2.7.8. Switchboard and panel boards shall be installed in non-hazardous locations. diathermy. Where locked cabinets are provided.1 Medical safety extra-low voltage shall not exceed 25 V ac or 60 V dc peak value.1. basr-insulation of any conducto-r should comply only with the requimments for the voltage of the circuit of which :t is a part.a transformer shall have at least the same separation and insulation to other circuits and earth as required for the transformer under 6.6.1. 6. 6. 6.2. 6. c) extraneous conductive parts except that.1.2.

REQUIREMENTS 7. with tubes for combustion supporting gases. FOR HAZARDOUS LOCATIONS IN HOSPlTALS ADDITIONAL 7.2 The location and layout of building substation shall conform to the general rules laid down in Part 2 of the Code.1. Sufficient care shall be taken to ensure that the supply to such motors is maintained properly. . The wiring for fire-fighting systems shall be segregated *National Building Code. the fire-fighting pump motors are generally large and they draw heavy current.Where electrical equipment contains pipes or tubes of combustion supporting gases. 6. Effective ventilation and the application . for example in a common conduit for channel.roduct of the no-load voltage in volts and the short-circuit current in ahtperes does not exceed IO.6. The gas-flow shall not be directed towards such electrical components. in normal use or in case of a fault.5.1 While calculatin the power requirement. Emergency and standby -power-supply needs of hospital buildings shall also be taken into account in designing the building substation.3 For guidelines on selection of fire detectors. C2 (custodial institution) and C3 (panel institutions .6. T h e g a s .6.5 Euilding Substation 65.ro~nta\h~ospitals.6. For high-rise buildings.dtttoning Sterilizer kKdv Ekctromcdical installations and other loads (3) 4 6. Electrical wiring shall only be allowed to be run in a .haII be electrically conducting and shall be connected to the protective earth busbar. 6. The additional rules given below shall apply.fo. 6.2 In hospitals and similar buildings. If the load demand is high voltaT high 2 * * sugPlY at aceommrr X:. I3g e) Where electrical leads are close to a pipeline guiding ignitable gases or oxygen. b) cl P~.A~7~:’ Power R EQUIREMENT (2) Pcrcclit 5 (1) Lgtrting. 6. 6. the diversity factor for different electrical appliances and installations shall be considered. besides fire-fighting equipment manually operated electrical fire alarm system and automatic firealarm system shall be provided.7 Fire-Protection . The effectiveness of a ventilation:system may be subjected to National Regulations. fulfilled gas-tight separation shall be provided between the electrical wiring and the tubes for gases.t i g h t s e p a r a t i o n s. Reference should be made to SP : 7-1983* for guidelines for fire-protection of buildings. If the requirements in (c) cannot be.es reference values of power requirement and drversity factor for the different parts in a hospital installation. the anaesthetists working-place and the operating table.~XI.to reduce risk of damage to them in the case of fire.Bof su station eauipment will e required.5. These measures include mainly the use of antistatic flooring.OGeneral. For guidance. such as oxygen or nitrous oxide. and similar buildings) fire-safety classification point of view.0 General.6.1 Provision A : Explosion and Fire Protection 7. -6.6 System Protection 6. Table 4 giv. a shortcircuit of these leads or a short-circuit of one lead with a metal duct or pipeline shall not result in a temperature which may cause ignition.The design of power supply for hospital and similar buildings shall take into account the concentration of power demand for the various electrical loads. Restricted paging system arrangement with sound alarm/ indicators in the duty rooms/nurses rooms shall be made. see Appendix B of SP : 7-1983*. &. could generate sparks.common enclosure.of a suction system on anaesthesia equipment assists in reducing llammable concentrations of flammable anaesthetic mixtures in the patient environment.The general rules for protection for safety laid down in Part I of the Code shall apply. the following additional requirements apply: 4 Gas outlets shall be located at least 20 cm away from electrical components which. TARLE 4 POWER REQUIREMENT PART OF EL~C:CTRICAL INSTALLATION from other wiring.1 The type of buildings covered in this section fall under Group Cl (hospitals and sanatoria). The main supply point shall be located in the main building of the hospital.We. such as oxygen or nitrous oxide if in the relevant circuit the p. NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE b) .~N D. special measures to avoid ignitions and fire are necessary.1 Explosion Protection : General a) When the administration of flammable anaesthetic atmospheres or flammable anaesthetics or flammable cleaning and/or disinfection agents with air or oxygen and nitrous oxide is intended..

Guide for contrdl of undesirable static electricity.3 O c c u p a n t L o a d . 8. Where antistatic floors are used in cotijunction with non-antistatic floors marking should be provided. N O T E . I.The outline dimensions of .pe qf Lift . are given in TARLE S R E C O M M E N D E D VALUES OF ILLU- MINATION AND LIMITING GLARE INDEX (Clouw 8. switches. (2) a) Receptioo and waiting !i? I50 loo IS0 I6 13.2 Air-Conditioning . e) Mains plug connections. PART 3 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN NON-INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS I39 .2. 8.3.3 If floors of low resistance (< 50 kR) are used. No.The fact that during the lifetime of the floor the resistance may change should be taken into consideration. 8. The resistance of teraz7o floors increases. . which may cause ignition shall be kept outside zones of risk. a r e under consideration.IS gross area in m* per person. tSpecial local lighting required over kitchen equipment. I) SL BUlLDtNCS Zones of risk exist only when flammable anaesthetics or flammable cleaning and/or disinfection agents are used. Provision shall be made to induct fresh air to avoid entry of explosive gases from one room ‘to another. (1) I.1 Antistatic floors shall be used in rooms where zones of risk occur. rooms b) Wards i) General ii) Beds c) Operating thcatrcs/ Dental surgeries i) General ii) Tables/chairs 7.5 .1 The general rules laid down in Part I/Set I4 of the Code shall apply.The-provisions of Part I Set I4 of the Code shall apply.’ BUILDING SERVICES (SQQ Part 3iSec 2 of the Code) 2oot 25 *Care shall be taken to screen all bright light and areas from view of patients in bed. to zones of risk in operating theatres or other anaesthetic rooms.For the types o f ‘Gldings covered in this Section.1. lighting fittings and the general lighting design together with the power requirement shall be planned based on the recommended values of illumination and glare index given in Table 5.2. 8.These shall be as follows: T.’ hospitals lifts shall conform to those laid down in Table 3 of IS : 3534-l976* 8. despatch 4. the occupant load expressed . drying b) Dry-cleaning.75 0.d Limits of zones of risk Appendix A. 5. shall be 15. The choice of lamps. pressing. while that of PVC floors decreases with time.3. 8.2 Di&nsions . 8.3. However. 7.5 to 0. bulk machine work c) Ironing. sorting.25 Hospital bed Ilfts Short travel lifts in small hospitals Normal Long travel lifts in general hospitals OK5 *Outline dimensions.0. d) Laboratories e) Radiology department 1) Casualty and outpatient department g) Stairs. Hospitals ILLUMINATION LIMITING GLARE INDEX (4) 4 Requirements on construction. Hospital passenger No. mending. washing.1 The general rules laid down in Part I /Set -14 of the Code shall apply. Provisions Ps and/or Ps shall be used to ‘effectively limit the effects of fault currents.2. spotting.4 Car Speed .1 Lighting 8.3 Lifts 8. corridors h) Dispensaries Doctors S Surgeries a) Consulting rooms b) Corridors c) Sight testing (acuity) wall charts and near vision types bundries/ Dry-Ck=aning Works a) Receiving. which should be described in the application code.2 Antistatic Floor 7. for electric lifts (firsr rivision).2 The resistance of an antistatic floor shall not exceed 25 MR at any time during the lifetime of the floor when measured according to IS : 7689-1974t. Allocation of equipment of the categories AP or APG. marking and documentation of medical electrical equipment of category AP or APG are given in IS : 8607 (Part I)-1978*. Kirchens ( Sgial lighting) 300 I: :: I50 70 450 200 200 300 25 25 25 7. qf Floors Car Speed Served mfsec 13-20 I(ft 4-5 - Above I. the design of lifts in hospitals and similar buildings shall be made taking into account the criteria given below *General and safety requirements for electrical equipmenl used in medical practice: Part I General. power distribution boxes and similar devices.3.

10. 10.1.2.2 Operation of a special safety supply system shall not impair the function of protective measures. e) Testing of the general safety supply system.3. 10.23 Common Recommendations for the Provisions EI and Ez.2. in particular breathing equipment.1 Provision GE : Standby and Safety Supply System medical for systems 10.2.1.6 may be connected to it. or equipment for resuscitation.5 Position .A special safety supply system shall automatically take over the load within I5 seconds after a failure of the power supply at the medical establishment containing life-supporting equipment. 0 Testing.1. Return to normal power supply should be delayed.2. Medium Break 10.1.1.2 Operation of at least one operating lamp shall be resumed after a switchover time not exceeding 0.2 Provisions EI and EI : Special Safety Supply 10.1 The various tests on the installation shall be elapsed during which the system voltage has dropped below 90 V of the nominal value. 10. 10.3.2.3 Where the rating of the special safety supply system issufficient the circuits of a medical IT-system according to 6.83.2 All medical establishments containing lifelsupporting equipment shall be provided with a safety supply system.5 All parts of essential circuits shall be 10.1 Provision EI : Special Sqfet.1. b) Testing of the resistance of protective conductors and of the qquipotential bonding.1. STANDBY.l* Supp!~* System. of supplying a limited amount of lighting and power service which is considered essential for safety. 10. and 10.It is convenient to position the hospital passenger lifts near the staircases.1..2.5 second and operartion shall be maintained tor at least 3 hours. SAFETY AND SPECIAL SAFETY SUPPLY SYSTEM 10.1. 4 Testing of the insulation resistance between live conductors and earth in each separately fused circuit. Systeq carried out as laid down in Part I /Set IO of the Code.2.2 The initial testing of the installation shall-also include: a) Testing of the effectiveness of protective measures (provisions PO to P7).1.9 To prevent simultaneous damage.8 The taking-over procedure shall not start earlier than after a period of 2 seconds has 10.1 .2. marked. via a-battery with inverter or via a motor driven generator.2.5 second after a failure of the power supply at the operating lamp. TESTING OF INSTALLATION 9. 9.1.1 A special safety supply system shall automatically take over the load within 0. 10.d socket outlets shall be marked clearly as such.2 Provision EZ : Special Sqfety Supp!~ System.ple. 10. For diesel-generators the delay should be at least 30 minutes. There shall be sufficient space near the landing door for easy movement of stretcher/trolley. within I5 seconds and to maintain operation for a period of 3 hours subsequently.1. At least the load which require continuity of supply shall be connected to the special supply system.7 A safety supply system shall be capable of automatically taking over the load of essential circuits in the event of a failure of the normal power supply.1. 10. and shall be completed within 15 seconds after the starting of the taking-over procedure.1. life support and basic hospital operation during the time the normal electrical service is interrupted (see also Appendix E).3 Essential circuits shall provide facilities for charging batteries of a special safety supply system.2. 10. 4 Testing of the resistance of antistatic floors. 10. Hospital bed lifts shall be situated conveniently near the ward and operating theatre enterances.4 Operation of a safety supply system shall not impair the function of protective measures. Short Break 10. of the special safety supply system.6 An example of safety supply systems of a hospital is given in Appendix F 10. for exam.2.4 Where not all socket outlets in a medically used room are connectled to the special safety supply system the c0nnecte. 10. 10.1 The rated power of the source of a special safety supply system shall not be less than required by the connected functions. For diesel-generators the requirements of 10. NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE .2. the main feeders for the safety supply system shall be segregated from the normal system wherever possible.1 Electrical establishments shall comprise essential circuits capable.8 shall apply. 9.1. 10.2 It shall be possible to resume operation of equipment for maintaining important body functions.

4 Measures Against Interference from Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Fields 11. ECG.starting from the fully charged conditions. floor and ceiling of the rooms concerned should be screened by means of metal shielding of cables or by metal conduits for cables and wiring. 10. In practice the following values of magnetic.2 Metal enclosures or parts of enclosures of fixed.0 Powerful radio frequency fields may cause interference in sensitive electromedical equipment. 11.2. 11.3. 11. Such rooms are: a) rooms intended for measurement of bioelectric potentials (EEG.1. it is possible to discharge continuously during 3 hours at nominal output. W h e n bar systems or separated single cables are used.4. for ECG recording.3.3 Measures Against Interference Caused by Mains-Induced Magnetic Fields 11. i 1.1 Measures Against AC Interference 11.the charging circuit of a special safetv supply system from the safety supply system. b) intensive examination rooms.7 Automatic means shall be provided to keep batteries optimally charged. either 3. field strength have been found to be sufficiently low to avoid magnetic interferance: 4 X lO’T.Ballasts incorporated in fluorescent lamp fittings generate an alternating magnetic field. 11. for . 11.3 Where adequate measures according to 11.3.2 Sufficient distance should be provided when installing units with strong stray magnetic fields such as transformers and motors. e) angiographic examination rooms.2.1 The electrical wiring on both sides of or inside walls.. 11.10.1 cannot be applied and ECG and EEG monitoring is to be undertaken. 11.4. NOTE . N OTE--. will. Suggested minimum distances are: Conductor CrossSectional Area Distance.2.3.5 The special safety supply ‘system source shall be located outside the medically used rooms.3. The distance should be 3 m or more. and kakage currents will cause alternating magnetic fields’in the vicinity of power cables.2.9 It’ shall be possible to supply . and subsequently to rechange during 6 hours after which it shall be possible to discharge once more for 3 hours under the conditions mentioned above. 10. so that physical damage to the cables connecting the source to the distribution point is unlikelv. 0 operating theatres.2 Measures Against Interference Caused by Mains-Induced Electric Fields 11.3.1 Normally such fields exist only where short-wave diathermy or surgical diathermy 141 PART 3 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN NON-INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS . MEASURES AGAINST INTERFERENCE: PROVISION I 11.1 It is recommended to provide sufficient distance between electrical components and equipment which may.2. cause magnetic interference and the place for the examination of patients.EEG recording.8 The charging device shall be designed so that. 10. 10.3. it is recommended to shield the room or a part of the room against electric fields by installing a room screening within the wall structure.1 In rooms where measurements of bioelectric potentials are performed measures against interference in the room and in the surrounding area should be effected if such interference may cause incorrect measurements. so that the special safety supply system batteries can be charged even during a failure of the normal power supply.2. In some cases it may be necessary to remove ballasts of a certain type from the lighting fitting and to mount them at sufficient distance. N OTE 2 -The values apply only to twisted cables.2.6 Operation of the special safety supply system shall be indicated by visual means in all rooms concerned. have a negligible external field if _the load is correctly distributed between phase or between phase and neutral but in practice faults between neutral and earth or incorrectly distributed loads between lines and neutral. This applies also to the isolating transformer of provision Ps. Min IO to 70 mm2 95 to I85 mm2 240 mm2 N OTE I -Cables.2.2. to the equipotential bonding system. and single phase or three phase.2. If such metal shielding is applied it should be connected to protective earth at one point only. 10. etc). c) intensive care and monitoring rooms. 11. and 2 X lO’T.It is recommended to provide additionally a total load indicator in each room connected to the same special safety supply system..m 6 m 29 m d) catheterization rooms.3.4 Frequency deviations shall be less than I percent for periods of time exceeding 5 seconds.3 The rooms listed in 11. those on the ceiling of: the room immediately below the examination room are the ones most likely to cause interference.3. and permanently installed electrical equipment of Class 11 and Ill (such as of lighting fittings) should be connected. 10.3.1 should not have large power cables passing through or adjacent to them. if possible close to the relevant distribution point. the distances may have to be substantially larger.3 Voltage deviations under normal conditions shall be less than IO percent for periods of time exceeding 5 seconds.

2 Nurses call system may also be of the intercommunicating type with a microphone and loudspeaker at the bed connected to the nurses’ station. clinics on which doctors’ numbers can be sounded or the flasher type which indicates the doctors’.T h e nurses c a l l system should be a wired electrical system whereby patients may signal for a nurse from the bed site.control panel operator sends.2 and 11. The following are the important call and signal system: . Nois . N~TE-T~~ construction of such a screened room should be entrusted to a s cialist. untility room and floor pantry of the nursing unit. second for ‘i?lurse Present’.this may consist of loudspeakers located throughout the hospital. a) Nurses call.1. 12. that the electric and magnetic fields will interfere with the recording of bioelectric potentials. nurses’ station to indicate the direction from which the call came are desirable for the latter arrangement.1 For emergency call of nurse by the patient when he/she is inside a bath or watercloset. The same number of numerals at least three.5 Electric Heating Cables 11. il. Each indicating panel should have a number of small lamps according to the number of beds.1. First for.7.1 Nrirses’ Cd Sysrem . If ‘the measures described here are not sufficiently effective it may be necessary to use sensitive equipment with a screened room.2.It is recommended that electrtcal call and signal system should be provided in all hospitals so that patients may receive prompt servia and the doctors. message to the doctor for that particular bed. The flasher system. b) Doctors’ paging. this system should include all the features described in 12.51 Electric heating cables of any type should not be used in rooms where’ bioelectric potentials are recorded. It does not apply to removable appliances which may be mounted on the surface of walls. admintstrators. The’ telephone operator may set the board to flash as many as three doctors’ numbers automatically in rotation. 12. suitable pull cord switches shall be provided inside bath and water-closet.consists of a keyboard and flasher at the telephone switchboard. 12.1 These paging systems could be used for calling interns.which the call orginated.rmy equipment with a low modulation ~ . It simultaneously lights a dome light over the door of the room_from_.Due to the construction of such heating cables it is very likety. 12. The signal at the nurses station may be in the form of an annunciator with a buzzer or a single light with a buzzer.0 The following requirement applies to electric heating cables embedded in or attached to surfaces in buildings.1. After reaching the bed site the nurse presses the ‘Nurse Present’ button which gives an indication to operator at the central control panel that the nurse is available near the particular bed.1.1. These switches when operating will give an indication at the central control panel from where intimation to nurse can be sent. NOTE . b) A central control panel should be set up preferably on the ground floor incorporating a set of indicating panels according to the number of wards. An attenuation of 40 dB over the frequency range I5” kHz to 30 MHz is considered to be 0 adequate.f. MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS 12. rejection circuits in sensitive equrpment and the use of short-wave c&!~.1. ‘Calling Nurses’. should be used for each doctor so that a burnt out lamp may be located. These flashers may also be used for other general calls such as ‘fire’ with a red ‘F’ and buzzer.1.1. At each bed there could be 4 push buttons. The simplest measure against such interference is to locate uipment’which causes it kell away from areas “xere sensitive equipment is used. When any patient presses the push button the indication is at the central control room from where intimation to nurses can be sent. and ’ c) In-and-out register.0 Electrical call and signal system when provided in hospitals should comply with the requirements given in 12.1.1 for the one-way signal system in addition to the intercommunicating features. The loudspeaker and other audible calls should not be used as they may disturb the patients and attendants.i. numbers. For maximum benefit and service. the nurse presses the resetting button which puts the whole equipment to the original condition.1 Call Systems 12. *<2. Appropriate measures according to 11. The NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 12.2 Doctors Paging Sysrem . The patient can signal for a nurse or speak to her and receive an answer.1..equipment is used and close to transmitting aerials used for such purposes as staff location and amb(ulance communications. After attending the patient. heads of departments and their assistants and engineers. nurses and attendants may work more efficiently.l to 12. The number appear on annunciators located in all sections of the corridors. third for ‘Setting Combination’ and fourth for ‘Call for Doctor’.. Two types of systems are recommended: a) A simple one-way’signal system which connects the bed side call stations with a signal at the nurses’ station. Additional w measures are t* inclusion of r.3 should be taken. 11. Two or more lights in the ceiling’of the corridor at the 142 . If the patient needs further help of a doctor then the nurse again presses the fourth push button and the central.5.

main lobby. laundry. nurses’ station.The doctors’*inand-out register permits the doctor to register ‘IN’ and ‘OUT’ with the minimum of effort and delay.2. operating and delivering suites. controlled at the telephone switchboard. operates a switch opposite his name which indicates whether or not he is in the building. 1 2 .1 The list of other special circuits in installations in hospitals are given below: a) Closed-circuit television in surgery department (for teaching purposes). Call back systems are used for nurses’ and interns’ bedrooms: With such system the nurses and interns can be awakened.2 Telephones 12. that is. and d) Luminous signs.3 VHF Paging System -This system consists of a low powered transmitting station from which calls are broadcast throughout the hospital to miniature receiving sets which the doctors and others may carry in their pockets.ATIONS IN NON-INDl:STRIAL BlMJ. heads of departments and doctors may congregate. at one or more entrances. doctors’ rooms. For this reason the flasher system should be supplemented with loudspeakers at points where interns.DINCS 143 . 12. ultraviolet rays or sterile ray lamps in ceilings of operating and delivery rooms around the operating light. any ty. These may be connected on a d i a l s y s t e m w h i c h p e r m i t s i n t e r n a l communication through the hospital switchboard without the assistance of the operato.0 Interconnecting telephones should be provided for all heads of departments. The switch controls a light at or back of the name on all boards connected in the system.5 m from the floor as anaesthetic gases are heavier than air and gravitate to the floor.flasher call system has its shortcomings as the individual may fail to see the numbers when flashed. to reduce the bacteria count. housekeeper. having a motor driven interruptor.2.2.4 In-and-Out Register . The general guidance provided in Part I iSec I4 of the Code shall apply.1. The main office buzzers may be connected through a selector switch so that serial rooms or sections may be called by one button. 12. in doctors’ lounge.1 Except in very small hospitals.l-. kitchen. The room called can answer by pushing a b u t t o n w h i c h r e g i s t e r s o n a n annunciator in the office. staff dining room. concealed wiring should be provided to avoid risk of contamination. on which all staff doctor.pe of general wiring may be acceptable.1. laboratory and engineers’ office and such other areas where the calls may not disturb the patients. In other places. assistants.< TRIC’. This flasher unit. The clocks should be of the recessed type. offices.1. Clocks in operating and delivery rooms should have sweep second hands. f’AR1 3 b:l.At all special and important beds. or called to the telephone by push-buttons in the office which operate buzzers in the rooms. 3 C l o c k s ~~ Electric clock system whet? provided. should have clocks at nurses’ stations. telephone switchboard. telepholie jacks should be installed so that a telephone may be plugged in any time. called for duty. 12.2 The concealed wiring and switch-socket outlets in the operation theatres shall be kept at a minimum height of 1. record rooms and diet kitchens. it is recommended to install register system with a board at two or more entrances and at the telephone switchboard. preferably with a narrow frame. and attracts the attention of doctor upon entering or leaving the building. b) Television sets in wards. Such a system should include a recall feature which consists of a flasher unit. dining room and boiler room. 12.4. The register consists of a board. 12. cl Short-wave. INSTALI. will actuate a flashing light at the doctors’ name on all register boards which indicates there is a massage for the doctors. 12. upon entering or leaving.1 In case of operation theatre and rooms where surgical operations and dressing is done.\I.4. 12. as well as in the operating and delivery rooms.4 Other Special Installations 12.

gases (for example. Anaesthesia apparatus. Equipment. Ventilation syste’m. 4. Exhaust ventilation system.1. IO. oxygen).2 and 7. 2. Ceiling outlet with sockets for electric power. 6.APPENDIX A (Clauses 2. 9. Parts unprotected and likely to the broken. . Additional Zone M due to use of flammable disinfection and/or cleaning agents. 3.1) ZONE OF RISK IN THE OPERATING THEATRE WHEN USING FLAMMABLE ANAESTHETIC MIXTURES OF ANAESTHETIC GASES AND CLEANING AGENTS ZONE G ZONE M Legend I. 7. Operation lamp. 144 NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE . 8. vacuum and exhaust ventilation system for medical electrical equipment. 5. I I. Exhaust system for anaesthesia gases. Operating table. Foot switch.

__ 1 0 2 0 w--w* / . I \ \ I \ \ \ l \ --.1.4) PATIENT ENVIRONMENT / / / /-----------.I’ A’ OPERATION TABLE MEDICAL ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT PART 3 ELECTRICAL INSrALLATIONS IN NON-INDUSTRIAL BUlLDINGS 145' .1 1.3. ‘\ a. 6.3.A P P E N D I X B (Clauses 2.2(b) and 6.1.

Lightning protective system 20. Joint Water meter 1? Gas meter 17: Waste water 18. Main distribution board 2 7 13.1. From public electric power system L2. Insulation monitoring device .outlet 12. IO. Socket . . L = = EC PE Phase conductors Neutral conductors = Bonding conductor = Protective conductor NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 146 .4) C EXAMPLE OF AN ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION IN A MEDICAL ESTABLISHMENT a L e g e n d Heating popes :: Water supply Gas supply Distribution board 5. Earth electrode 19. Main earthing bar 14.system for Operation Theatre 9. General ward Hospital bed Heating and water pipes 8: Medical IT. Medical tsolatmg transtormer 1 I.APPENDIX (Clause 5.

6. Ampere meter for special safety supply system 19..APPENDIX D (Clause 6. El Central heating Metal. Red 29. Residual-current protective device 22. Stopbutton for buzzer 31. EZ Special safety supply system.. distribution board) Distribution of the floor Operating thea!re distribution panel Safety supply system Medical isolating transformer Insulation monitoring device Special safety supply system. 16.1) SCHEMATIC PRES E NT A T I O N 0~ PROTECTIVE CONDUCTORS AND EQUIPOTENTIAL BONDING IN OPERATING THEATRES. Green 28. Lz. Operating lamp 18. enclosure connected to the protective conductor bar) Alarm device for the insulation monitoring device (example) Operating tabte (electrically driven) 17. Feeder from the main service entrance (main :. Testbutton = Protective conductor = Equipotential bonding L. Sterilizer 21. 15. Protective conductor bar 23.4. Buzzer 30.: Operation Warning . 7. Equipotential conductor bar Terminals for equipotential bonding :.window-frame Metal cabinet for instruments Metal washing-basin and water supply Ceiling stand with outlets for gas supply Ceiling stand with mains socket outlets (with terminals for equipotential bonding. 14.. 4: 5. t: L3 PE .-. 98.---i !P j’ Legend 1.1. L3 = Phase conductors = Neutral conductor N 147 PART 3 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN NON-INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS . X-ray equipment 20. 10: 1':: 13.

In some medically used rooms a special safety supply system should be provided additionally. however. sufficient properly reduced stanqard of lighting. ESSENTIAL SERVICES . Even in these areas. In some instances. for a relatively short time if the mains supply or the safety supply system fails or the switch-over time cannot be tolerated. trolleys.1 This appendix contains recommendations for the design of the safety supply system in medical establishme. CODE . External emergency lighting will normally be restricted to the accident and emergency entrance areas.. it is necessary to provide for continuity of power supply for vital services at all times. operating table lighting in operating suites. The safety supply system is intended to supply electrical energy for a longer period of time to essential circuits of the medical establishment if the mains supply fails by external causes. for about half the normal standard. Therefore. that is. TABLE 6 EMERGENCY ( C/OUSP E-I . etc.3 Three grades of emergency lighting are suggested. As a general guide. It supplies life supporting equipment and the operating table lighting for 3 hours only. considerable reduction in the general lighting may be acceptable. and Priority is given to all aspects ensuring safe working conditions in medically used rooms. for example. at entrances and exits. E-l.4 Table 6 is intended as a general guide. Emergency lighting may be needed in areas not mentioned in the table. and in corridors used by members of the public. E-1. Levels for Grades A. Safety lighting should also be provided in public waiting spaces. ambulance staff.LIGHTING E-l. I) SAFETY SUPPLY SYSTEMS E-O. B and C are under consideration.which require a higher standard of lighting.2 No general recommendations can be made for the emergency lighting arrsngements for stairs and corridors as needs will differ considerably according to the design and size of the hospital. Ample socket-outlets connected to essential circuits should be available to enable portable lighting fittings to be used for any tasks outside the critical working area. c) Grade C safety lighting of a m&h reduced standard but sufficient to allow the free movement of persons. 1. etc. namely: a) Grade A lighting of intensity and quality equal or nearly equal to that provided under 148 Critical working area Grade A General working areas Grade B General working areas Grade B Circulating areas Grade C Essential working areas Blood bank Transfusion laboratory Grade B Grade A Grade A Diagnostic X-ray department General working area Grade H (where portable X-ray machines may be used) Circulation areas Grade C Treatment areas Public circulatmg areas Dispensing areas Laboratory Grade A Grade C Grade B Grade B Radiotherapy department Pharmacy (Conrrnued) NATIONAL ELECTRICAL.APPENDIX E (Clause JO. to enable essential activities to be carried out. Interruption of normal electrical service in medical establishments may cause hazardous situations. normal supply condition& b) Grade B example.nts. E-l.4) LIGHTING D EPARTMENT OR ARkA LO<‘ATION GRADt OF LIGIITING Major Operating Sires Operating theatre Critical working Operating theatre General working Anaesthetic rooms General working General working Post operative Circulating areas Intensive care room Deliver. and the crItIcal working areas in the delivery room and recovery rooms. safety lighting should be provided to enable essential movement of staff and patients to be carried out in reasonable safety. GENERAL E-0.1 Essential lighting requirements will vary considerably in different locations. Suites Delivery rooms area area area area Grade Grade Grade Grade Grade A B A A C Crltical working area Grade A Grade B Other nursing areas Circulating areas Grade C Awidenr and fher~enc~~ Deparrmmrs Operating theatres Critical working area Grade A Critical working area Grade A lntenslve care General working areas Grade B rooms Circulating areas Grade C Our-Parlmr L~epartnwnt Operating theatres Treatment rooms Consulting rooms Pathological department E-1. the degree and quality of emergency lighting should be approximately equal to that of the normal lighting. depending on the importance and nature of the work.

rocking beds. to enable either of the plants to be connected to the emergency service. Nevertheless. E-2.essential for clinical reasons. where the number of beds exceeds 4. E-2. Pathology laboratories - Wards where essential equipment such as suction apparatus will be used Grade C Grade C Grade C No~t -~ It is reasonable to assume that only essential equtpment ~111 be used in these areas during periods of power failure.5 Motors of surgical suction plant should be connected to an essential circuit.2 Socket outlets’in operating rooms for the connection of X-ray . should be provided. ( Ckruw E-I .7 Any mains-energized alarm and control circuits should be so arranged that they are 149 Essential working areas Grade B E-2.are connected to the Essentral Circuits provide the most convenient choice of sockets outlets at any time. socket-outlets connected to at least two separate sub-circuits are available.1 Socket-outlets should be so distributed that in each area where essential equipment will be used. Operating suites Grade B Grade B Intensive care room and operating rooms in accident and emergency department Delivery rooms Post-anaesthetic recovery rooms Intensive therapy units Radiological diagnostic room Ward accommodation set aside for patients dependent on electrically driven equipment.4 Blood banks and other clinical refrigerators are usually equipped with temperature retaining facilities which will satisfactorily sefeguard against power failures of several hours’ duration. artificial kidney machines. Table 7 is intended as a general guide. respirators. Grade C _~ Working area Grade C Grade B E-2. following an interruption of supply. I) NUMBER O F SOCKET O UTLETS CONNEVTED TO E SSENT IAL Cm-rrm (see N OTE) All All AREA G RADE OF L IGHTING Grade A DEPARTMENT Wurd Areas Intensive therapy units intensive nursing area Other nursing areas Nurses’ station or duty room area area area area. Special baby care units Special.should be supplied from an essential circuit. ESSENTIAL CIRCUITSSOCKET-OUTLETS E-2.3 Electrical services. and to simplify installation. E-2. they shall be supplied from an essential circuit. however. etc. Changeover switches. pro rata. for example. E-2. including automatic controls. The recommendation that all sockets. Where ventilation requirements are met by duplicate plants it will usually only be necessary for one of the plants to be supplied from the emergency source. E-2. &by Core Units General working Nurseries Psychiatric wards General working Treatment rooms General working General working Other nursing areas Grade B Grade B Grade A Grade C (nightlighting) All All All All All Cenrrol Sterile Sup&l General working area Grade B Deperrmenr Elepphone Exhnges Essential working area Grade B Operattws Robm Li/rS Lift cars Entrance and efiit of elevators General Circulating A rea3 Public entrances and exits Corridors and staircases forming recognized means of escape Corridors and circulating spaces of deep planned designs Assemb!v Areas Assembly rooms and associated exits Public waiting space Plant rooms housing essential plant Kitchens Grade A Grade A Grade B Ail 2 2 sockets outlets for wards containing I to 4 beds and. which are essential for the safe operation of sterilizing equipment in operating theatre and the central sterile supply department should be supplied from an essential circuit. PART 3 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN NON-INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS .4) D EPARTMENT L OCATION OR TABLE 7 SOCKET-OUTLETS IN ESSENTIAL CIRCUITS (Clause E-2. thus ensuring air supplies of approximately 50 percent of the normal rate.equipment for fluoroscopy .6 Safety supply systems for facilities for ventilation and air-conditioning purposes will usually apply only to plants which serve areas which are entirely dependent on mechanical ventilation and have no facilities for natural ventilation or where mechanical ventilation services are.TABLE 6 EMERGENCY LIGHTING-Conrd. It is desirable that the motors should be so arranged that once they are switched on they will restart automatically.

E-3. 150 NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE .3 Where electrically operated pumps are used to maintain essential water supplies (including that for fire fighting purposes) it will be nec’essary to make suitable arrangements for the pumps to be connected to the safety supply system. E-3.8 In biochemical laboratories and in the pharmacy about 50 percent of the normal load should be supplied from essential circuits. E-3. Suitable manually-operated switching arrangements should be provided to enable the general safety supply system to be switched from the emergency lift to each of the other lifts in turn to eliminate the possibility of occupants being trapped in the lifts during power failures.be fed from essentia! circuits. E-3. is usually energized from float charged batteries having sufficient capacity for at least 24 hours normal working. It may be desirable for one deep-freeze refrigerator at each hospital to be supplied from the essential circuits where this can be conveniently arranged.2 3 ° C a n d b e fitted with a temperature alarm device to give a warning when the refrigerator temperature approaches the upper safety limit.1 0 t o .8 Emergency supplies for computers should be examined in each case. and should be suitably indicated by markings at each landing.7 All boiler house supplies should . E-3. all refrigerators should be supplied from an essential circuit. E-3. Under normal supply conditions the emergency lifts only will be connected to the essential circuit of the installation. E-2. These lifts will be regarded as emergency or fire lifts.2 In milk kitchen.5 Where lifts are provided for the movement of patients it is desirable that one lift in each separate section of the hospital should be so arranged that it is normally connected to the essential circuits of the installation having automatic changeover facilities. E-3. PARTS OF ESSENTIAL CIRCUITS E-3.1 peep-freeze refrigerators and food storage refrigerators will normally operate within a temperature range of .6 Communication equipment should be connected to essential circuits. E-3.automatically connected to the safety supply system in the event of a power failure.4 Telephone exchange equipment.

.

N O T E . Banquet halls and conference facilities.1.1 Environment 4.Majority of locations in hotels. P) 4) r) s) Service lifts and passenger lifts.1 Hotels lodging or rooming houses are of a 3. distinct from single or two family private dwellings which are covered in Part’3/Sec I of the Code. For the purposes of installations falling under the scope of this Section. coupled with the demand by guests for a variety of comforts. say sports buildings. sence of water Traces of water negligible appearing for short periods are dried rapidly by good ventilation rn NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE . but without cooking facilities for individuals. GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF INSTALLATIONS 4. Kitchen. ranging from simple dormitory type accommodation for guests. where only a common bath is provided with no facility for dining/kitchen to the sophisticated star hotels. u) Illuminated signs. t) Gardens and parking lots and illumination systems therein.-who are primarily transient such as hotels. 2. clubs and motels. restaurant? other than those forming part of a large hotel are treated as assembly buildings and are covered in Part 3/Set 3 of the Code. 03 Specific requirements for installations in swimming pool are covered in Appendix A to this section. Mam distribution centre. Increasing competition in the hotel industry as such. b) Hotels -These include any building or group of buildings in which sleeping accommodation is provided with or without dining facilities for hire to more than 15 persons. Presence of water Probability of pre. TERMINOLOGY 2. n-4 Telephones. 4.2 The electrical installations in hotels covered in this Section include the following services: 0. display lights and decorative illuminations. Ventilation and exhaust systems. 4 Channelized music. j) Restaurants and bars. 4.1 The following environmental factors apply to Hotels: Environmenr (1) Characrerisrics (2) Remarks (3) a) Lodging or Rooming Houses - These include any building or group of buildings in which separate sleeping accommodation for a total of not more than 15 persons on either transient or permanent basis with or without dining facilities. N OTE -The above is. Fire protection and alarm systems. is provided. h) Swimming pool and filtration plants. these specific requirements form part of this section of the Code. the definitions given in Part I /Set 2 of the Code shall apply. g) Health club. Offices. 3. 0. and v) Emergency system.2 The electrical needs of a hotel depend on the type and extent of facilities being provided and the rating of the hotel:The system design would in general be identical with that of any other large building.1 The electrical installations covered in this Section are those in buildings intended for the following purposes: 4 b) cl 4 4 r) Supply intake. SCOPE 1. 1.SECTION 5 HOTELS 0.0 General guidelines on the assessment of characteristics of installations in buildings are given in Part I /Set 8 of the Code. These requirements also apply to swimming pools in other occupancies. CLASSIFICATION 3. the actual power requirement expressed in terms of per-unit area or per guest room.1 Forthe purposes of this section. F O R E W O R D wide variety. ki Interior lighting. Cold Storage. the characteristics defined below generally apply. Laundry.1 This Section of the Code covers requirements for electrical installations in buildings such as hotels and lodging houses. For editorial convenience. inns.For the purpose of this Code. calls for an electrical installation in a h o t e l w i t h i n c r e a s e d sophistication.

1 The general provisions for th-c design of wiring of branch circuits shall conl‘orm to those laid down in Part l/Set I I of the Code. appliance and motor loads.communication networks. 5. 4 Whether central air-conditioning system is intended.1 Branch Circuits 5. information shall be obtained on the following services : Possibility of jets Applies 10 gardens of water from any direction.2 Utilization 4. use of a central radio receiving system wired with multi-channels piped music system to each room is recommended so t h a t t h e occupa?t m a y c h o o s e o n e o f t h e broadcasts. fan coil units.Environmenr (1) Chara.ir~~ll-hoards -The provisions of Part I Set I I 01 the C o d e s h a l l apply.1 The following aspects of utilization shall apply: Utilizarion (1) Capability of persons Characreri. Any wiring laid above the false ceiling should be adequately protected.4 Panel Boards and S\c.Applies lo lodging Condition of . foreign solid bodies Presence of corrosive or polluting substances The.ri>tirs Remarks (3) indentified in other sections.. 5.3 In hotel buildings. carpets and curtains.1. If so.2 The branch circuit calculations shall be done as laid down in Part 3/Set I of the Code. uninstrutted persons Persons adequately advised or supervised by skllled persons Re:nurk. density occu. easy conditlons of evacuemergency ation. building contractor and the electrical engineer on the various aspects of installation design. fire-alarm system. 5.0 Exchange of Information 5. However. The specific demands of the lighting. High density occupation difficult conditions of evacuation Nature of processed or stored material No significant risk Contamination risks due to presence of unprotected food srulfs Applies to kitchens Large hotels. per. Wires shall not be laid under carpets. They shall be run at skirting level and encased for mechanical protection.I\ well as in areas s u c h a s k i t c h e n .1.) Whether telephone and TV facilities are by the sea or industrial zones.5. C. as well as special loads encountered in hotel building shall be taken into account. layout of hot water pipe-line be obtained.0 These should hc pro\lded in all places where plug-in service I\ I~hcl! to be required. quantity or nature of dust or foreign solid bodies is not significant The quantity and For hotels. SUPPLY CHARACTERISTICS AND PARAMETERS 5.1. high-rise buildings.1. . situated b) Whether centrally controlled fire-fighting is intended. Mechanical stresses Seismic effect and lightning Impact and vibration of low severity. 5. 5. 5. etc.Locations suctr. If so. other cateaorization applies (see Part i/Set 8 of the Cede) nature of corrosive or polluting substances not significant d) Whether centrally heated hot water system is intended. ducting.2. false ceiling and chilled water lines should be obtained. DepepJs on the location of the building.as manent and total swimming pools *covering by water Possibility of Presence of . for ‘special cases such as for . lamps and appliances.. such as building substation and for operating and maintenance staff Contact of persons with earth potential Persons in nonconducting situations Low. In addition to the general aspects which require coordination and PART 3 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN NON-INDUSTRIAL . the interior decor normally includes false ceiling. to reduce the need for altcr:\tlonh and extensions of wiring after the hotel building is completed. layout of the telephone installation and TV circuits should be obtained. If so. For such reception.v/ic:r (2) Ordinary.1.5. nouses evacuation auring parlon. If so.1 If provided. t h e recommenda!ion of the manufacturer shall apply. 5. in each room.1 Proper coordination shall be ensured between the architect. Duplex or other suitable outlets should be provided as required in the offices and work places for fans. laundr!. layout of fire-fighting installation should be obtained.s (3) A major proportion of occupants in Hotels Applies lo areas.1. e t c .1. special aerials and BUILDINGS 153 4. Corridors and staircases shall be provided with sufficient socket-outlets for floor cleaning appliances. The socketoutlets shall preferably have covers.5 Socket-outlets trtltl I’llcp\ 5. layout of air handling units.0. such as by drawing the wires in metallic conduits and not run in open. These shall be connected in a circuit separate from the circuits for the guest rooms. intended.

Both manually operated and automatic fire-alarm systems shall be provided in large fiotels.3 In bathrooms. Separate feeders shall be provided ~. kitchen.for major lbads like central airconditionlng. it shall be possible to switch the general lighting not only from the entrance but also -from the bedside (see aho 7. It shall be provided with proper ventilation and lighting arrangement. suitably rated with one-pin earthed. heads. toilets and utility rooms for use of appliances.1 Genera/ — The general rules for protection “for safety laid down in Part 1/ Sec 7 of the Code shall a ply. the lights should be mounted at head level on both sides of the mirror. installation and of service lines up to and including 650 V.1. 70 100 — 200 200 70 100 100 150 to 300 25 25 — — — 22 is the Goods/ passenger lifts Cloakrooms/ Bathrooms Shops/stores toilets N6TE — The lighting of some of these locations determined primarily by aesthetic considerations and ubovc viilues should be taken as a guide only. 5.2 For lodging and rooming houses of 3 storeys and above. loads.1 H the load demand is high which requires supply at voltage above 650 V a separate indoor accommodation.6. tNational Building Code. 14. The main distribution equipment of the hotel shall preferably be located next to the substation. 4. fashion exhibition or concerts. manually operated electric fire-alarm system shall be *Code of practice for design.2 Feeders — the general provisions laid down in Pan 3/See 11 of the Code shall apply. EL 9. 5. to prevent access to any unauthorized ~son.2).eption is poor but in general the aerial buht in the set may be adequate. conferences. etc Writing Corridors Stairs Laundries Kitchens tablks bed 100 200 300 6. (1) BUILDING “ILLuhfb NATION (3) hlx laid (2) LIMITING GLARE INDEX (4) 1. 10. 5.1.5. Care shall be taken to ensure that there is no gla[e. The accommodation for substation equipment as well as for main distribution panel shall be properly enclosed so as. They should be of the 3-pin type. maintenance 5.6. as near the main load centre of fhe hotel as possible shall & provided to accommodate switchgear equipment of supply undertaking and Indoor/outdoor accommodation for the transformers.6. 5.6.5 System Protection 5. Heavy duty sockets should also be provided in pantries.1. Adequate plug-in sockets at proper locations should be provided in banquet halls and other meeting places for flood lights and other appliances.1 The general rules laid down in Part I /%c 14 of the Code shall apply.4 Building Substation 5.5. swimming pool. NATIONAL ELE~RICAL CODE 154 . kitchens. TABLE 1 RECOMMENDED VALUES OF AND GLARE INDEX ILLUMINATION FOR HOTELS SL No.6. 5.4.6 Building Services 5.1 Lighling 5. 7.1. The choice of lighting fittings and general lighting design shall be together with power requirements planned based on the recommended values of illumination and limiting values of glare index given in Table 1. 5.5. 5. 5. dances. Aerial outlets at rooms are reauired for ttortable radios in arqas and buildings’ where re.related wiring are required. lighting of main building and other essential. Sufficient number of controlled socket-outlet circu’its sha~l be combined in a switching station from which the entire hall shall be visible. 3. 5.3 Service Lines— The general provisions down in IS :806”1-1976* shall apply. 12. !1.4. 150 300 100 150 Reception and Dining Lounges rooms accounts (tables) . 5. Entrance halls. with a floor area more than 200 m~ with central corridor and rooms on either side. besides fire fighting equipment. laundry. shows.2 In guest bedrooms. lobby 2.2 The supply line should preferably be brought into the building underground to reduce the possibility of interruption of power supply.4 Lighting in banquet halls shall be given special consideration in view of its multipurpose utility such as fairs.2 Special convenience outlets in corridors at suitable locations are desirable for use o f portable equipment such as floor cleaning appliances. Reference should ti made to SP :7-19831 1’ guidelines for fire protection or of buildings. — — — Bedrooms: a) General b) Dressing tables. 5.4. 13.1. provided.

.1 Occupant load .5 gross area in m2 per person is recommended. the design of lifts shall take into account the following recommendations.75 g) Restaurant and bar rooms.4 For hotel buildings. After. Each indicating panel should have a set of small lamps according to the number of rooms.1 The various tests on the installation shall be carried out as laid down in Part l/Set IO of the Code. an occupant load of 12. 7.This shall be as follows : Occupancy Passenger lifts for low and medium class lodging houses Hotels Floors Served Car Speed m/s 0.3.6. The signal at the attendant station may be in the form of an annunciator with a bu77er or a light with a buzzer. Two types of systems are recommended : a) A simple one-watt signal system which connects the room side call sfatims with a s i g n a l a t t h e a t t e n d a n t s t a t i o n .3 Clock Systems. Emergency lighting shall be confined to essential areas.6. care shall be taken to ensure that disturbing glare does not reach the rooms of the guest’s. 7.5. c) Telephone switchboard. staircases and other circulation areas shall be connected to emergency supply.3.The provisions of Part l/Set 14 of the Code shall apply. and 4-5 0. e) Banquet halls. b) c) d) e) Lighting in banquet halls. f) Kitchen.2 Air-condirioning --. the attendant presses the resetting button which puts the whole equipment to the original condition. and the standby power supply shall feed essential and safety installations in the hotel.4. The following locations may be provided with clocks: a) Guest rooms. 5. 7. TESTING OF INSTALLATION 6. it is advisable to have at least two lifts side by side at the main entrance. telephone jacks shall be installed so that a telephone may be plugged in any time at any convenient location. 7. Swimming pool (see Appendix A). see Appendix A of Part 3/Set I of the Code. and Cold storage. 7.5 In designing outdoor lighting installations. it is desirable to have at least a battery of two lifts at convenient points of a building.2 Telephones . These may be connected on a dial system which permits internal communication through the hotel switchboard without the assistance of the operator. Fire-fighting system. be set up preferably on the ground floor incorporating a set of indicating panels according to the number of wings. The call system should be a wired electrical system whereby customer may signal for attendance from his room.3 Car speed.6.5-0.2 Passenger handling capacity . lt simultaneously lights a dome light over the door of the room from which the call is originated. Parallel telephones may be provided in the bedrooms.3.6 For particular requirements’ foi locations containing a bathtub or shower basin. storage and refrigeration rooms in the hotel shall also be supplied by the emergency supply. 5.2 Part of the kitchen.(see a/so Part 2 of the Code). 6.The passenger handling capacity expressed in percent of the estimated population that has ‘to be handled in the 5 minute peak period shall be 5 percent for hotel buildings.6.1 Call System -The general provisions for electrical bells and call system shall conform to those laid down in Part I /Set I4 of the Code. d) Dining room. 155 PART 3 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN NON-INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS .3. A part of the lighting in each room. and one lift at different sections of the building for intercommunication.1. telephones may be required to be provided.$ts and Escalarors 5.The general provisions for clock systems shall conform to those laid down in Part 1 /Set 14. MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS 7.4. b) Main lobby.5 Other Special Installations -The list of such installations is given below: 5. 7. If this is not possible.3 L.For hotel buildings.s b) A central control panel shall. 5. cdrridor. 5.4 Emergency Supply .attending the customer.6. a) TV sets at main assembly areas and in guest rooms. 7. However. 7.1 In the event of a failure of supply. At all the rooms.6.6.6.0 The general rules laid down in Part I / Set 14 of the Code shall apply.3. a large standby power supply usually a diesel driven generating set could be used to partly or entirely supply the loads in the hotel.For internal communicatiofi. 5.

m around the diving boards. 1 and 2. they are permitted provided they have the necessary degree of protection as given in A-4.50 m from the former. by the floor or surface expected to be occupied by persons and the horizontal plane 2. or cl protected by a residual current protective device. SELECTION OF EQUIPMENT A-4. N OTE . A-4.1 Where safety extra-low voltage is used. or insulation capable or withstanding a test voltage of 500 V for I minute.50 m above the floor of the surface. 1 and 2 shall be bonded with protective conductors of all exposed conductive parts situated in these Zones.Where the pool contains diving boards. and by the horizontal plane 2. A-3. A-5. WIRING SYSTEMS A-5.50 m above the highest surface expected to be occupied by the persons.50. SCOPE A-l. Electrical equipment shall have at least the following degrees of protection: Zone 0 : IP X 8 Zone 1: IPX4 Zone 0 -is the interior of the basin. 4 supplied individually by an isolating transformer. A-5. A-3.1 In zones 0 and 1 wiring systems shall be limited to those necessary to the supply of appliances situated in those zones. or b) supplied by safety extra low voltage. Zone I comprises the zone limited by a vertical plane situated 1.1. IP X 4 for outside swimming pools. starting blocks or a chute. whatever the nominal voltage. spring boards and starting blocks. Zone 2 : IP X 2 for inside swimming pools.2 Junction boxes are not permitted in Zones 0 and 1. In Zone 2 socketoutlets are permitted only if they are either : Zone 2 .3 In Zones 0 and 1 no switchgear and accessory shall be installed. protection against direct contact shall be provided by barriers or enclosures affording at least a protection of IP2X. CLASSIFICATION OF ZONES A-2. A-2. spring boards.2 All extraneous conductive parts in Zones 0.3 and 7.is limited by the vertical plane external to Zone 1 and a parallel plane 1. NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE . PROTECTION FOR SAFETY A-3.1.6) PARTICULAR REQUIREMENTS FOR SWIMMING POOL A-l. In Zone 2. and Zone 1 .50 m above the floor or surface. A-5.A P P E N D I X A (Clauses 0.is limited by a vertical plane 2 m from the rim of the basin by the floor or the surface expected to be occupied by persons and the horizontal plane 2.1 Reference is drawn to Fig.1 This appendix applies to the basins of swimming pools and paddling pools and their surrounding zones where susceptibility to electric shock is likely to be increased by the reduction of body resistance and contact with earth potential.

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only broad guidelines are outlined in this Section. Fire protection services. 1 F o r t h e purpdses o f t h i s S e c t i o n .apply. A large sports complex may include the following subunits: a) Supply intake/voltage of supply. 0.1 Reference should be made to 5. c) Based on utilit_v i) Stadia meant for games only. It is recommended that assistance of experts shall be sought in the design of the installation at the early stages itself: 1.r amusements as well. 3. ii) Stadia/halls meant for training and passtime -. The design of illumination system in a sports building therefore requires consultations with a specialist and the guidelines provided in this Section are purely recommendatory in nature in this respect. In a way the electrical power needs and the external influences in a sports building are quite identical to those for theatres and other multipurpose buildings for cultural events excepting that for international events exacting standards of services and flexibility had to be provided in a multipurpose sports stadia. this Section of the Code has been set aside to cover such of those specific requirements applicable to sports buildings from the electrical engineering point of view. such as -for staging special or cultural events.5.1 The design and erection of e l e c t r i c a l installation in a sports building have to take into account a multitude of factors.1. hospitals. 0. telex. that are unique to the type of use to which it is put. 0. Sports complexes not basically meant for exhibition purposes. TERMINOLOGY 2 . clubs. health.2 Several stadia. t h e definitions given in Part I/Set 2 of the Code shall ~-. SCOPE 1. ii) Multigames hall/stadia. if any. e) Communication facilities (telephbne. radio and press facilities).3 In indoor stadia where large number of people congregate it is essential to inbuild adequate fire precautioris from the point of view of safety.1. indoor and outdoor.1 This Section of the Code covers requirements for electrical installations in sports buildings and stadia. d) Based on Audience-factor i) Stadia/halls meant for exhibition purposes-where groups of people congregate. 4 Electrification of restaurant. data processing TV.2 for classification from lighting consideration. CLASSIFICATION OF SPORTS BUILDINGS 3. 3.5 With the advent of sophisticated stadia in the country as well as keeljing in view the accent on sports. especially those of the indoor type are meant for staging a variety of games which between themselves require varying standards of lighting levels. Assessing the need for adequate strength of a standby supply for essential services requires special considerations. 2.2 The electrical installation needs in sports buildings would therefore be governed by the type of use indicated in 3. shall however conform to the special requirements of this Section. telegraph. such as the staging of cultural events and this aspect shall be borne in mind while designing the electrical needs of the complex so as to ensure optimum utilization of the facilities. 0.4 It is to be noted that a sports stadia should preferably be designed for use for other purposes as well. 159 f) PART 3 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN NON-INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS . Taking note of the f&t that the type of buildings and their needs for the purposes of sports and games would be quite differqnt between them.1 The buildings for the purposes of conducting 3. and not likely to be utilized for other purposes.where audience may not normally be present. NOTE ~ Classification d(i) includes stadia meait for staging tournaments and events and d(ii) includes games halls in educational institutions and the like where normally no exhibition is intended. offices and other support structures. b) Main -substation and satelite substations. 0. ii) Multipurpose stadia for oth&.1(a) to (d) above. The type of building shall therefore be classified as follows: a) Based on Type of Building: i) Indoor stadia ii) Outdoor stadia : Stadia meant for use in daylight Stadia meant for use during night under artificial lighting b) Based on Type of Game/Sport i) Single game spprts hall/stadia.SECTION 6 SPORTS BUILDINGS 0. F O R E W O R D sports and games are characterized by the criteria that large number of people congregate. c) Central control room/ switch rooms.

etc. ation. In case of outdoor stadium.0~ density occu. tioning is required and if so.the electrical engineer on the various aspects of the installation design. 1. Indirect exposure Installations suppto lightning. which will decide the voltage of supply.1 The following environmental factors apply to sports buildings: Environment (1) Characteristics (2) Remarks (3) Conditions of evacuation in an emergency. exposure of equipment is present. voltage stabilisers. sed or playing area. number of substations and their preferred locations.Due to furniture and false floor for risks. lied by overhead where hazard lines. switchrooms. easy con. route of chilled water lines. uninterrupted power supply requirements. 0 Requirements. water supply systems. score-boards. distribution boards. storm water drainage. lake fountains (if any). system envisaged.0 Exchange of Information AND Presence of water Submersion. 4. Stadia and games cbmplexes situated by the sea or industrial zones require special consideration.1 Environment 4. from supply arrangements exists.2 Utilization 4.1 bar.the like where ditions of evacupeople do not congregate.Training halls and pation. are to be air-conditioned or not and their details as above. the following data shall specifically be obtained: 4 The total electric power needs of the stadium including the standby power arrangements. and n) Miscellaneous requirements for power- socket. Covers category d(ii) (see 3.1 The following aspects of utilization shall apply: Utilization (1) Characteristics (2) Remarks (3) _i) Audio systems. Capability of persons Uninstructed persons.1 Proper coordination shall be ensured between the architect building contractor and . layout. whether air-condi- Lightning Negligible.2. -Large multipurpose High density stadia for exhioccupation. transformers. GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SPORTS BUILDINGS 4. Covers majority of cases.0. 4. Direct exposure Lighting towers in or hazard from outdoor stadia. diffi*cult conditions of bition purposes evacuation.. the characteristics given below shall apply. However. ducting.1. microphone outlets.Locations such as sibility of perma. pos. air-handling units. locations.g) External electrification ot gardens and parking lots. e i g n s o l i d b o d i e s nature of dust or foreign solid bodies is not significant Presence of dust in significant quantity Presence of corro. etc. pumps. 5. e) Locations of substations. the capacity and locations of main plants.Existence of fire. sewage disposal. electrical operating areas are accessible to instructed persons only. of audio-communication NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE . sewage disposals and the pump capacities. capacity of diesel engine generating sets for standby supply. etc. 160 c) Details of fire fighting system/fire alarm d) Details of water supply arrangements. supply system including uninterrupted power requirements. stored material CHARACTERISTICS 5.0 Genera1 guidelines on the assessment of characteristics of installations in buildings are given in Part 1 /Set 8 of the Code. etc. b) In case of indoor stadia. switchgear. ml Gas/oil arrangements for sports flame if required. 4. sive of polluting substances Outdoor stadia. In addition to the genera1 aspects which require coordination and identified in other sections. Presence of forThe quantity or Indoor stadia. SUPPLY PARAMETERS 5.1) type of installations. Nature of proces.swimming pools nent and total where electrical covering by equipment is perwater manently and totally covered with water under pressure greater than 0. In sports stadia the sportsmen and spectators fall under this category. service routes. For the purposes of installations falling under the scope of this Section. h) Emergency electric. restaurants. etc. public address/security.Negligible. the covered portions like offices. k) Dewatering arrangements.

. inter-stadia communication facilities. All electrical operating areas.The provision of Part I /Set 1 I of the Code shall apply.1 The electrical needs of sports stadia may vary from 30 kVA to 1 000 kVA. and control rooms shall preferably be segregated from public routes for the sporting events. Utility socket outlets shall be provided at a height of about 0. 5. etc. etc’.1. These shall be of weather-pro0 P type. gas/oil requirements for flame and their controls.3 m from the floor exce t in field/arena.3 Panel Boards and Switchboards . 5. fire service call. etc.1 The general rules as laid down for other large assembly buildings (see Part 3/Set 3) and as laid down in Part I of the Code shall . Usually HV supply is used for large multipurpose stadia where power demand is in excess of 500 LVA.1 The Utility shall be consulted as to the type of service available.2. restaurants. etc. sewage and fire fighting systems. intercom stations. It is preferable PART 3 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN NON-INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS .system for the stadium which includes public address system. in playing arena and field..2(e). car park.2 Wiring installations for general purpose lighting and ventilation needs of the sports buildings shall conform to the requirements laid down in Part 1 /Set I of the Code. etc.of luminaires and conduit/ cable installations for various services. speaker outlets.1 Branch Circuits 51. public announcement. etc. single-phase or three-phase star or delta.2. h) Special requirements of press. In Zase of air-conditioning.2. the provisions of Part 3/Set 3 of the Code shall apply. This shall be prepared in coordination with civil and structural engineers. the location of lighting luminaires. 5. TV. circuits to each of the luminaires after considering the economic aspects. j) Requirements of lighting.3. water supply. From the pqint of view of appearance and minimum interference.3 The underground system shall either be cables directly buried or cables in conduits. microphone outlets. wireless paging system. fountain lighting system.For small stadia] halls. chilled water piping routes. layout of pln. tirealarm system.apply. 5. radio. ambulance call.1. path way and external electrification. 5. games federations. car calling system. whether primary or secondary. telecommunication.2 Feeders 5. c) Wiring diagrams showing &itching sequence of luminaires. systems. etc. 5. the areas covered by the services shall be segregated into zones and the subdistribution and distribution boards shall be so arranged and marked keeping in view their accessibility in times of need.0. In smaller installations. with the proposed source and route of power supply.2 The following drawings are recommended to be prepared before commencing the installations work: g) Details of score-boards -that is whether to avoid temporary wiring in electrical central control room. type of light source. voltage stability.2 The main substation for a sports building shall prefereably be located in such a place that does not interfere with the movement of people congregating.3 Some installations may justify a separate transformer on each pole of the floodlighting tower with primary wiring to each tower. In large stadia. ducts/grill layout. and their power needs.3. The need for special convenience outlets shall be considered for services enumerated in 3. and 0 Site plan ‘indicating the location of pump houses for storm water drains.3 Building Sdbstation 5. Junction boxes shall be installed near the luminaires from which connection to the light source may be taken by flexible conduits.1t5. TV (black and white dr colour) coverage. manual or automatic. 5. 5. centralized clock system.4 Socket-outlets and Plugs . This . it may be more economical to reduce the number of transformers by serving 161 4 Single line diagram for electrical distribution.will help maintenance work to be carried out without disturbing the positioning of the lighting fittings. according to the size of the Installation. The design of substation shall conform to the requirements specified in Part 2 of the Code. etc. k) Requirements for power outlets. the underground system is more desirable where large playing areas are involved. etc.3.2 Outdoor floodlighting installations can be made with either overhead or underground distribution feeders. computer-aided results information. it is preferable to have individual branch. l&e1 of illumination required for various stages like training.1. b) Complete layout drawings indicating type and mounting . ml Other micellaneous items like electrification of ancillary buildings in the sports complex. 5. Whenever floodlight luminaires of more than I 000 W are installed. d) e) Layout of public address system envisaged. 5. 5.

use of fluorescent mercury lamps is recommended.5. the background brightness.1. 5. arena. include.Advantageous where mounting heights are low and short projection distances are acceptable .4 Sekction of light sources . Small indoor games halls for less than 300 persons. etc. which are aerial in handball. However. Besides fire fighting equipment fire-detection and extinguishing system. Automatic firealarm system. but the observer’s location in the grandstand as well. the objects of regard are not fixed.features . the inherent time delay for full glow when first energized or when there is power interruption may necessitate use of incandescent lighting system to provide emergency standby illumination in spectator areas.5. During the shifting of sight. areas General gymanasiums. the lighting systems are used for less than 500 h a year.5. F i r e Derecrion System Automatic sprinkler and alarm system. 5.3. b) While the game is in play.2 For’ the purposes of artificial lighting design. etc.for example tennis. 5. where colour rendition is important. a) While selecting and installing high intensity discharge or fluorescent lamps in multipurpose stadia..5 Miscellaneous considerations for lighting cl High intensity discharge lamps . control room.4. hockey.5. in offices and automatic firealarm system in rtndia.4 System Protection 5. The following shall be taken Into account: characterized by long life and high luman efficiency. mitchinc room. b) Efforts shall be required to coordinate the lighting design for sports events with the illumination requirements for TV or film coverage. it shall be ascertained whether duplicate power supply would be required together with its capacity. billiards. occupancy Same as above. especially m large stadia require considerations of not only the objects to be seen. Automatic firealarm system. bowling. the following light sources are advantageous together with the considerations indicated against each: a) Incandescent lamps (including tungsten halogen) . gymnasiums.5. b) Fluorescent lamps . b) Low level (games which are close to the ground level) Archery. 5.5 Building Services 5.1 Sports buildings are classified as ‘assembly buildings’ (Group D) from fire-safety point of view (see SP : 7-1983*). squash.1.Where necessary. swimming and boxing. 5. Same as above. 5. trampoline and a varietv of indoor sports.For sports lighting.5. indoor with or without fixed seats corridors for about I 000 persons.1.Design of sports lighting. Small halls. tennis and part or whole) volleyball. 5.For some representative types of sport. community centre halls and other multipurpose areas. stadia for outdoor gathering. it is necessary to connect lamps on alternate phases of supply to avoid flicker on rapidly moving objects. Grandstands. 5.5. field houses. basketball. Where a quite surroundmg is required in order to avoid ballast hum.1 Special design . even the ceiling and luminaires are likely to come into the line of vision. Colour recording calls for more NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 162 . Automatic sprinkler. ctc 5. fencing.4. shall be provided as recommended below: Description dig halls for over 5 000 persons. Ma:rually operated firealarm systems.3 Levels of illumination . For sports events. the recommended values of illumination are as given in Table I.0 The general rules for the protection of safety laid down in Part I/Set 7 of the Code shall apply. the nature of sports shall be divided as follows: a) Aerial sports (sports Badminton.ballasts shall be considered. remote mounting of . bowling. of sport play into general areas for more than one sport and areas for particular sport. c) It is important for observers to be able to estimate accurately the object velocity and trajectory.1. and the loads it is intended to serve. it is recommended to divide the location *National Building Code.1. health clubs. overvoltage operation can be used to advantage especially as in sports installations.4 For buildings staging national or international sport events. and mostly moving in a three-dimensional space.These are a) Observers have no fixed visual axis or field of view.1 Lighting 5. A horizontal illumination in excess of 300 lux is considered adequate for operation of black and white TV and film recording. for less than 1000 persons.several locations from a single transformer through secondary wiring.0 The general rules laid down in Part I I Set I4 of the Code shall apply.1. For the purposes of lighting design.

delay for the sound from the loudspeakers to reach different sections of the audience would be significant.khihirion Underwater* Tennis (lawn) Indoor Outdoor Table tennis Volleyball 9 Camera senitivity.1 0 0 0 0 s p e c t a t o r s . Colour filming may also need lamps having correlated colour temperature of between 3 000 K to 7 000 K. of lighting for training purpose.1 Electrical Audio Systems . (see NOTES I and 2) :I. NOT.It is generally conceded that the distance between the spectators and the play is primary consideration for football. 7.Group switching of luminaires is recommended to have maximum energy saving. 5.For football.2 Air-conditioning 552. *Levels recommended are for incandescent lamps. ii) Requirement. unifgrm illumination shall be provided at ground level as well as vertically for 15 m above ground. In large grandstand stadia. In order that the installed flux is not wasted the walls of the pool basin shall be given a high reflectance surface finish.yo6’.t of 540 320 540 220 NOTE 1 . C l a s s I V -~ 5 000 . stringent requirements. TESTING OF INSTALLATION 6. 2 . IV Gymnasiums Matches General exercising Hockey (field) Racing Bicycle Horse Rifle (outdoor) T a r g e t s Firing point Range Swimming a ) /r&or Exhibirion Underwater* b) Our&or E.TABLE 1 RECOMMENDED VALUES OF ILLUMINATION (Clause 5. Class 11 ~~ 10 000-30 000 spectators. data on the following shall be necessary: PART 3 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN NON-INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS 163 .5. Guidelines of the manufacturer shall be adhered to. after considering thefollowing factors as well: i) Separate switching for lighting outside the stadia.3 L[fts and Escalators-The general rules laid down in Part I/Set 14 of the Code shall apply. This shall be avoided in taking proper precautions in the design of electrical audio systems.Reference shall be made to the provisions in Part I iSec 14 of the Code. iii) Requirement of lighting for tournaments with film and TV coverage.3) SP O R T (I) Archery Target Shootinn line Badminton Basketball Billiards (on table) Boxing and wresthng Fo~(a”. 6. o v e r I O .30 000 spectators. 540 220 320 540 540 540 1 100 540 320 220 540 320 220 320 220 540 (vertical) 1 IO 54 540 100 W/m’ of surface area 220 60 . c) Grouu switching .1 The various tests on the installation shall be carried out as laid down in Part I /Set IO of the Code.spectators. and iv) Separate switching for playing arenas.1. MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS 7.1 5 m minimum distance. 5. These shall be considered before designing the electrical services of the same.3 Electrical/Electronic Score Board .1 The requirements for air-conditioning and ventilation as laid down in Part I /Set 14 of the Code shall apply.The general provisions for the installation of public address systems shall be as laid down in Part l/Set 14 of the Code. as well as the potential seating capacity of the stand. 7. the effect of time .“1. ii) Exposure time.. 7. Class III ~~ 5 0 0 0 . The following classification is therefore described: Class 1 . over 30 m minimum distance. and iii) Effective aperture. requiring specific power supply.4 Clock System . 7. o v e r I O m m i n i m u m distance. and other installation conditions.5.5. This would call for special wiring systems with sychronizing systems. The technical requirements for these systems concerning voltage and frequency stability are very high. For discharge lamps W/m’ would be reduced depending upon the efficiency of light source.The various communication needs of a large stadia is normally met with by electronic equipment centrally controlled. over 15-30 m minimum distance. For film/TV coverage.The power requirements for such equipment would depend on the type of equipment to be installed.2 Control Room .

ightning protection. Spaces for accommodating the distribution and metering equipment of utility should be accordingly provided for by coordinating with the architect and licensee. 4.0 The general characteristics of buildings depending on the type of occupancy are assessed NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE. the definitions given in Section 2. 0. such details have been stated in this Appendix where the major non-industrial occupancies have been covered. ASSESSMENT OF CHARACTERISTICS OF MULTISTOREYED BUILDINGS 5. SCOPE 1. 164 . 3.2 In drafting the requirements of electrical installations in various occupancies it was felt that a separate compendium giving the specific requirements applicable to multistoreyed buildings should be brougnt out.6 The telephone authorities shall be consulted for the requirements of space for accommodating the distribution equipment. While on the one hand. etc. 4 Internal wiring for lighting. note shall also be taken of the nature of occupancy of the high-rise buildings and a judicious choice of alternative features shall be made. 1.5 The voltage of supply and location of energy meters (especially in multistoreyed buildings meant for residential purposes) shall be agreed to between the utility and the owner of the building. For editorial convenience. 4. 2 of the Code shall apply. the electrical design engineer.1 The design and construction of electrical installations in multistoreyed buildings call for special attention to details pertaining to fire-safety of the occupancy. SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS 3. and are specifically applicable for buildings more than 15 m in height.3 In applying the provisions of this Appendix. pumps. fl L. The locations of control panel and indication panel shall be decided in consultation with the owner. I. t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f s p a c e f o r accommodating the distribution equipment for the various electrical services and openings required in slabs for vertical risers for such services are assessed and incorporated in drawings in due coordination with the architect and structural designer. 4.. 4 Telephone wiring. 5. EXCHANGE OF INFORMATION 4.FOREWORD 0.2 The requirements specified here are in addition to those specified in respective sections of the Code. the civil design aspects are more stringent for high-rise buildings than for buildings of low heights. 4. Care shall be taken to provide adequate and where necessary. Coordination with the architect is required in evolving suitable layout of lights. for the telephone services.1 The detailed requirements of the owner shall be assessed at the planning stage. ventilation. on his part had to ensure that the fire hazards from the use of electric power is kept to the lowest possible limit. 4. call bell system. fans and other outlets and the position for their switch controls to take care of functional utility and flexibility. h) Clock system. 2.1 Special considerations shall have to be given in respect of the following requirements for the electrical installations in multistoreyed buildings: g) Common antenna system. Part 1 /Sec.7 The local fire brigade authorities shall be consulted in the matter of system layout for fire detection and alarm systems to comply with local bye-laws. 4.4 While designing the electrical services. outlets for appliances. 0. e) Fire safety. b) Distribution of electric power. 4.2 It is necessary that right at the planning stages. independent spaces for the equipment for electrical services for different functions. due consideration should be given for conservation of energy. power and control wiring for special equipments like lifts. TERMINOLOGY 2. The requirements as laid down in Part I/Set I5 of the Code shall be complied with. blowers. battery. etc. cl Generators for standby electric supply.8 Runs of roof conductors and down conductors for lightning protection shall be coordinated with the architects of the building.APPENDIX TO PART 3 SPECIFIC REQUIREMENTS FOR ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN MULTISTOREYED BUILDINGS O.1 For the purposes of this Appendix. and j) CCTV.3 Multistoreyed buildings are usually in framed design. 4.1 This Appendix is intended to cover specific r e q u i r e m e n t s for electrical installations in multistoreyed buildings.

3 The fault level at the point of commencement of supply should be obtained from the licencee and fault levels at salient points in the distribution system assessed.2.1. The switchgears shall be housed in a room separated from the transformer bays by a fire-resisting wall with fire resistance of not less than 4 hours.based on the guidelines given in relevant sections of the Code.1.1. 6.1. if housed in basement. d Fire fighting pumps.1 For the purposes of rnultistoreyed buildings in addition to other external influences depending o n . grade of service desired and economics. 5.2 Distribution System 6. shall be protected by an automatic high velocity water spray system. The distribution equipments shall be selected by adopting. c) Air-conditioning/evaporative cooling/ heat4 Water supply pumps.6 Oil-filled transformers shall not be housed on any floor above the ground floor. t h e e l e c t r i c a l installation engineer shall specifically take note of characteristics BD2.2. If transformers are housed in the building below the ground level. Direct access to the transformer mom shall be provided. they may be protected by carbon dioxide or BCF ( b r o m o c h l o r o d i f l u r o m e t h a n e ) o r BTM (bromotrifluro methane) fixed installation system. and Outdoor and security lighting.1 The electrical load shall be assessed considering the following: a) Lighting and power loads. 6.7 Soak pit of approved design shall be provided where the aggregate oil capacity of the apparatus does not exceed 2 000 litres.the t y p e o f o c c u p a n c y . The choice between cables and metal rising mains for distribution of power should be done depending on the load and the number of floors to be fed. 6. security.2.0. The room shall necessarily be at the periphery of. 6. 6. totally segregated from other areas of the basements by 4-hour fire-resisting wall/ walls with an access directly from outside. 6. ing services.1 The provisions contained in Part 2 of the Code shall apply. The anticipated increase in lpad shali also be given due consideration.3 The transformer. b) Special loads of equipments as in laboratories. A curb (sill) of a suitable height shall be provided at the entrance in order to prevent the flow of oil from a ruptured transformer into other _. fire alarm. Each floor shall have a changeover switch for connection to either of the two mains. fire pumps. it may be desirable that cables feeding adjacent floors are interconnected for use when distribution cables in either of the floors fail. The transformer may be exempted from such protection if their individual oil capacity i’s less than 5 000 litres. 6. 6. 6. it/they shall be cut off from the other portion of premises by fire-resisting walls of 4-hour fire resistance. Where the oil capacity exceeds 2 000 litres. together with those given in Part I/Set 8.0 Capacity and number of system components and the electrical distibution layout should be decided considering the likely future requirements. the basement.0. 6. Adequate spare capacity should be provided for every component in the distribution system.1.1 In multisloreyed buildings where large number of people gather (for example office buildings).1. 165 PART 3 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN NON-INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS . they shall necessarily be in the first basement in a separate fire-resisting room of 4-hour rating.2. the. 6.0. a tank of RCC construction of capacity capable of accommodating entire oil of the transformers shall be provided at a lower level to collect the oil from the catch-pit in case of emergency. etc.0 Load Assessment and Equipment Selection parts of ttie. 6.1. BD4 and CB2 given in Table I of Part I /Set 8 of the Code. hodpitals. standard ratings. etc. basement.2 A substation or a switch-station with apparatus having . data processing areas.4 In case the transformers are housed in the basements.1 Building Substation 6.more than 2 000 litres of oil shall not ordinarily be located in the basemlnt where proper oil drainage arrangements cannot be provided. preferably from outside. 6.5 When housed at ground floor level. 6. 6.2 Suitable demand factors and diversity factors shall be applied depending on the operational and functional requirements.2 When cables are used for distribution to different floors. The pipe connecting the catch-pit to the tank shall be of non-combustible construction and shall be provided with a flame-arrester [see LS : 10028 (Part 2)-19811.re shall be at least two rising mains located in separate shafts. DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER 6. The entrance to the room shall ‘be provided with a fire-resisting door of 2-hour fire rating. Distribution system component should be selected to satisfy the same. r) g) Electric lifts.3 It is essential to provide independent feeders for installations such as fire lift.

The doors provided for the service room shall have fire resistance of not less than 2 hours.4. c) Avoiding crossing of expansion joint. Meter rooms on upper floors shall not open into staircase enclosures and shall be ventilated directly to open air outside. water coolers. 6.2 Normally aluminium conductor is used for wiring cables.4 The type and capacity of control switches shall be selected to suit the loading.4. 6.1 The following aspects shall be considered in deciding the location of electric substation for mdtistoreyed buildings: 6. 4 Feasibility of provision of cable ducts (keeping in view the bending radius of the cable). submain wiring to the flats/apartments shall be independent for each flat/apartment. b) Avoiding excess lengths of wiring for final circuits and points. control circuits.4. near the load centre. 6.411 An independent and well-ventilated service robm shall be provided on the ground floor with direct access from outside or from the corridor for the purpose of termination of electric supply from the licensees. 6. \\ NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE a) Easy access for purpose of movement of equipment in and out of the substation including fire fighting vehicles.5 Twin earthing leads of adequate size shall be provided along the vertical runs of rising mains.8 Separate circuits for water pumps. 6. The duct shall be sealed at every alternative floor with noncombustible materials having the same fire resistance as that of the duct. Easy maintainability from common areas like lobbies. the utility’s cables shall be segregated from consumers’ cable by providing a partition in the duct. Master switches controlling essential service circuits shall be clearly labelled. group contol of fluorescent lights.4. above false ceiling. e) Transformer hum (and noise and vibration from diesel generating sets where provided as part of the substation).4.4. the same should preferably be at ground floor level of the multistoreyed building itself. etc. 6. Woodwork shall not be used for the construction.3.10 Medium and low voltage wiring runuihg in shafts. corridors.3.4 Wiring Installation 6. the conductor sizes shall be suitably designed to keep the voltage drop within limits (see Part I /Set I I of the Code).5 All switchgear equipment used for maindistribution in multistoreyed buildings shall be metal enclosed. 6.6. etc. shall have 660 V grade insulation. and g) In the cases of certain high rise buildings.2. lifts. so that fire in one circuit will not affect the others. telephone lines. gas pipes or any other service line shall not be laid in the duct for electric cables. 6. 6. 166 .9 The inspection panel doors and any other opening in the shaft shall be provided with airtight fire doors having the fire resistance of not less than 1 hour.4. the substation should be located. such as room air-conditioners.412 If the utility agree to provide meters on upper floors. and Feasibility to provide distribution switchboa& in individual floors vertically one over the other. as far as possible. 6. 4 Avoiding proximity to water bound. provision of substation at intermediate floors may be necessary for case of distribution. by horizontal runs df wiring. etc. cl Avoidance of flooding by rain water. if any.2 The vertical distribution mains should be located considering the following aspects: 4 Proximity to load centre. etc.mains.1 The electrical wiring shall be carried out in conformity with Part I /Set I I of the Code. oil soak pits (for large transformers) and entry of utility’s cable(s). areas like toilets. but copper conductor may be required for fire-alarm. 6. The false ceiling. r) Where a separate building for substation is not possible.7 Water . shall be of noncombustible material. 63 Siting OT Distribution Equipment 6. Any 230 V wiring for lighting or other services. In the case of a complex with a number of buildings. Low’ and medium voltage wiring running in shaft and in false ceiling shall run in separate conduits. In such cases.2.4. sanitary/airconditioning shafts. b) Ventilation. including all fixtures used for its suspension.3 Where excessively long lengths of wiring runs are inevitable to suit the building layout. and within false ceiling shall run in metal conduit. non-inflammable cooling medium shall be used for substation equipment from the point of view of fire safety. inter-corn lines. of switchboards.4 In the case of residential buildings.4.6 The electric distribution cables/ wiring shall be laid in a separate duct. telephones. service and alternative supply cables.4. 6. water coolers. staircases and corridor lighting and blowers for pressurising system shall be provided directly from the main switchgear pane1 and these circuits shall be laid in separate conduit pipes. 6.

b) The call boxes shall be of the ‘break-glass’ type where the call is transmitted automatically to the control room without any other action on the part of the person operating the call box. PROVISION OF STANDBY GENERATING S E T 7.3 Suitable provisions should be made for cable entry and spaces for distribution components. ied 9. etc. apartment and office buildings between 15 m and 24. from fire safety consideration% and f) Provision for pressurisation of stairwells.1 for buildings exceeding 24 m in height.3. The mechanism of operation of the call boxes shall pceferably be without any moving parts.5 m.64. to enable continuity of supply in the event of failure of mains : a) Lighting in common areas. The . such building does not constitute hazard to the safety of the adjacent property or the occupants of the building itself. e) Security lighting.4.2 Lighting. It should be of MCB type of switch so as to avoid replacement of fuse in case of crisis. lift lobbies. fobbies. However. 8. e) Construction of lift shafts. c) ‘Fire lift.call boxes shall conform to the following : The location of call .2 Provisions contained in Part I/Set 14 of the Code and SP : 7. b) Fire lift. it shall be of an approved type. 9. d) First-aid fire fighting appliances. 8. lobbies. lift shafts. common toilets. staircases.4. However.13 The staircase and corridor lighting shall be on separate circuits and shall be independently connected so as it could be operated by one switch installation on the ground floor easily accessible to fire fighting staff. etc. .3 The following specific guidelines shall be kept in view. the alternative source of supply may be provided by battery continuously trickle charged from the electric mains. smoke extraction and damper systems.l The following loads shall be fed from the standby generating set. namely corridors. Double throw switch shall be installed in the service room for terminating the standby supply. 9. Any regulations of fire safety by 1 al municipal/fire authorities shall also be camp?c with. 8.1 All buildings with heights of more than 15 m shall be equipped with manually operated electrical fire alarm (MOEFA) system and automatic fire alarm system. etc.1 Manually operated electrical fire alarm system shall be installed in a building with one or more call boxes located at each floor. 9. 7.boxes shall be decided after taking into consideration the floor plan with a view to ensuring that one or the other call box shall be readily accessible to all occupants of the floor without having to travel more than 22. the conduit runs for telephone wiring should be designed in consultation with telephone department. 8. 6.1 On the basis of assessment of demand of direct telephones and PBX lines. ventilation and flooring in battery rooms should be designed in accordance with the guidelines in Part 2 of the Code. this should be coordinated with the architect and the telephone department. f-l Obstruction light(s). For assembly institutional buildings of height less than 24 m. g) Water supply pump. cable and rising main shafts.3.4. 167 PART 3 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN NON-INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS . b) Fire fighting a r r a n g e m e n t s . 9. provisions for wiring for the same may also be made. substation.16 Emergency lights shall be provided in the staircase/corridor. c) Fire fighting pump. any time irrespective of the position of the individual control of the light points.-1983* shall be applicable in respect of theabove aspects.15 Suitable arrangements shall be made by installing double throw switches to ensure that the lighting installed in the staircase and the corridor does not get connected to two sources of supply simultaneously.1.4 Where the layout of intercom telephones is known in advance.14 Staircase and corridor lighting shall also be connected to alternative supply as defined in 7. entrance hall. 6. Where telephone wiring is intended to be taken on any other method. 6. where any moving part is incorporated in the design of the call box. FIRE SAFETY 9. TELEPHONE WIRING SYSTEM 8. *National Buikiing Code. at. if any. 4 Fire alarm control panel. and h) Any other functional and critical loads. m in height may beexempted from the installation of automatic fire alarm system provided the local fire brigade is suitably equipped for dealihg with fire above I5 m height and in the opinion of the Authority.1 Consideration in respect of the following provisions is necessary from fire safety point of view: a) Fire detectors and alarm system.

2 The installation of call boxes in hostels aod such other places where these are likely to be misused. The base of the call box shall be at a height of I m from the floor level. 10. 1 Provisions of lightning protection of multistoreyed buildings shall be made in conformity with Part I /Set I5 of. but the application of each type is limited and has to be carefully considered in relation to the type of risk and the structural features of the. d) The call boxes shall be arranged to sound one or more sounders so as to ensure that all appropriate occupants of the desired floor(s) shall be warned whenever any call _ box is actuated. building where they are to be installed. The battery shall be arranged to be continuously tricklecharged from the electric mains.3. The circuit may be connected to alternative source of electric supply. LIGHTING PROTECTION 1 0 . the Code. c) All call boxes shah be wired in a closed circuit to a control panel in the control room in accordance with good practice so located that the floor number/zone where the call box is actuated is clearly indicated on the control panel.1. N OTE I . The circuit shall also include one or more batteries with a capacity of 48 hours normal working at full load. NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE . N OTE 2 -No automatic detector shall be requtred in any room or portion of building which is equipped with an approved installation of automatic sprinklers. Location of call boxes in dwelling units shall preferably be inside the building. e) The call boxes shall be so installed that they do not obstruct the exit-ways and yet their location can eastly be noticed from either direction. shall as far as possible be avoided. For guidelines for selection of tire detection reference may be made to relevant Indian Standard.so that there shail be no malfunctioning of the call box. 9.Several types of tire detectors are available in the market.

NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE PART 4 .

this Page is Intentionally Left Blank .As in the Original Standard.

3 A particular feature of electrical installations in industrial buildings is the reliability of supply to essential operations for which . The needs of such systems would depend on the type and nature of the industrial works. 0.5 In clause 3 of this Part. Part 7 of the Code). The network layout should also facilitate easy maintenance and fault localisation. The design of electrical installation in industrial premises is therefore more complicated than those in non-industrial buildings. ull limitations in a simple and economic manner.standby and emergency supply sources/networks had to be designed. . 0. in Part 7 of the Code and these shall be complied with in addition to the general rules specified in this Part 4 (see also Appendix D. an attempt has been made to classify industrial installations depending on the specified eriteria therein.FOREWORD 0. 0. ensuring at the same time P protection to human life and loss of property by fire. require special treatment in respect of design . power’ factor compensation assumes special importance.2 Industrial installation has to take care of load requirements and sup ly. industry. it is hoped-would help identify the specific nature of each industry and the locations therein. Keeping in view the tariff structures as also the economic necessity of conserving power to the maximum extent. 0.4 Locations in industrial buildings which are by their nature hazardous.1 Electrical networks in industrial buildings serve the urpose of distributing the required power to the consuming points where it is usedP a multitude of purposes or in the. assisting the design engineer in the choice of equipment and methods. Such special rules for hazardous areas are covered. Such a classification.of electrical installations therein.PART 4 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS O.

etc. C L A S S I F I C A T I O N O F I N D U S T R I A L 3. glass. b) Subdivision G-2. *National Building Code. factories for metal extraction from ores. tube making. for which requirements stipulated in the relevant sections of Part 3 of the Code apply. laboratories.2. saw mills.“:g 5a up tQ Heavy industries Above 2 000 N O T E. pottery.3.Average factory installations are set apart from heavy industries in that the former has no coriditions requiring specialized or exceptional treatment. light pressings.2 Loads within the industrial site could be divided depending on their nature and size. medical facilities. shipbuilding and repairing.3 This Part also does not cover locations in industrial sites that are by nature hazardous for which the provisions of Part 7 of the Code apply. handling. boilers. fabricated. given in Part l/Set 2 of the Code shall apply. includes Group J buildings for such locations where storage. TERMINOLOGY 3. for design and construction of electrical installations in industrial buildings. workshops. motor cars. the. 1. Buildings under Group G are further subdivided as follows: a) Subdivision G-l-Buildings used for low hazard industries . chemical factories.0 Industrial buildings by definition include any building or part of buildjng or structure. For the purpose of this part. or fire from some external source. dairies. manufacture or processing of highly combustible or explosive materials or products are being carried out. tobacco. steel works. such as office buildings.1 Industrial buildings are classified into Group G from the fire safety point of view in SP 7 : 1983*. SCOPE 1. Industrial installations are of various types and in a single industrial site.2.Includes any building in which the contents or industrial processes of operations conducted therein are liable to give rise to a fire which will burn with moderate rapidity and give off a considerable volume of smoke but from which neither toxic fumes nor explosions are to be feared in the event of fire. 1. locomotives. steel plants. 3. aircraft.2 Classification Based on Power Consumption 3. assembly plants. N OTE -. 172 TABLE 1 CLASSIFICATION BASED ON POWER CONSUMPTION D ESCRIPTION * (1) Light industries Average industries A VERAGE P OWER R EQUIREMENT (2) kVA up to 50 EXAMPLES (3) Hosiery. assembled. *Terminology based on IS : 732 (Part 2)-1982 Code of Practice for electrical wiring installations: Part 2 Design and Construction (second revision). manufactured or processed. 2. foundries. industries are classified based on three criteria as given in 3.1 Far the purpose of this Part. 3. rolling mills.See Appendix A. etc “. pumping stations. structural steel works. electrical loads of varying requirements are to be met. engine fitting.Includes any building in which the contents or industrial processes or operations conducted therein are liable to give rise to a fire which will burn with extreme rapidity or from which poisonous fumes or explosions are to be feared in the event of fire.2 This Part does not cover specific areas in industrial sites.1. electrical manufacturing and textile (see N OTE below) Heavy electrical equipment.1. For guidance. workers rest rooms. furniture.1 Classification Based on Fire Safety 3. chemical plants.Buildings used for moderate hazard industries . NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE .1 Industrial buildings are also classified depending on the quantum of electric power requirements for its services as given in Table I.1 This Part of the Code covers the guidelines cl Subdivision G-3-Buildings used for high hazard industries . fumes or smoke. for example. distilleries. canteen annexe.1 to’ 3.1.(Under consideration). refineries.SP 7 : 1983. in which products or materials of all kinds and properties are stored. 3. BUILDINGS 2. the definitions 3. Such installations including such high hazard locations in Group G classification shall comply with the special rules of Part 7 of the Code.classification given in Table 2 shall be referred to.Includes any building in which the contents are of such low combustibility and the industrial processes or operations conducted therein are of such a nature that there are no possibilities for any self-propagating fire to occur and the only consequent danger to life and property may arise’ from panic.3 Classification Based on Pollution . etc.2 Examples . dry cleaning plants. tailoring and jewellery Machinery. 3.

raw material industry) Tool making Press shop Machine shop Welding shop pollution arises due to abrasive. chemical works. workshop.6 0. or conductmg ducts Intermittent or Factory laboratories accidental subjec. For include possibifurther details lities of presence of foreign solid see Part I/%X 8 bodies of various of the Code sizes likely to affect electrical equipment (such as tools. For the purposes of installations falling under the scope of this Part. the characteristics given below shall apply.1 The following environmental factors shall apply to industrial installations: Environmenr (1) Characrerisrics (2) Remarks (3) Persons with tech.Negligible pollusive tion (Conrinued) PART 4 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS .0 Gineral guidelines on the assessment of characteristics of installations in buildings are given in Part I of the Code.1. For negligible. Capability of persons lnsttatcted persons. However persons (operatmg and maintenance staffl specific zones or operations involving uninstructed persons shall also be kept in view 4. steel works.4 0. wires. easy conditions of evacuations applies to buildings of normal or low height (Continued) 173 Presence of corro.This category pation.1 Environment 4.6 Atmospheric where the presence of corrosive the sea. spinndistributed over ing mill. insulati?g. etc tion to corrosive or polluting chemical substances being used or produced 2 0.2.7 Continuous pollution Machanical stress Impact/vibration of medium severity Impact/vibration of high severity Chemical works Usual industrial conditions Industrial installations subject to severe conditions Depends on the location of the buildings 3 Heat treatment shop. conductive parts either numerous or stand on con. rolling mills 0.boilers and tanks roundings and for whom the possibibility of interupting contact is limited Conditions of evacuation Low density occu. cement works where the I Repair shop. weavthe whole area ing mill and loaded constantly during the working day (precision mechantcal engineering) Loads fairly evenly distributed over the whole area.2 Utilization 4.6 0. GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS 4. or further details ossibilities of Pree falling drops see Part l/Set 8 of the Code or sprays Presence of foreign solid bodies Depends on the These conditions location.boiler rooms.9 Seismic effect and lightning - 4. dust. Majority of persons adequately aduttlising the indu‘svised or supertrial installations vised by skilled are in this category.1 The following aspects of utilization shall apply: Ulilizarion (1) Characrerisbcs (2) Remarks (3) 4.2.or large area ducting surfaces Persons are in Metallic surroundpermanent contact ings such as with metallic sur.Closed operating areas nical knowledge and sufficient experience (engineers and technicians) Presence of water Presence of water Depends on the location. etc) Contact of persons with earth potential Persons are frequently in touch Locations with extraneous conwith extraneous ducting parts. but varying loads and with peak load at different times (for example metal working industry) Loads having very high power requirement in conjunction with smaller loads of negligible size compared to the total load (for example. Small and large loads fairly evenly automatic lathe.2) Characlerisrics (2) Remarks (3) polluting substances SRotiPs T Y P E OF LOAD EXAMPLES POWER F ACTOR (4: 0.Enviyymenr TABLE 2 LOAD GROUPS IN INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS (Clause 3.

however.just outside the building. etc.1.6 F o r s m a l l s u b s t a t i o n s up to 1 6 0 0 kVA/ I I kV capacity. should be considered.1 If the load demand is high. furnaces. 5.2 All electrical apparatus shall be suitable for the voltage and frequency of supply available. 4.1.0.4 In very large industrial buildings where heavy electric demands occur at scattered locations. 5.of voltage regulation and 5.3 4.5 In order to ensure the reliability and safety expected of industrial substations. Transfbrnlers 5. c) Elimination of interference with . an assessment shall also be made of any characteristics of equipment like’ly to have harmful effects upon other equipme. 5.1.l. etc. such as large motors.1.0 The general requirements for substation installations given in Part 2 of the Code shall apply in addition to those given below. a separate substation should be set up. the greatest possible reliability of supply and adequate reserve of electrical capacity are the most important factors to avoid interruption of supply.nt or other services (SCP Part I /Set 8 of the Code). welding plant.An assessment shall also be made of the frequency and quality of maintenance the installation shall be receiving (see Part I /Set 8 of the Code).1. and the transformers are located . where manufacture. Though the use of high vohage s u p p l y e n t a i l s t h e provision of space ahd the capital cost of providing a suitable transformer substation on the consumer’s premises. 5. it is also possible to locate NATIONAL ELECTRICAL Compatibility . a bus-trunking arrangement may be desirable.0 General 5. 4 Better control .1 Industrial Substations 5. it is desirable to have circuit-breakers as the main switching e l e m e n t s o n b o t h s i d e s o f t h e transformer.2 The supply conductors should preferably be brought into the building underground to reduce the possibility of interruption of power supply.1 . SUPPLY CHARACTERISTICS AND PARAMETERS 5. b) More effective earth fault protection for heavy current circuits. the economics of electrical distribution at high voltage from the main substation to other subsidiary transformer substations or to certain items of plant.0. as far as possible. transformers being oil-filled apparatus. For an outdoor substation general guidelines as given in Part 2 of the Code shall apply.supplies to other consumers permitting the use of large size motors.factories. where load currents are less than 100 A on high voltage side and 600 A o n low voltage side. The relative economy attainable by use of medium or high voltage 174 CODE . are preferably located outdoors while the associated switchgear is located in a room of the building ne%t to the transformers. It shall be provided with proper ventilation and lighting. 5. pro. paper risks. The accommodation for substation equipment as well as for main distribution panel shall be properly chosen so as to prevent access by any unauthorised person.Wood-working shop. etc or storcessin age o F flammable materials. should be provided to house the switchgear equipment. For reasons of safety.4 Localion qf and SHitchgear . age of low-tlash. However. it may be considered desirable to locate the transformer also inside 1 the room. as close as possible to the main load centre.In industrial installations.The arrangement of the electrical system in industrial plants and the selection of electrical equipment depends largely on the type of manufacturing process. For bringing the supply into the factory building.Oil refineries. however it may often be found desirabte to avoid cable joints and connect the transformer directly to the switchgear placed on either side of the transformer. including presence of dust Processing or stor. 5.4 Maintainability . The transformer could be connected to the switchgear by cables for small loads. 5. and more constant supply voltage.3 In case of connected load of 100 kVA and above. It would also be desirable to locate the LV switchgear directly above the transformer.hydrocarbon point materials stores including presence of explosive dust distribution and high voltage plant is a matter for expert judgement and individual assessment in the light of experience by a professionally qualified electrical engineer.1.A s p e r convent\onal prictice. the relative advantage of high voltage three-phase supply should be considered. and also as short as possible on economic grounds. switches and fuses may also be used for this purpose. textile mills. These trunkings should.JMgtio Nature of processed or stored materials Charatgrdics Remarks (3) Existance of fire. which requires supply at voltages above 650 V. a separate indoor accommodation. however.3 In cases where the load currents are very high. be straight. 5.0. For oil-filled transformer. 5~0.1. the following advantages are gained: 4 Advantage in tariff. special means should be available for remote operation of t h e m a i n switches/circuit-Breakers i n a n emergency created by explosion/fire in the transformers.

5.2. 1 . and on other similar factors. bedded and armoured cable. the switchboards shall be specifically designed and protected against hazards mentioned above. In such cases. installed overhead/underground. 5 .going circuits forming main distribution system may be effected by means of circuit-breakers. and b) protection against entry of factory material like cotton. dust. wood dust. Distribution is done on HV or LV depending on the quantum of load to be transferred.2.3.3 Adequate passageways shall be allowed so that access to all switchboards for operation and maintenance is available.For installations where the system voltage exceeds 650 V. water during cleaning. the typical circuits and the recommended location ot lsolatlng switches-in such circuits are illustrated in IS : 732 (Part 2)-1982*. c) In installations other than those referred to in (a) and (b) or where overloading of circuits may be considered unlikely to occur. and e) Fault localisation.0 All switchgear equipment used in industrial installations shall be metal enclosed. b) Fire/explosion hazards. fuse switch or switch fuse units shall be used or fuses with switches forming part of the mean switchboard shall be used: 5. 5. 175 PART 4 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS . H RC type fuses will normally afford adequate protection for main circuits.3. served with PVC. served.1 For power distribution from a substation or main switchboard to a number of separate buildings. laid overhead/direct in the ground. specific care shall be taken for: a) Human safety.the substation at the load centre.2. and d) Overhead bus bar system with tap-off holes. Where means for isolating main circuits’is required. and when capacitors are to be installed advice of capacitor and switchgear manufacturers shall be sought. armoured and PVC- sheathed cable installed overhead/underground.2. in order to ensure effective earth fault protection. b) Where large electric motors. arm’oured and PVC-sheathed cable installed overhead/ underground. etc.2. etc. power is taken to the loads. it may be necessary to protect main circuits with circuit-breakers operated by earth leakage trips. 5. corrosion.2. 5.4 Switchboards should. or b) mineral-insulated metal-sheathed cable.3.3.2.3:s Certain applications may necessitate location of the switchboards on the factory floor itself. or through further load centre substations as would be the case with bigger installations. or cl PVC-insulated. or fuses or switchfuse units mounted on the main switchboards. *Code of practice for electrical wiring installations: Part 2 Design and construction (second revision). b) Floor mounted distribution boards. d) Easy identification. distance to be covered.2 It may be necessary to provide for connection of capacitors for power-factor correction. or 4 X L P E i n s u l a t e d . either directly as in the case of small factories.2 Distribution of Power 5.1 lsolation and protection of out. 5.1 From the main receiving station.2 In every layout. furnaces or other heavy electrical equipment is installed. c) Accessibility for repair/checking. 5. however. without a separate r o o m . 5.2. Reference should be made to the same for guidance regarding isolation depending on the type of supply system. the main circuits shall be protected by metal-clad circuit-breakers or contactors of air-break or oil-immersed type fitted with suitable instantaneous and time delay over current devices together with earth leakage and back-up protection where necessary. The choice between alternative types of equipment may be influenced by the following considerations: a) In certain installations where supply is from remote transformer substations. 5.3. Distribution is possible through one of the following: a) Wall-mounted distribution boards. Woodwork shall not be used for mounting off switchboards. Sufficient additional space shall be provided for anticipated future extensions.3 Main Distribution 5. c) Local fuse distribution boards. without separate rooms.3 Switchgear 5. preferably. the transformer shall be of the non-flammable synthetic oil type (these oils need care in handling). be located in separate control rooms to ensure: a) adequate protection against weather elemknts like heat. and against entry of excessive dust or corrosive gases. T h i s y i e l d s considerable economies in cost. use shall preferably be made of: 4 metal-sheathed.3. 7 I s o l a t i o n qf Switchgear . Where necessary the control rooms should be designed to avoid wide fluctuations in ambient temperature. In suchlcases.2.

1 In 3-phase distribution systems.9 In some installations. In workshops and factories where alterations and additions are frequent. corrosive elements being taken into account in conjunction with the protective coverings available. cables may be conveniently run or perforated metal cable trays.4 Subcircuits 5. liability to mechanical damage and the possibility of corrosion.1 Cables shall not be laid in the same trench or alongside a water main. 5.7 Where non-luminous heating appliance is to be used. should either be with armouring. Cables at voltages above 1 000 V should be laid at the lowest level in trenches. Alternatively.4. requirements in Section 2 of IS : 732 (Part 2)-1982*. the u.5 Where more than one distribution system is necessary. consideration shall be given to the replacement of local distribution boards by overhead bus-bar or cable systems. moisture and temperature conditions.3.1.10 Individual sub-mains shall be installed to suppl’)~ passenger and goods lifts from the main or sub-main switchgear. unless the maximum current. 5. as a precaution against accidents.8 Final subcircuits for lighting shall be so arranged that all the lighting points for a given area are fed from more than one final subcircuit. including the starting and accelerating current. it may be economical and convenient to install wiring in ducts or trunking.6 Earthing in Industrial Premises 5.6. The electricity regulations made under the Fa tories Act require that adequate precautions NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 176 . 5. with sufficient additional space to provide for anticipated future extensions. In this case earth continuity conductor shall be bonded to each section of ducts or trunking to provide permanancy of the electrical continuity of the joints of the ducts. 5.4. a neutral conductor may preferably be provided in all submain circuits even when there is no immediate requirement for the supply of single-phase circuits. pilot lamps shall be arranged to indicate when the circuit is live.5 Selection of Wiring Systems -The selection of a wiring system to be adopted in a factory depends upon the factors enumerated in part 1 /Set 11 of the Code. 5. In industrial installations. where demand presents sufficient diversity. switchgear. The cable routes where buried should be properly identified by route markers. Cables laid unde’rground or at low working levels. 5. starters.4. and clearly identified.2.4.4.4 In industrial installations. the motor circuit shall be clearly labelled. or should be adequately protected against mechanical damage.3. b) protection against corrosion.4. addition to the main pins required for the purpose. These shall be of metal clad type.4. Control devices are often designed for connection between one phase and neutral and considerable extra cost may be involved if a fourwire sub-main has to be installed i?.6 In industrial premises.3. Selection from a group of alternative systems shall be made in accordance with Appendix B. cable sheaths.0 The subcircuit wiring shall conform in general to the. 5. and at the highest level on walls.4. nature of the c) occupancy of the building.1. 5.0 In factories and workshops all metal conduits.se of ringcircuit system of wiring is usually advantageous from the point of view of providing an adequate member of outlets. 5. place of a three-wire sub-main previously installed. The wiring system available for general use are Ii&ted in Appendix B. The supply to small hoists and service lifts shall not be taken from a distribution board controlling final sub-circuits for lighting. 5. fluff. the branch distribution boards shall be totally segregated for single phase wiring. The marker should necessarily indicate the voltage level. for example. the socket outlets shall be so selected as to obviate inadvertent wrong connections. trunking. 5. Where the supply is taken from such a distribution board.3 In machine shops and factories w h e r e alterations i n layout may repeatedly occur. structural conditions. 5. 5.2 Cable trenches shall be made. keeping in view the requirements of human safety. and d) presence of dust.4. of the motor i_s less than 20 percent of the total rating of all the ways of the distribution boards. to which subcircuit are connected through fused plugs in tapping boxes wherever required. by the use of conduits. keeping in view the particular circumstances of each ciiht having regard to: a) location. socket outlets of rating 30 A and above shall be provided with interlocked type switch. motors and all other parts made of metal shall be bonded together and connected to an efficient earth sy~ Em. and the lift manufacturer shall be consulted as to the appropriate rating of cables to be employed. 5. 3-phase and neutral socket outlets shall be provided with earth terminal either of pin type or scrapping type in *Code of practice for clcctrical wiring installations: Part 2 Design and construction (zcw~rtl rrlGiotl). 5.2 Cables at different voltage levels should be laid with adequate separation.4. distribution fuse boards.5.4.

5.6. 5.5. overload protective devices may be used as earth leakage protective device.2 Earth Continuity Conductor the earth-continuity conductors should be correlated with the size of the current carrying conductors. Any discontinuity in this loop will interrupt the circulating current and can thus be caused to operate a relay and disconnect the supply from the portable appliance.4 No twisted or taped joints shall be used in earth wires. As regards the sizes of galvanized iron and steel earth-continuity conductors. having one or more substations.1 Good electrical continuity between the body of a portable appliance and the earthcontinuity conductor shall always be maintained. The size of earth-continuity conductors to be used along with aluminium current-carrying conductors should be calculated on the basis of equivalent size of the copper current-carrying conductors. A separate earth wire shallFe p’rovided either inside or outside the flexible conduits which shall be connected by means of earth clips to the earth system at one end and to the equipment at the other end.4 Flexible conduits shall not be used as earth-continuity conductors. if used. as the generator is not connected electrically to a motor and therefore the welding circuit is electrically separate from the supply ctrcuit including the earth.Irrespective of’ the size or type of machine tools. 5. Some degree of discrimination may. so that earth faults on smaller subsidiary circuits protected by fuses have time to clear and prevent the opening of the circuit-breaker.3.6.5 Additional security may be obtained by arranging the earth-continuity conductor in the flexible cable between the socket outlet and the portable appliance in the form of a loop through which a light circulating current provided by a small low-voltage transformer is passed when the appliance is in use. metal conduits cannot be used as earth-continuity conductor on account of corrosion.6.Any of the earth electrodes as mentioned in Part I of the Code except cable sheath.6. shall be included in the bonding.3 Conduits may be used as ‘earthcontinuity conductors provided they are permanently and securely connected to the earth system.6. the bed plate of the machine shall be earthed by means of a strip or conductor of cross-sectional area not less than 6.2 All terminals on the output side of a motor generator set shall be insulated from the car case and control panel.5 mm2 for aluminium and need not be greater than 70 mm2 for copper and 120 mm2 for aluminium.0 Portable appliances and tools having reinforced or double insulation need not be earthed.2. 5. they may be equal to the size of the current carrying conductors with which they are used.3.For flexible 5.1 Earth-continuity conductors and earth wires not contained in the cables -The size of relieved of the thermal and mechanical socks associated with the ‘clearance of heavy faults.2 It shall be ascertained that the fixed wiring at the appliance inlet terminals has been done correctly and in accordance with relevant Indian Standard.2.3. the circuits may be 5.6. IO mm? if of aluminium. that is. 5. the tough rubber or PVC sheathed cables may be used in which case they shall incorporate an earthcontinuity conductor. may be used in industrial premises. In larger installations. the size of the earth-continuity conductors should be equal to the size of the currentsarrying conductors and for metal sheathed. 5.6.6.6.5 Earthing of Electric Arc Equipment Welding 5. 5.3. the sizes of earth-continuity conductors should not be less than half of the largest current-carrying conductor.6. 5. in certain cases. With a good earth electrode.2. In addition to the advantage of sensitivity gained by such methods. 177 PART 4 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS . The strip or conductor shall be securely fastened to the bed plate by means of a. it is recommended to parallel all earth-continuity system. be introduced with advantage by providing the delay in the operation of an earth-leakage trip.2 Earth-continuity conductors and earth wires contained in the -cables . cables.3 Earthing of Portable Appliances and 5. PVC and tough rubber sheathed cables the sizes of the earth-continuity conductors shall be in accordance with relevant Indian Standard.shall be taken to prevent non-current-carrying metal work of the installation from becoming electrically charged.1 Earth Electrodes. Tools 5. The transformers and separate regulators forming multioperator sets and capacitors for power factor correction.6.6. controlling a larger part of the installation.3.1 All components of electric arc welding equipment shall be effectively bonded and connected to earth.6.5 mm2 for copper and 2. bolt. and I6 mm’ if of galvanized iron or steel.5 Earth leakage protection . provided the minimum size of earth-continuity conductors is not less than 1.6. where by nature of the process.5 mm? if of copper.5.6.Use of earth leakage protection shall be made where greater sensitivity than provided by overcurrent protection is’ necessary.6.2.3. However. 5.4 Earthing of Electrically! Driven Machine Tools. 5. etc. 5.6.2. 5. 5.6.3 A single pole switch shall not be connected in the earth conductor.

discrimination in operation may be achieved by adjusting the protective devices of the sub-main circuit-breakers to operate at lower current settings and shorter timelag than the main circuit-breaker. a quarter wavelength is nearly 250 cm and an earth wire of this length or odd multiples of it is capable of being at earth potential at one end but several hundred volts at the other end. in the event of short circuits exceeding the breaking capacity of the circuit: breakers. 5.6. which for welding purpose are double wound.1. the main circuit fuSe shall normally blow in the event of a short-circuit or earth fa’ult occurring on a subcircuit. independent source of supply for emergency service in particular installations may be provided. The metal of the furnace charge is earthed by electrodes connected at the bottom Of the charge. Precautions shall be taken that in such a case the oscilloscope is suitably protected from other apparatus. This capacitor shall be securely earthed.6. Provision shall also be made for control of general lighting and other emergency services through separate main circuits and distribution boards from the power circuits. the oscilloscope shall be earthed by a conductor entirely separate from that used by the source of high frequency power. 5. the following fire detection and extinguishing systems are recommended for industrial buildings: a) Buildings for low hazard industries .shall be provided.6.1.1 Besides fire fighting equipment. The ratings and settihgs of fuses and the protective devices shall be co-ordinated so as to afford selectivity in operation where necessary.4 If rcwirable type fuses are used to protect subcircuits derived form a main circuit protected by HRC type fuses. 7. 7.6. 5 .1 Any industrial electronic apparatus which derives its supply from two-pin plugs incorporates small capacitors connected between the supply and the metal case of the instfument to cut down interference. the circuit-breakers shall operate earlier than the HRC fuse.6.2 Fire-safety Requirements 7. 7.6. the H RC fuses shall operate earlier than the circuit-breakers. although discrimination may be achieved in respect of overload currents.2 When an oscilloscope is being used to examine the wave-form of a high frequency source. At 30 MHz.5. ihe earthing of the oscilloscope is not possible.6. In such a case it is recommended to mount the equipment ori a large sheet of copper or copper gauze. SYSTEM PROTECTION 7. and the furnace coils are connected to the mains supply but are unearthed.6 If necessary. for example. 6. 5.5 In case where direct earthing may prdve harmful rather than provide safety.1.6.4 Dielectric loss heating equipment work at frequencies between IO MHz to 60 MHz according to its use.6.5. that may occur.1. the earth conductor being connected to it at several points. or where HRC fuses are used for protection of main circuits and circuit-breakers for the protection of subcircuits derived therefrom.3 In case of transformer sets. special precautions are necessary. The object is to prevent dangerous break-through of hot metal through the furnace lining. an ‘earth and work’ terminal. 7. 6 Earrhing qf Apparatus Industrial Electronic _~ the furance out of service and to re-line.2 Where circuit-breakers are used for protection pf a main circuit and of the subcircuits derived therefrom. 7. 5.0 The earthing of these apparatus shall follow normal practice but attention shall be paid to the points discussed below.3 High frequency induction heating apparatus shall be earthed by means of separate earth wire by as direct a route as possible. 6 .Not required 5. 7.3 Where HRC type fuses are used for backup protection of circuit-breakers. for higher level either cartridge or HRC fuses shall be used.6. This is due to the presence o f s t a n d i n g w a v e s o n t h e e a r t h conductors which besides being dangerous can result in energy being radiated to the detriment of communication services. for example. 7.1 Appropriate protection shall be provided at switchboards and distribution boards for all circuits and subcircuits against overcurrent and earth faults. when an oscilloscope is being used on a circuit where the negative is above earth potential and also connected to its metallic case.5.5.1.1. The use of rewirable fuses is restricted to the circuits with short-circuit level of 4 kA.6. 5. and the protective apparatus shall be capable of interrupting any short-circuit current.6. but for smaller overloads within the breaking capacity of the circuitbreakers. In single phase sets this terminal shall be connected to one end of the secondary winding and in case of three-phase sets this shall be connected to the neutral point of the secondary winding. A relay is connected by a detection circuit which itself is earthed to the coils. However. the earth detection circuit gibing a continuous review of the conditions for the furnace lining. high’ frequency and mains frequency coreless induction furnaces.1 Protection of Circuits 7. These should not be directly earthed. EMERGENCY/STANDBY POWER SUPPLIES 6.6.1 The provisions of Part 2 of the Code shall apply. When leakage current attains a certain set maximum it becomes necessary to take 178 NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE . without danger.

Heating and Ventilation 8. Where it is impossible to avoid extreme environmental conditions.1 The general rules laid down in Part 1 /Set 14 of the Code shall apply regarding lift installations. etc. For specific guidance for installations covered by this part.3 Power Factor Compensation heating. BUILDXNC SERVlCES 8.Reference should be made to IS : 7689-1974* r e g a r d i n g recommendations for controlling static electricity generated incidentally by processes in industries which may pose a hazard or inconvenience. warehouses and similar buildings should be planned to suit the progressive movement of goods through the buildings having regard to the nature of processes carried out.IS : 6665-19727.3.2.1 ‘The provisions of Part 1 /Set 17 of the Code ‘shall apply. operating conditions and economy.1 Equipment for Lighting -The choice of light sources and luminaries shall be governed by the guidelines given in IS : 6665-19727.3. electro-heat installations such as: 7. Reference should be made to the guidelines given in SP : 7-1983:. With each of the various visual task conditions.2 Reference is also drawn to 1s : 16461961* regarding rules and regulations relating to electrical installations from the point of fire safety. position of loading platform. tSafety requirements in electro-heat installations. The selection of electrical equipment shall be such that they are suitable to meet the conditions involved. See Appendix E. Specific control methods are also given for some industries therein. 8. 8. Appendix C covers specific requirements for fire safety for representative industries.b) Buildings for moderate i) Area up to 750 m* ii) Area above 750 m* hazard industries: Automatic ‘firealarm system Automatic sprinkler or automatic fire alarm system a) Occupant load-the occupant load expressed in terms of gross area in m*/person shall be 10 for industrial buildings. tCode of practice for industrial lighting. Installations lndustrial process include in many instances.1 Control of Static Electricity . T h e recommended values of illumination and limiting va!ues of glare index are given in Appendix D for guidance. The general considerations for design of lighting in industrial areas are enumerated in . For safety requirements in such ‘electro-heat installations referrence shall be made to IS : 9080 ( P a r t s 1 to IV)t.0 Industrial lighting encompasses seeing tasks. b) Car-speed. heating and dielectric heating appliances. However:.These shall be as follows: Normal load carrying lifts-2-2. r.2. c) Appliances for direct and indirect resistance heating. 9. lighting contribute to the utmost as’ a safety factor in preventing accidents. or where it may be ‘exposed to extreme temperatures shall be avoided.2 Safety in Electra-Heat . MISCELLANEOUS/SPECIAL PROVISIONS 9. therefore. 9. 8 .5 m/s Lifts serving many floors -1 m/s 8. and 0 Microwave heating. 8. PART 4 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS 179 . *Guide for the control of undesirable static electricity.for goods Ilfts .1.3. d) Medium and high frequency induction e) Infra-red radiatum heating appliances. *Code of practice for fire safety of buildings (general): Electrical installations. Physical hazards exist in many manufacturing processes.1 Lighting 8. b) Induction furnaces.1. The placing of a lift in a fume or dust laden atmosphere.2 The location of lifts in factories.1 The electrical installation meant for the services such as air-conditioning heating and ventilation in industrial buildings shall conform to the requirements given in Part 1 /Set 14 of the Code. 9. $Nationa’l Building Code. the design of lifts in industrial buildings shall1 take into account the following requirements: 4 Arc furnaces. The specific needs of individual locations reqliiring these services in each factory shall be ascertained in consultation with the concerned personnel before designing the electrical system. railway slidings. The speed of many manufacturing operations might alsd be hampered due to poor lighting. 9.3 Lifts ‘8. lighting should be suitable for adequate visibility.f.2 Air-conditioning.

kimam and pan NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE b) Moderate Hazard Arecanut/ betelnut factories Atta and cereal grinding premises Bakeries and/or biscuit factories Beedi factories Book binders and paper cutting premises Book sellers and stationers’ shops Boot and shoe factories and other leather 180 . factories Essential oil distillation plants Flour mills Garment makers Ghee manufacturing premises Ginning and pressing factories Grains and/or seeds disintegrating factories Grease manufacturing works Hat and topee factories Hosiery factories Incandescent gas mantle manufacturers Jute mills and jute presses Mineral oil blending and processing works Mutton tallow manufacturers Manure and/or fertilizer works (blending.1 . I . The following is a representative list of industries classified according to the degree of fire hazard enumerated in 3.APPENDIX (Clause 3. zarda.l: a) Low Hazard tndustries Abrasive manufacturing premises Aerated water factories Agarbatti manufacturing premises Aluminium copper and zinc factories Asbestos steam packing and lagging manufacturers Battery manufacturers Bone mills Breweries Canning factories Carbon dioxide plants Cardamom factories Cement factories Cement and/or asbestos or concrete products manufacturing premises Ceramic and crockery factories Clay works Clock and watch manufacturing premises Confectionery manufacturers Electric generating houses E l e c t r i c l a m p s a n d fluorescent t u b e manufacturers Electronic goods manufacturing premises Electroplating workshops Engineering workshops Fruit products and condiment factories Gold thread factories/gilding factories Glass factories Gum and glue factories Ice candy and ice cream manufacturing premises Ice factories Ink factories (excluding printing inks) Milm pasteurising plants and dairy farms Mica products manufacturing premises Potteries/tiles and brick works Rice mills Refractoriesiworks and firebrick kilns Salt crushing factories and refineries Silicate (other than sodium silicate) factories Soap and. mixing and granulating only) Mattresses and pillow making premises Oxygen plants Paper mills Pencil factories Plastic goods manufacturers Printing press premises Pulverising and crushing mills (hazardous materials) Rice mills Rope factories Rubber goods manufacturers Sheliac factories Spray painting works Starch factories Synthetic fibre manufacturing premises Tea factories Thermal power stations Tobacco (chewing). detergent factories Sugar candy manufacturers Sugar factories Tanneries Tea colouring factories Umbrella factories Vermicelli factories Wire drawing works A EXAMPLES OF INDUSTRIES BASED ON FIRE-SAFETY goods factories Boat builders and ship repairing docks Button factories Candle works Canvas sheet manufacturers Cardboard box manufacturers Carbon paper manufacturing premises Carpet and durries factories Carpenter’s workshops Camphor boiling premises Cashew nut factories (using open fire) Gnmng and pressing factories Cloth processing works Coffee curing premises Coffee roasting and grinding works mixing a n d / o r b l e n d i n g Colouridyes factories Coir factories Cork factories Cork stopper and other cork products manufacturing premises Collieries Chemical manufacturers Cotton mills Dyeing and dry cleaning works Electric wire and cable manufacturing premises EnameJ.2) A-l.

NOTE .musalu making premises Tobacco grinding and crushing and snuff manufacturing premises Tobacco’ curing and redrying factories Tobacco pressmg works Upholsterers Weaving factories Wooilen mills Wool cleaning/pressing factories Yam gassing plants. L Rubber-insulated lead-alloy-sheathed cables incorporating an earth continuity conductor. WIRING SYSTEMS FOR GENERAL B SELECTION OF WIRING SYSTEMS APPLICATIdN 4 Bare solid or tubular conductors supported on insulators in metal or incombustible structural ducts or chases (main connections). g) Grid suspension wiring system comprising rubber-insulated or PVC. protected as necessary against mechanical damage and corrosion. k) Mineral-insulated metal-sheathed cable with or without protective shearhing with suitable watertight glands.Incombustible insulated trunking and ducts provide an alternative and where these are used a bare copper or copper-alloy earth-continuity conductor may be required. hay.5) B-1.or other insulated conduit and provided with a bare copper or copper-alloy earth-continuity conductor as necessary.Where a lead-sheathed cable has plumbed joints a separate earth-continuity conductor may not be required. braided overall or otherwise protected to withstand corrosive conditions where necessary.The use of galvanized conduit and PVC- 3 4 Rubber-insulated braided’ and compounded eS or PVC-insulated cable installed in lightgauge steel conduit with lug grip. C) High Hazard Acetylene plants Alcohol distillers Aluminium and magnesium powder plants B i t u m i n i s h e d p a p e r / hessian cloth manufacturing premises Bobbin factories Cinematograph film production studies Calcium carbide plants Cotton waste factories Coal/coke/charcoal ball and briquettes factories Celluloid goods manufacturers Cigarette filter manufacturers Cotton seed cleaning or deliniting premises Duplicating and stencil paper manufacturers Fertilizer plants Explosive manufacturers Fireworks factories Foam plastics and foam rubber goods manufacturers Grass.-. Rubber-insulated braided and compounded or PVC-insulated cable installed in PVC. N O T E. N OTE . b) Tough rubber-sheathed or PVC-sheathed cables protected as necessary against mechanical damage.Polythene-insulated PVC-sheathed cable provides an alternative having the advantage of high insulation-resistance. or PVC-insulated cable installed on cleats. manufacturers Surgical cotton manufacturers Tar distilleries Tar felt manufacturing premises Tarpauplin and canvas proofing factories Timber and woodworkers’ premises Tin printers (where more than 50 percent of floor area is occupied as engineering workshop this may be taken as moderate hazard risk) Terpentino distilleries Tyre retreading and resoling factories Woodmeal manufacturers APPENDIX ( Clause 5. say. or rubber-insulated aluminium-sheathed cable. with appropriate protection where cable passes through floors or walls. insulated cables laid around a galvanized steel catenary wire. 4 Rubber-insulated braided and compounded or PVC-insulated cable installed in heavygauge screwed conduit. ?ART 4 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS 181 . fodder and bhoosa (chaff) pressing’ factories Match factories Oil mills Oil extraction plants Oil and leather cloth factories Paint (including nitrocellulose paints) and varnish factories Petrochemical plants Plywood factories Printing ink manufacturers Resin and lamp black manufacturers Rubber substitute. h) Rubber-insulated braided and compounded insulated NOTE. Rubber-insulated braided and compounded or PVC-insulated cable installed in metal trunking or ducts. cable is to be preferred where the situation may be damp or long hfe is required. buried in plaster or installed in concrete ducts.

or v) In concealed spaces. The cables shall be carried through holes in the barriers. teak battens by screws of corrosion-resisting material. Same as in case of wiring system (d). h) Rubber-insulated. the following restrictions to their use apply: 182 .ml P a p e r . lead-alloy-sheathed or aluminium-sheathed. following locations unless the cable is of (P) and (v) PVC-sheathed type. steel tape or wire armoured.o r a l u m i n i u m - sheathed cable with steel wire or tape armour as necessary. iii) where wet processes are carried out. Wiring System (see Restrictions B-l. ii) Where ambient temperature is likely to be above 55°C at sometime or other durmg the year. nium-sheathed cable or PVC-insulated and PVC-sheathed cable. This system shall not be permitted in locations: i) where exposed to severe physical damage. It shall be permitted only where voltage is below 650 V and in locations where the atmosphere is unlikely to contain any flammable vapours or gases. steel tape or wire armoured cable or PVC-insulated steel tape or wire armoured and PVC-sheathed cable with cleat or hook suspensions. NOTL -. Trunking or ducting systems for cables above (c) ground shall not be used where: i) They are exposed to physical damage. lead-alloy sheathed or aluminium-sheathed. dusts and waste materials. iii) In case of long trenches. b) Paper-insulated. or iv) in concealed places. Varnished cambric insulated cables without metal sheath should be used only for short connections on switchboards and the like in dry situations. N O T E. B-2) tb) and (g) If the ducts are in the form of under floor trenches then the following provisions should be observed: i) Cables shall preferably be so mounted on insulated racks or other supports as to be at least 75 mm above the bottom. unless protected against mechanical damage. and so installed as to be protected against mechanical damage. rubber-insulated. and shall not be permitted in locations exposed to corrosive fumes or vapour. or v) Where conductor operates at voltage above 650 V. in (m). SELECTION OF WIRING SYSTEMS FOR FACTORIES B-3. Ordinary steel conduits shall not be permitted in areas where flammable vapour may be present. and battery rooms. such as Monel metal or phosphor-bronze. which shall be made good thereof to prevent the passage of tire beyond the barriers. iii) In concealed spaces of combustible construction. l e a d . (n). it is recommended that trenches of more than I 000 cm2crosssectional area be divided by incombustible barriers at intervals not exceeding 45 m. Itad-or aluminium- e) Tough rubber-sheathed or PVC-sheathed g) Varnished-cambric insulated. steel wire armoured. Same as in case of wiring system (d). cable mounted on insulating non-hygroscopic cleats affixed to treated. sheathed cable or PVC-insulated and PVCsheathed cable. unless it is of type conforming with wiring system (1) and shall not be permitted in locations: i) Where wiring height is less than 2.Precautions should be taken against the drainage of oil and in certain instances cables of the non-draining type are required. B-3. ii) They are exposed to corrosive vapours.5 m above working floor level. tough rubber-sheathed cable. ii) Top of trenches shall be covered with chequered plates or concrete slabs.i n s u l a t e d .1 Even though guidance may be taken from the selection chart (Table 3) for wiring systems. and v) The cable trenches shall be kept ‘free from accumulation of water. ci) Armoured cables shall not be permitted.1 Wiring systems suitable for installations in different categories of factories are given i n Table 3. B-4. served and impregnated cable or PVC-insulated and steel tape or wire armoured and PVC-sheathed cable buried directly in the ground or used in special conditions. ii) where exposed to corrosive vappurs. iv) Where atmosphere is likely to contain flammable gases or vapours. lead-alloy or aluminium-sheathed cable. installed in underground earthenware ducts or metal pipes. NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE B-2. mounted on porcelain or hardwood cleats or in trenches or ducts. iii) Where atmosphere is likely to -contain flammable gases or vapours. SPECIAL RESTRICTIONS B-4. Rubber-insulated braided and compounded or PVC-insulated cable installed in galvanized solid-drawn screwed conduit with flameproof couplings and inspection fittings. iv) The combined cross-sectional area of all conductors or cables shall not as far as possible exceed 40 percenl of the internal cross-sectional area of the trench. The barriers shall be at least 50 mm in thickness and of the same height as of cable trench. ADDITIONAL WIRING SYSTEMS PARTICULARLY SUITABLE FOR USE IN FACTORIES AND THE LIKE a) Paper-insulated. iv) Where wet processes are carried out. c) Paper-insulated lead or lead-alloy or alumi- d) Paper. (h) and fs) These systems should only be permitted for voltage below 250 V and that too only if use of such system is essential.

Stop motion rooms devices provided on frames snail be dust-tight Wiring in steel conduits. lap air for variable ment shall be speed motor taken flamqproof in gas breaking. waste opening. from outside the smgemg rooms. jute rope. G g C ATEGORY Heavy Industry OF FACTORY Chemical industry _ 1st Choice (8) S Light industry 1st Choice (6) 5 k r C I St Choice (4) a k qt a C f k P r :: j Factories InvolvinG?e (10) k .. carpet making factories Cotton ginning cotton seed delintering and pressing factories Plants making viscose rayon yarn or staple fibre or both IS : 2726 All motors shall All equipment be totally enclosed shall be metal type and in wet clad.3079 Totally enclosed Dust-tight lightMetal clad and type.. dust-tight locations shall be drip-proof -do- Li hting fittings s 1 all be dusttight All equipment in Vapour-proof lighting fittings the Xanthation area and finished in areas where disulphide plant corrosive gases .TABLE 3 SELECTION CHART FOR WIRING SYSTEMS FOR INSTALLATIONS IN FACTORIES ( C l a u s e s 5. APPENDIX (Clause 7. c. Average Factory 7 2nd Choice Choice (2) (3) a k i . blow and ra..2. 183 PART 4 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS . contacts liable for corrosion shall be cadmium plated Textile mills using cotton. Lighting fittings of enclosed type All current carrying parts. ISS MOTORS O THER E Q U I P M E N T (1) J&e spinning and (2) (3) (4) F ITTINGS (5) MISCELLANEOUS (6) Sup ly shall be at < 4SO V in jute godowns IS : 3836 weavmg.1 a n d Bf4.v see B-l and B-2. b.ing fittings at willowing. cotton waste regenerated cellulose.ising building.shall comply with are evolved Part VII of the Code IS . 2nd Ye : i g V (1) Main distribution at medium or low voltage 2nd Choice (7) P V 2nd Choice (9) . mixing. man made Ji bres or any grouping of these Places where paints and varnishes are stored or processed Machines for singeing yarn shall be protected lo ensure that heating elements are not switched on while yarn is stationary IS : 9109 Provisions shall be made for switching off the whole factory at more than one control point. Equip.5.2) T+PE O F C REQUIREMENTS FOR FIRE SAFETY IN SPECIFIC INDUSTRIES INDUSTRY R E F. I) S EC T I O N O F INSTALLATION . 4 r L Y Sub-main distribution lo local distribution boards a C : P V h f ff P V f S b q r k t Sub-circuit wiring C C f f V N O T E- f k V g b h j C f s k t For description of a. the ‘cooling dust-tight.

etc. internal factory roads 114 - NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE . totally enclosed type Fan motors of dryers and wither. corridors. as also equipment. switch and socket shall be watertight. powders of aluminium. Flexible connection to the stacker through rubber compound sheathed trailing cable with hard cord braiding Screwed steel cbn. immersion type or totally enclosed low temperature type with external surface below 92°C Saw mills. General factor areas: a) Canteens b) Cloakroom.T YPE OF IN D U S T R Y (1) R E F. liquids. furni. pulverising mills. magnesium and their alloys are processed or used Coal. etc : 6329 Motors shall be totally enclosed or pipe ventilated All equipment shall be dust-tight and where spray painting is done shall comply with Part 7 of the Code APPENDIX (Clause 8. nitroLighting fittings cellulose. enclosed All switchgear equipment metal enclosed. outdoor storage sites formmg part of industrtal complexes or others: cold storage buildings IS : 3594 Driving motors for overhead cranes totally . fire works to be ositioned not bePow 45 cm or explosives are stored below roof. therein for power generation cole or briquette making Tea factories IS : 3595 Lighting fittings shall be dusttight.’ c) Entrances. coach and body build works. practicable.ing troughs and other control aquipment shall be dust proof type.IS ture factories. stairs 2.temperature allowed Godowns. flameproof. insulation boards. Temperature of eqqipment IO’C ovq normal working . totally enclosed.1) D RECQMMENDED VALUES OF ILLUMINATION AND LIMITING VALUES OF G&ARE INDEX-INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS SL No. armoured or mineral insulated type ‘of wiring - Use of flexible cables to be kept_ to the minimum IS : 4886 Where. Factory outdoor areas: Stockyards. dustproof (see Part 7 of the Code) OTHER EQUIPMENT (4) All equipment of the enclosed type FITTINGS (5) Wiring in steel conduits. A clearanoe of not less than 75 cm to be provided from highest stacking level..Q I AVERAGE ILLUMINATION lux I50 100 100 20 L IMITING G LARE IN D E X I.1.All control equipment switches. 1% (2) IS : 4226 MOTORS (3) Motors shall be flameproof dustprotected (see Part 7 of the Code) Totally enclosed. exit roads. wood flour. upholsteries and other wood working shops. warehouses. flammable sheathed cable. INDMTRIAL RtItLotNGs AND PRO~‘ESSE. wood wool. main entrances. Flexible lighting pendants or portable lamps not allowed Electrical heaters shall be metal cased. car parks. copper outside godown or aluminium where fibrous goods. Only conduits. Enclosed lighting fittings h’t IsCELLANEOUS (6) -do- Factories where. duits mineral insulated. For mains operated electrical stackers. Plywood hardwood.

screw fastening. bean cleaning. 20 to 25 w 20 50 7. boiling tanks. milling. fringing c) Weaving. riveting. miscellaneous machines c) Finishing. winnowing. fat extraction. inspection c) Maintenance and repairs (Hangers) Assembly shops: a) Rough work. gauges. wrapping rooms b) Decorating and icing Boiler houses (industrial): a) Coal and ash handling b) Boiler rooms: i) Boiler fronts and operating areas ii) Other areas c) Outdoor plants: i) Catwalks ii) Platforms Bookbinding: a) Pasting. :. sub-assembly. jacquard and cutting. for example. inspection. a) General working areas b) Brewhouse. inspection Ceramics -see pottery and clay products Chemical works: a) Hand furnaces. oven rooms. stationery or gravity crystalizers. setting pattern. rice. b) Binding and folding. for example. 13. 5. instruments Bakeries: a) Mixing and make-up rooms. electrolytic cells b) Controls.I% 3. mending. sorting. feeding. assembly of very small precision mechanisms. frame assembly. punching and stitching. beaming b).Designing. wrapping. mechanical cleaning. vehicle body assembly c) Fine work. machined parts. :: - 6. values. crushing and refining. percolators. blending. stationery driers. 25 :: - 12. nitrators. for example. :: 22 2s 25 - 9. Canning and preserving factories: a) Inspection of beans. :: 22 8. topping. barley. evaporators. for example. tufting. boiling b) Chocolate husking. final assembly. sheet aluminium layout and template work. preparatory operations c) Cutting table and presses. extractors. assembly of heavy machinery b) Medium work. finishing e) Shoe rooms Breweries and distilleries: I 000: 700 IO00 :3 100 GLARE INDEX 450 300 25 25 300 IS0 300 700 I &lo* 25 28 25 22 I9 4. $pecial attention should be paid to the colour quality o. trimming c) Canned and bottled goods: retorts d) High speed labelling lines e) Can inspection Carpet factories: a) Winding.B the light. Chocolate’ and confectionery factories: a) Mixing. blocking and in laying Boot and shoe factories: a) Sorting and grading b) Clicking and closing. mechanical crystalizing bleaching. filtration plants. dicing. cowling welding. engine assembly. stitching d) Bottom stock preparation. - IS0 w 200 to 300 300 28 - 28 :: *Opiical aids should be used’ where necessary. cream making c) Hand decorating. typewriter and office machinery-assembly d) Very fine work. wing sections. I NDUSTRIAL B UILDINGS AND PROCFSSE~ OVERAGE LIMITING ~LIUMINATION lux Aircraft factories and mainmnance hangers: a) Stock parts productions b) Drilling. PART 4 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS 185 . bottling and canning plants c) Bottle inspection IO. radio and telephone equipment. lasting and bottoming. TSupplementary local hghtlng may be requtred lor gauge lasses and instrument panels. etc c) Control rooms: i) Vertical control panels ii) Control desks 14. mechanical driers. etc b) Preparation: kettle areas. cutting. packing iii Special lighting 450 :: :E 300 450 200 450 450 :: - II. hemming.

boilers. preciprtators. blowers auxiliary generators. I9 :: 22 22 I9 I9 I9 I9 I9 I9 25 25 IE 750 lW 2w . battery rooms. Electricity generating stations: Indoor locations a) Turbine halls b) Auxiliary equipment. soot and slag blowers d) Boiler house and turbine house e) Basements f) Conveyor houses. Dye works: a) Reception. NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE . I NDUSTRIAL B UILDING S AND P ROCESSES AVERAGE ILLUMINAT!~N IUX L IMITING G LARE I NDEX 15. iii) Picking belts iv) Winding houses b) Lamp rooms: i) Main areas ii) Repair sections iii) Weigh cabine c) Fan houses 17. junction towers g) Control rooms: i) Vertical control panels ii) Control desks iii) Rear of control panels iv) Switch houses h) Nuclear reactors and steam raising plants: i) Reactor areas. Collieries (surface buildings): a) Coal preparation plant: i) Working areas ii) Other areas. ‘grey’ perching b) Wet processes c) Dry processes d) Dyers’ offices ‘e) Final perching 20. galleries ii) Gas circulator days iii) Reactor charge/discharge face 2 I. conveyer gantries. tSupplementaty local lighting may be required for gauge glasses and instrument panels. Dairies: a General working areas bf Bottle inspection c) Bottle filling 18. No. Die sinking: a) General b) Fine 19. switchgear and transformer chambers c) Boiler houses (including operating floors) platforms. Clothing factories: a) Matching-up b) Cutting sewing: i) Light ii) Medium iii) Dark iv) Pressing c) Inspection: i) Light ii) Medium iii) Dark d) Hand tailoring: ~’ i) Light ii)dedium iii) Dark 16. pulverizers. :: 25 200 lo :z I50 I50 I50 I50 200 _ 1000 I9 - l 186 Spectal attention should be paid to the colour quality of the light.SI. Electricity generating stations: Outdoor locations a) Coal unloading areas b) Coal storage areas c) Conveyors d) Fuel oil delivery headers e) Oil storage tanks f) Catwalks g) Ptatforms.. boiler and turbine decks h) Transformers and outdoor switchgear 22.. Engraving: a) Hand b) Machine (see Die sinking) 4502 :z :z 450 1000 I 500 450 1000 I 500 I50 :: I50 lo0 I50 I50 100 2001 Special lighti.g: 200 100 70 to loo 100 70 70 to loo 25 I9 I9 . feeders. coal conveyors.

etching. refining forming. sub-assemblies c) Fine work. polishing. tSupplementary local lighting and optical aids should be used where necessary :Optical aids should be used where necessary. greasing. sifting and packing floors b) Wetting tables Forges: General Foundries: a) Charging floors. 100 :. purifier. braiding. pits c) Repairs Gas works: a) Retort houses. water gas plants. I50 22 iii 700 :: 22 33. medium. and hand finishing. pouncing. meter. coke screening and coke handling plants (indoor) b) Governor. precision mechanisms. 300 300 450 I :g 700 450 I50 300 ‘700 :z$ 22 :: 22 I9 I9 I9 34. knjtfing. sorting. pressing. for example. 32.: 29. finishing ironing. cutting out. grinding. 1:: 300 :i 25 28. compressor. bending. for example. gauging and inspection of small intricate parts e) Minute work.SL No. \ PART 1 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS 187 . for example. booster and exhaustor houses c) Open type plants: i) Catwalks ii) Platforms Gauge and tool rooms: General Glass works and processes: a) Furnace rooms. radio and telecommunicat. purifiers. instruments d) Very fine work. cleaning. shaking out. ‘Go’ and ‘No-go’ gauges. decorating. folding and pressing b) Lock stitch and overlocking machines: i) Light ii) Medium iii) Dark c) Mending d) Examining. tumbling cleaning. 28 25 *Supplementary local lighting should be used at important points. rolling) c) Cutting to size. INDUSTRIAL B UILDINGS AND ‘PROCESSES hllTlNG G LARE INDEX Farm buildings (dairies) a) Boiler houses b) Milk rooms c) Washing and sterilizing rooms d) Stables e) Milking parlours Flour mills: a) Roller. 30 to 50. for example. 30. counting. b) Sewing: i) Light ii) Medium iii) Dark Hosiery and knitwear: a) Circular and flat knitting machines universal winders. dark e) Linking or running-on Inspection shops (Engineering) a) Rough work. I50 300 28 25 21. rough moulding and rough core making b) Fine moulding and core making. liglit. silvermg) e) Brilliant cutting f) Inspection: i) General ii) Fine L Glove mating: a) Pressing. cutting b) Sowing: i) Light ii) Medium iii) Dark Hat making a) Stiffening. sizing. drawing. annealing lehrs b) Mixing rooms. forming (blowing. etc b) Medium work. 23. for example. very small instruments 150 300 I50 - u 25 25 25 28 24. rough checking of stock parts. oil gas plants. toughening d) Finishing (bevelling. 26. inspection Garages: a) Parking areas (interior) b) Washing and polishing. 7oot 28 28 :: I9 I9 I9 22 :: 22 31. general servicing.ion equipment. flanging. 25. pouring. calibrated scales.

tanning. spraying and finishing d) Retouching and matching Paper-works: a) Paper and board making: i) Machine houses. inspection mending. Paint shops and spraying booths: a) Dipping. coating and laminating processes ii) Associated printing Pharmaceuticals and fine chemicals works: a) Raw material storage b) Control laboratories and testing c) Pharmaceuticals manufacturing: grinding. 200 300 25 22 46. splitting and strafing SL I NDUSTRIAL B UILDINGS AND Pttoc~~!im AVERAGE ILLUMINATION IUX LI M I T I N G G LARE I N D E X 28 150 200 300 Special lighting 28 28 _ 36. cold strip mills. preparation of solutions and filling.No.g: I Soot 300 450 I9 IO I9 I9 38. containers and paper sack manufacture. works a) Marshalling and outdoor stockyards b) Stairs. tableting. cap ing. calendering pulp mills. stretching. body sub-assemblies. . 40. ordinary automatic machines. picking and cleaning lines. staking. rolling and wtre_mills. mills motors rooms. medium grinding. body assembly d) Spray booths Paint works a) General automatic processes b) Special batch mixing c) Colour matching 450 700 1000* 700 300 450 300 450 200 450 700’ I50 300 450 22 42. iiz :: 25 28 28 22 22 I9 28 25 300 I50 200 39. sheet and plate finishing. balance rooms b) Electrical and instrument laboratories Laundries and drycleaning works a) Receiving. mixing and drying. fleshing and stuffing b) Finishing. medium buffing and olishing c) Fine bench and machine work. mechanical plants. machine and roll shops f) Plate inspection g) Tinplate inspection Jewellery and watchmaking a) Fitte processes b) Minute processes c) Gem cutting. . ordinary painting. P automatic machines. Machine and fitting shops a) Rough bench and machine work b) Medium bench and machine work. pressing. polishing. ingot stripping soaking pits.gw ays! basement< quarries. rough grinding. drying. . ironing (calendering). sterilizing and washing. NA’FIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 188 . car assembly b) Final inspection c) Trim shops.Leather working a) Pressing and glazing b) Cutting. spraying and finishing c) Fine painting. firing rough spraying b) Rubbing. sorting. trimming ii) Inspection and sorting (over hauling) b) Paper converting processes: i) Corrugated board. 44. cartoning and wrapping. 35. spotting Leather dressing a) Vats. cutting. washing. labelling. power blower houses e) Slab inspection andsonditioning. me fine buffing and polishing Motor vehicle plants a) General sub-assemblies. cartons. galvanizing. tinning. chassis assembly. scarfing sewing c) Grading and matching 41. cutting. loading docks c) Slab yards. . pump hauses d) Mould preparation. setting Laboratories and test rooms a) General laboratories. melting shops. inspection d) Fine chemical manuPacture: i) Plant processing ii) Fine chemical ftnishing :: 25 I9 mt 45. gan. despatch b) Drycleaning bulk machine work c) Fine h&d ironing. blast furnace working areas. *Special attention to colour quality of light may be neassary. preparation plants. Iron and steel. cleaning. 200 W 28 I9 25 :: 300 % *Optical aids should be used where necessary. granulating. :: 25 43. finishing.

28 I9 :ii :ii 450 300 200 300 200 300 700* 200 I50 200 25 22 :: I9 I9 :: 25 25 I9 2 25 25 5 200 Special lighting 25 I50 200 to 300 :: :: I50 200 to 300 200 to :E! I50 u 25 I50 300 25 25 - I. scribing. I50 450. machines d) Edible products processing ‘and packing 54. fine counts dark ii) Patterned cloths. moulding. pressing. sorting b) Printing plants: i) Machine composition. slubbing. soap milling. trimming. I9 - -*Special attention should be paid to the colour quality of the light. etching. spreading. moulding.St. doubling (fancy). cleaning. Printing works: a) Type foundries: i) Matrix making. hand and machine casting ii) Front assembly. Plastics works: a) Manufacture (see Chemical works) b) Processing: i) Calendering. Soap factories: a) Kettle houses and ancillaries. dressing type. injection iii) Sheet fabrication: I) Shaping 2) Trimming. filter pressing. heckling. extrusion ii) Moulding-compression. firing b) Enamelling. spinning (ordinary counts). plants: i) General areas ii) Control panels b) Batch or continuous soap cooling. spinning. blowing. iv) Proof reading d Electrotyping: i) Block-making. punching shearing. compounding calendars c) Tyre and tube making 52. washing. PART 4 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS . dressing and dyeing. buffing. masking ii) Finishing. colouring. I N D U S T R I A L . cutting and drying. No. Structural steel fabrication plants: a) General b) Marking off 55. machining. polishing. winding. key equipment c) Soap stamping. cabling Warping. slashing. wrapping and packing. routing e) Colour printing: Inspection area 5 I. BUILDINGS AND PROCESSES AV E R A G E ILL~~~~NA~!oN IUX LIMITING GLARE INDEX 47. Sheet metal works: a) Benchwork. finishing. glycerine evaporation and distillation. kiln rooms. granules storage and handling. granules making. backing ii) Moulding. continuous indoor soap making. roving. routing d) Photo-engraving: i) Block-making. Plating shops: a) Vat and baths. pressing. filling and packing granules: i) General areas ii) Control panels. glazing. electroplating. carding. folding b) Sheet inspection 53. imposing stones ii) Presses iii) Composing room . Rubber processing: a) Fabric preparation creels b) Dipping. Pottery and clay products: a) Grinding. spinning (fine counts) Healding (drawing-in) Weaving i) Patterned cloths. -z 200 300 200 I50 Special lighting :: :: 25 25 _. decorating 50. plodding: i) General areas ii) Control panels. burnishing b) Final buffing and polishing 49. Textile mills’ (cotton or linen): Bale breaking. fine counts light iii) Plain ‘grey’ cloth Cloth inspection -. stamping. polishing 3) Cementing 48.

and bench work._ d) Very fine soldering and spot welding. cropping Spinning. coliditioning or setting of twist b) Spinning c) Winding. rough sanding. Textile mills (woollen): a) Scouring. 198 NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE .IN D U S T R I A L B UILDINGS l%. brazing and spot welding. drying. flat. Tobacco factories All processes 60. cooperage c) Fine bench and machine work. racks c) Packing and despatch 62. Warehouses and bulk stores: a) Large material. for example. pressing. teasing. for example. 2z* 200 I50 3001 300 25 25 22 22 58. AND PROCESSES A VERAGE ILLUMINATION lux L IMITING G L A R E INDEX 56. jacquard carpet looms. back-washing.eaving g) Inspection 57. roving. fine woollens iii) Heavy woollens r) Burling and mending Lx) Perching: i) Grey ii) Final 25 25 25 :: 19 I9 I50 iOO 450 700 700 450 :z 25 25 25 - dc. tentering. carding. furniture and vehicles 61. Welding and soldering: a) Gas and arc welding. quality slashing: i) Light thread ii) Dark thread d) Warping e) Healding (drawing-in) f) W. twlstmg Healding (drawing-in) e) Weaving: i) Fine worsteds ii) Medium worsteds. Textile mills (jute): a) Weaving. raising. Upholstering. gilhng. carbonizing.. fine sanding and finishing Iii 150 I50 2”: 25 28 25 22 19 22 300 700 150 I50 :E :: *Special attention should be paid to the Solour quality of the light. medium machine. planning. winding. spinning. rewinding and coning. rough spot welding b) Medium soldering. loading bays b) Small material. radio valves 63. cop winding b) Yarn calender 59. combing (white). domestic hardware c) Fine soldering and spot welding. instruments. preparing. crabbing and blowing b) Blending. Woodworking shops: a) Rough sawing and bench work b) ‘Sizing. twisting. for example. combing (coloured). fugitive tinting. tSpecial attention should be paid to the colour quality of the light in all processing areas. veneering. brushing. gluing. Textile mills (silk or synthetics): a) Soaking. radio set assembly . warping.

65 0.59 0.5 I2 IX i3 2x 38 47 55 2.60 0.66 0.7 7.5 4.70 T A B L E 5 C A P A C I T O R R A T I N G S AT RATED VOLTAGE R ATED OI’TPIT OF MOTORS (11 kW 2.92 to 0.48 0.80 to 0. TABLE 4 POWER FACTOR FOR THREE PHASE ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS SL No (1) :: 3. .80 0.76 Or78 0.5 3.5 7.61 0.87 0. The recommended capacitor ratings at rated voltage. 19. 22. 6.5 Il. NOTE 3 Should a consumer desire to impBo.86 to 0.25 3. TYPE OF IN S T A L L A T I O N N ATIIRAI.e the power factor bqond a \aIuc which ih limited b! con\idcration\ 01 magnetising kVAR of the motor as stated in Note 2. 27. 31. 7. POWtR FACTOR (3) 0.52 (2) Cold storage and fisheries Cinemas Metal pressing Confectionery Dyeing and printing (textile) Plastic moulding Film studios Newspapers Heavy engineering works Rubber extrusion and moulding Pharmaceuticals Oil and paint manufacturing Silk mills Biscuit factory Printing press Food products Laundries (1) 18.65 0. 21. 13.I .2 G. 32.87 0. 33.51 0.5 37 57 I:: 150 I87 CAPA(.48 0. (2) Flour mills Gas works Textile mills Oil mill Woollen mills Potteries Cigarette manufacturing Cotton press Foundries Tiles and mosaic Structural engineermg Chemicals Municipal pumping stations Oil terminals Telephone exchange Rolling mills Irrigation pumps to 0.5 6 9 IO I6 21 26 36 45 53 IN kVAR tom Moron Srttn * 750 600 rev min rev min (5) (6) 2 3.77 0. 20. 5.5 II 13 IS 2j 29 35 4x 60 6X 500 re\ min (7) 2.5 9 Ii. 25. 17.68 to 0.69 to 0.The reference to speed of motor ha\ been made 51ncc the manufacturer\ pro\ idc inlnrmat~on on that bawls.5 3 4 5 s II No~I. the natural power factor for some three phase electrical installations are given E POWER FACTOR IN INDUSTRIAL INSTALLATIONS in Table 4. for direct connection to ac induction motor in industries are given in Table 5.60 0.5 6.75 0.APPENDIX (C/uuse 9) The general guidelines for power factor compensation is giver in Part I /Set 17 of the Code.87 to 0.70 0.74 to 0.80 0.72 0. 30.59 to 0.75 0.57 0.5 4 5. then he may install the calculated capacitor LVAR a\ a \cparate cltcult with its independent controlgear.5 :: 32 40 55 67 76 i 2.75 to 0.5 4 5 6 8. to guard ‘against c\cc\\ tramlent torque\ and o\cr\olt+!c\.5 9 10. 29.72 0. 16. For guidance. 4. 14. 12. I I.5 2.7 5.: IO. No.75 St.73 to 0. 15.5 4.68 0.5 :: 33 42 50 RA T I N G I 000 rev min (4) I.58 0.ITOR I 3 000 rev min (2) I 500 rev min (3) I 2 3 4 5 6 . 23.58 0.65 0.57 0.72 to 0. PART 4 E L E C T R I C A L I N S T A L L A T I O N S I N INDUSTRIAL B U I L D I N G S I91 . 28. T YPE OF IN S T A L L A T I O N NATI’HAL.63 0.86 0. NOTI: 2 The capacitive current supplied bv condenser\ directl! connected acre\\ Induction motor terminal\ should not exceed the magnetising current of the induciion motors.64 0. 26.68 to to to to to to to 0.80 to 0. 24.83 0.60 0. 34.5 5.61 0. PO W E R FACTOR (3) 0.63 0.7 22.51 0. 12.53 0.61 0.

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NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE P A R T 5 .

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4 It may. lighting or for meeting the needs of heavy machinery (example. thereby calling for special considerations in their design. be noted that small outdoor locations around building installations (example. In addition.F 0 R E W 0 R Da 0. 0. the duties would be more onerous than those normally encountered in indoor situations. and keeping other aspects of safety provisions in view.they are meant to be dismantled. 0.3 Even though.1 As compared to the various types of indoor installations covered in other parts of the Code. installations for lighting of public thoroughfares are permanent in nature.2 Keeping the above in view. they are dealt With separately in Section I. open cast mines). . however. Merence should be made to relevant parts of the Code. outdoor installations ati distinct in nature by virtue of their. Temporary installations are those which are erected to serve for a small duration of time after which. Part 5 of the Code has been set aside to deal with installations erected outdoor. For requirements pertaining to this.PART 5 OUTDOOR INSTALLATIONS 0. gardens around hotel installations or storage yards in industries) do not fall under the scope of Part 5. In the case of the latter. . electric power in outdoor installations is normally utilized for specific purposes such as. Permanent outdoor installations are those which are generally ‘in use for longer periods of time. temporary and permanent. this duration is defined as not exceeding six months. 0. namely.being exposed to moderate to heavy environmental conditions. This part basically deals-with two types of outdoor installations. For convenience.

by the name of the characteristic light dis!ribution.1).1.\. l Electrotechnical vocabulary : Part 16 Lighting.1).A layout of the separated carriageways. their installation and maintenance. 2. luminaires. 2.9 Verie . 2. 2 . reflector. 1.4 D u a l Curriugewu.2. housing for one or more lamps.) 2.The vertical distance between the centre of the luminaire and the surface of the carriage (see Fig. FOREWORD 0. 1 .That portion of a road reserved exclusively for pedestrians.2 Terms Relating to Lighting Installation 2.5 Central Reserve .3 This Section also does not cover exterior lighting installations. 2. 2 .A way or part of a highway for use by pedal cycles only.2. 1. .1 Terms Relating to Highways 2.2 Lu~wt All those physical features of a h i g h w a y .1.1 This Section of the Code covers requirements of public lighting installations in order to provide guidance to those concerned with the preparation of public lighting schemes.11 Rqfuge -.A.2. SCOPE 1. cut-off.v . 2. 1. (Lighting systems are commonly designated.2.0 For the purpose of this Section. semicut-off. Sj’stenl -. etc.1 High\csj.1 One of the most common forms of permanent outdoor installations is the public lighting installations intehded for lighting of public thoroughfares. comprising a body and any refractor.2 Lighting luminaires having a characteristic light distribution. 2.A border of stone. 1 .1. each reserved for traffic in one direction only. the following terms together with those provided in IS : 1885 (Part 16: Set 2)-1968* shall apply. 2. shopping enclaves. sited in a manner concordant with this distribution.r cesigning on efficient and economical lighting Installation. 0. 196 2.1).A subsidiary road between a principal road and buildings or properties facing thereon and connected only at selected points with the principal road.A way for the passage of vehicular traffic over which such traffic may lawfully pass. concrete or other rigid material formed at the edge of a carriageway. forming part of the highway and substantially at the same level as the carriageway.12 Kerb .A longitudinal space dividing a dual carriageway.6 S e r v i c e R o a d .1. 1 . 3 Carriage. 8 FOO~N~U. 2. 7 Cjxcle Truck .A n array of 2.The unpaved area flanking a carriageway. 2.other t h a n t h e s u r f a c i n g o f t h e carriageway. NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE . 2 . it has been found necessary to lay down guidelines fo. With the availability of variety of light sources for such insfallations and the need for proper illumination of a variety of traffic routes and city centres. The actual details of design would entirely depend on the local circumstances.2. 2.1.1.a\* . Section 2 General illumination lighting fittings and lighting for traffic and signalling.1.1.2 This Section deals onl with electric lightin sources and does not inclu Je gas or other types o f lighting.1. flood lighting of routes and structures of architectural importance. etc. diffuser or enclosure associated with the lamp(s).SECTION 1 PUBLIC LIGHTING INSTALLATIONS 0.4 Outreach . TERMINOLOGY 2.3 The requirements given in this Section are.1 Lighting Installation -The whole of the equipment provided for lighting the highway comprising the lamps.The distance measured horizontally between the centre of the column or wall face and the centre of a luminaire (see Fig.T h a t p o r t i o n o f a highway intended primarily for vehicular traffic. 0.A raised p l a t f o r m o r a guarded area so sited in the carriageway as to divide the streams of traffic and to provide a safety area for pedestrians.2. such& those which apply for parks. which have to be taken into account in planning a lighting installation. for example. 2.3 Luminuire .10 Shoulder .6 Mounting Height . as far as p r a c t i c a b l e a l i g n e d w i t h [he recommendations of the International Commission on Illumination (CIE) modified to suit the local conditions and regulations. means of support and electrical and other auxiliaries.5 Overhung -The distance measured horizontally between the centre of a luminaire mounted on a bracket and the adjacent edge of the carriageway (see Fig.A strip of highway adjacent to and level with the main carriageway to provide an opportunity for vehicles to leave the carriageway in an emergency. 2.I. 2.2 This Section of the Code is intended to cover general principles governing the lighting of public thoroughfares and to lay down recommendations on the quantity and quality of lighting to be provided.

the candela (cd): 2. 2.2. between a Juminaire on one side of the carriageway and the next luminaire.16 Isocandela Curve -.l. overhang and arrangement.The inter-related linear dimensions and characteristics of the system.A direction midway between the directions for which the intensity is 90 percent of the maximum in a vertical plane through the maximum and on a conical surface through the maximum.T~:. 1). It is some time called brightness.4 Illuhination . 2.vmmetrical) Distribution .3 Photometric Terms 2.(.T h e l u m i n o u s f l u x incident on a.2. NOTES In a staggered arrangement. its projection on a plane perpendicular to the given direction) has an area D. 2.3. 2. If a very small portion of a surface has an intensity I candelas in a particular direction and its orthogonal projection (that is. the luminance in this direction is l/D candelas per unit area.5 Luminance (at a Point of Surface and in a Given -Direction). but no intensity less.1 Luminous Nux .10 Arrangement --The pattern according to which luminaires are sited on plan.3. The unit of the luminous flux is the lumen (lm). It is not the distance measured on the diagonal joining them.10 Axial Non-axial) Distribution . I). The usual unit is the candela per square metre (cd/ mz).9 Width of Carriagewav .7 Spacing -The distance. axial. The unit of 2.KIS. along the centre line of the carriageway.riPution I in w h i c h t h e dlrections o f m a x i m u m l u m i n o u s intensity lie (do not lie) in vertical planes substantially parallel to the axis of the carriageway.2 Lower Hemispherical Flux or Dotinward Flux-The luminous flux emitted by a luminaire in all directions below the horizontal. containing the maximum intensity. IV7 Location of columns h = Mounting height of luminaires d = Width of the carriage way p = Outreach s = Overhang c = Clearance 0= F I G. N OTE .28 (2 7r ).2.15 Beam Centre.8 Light Distribution . IS intensity per unit projected area of a surface.7 Light Output-The luminous flux emitted by a luminaire. ‘2. Direction) -T The ratio of an actual intensity from the luminaire (in a particular direction) to the mean hemispherical inrensity. 2.3. nor the distance between successive luminaires on the same side of the carriageway.11 Peak Intensity Ratio . 3 . staggered.2.2. (This is the average intensity in the lower hemisphere.~K:\(.The downward.I(.An assymmetrical dist. 2. illumination is the lumen per square metre (lux).I.The lumil.The attribute of visual sensation according to which an area appears to emit more or less light. 2.3.The ratio of the maximum intensity to the mean hemispherical intensity of the light emitted below the horizontal. width.MISAIRI:S: CII.) Ratio (in a Particular 2.A distribution of luminous intensity which is substantially symmetrical (conversely asymmetrical) about the vertical axis of the luminaire.11 Geometry (of a Lighting System) . flux divided by 6.is the visual sensation which correlates approximately with the photometric quantity ‘luminance’.3.‘ntensitv .The distribution of luminous intensity from a luminaire in various directions in space.14 Beam -.12 Mean Hemispherical .3.3.3. mounting height.all the points corresponding to those directions in which the luminous intensity is the same or a plane projection of this curie.The light given by a light source or a luminaire or receivtd by a surface irrespective of the directions in which it is distributed. 2.3. 3 L u m i n o u s Intensitv -The q u a n t i t y which describes the light-giving power of a luminaire in any particular direction.Luminosity. which is on the other side of the carriage.A curve traced on an imaginary sphere with a source at its centre and joining. 2 . (Converse 2. 2.3. DIMENSIOSS I’\HT 5 0I’TI)OOH I\S’I \ I I \‘UIOUS .3. measured along the centre line of the carriageway. surface per unit area. The unit of luminous intensity is. 2. opposite.The distance between kerb lines measured at right angles to the length of the carriageway (see Fig. 2.The portion of the light output of the luminaire contained by the solid angle subtended at the effective centre of the luminaire .3. 2. 2.3.3. than 90 percent of the maximum intensity.6 Luminosity . namely the spacing. ‘the distance is measured.. 23.8 Span -That part of the highway lying between successive luminaires in an installation.13 1ntensit.9 Svmmetrical (Converse As. 1 SITING OF I.2. for example. between successive luminaires in an installation (see Fig.

2.1 Main Roads . 4. It is left to the local engineer to decide upon the category of the lighting for the given road. Tunnels (roads underground).T h e m a i n consideration while designing the lighting in city centres (Group E) :Is proper illumination of footpaths for pedestrians.18 Polar distribution using polar co-ordinates. igriiters.3. Luminaire . where special lighting requirements are to be met in addition to compliance with general principles.4.Luminaire 2. from good engineering point of view as well as economy should take into account all the relevant factors. Secondary roads with comparatively light traffic.0 Ideally.1.Lummaire with arrangement for mounting the same svmmetrically on the top of the coloumn. These are roads not included in Groups’A and B. The system of lighting. suth as the presence of factories.2 Cut-off employing the techmque used for concealing lamps and surfaces of high luminance from direct view in order to reduce glare. Group E also includes important shopping streets. speed and composition of the traffic using them. Secondary roads-Roads which do not require lighting up to Group A standard.. 4.etc.Luminaire 2. Further amplification of the types of thoroughfares can be had from Appendix A.3 Semi-out-off employing the techmque for concealing lamps and surfaces of high luminance from direct view in order to reAuce glare but to a lesser degree than cut-off luminaire.1.. consideration has to be given to ensure that the lighting is soft and does not cause glare. 2. character of the street (whether a shopping area or a ring-road in non-built-up area). aesthetic considerations.5 Post Top Luminaire .For the purposes of this Section. 4. wherein description bf terms are given for guidance.1.Lumina’ire with all its accessories such as ballasts. N OTE 3 -Grouo F includes roads in the vicinitv of aerodromes.4. Grade separated junctions.Curve of 2. the existence of lumps. Towards this end consideration has to be given while designing the lighting on road junctior)s and pedestrian crossings so that these can be easily identified by the drivers. Residential and unclassified roads. GENERAL PRINeIPLES 4. arterial roads . Curve .For the purposes of lighting installations. besides the comfort of NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE . Town and city centres and areas of civic importance (see NOTE 2). railways: docks and navigable waterways. However integrally with the body of the luminaire. along main roads bridges and flyovers (Groups A. bends or long straight stretches and overhanging trees.2 Roads in Residential Areas. a high standard of lighting is advisable on all roads.T h e principle aim of public lighting along roads in residential areas (Group C) is to provide light along the stretch of carriage way and footpath for safety and comfort of road users mainly the pedestrians. dispersive surround or other enclosure which may be associated with the source in order to modify the light distribution in a desired man&r and protect the light s o u r c e from weather conditions and insects and/or for the sake of appearance. shopping streets. Subgroup BZ C D E F G NOTE I . 2. Roads with special requirements (see NOTE 3). together with any refractor.2 Types of Roads . Centres. etc. bridges and elevated roads (see NOTE 2). places of public resort. capaciters.17 Isocandela Diagram .4. starters. speed of traffic and comfort to drivers are the only consideration.1 Street Lighting Luminaire .4 Integral Luminaire .3 R o a d s i n Cit. 2.An array of isocandela curves. both from the points of view of traffic safety and comfort. reflector. CLASSIFICATION 3.4 Terms Relating to Luminaires iight A TABLE 1 ROAD CLASSIFICATION GROUP (as in IS : 1944) D ESCRIPTION (1) (2) Main Roads : Very important routes with rapid and dense traffic where safety.. _ Luminaire . bridges are classified short or long when their lengths are less than or greater than 60 metres. 3.1 The classification of lighting installations in public thoroughfares given in 3. N OTE 2 --Such areas are set apart in view of the fact that their standard of lighting is different from and higher than that described for other groups. B and Dj is to permit users of the roads at night to move about with greatest possible safety and comfort so that the traffic capacity of the road at night is as much equal to that planned for day time as possible.The aim of public lighting 198 Subgroup A I Subgroup A2 B Subgroup BI Secondary roads of considerable traffic such as principal local traffic routes. the properties of the carriageway surface.4. Other main roads with considerable mixed traffic like main city streets. promenados and such other places which are the focus of special activities after dark.4. boulevards. brightness and other lighting characteristic the source. 3. 3. roads are classified as given in Table I.1 Aims of Public Lighting Installations 4. etc.2 is based on volume. 2.A housing for a light source or sources.3.

A good visual guidance is required especially in long stretches of the road and even ‘ m o r e o n c o m p l i c a t e d intersections.1 Layout for Roads-The design. 4. specular surfaces. b) The surrounds to the road. with the present state of technique and the knowledge of reflection properties of road surfaces.2.2. Other factors that can lead to glare are presence of undersirable large surface of high reflection factor.2 Visual Field qf the Driver-The visual ~.3 Visibility .4 Roads (Group F) . roundabouts. including signs. It is necessary that none of the street lamps cause either glare to the driver or is mistaken by the driver for track signals.These are as follows : a) Visibility of the whole of the road and its details such as entry of side-roads. DESIGN 5. b) Visual guidance on the alignment of the road. b) The uniformity of luminance.3.Separate considerations are required to be given for each of the following: b) Between any obstacles which may be present and the background against which it appears. c) The limitation of glare.1 regarding illumination values to be provided on the road surfaces. The following principles are considered essential [see also IS : 1944 (Parts I & 2)-1970*].The phenomenon of visibility is directly related to contrast. railway is required to observe a number of signals along the tracks in the course of his work. e) Continuity and uniformity of lighting. 3 . Typical layouts for various road width are given in Table 2. However. the calculation and measurement of luminance are likely to present difficulties. Also the lamps should not cause glare to the pilot either while taking off or more specifically while landing. advertisement signs or road direction signs. spacing and column heights are governed by the road-width and the classification of the roads.This provides visual comfort for the driver. c) Clear visibility of objects in time.0 The following four factors contribute to the fundamental criteria of quality of public lighting : a) The level of illuminance. in order of a) The carriageway. 5. any factor which tends to increase contrast should be exploited.The driver of the 4.3.24 Glare and Visual Comfort -Glare in public lighting is generally caused b y t h e luminaires.s qf L u m i n a n c e . Similar considerations are applicable to navigators in the vicinity of docks. traffic signs.3. It is obvious that it is the road surface luminance rather than the illumination level which provides for an accurate measure of the effective light in a street lighting installation.T h e level of luminance should be adequate to provide visibility which guarantee for the user a maximum of safety and sufficient visual comfort. Good contrast should always be produced: a) Between the carriageway and all objects which indicate its boundaries: and *Code of practice for lighting of public thoroughfares yirsr re\Vsion). 4.the drivers. d) Good seeing condition by silhouette vision. etc. roundabouts.2 Uniformity of Luminance . comprises. excessively bright shop windows. and f) General or special lighting of signs. PART 5 OUTDOOR IkTALLATlONS .2.3.1 Requirements qf Drivers .2. 4 . .structuraI design 199 b) Rail~~a~~s and Docks .3 Limitation of Glare .The design and column heights for flyovers are governed by the layout of flyovers. 4. 4. of roads in the vicinity of airports is to ensure that under no circumstances. 4. Also care is required to easily identify flow of traffic and road deviders. 4. height above normal ground level and the width of the low level roads. acceptable level. 5. Most of the long range guidance is offered by the luminaires. would a pilot mistake the stretch of the road as airport landing strip at night time.0 Though public lighting has to satisfy both drivers and pedestrians. Mith Special Requirements 4. islands. including the bright luminaires. and d) The optical guidance. since the characteristics of the obstacles may vary over a very wide range.3 Criteria of Quality 4. 1 Leve1..4 V i s u a l G u i d a n c e . etc. which may interfere with his judgement.2 Principles of Vision in Public Lighting 4. The spacing may be governed by the.It is required to control the glare due to luminaires at a value which keeps the visual d&omfort below a. Reference may be made to 7.1. etc.2 Layout for Flyovers. 4.et_~~a~~gt~~p~~t~~~e. 4 Airports ~ The tn main consideratton designing lighting. it is in practice the requirements of the drivers which are more stringent. and c) The sky. 4.

ECI.& -w-ec .O F I G.L6 TO 9 m L9 TO 12m 2B s I’ w-m _-- __________ ----------- ------------ 6 -__________ ----------- ----------- Ll2 T O 2Om 2c h8 TO 206 2D ~--------~ c~-------cI _ _____w_____ A _ _ _ _ -‘c- 35 _____________________--_______ __----------.RICAL CODE 200 . 2 S TANDARD L AYOUTS FOR R OADS (Cormi) NATIONAL EL.

e-m _-- ‘p-.H (1) m 24 18-20 (2) Al A2 Al A2 BI (3) (4) m 9-14 9 9-14 9 E 2D 2c 2%o~H 2. 2.1 The arrangements.0 H 2. columns on the main roads.OO . 3A to 3D.5 H 2c.a~-_. 5._ Le.0 H 2.spacing for various road widths of low level road are given in Table 4.2. column heights and spacing for various road widths on flyover are given in the Table 3. _ .-_________ -- mm -or= = = a =. 2 . SPACING s (5) .5-3.-. These columns may be installed on the traffic islands located at the junctions. 3 S T A N D A R D LAYOUTS FOR F L Y O V E R S ( FOUR A L T E R N A T I V E S) 201 PART 5 OllTDOOR INSTALLATIONS .0 H 3.5 H 12 A2 BI 82 C B2 C C 3c 3A) II < 10 m 3D 3C) IO < .3 Junctiods .2.0 H 3.5 H 3.2 The layouts with recommended arrangements.1 The level of illumination of the junction should be substantially different from the nearby ‘2 .5 H 3. 0 = Location of columns R OADS 2 STANDARD L AYOUTS FOR ( SIX A LTERNATIVES ) of the flyovers. column heights and . 53.I 12 r TABLE 2 CLASSIFICATION OF ROADS AND RECOMMENDED ARRANGEMENT OF COLUMNS W IDTH OF C ARRIAGE WAY CROUP MENT AS IN A R R A N G E . 2 3D) IO < I.0 H 3.TE A 1 ___-_-___--I_-.-Q _ -9.5 H 2SH 2. 2c 2c 28 2B 28 ‘28 2c 9 9 9 9 Y 9 7 7 3.Spacing of the junction columns should be 50 to 75 percent of the normal spacing of.~~~2 ~-_-z_--_~--_ = = 92-_= .--_ _ _ a----a-_-_xc .-.CO L U M N H EIGHT FIG. recommended with layout 5.. 5. = z~YL-_-_~-c_-_-~= z--z= = --w--e s Q. < 20 m 1~ < 20 m : 4-z: 3B) r: < 10 m l2 < 10 m 11 < 10 m F I G.L_---_____--_____-_----___2F S = Spacing between columns F I G. I’he layout of typical flyovers is given in Fig.0.H.

(2) D D junctions would generally’ be proiided with traffic island at suitable locations to regulate 7-! __-___.The size of columns adopted at the junction should be higher than those adopted on roads. be illuminated by locating the columns in such configuration that the iunction is noticed by fast moving traffic.in the colour of the light source In case the main road is lit by HPMV lamps.3. (3) (Z m .1) CARRIAGEWAY (1) In 12 W IDTH The design would depend upon existence of traffic islands at the junctions.. 0 = Location of columns 4 S I M P L E T w o RO A D J U N C T I O N S ( TH R E E A L T E R N A T I V E S ) 202 NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE .5 H 2._______.5 H 1.TABLE -3 RECOMMENDED ARRANGEMENT OF COLUMNS ON FLYOVERS. OF GROUP MENT A R R A N G E . TABLE 4 RECOMMENDED ARRANGEMENT OF COLUMNS ON FLYOVERS (LOW LEVEL ROADS) IClause 5.2.:_._____ --. roads..5 H 2. the junction could be lit by HPSV lamps or vice versa 5.e shown in Fig. Recommended sizes are given in Table 5.H 2 H . I b) Change in height c$ column: ..2 The different types of junctions commonly encountered are discussed below in details as they require special consideration : 4 S i m p l e tM)o road juncrion -This type of junction should. The junctions may be lighted by either of the following methods : __-_-__-_ 4 Higher level of illumination . SP A C I N G (S) 2.CO L U M N AS IN H E I G H T * FIG. F I G.In case this scheme is adopted the level of illuminations should be 150 percent of that of the roads.2) CARRIAGEWAY (1) In W IDTH OF 1.2.1_ e-v---- GROuP (2) A R R A N G E ._r-mm-* 9 D *Above the flyover road level.T h e s e & 2-2. (Cluuse 5.5 H 4A Over 2C D IO to 20 up lo IO : :“D 9 14 9 3A *Above low level road. 4B TABLE 5 RECOMMENDED VARIATION IN HEIGHT OF COLUMNS OF JUNCTIONS H EIGHT ON OF COLIJMNS ROADS m 7 9 14 R ECOMMENDED HEIGHT OF C OLUMNS AT JUNCTIONS m 9 14 High mast c) Change . (3) 3c 38 3A (‘4: m 9 9 9 SPACING b) Juncfion of IWO m a j o r r o a d s . Typical layout of such junctions a1.COLUMN MENT AS IN H E I G H T* FIG. 4A to 4C.

Similarly. 7A and 7B or semi-high mast lighting as in Fig. The following points should. if the junctions are too wide or. special considerations are required. a) Islands which are clear or have on1. c) Mtiltiple road junctions -The lighting of multiple road junction would depend upon the geographical layout of the roads. 5. 5A to SC.4 Roundabouts 5.. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ -s -7 i 3 n 0 0 u 5c 0 = Location of columns F I G.on all the roads.0 Multiple road junctions with roundabouts are much easier to design as a definite central roundabout is available to locate the columns.. the traffic conditions. Two types of roundabouts are discussed below.T h e lighting of these could be advantageously achieved by use of high mast as given in Fig. the width of the various roads and most important. 6A to 6C. 8B and 8C. At such junctions invariably entry for traffic may not be permitted.5.. Typical layout of such junctions are shown in Fig.4...W h e n a proposed road lighting scheme is within 5 km of the boundary of an aerodrome it is essential that appropriate aviation authority is consulted regarding any restrictions and precautions to be observed that may be necessary. However... 7C and 7D..ds which have gardens or other construction which would be obstruction to line of vision of traffic . The lighting columns could be located in the islands to advantage.5.. 8A or conventional lighiing as in Fig. distribution of iight emmitted above the horizontal so that lighting installation does not present anv danger to the air navigation..The lighting of these could be either by semi-high mast as in Fig. be kept in view while designing lighting scheme in the vicinity of the aerodromes: a) The light provided in the vicinity of an aerodrome shall be properly screened so as -to avoid any glare which may otherwise endanger safety of an aircraft arriving and departing from an aerodrome.flow of traffic. the traffic islands design would change from location to location. PART 5 OUTDOOR INSTALLATIONS .. the mounting height.v parking l o t s . b) lslan. 5. Typical layout of such junctions are shown in Fig. therefore.5 Road Lighting in the Vicinity of Aerodrome 5. the islands do not permit planting of poles within the desired spacing. Special consideration will have to be given to the design of lighting of such junction.1 General Requirements -. 5 J UNCTION O F T w o MA J O R R O A D S ( THREE A L T E R N A T I V E S ) 203 . the colour a n d i n t e n s i t y . 5.2 The aviation authority may have a specific interest in the pattern of the layout..

6 C . 0 = Location of Columns 6D FIG.'~ MULTIPLE R OAD J UNCTIONS ( FOUR ALTERNATIVES) 204 NATIONAL ELEtXRICAL CODE .

SE M I .HI G H .MA S T LU~INAIRES I N R O U N D A B O U T S ( FO U R A L T E R N A T I V E S ) PART 5 OUTDOOR INSTALLATIONS 205 .MAST LUMINAIRES F I G. 7 US E OF HI G H M A S T .

MAST OR C ONVENTIONAL L I G H T I N G R O U N D A B O U T S ( THREE A L T E R N A T I V E S) NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 206 .\ SEMI-HIGH MAST LUMINAIRES ~SEbll-HIGH MAST LUMINAIRES 1 I i a a I F I G. SE M I . 8C 8 IN U SE OF.

This may necessitate careful selection of light SOUXCC. 5.These lamps may sometimes be employed in modernizing an installation to obtain higher levels without the need for ballasts required for discharge lamps. 2) Arrangement of mounting columns on opposite as in Fig.T h e requirements are likely to apply in all places where roads are so located that their lighting installation may affect the operation of railways. d) Tubular fluorescent lamps. and 8) High pressure sodium vapour lamps lamps . because of the colour of the light source may iriterfere with the proper recognition of signal svstem. c) High pressure mercury vapour lamps with clear or fluorescent bulbs. docks and navigable waterways. 2D is not recommended.b) Lights mounted on the electric poles: pylones shall not cause an obstruction to the arriving and departing aircraft from an aerodrome in terms of obstacle limitation specified by the airport authorities. Docks and Navigable Waterways 5. siting of luminaires or the use of appropriate screened luminaire at certain points arid heights. Following conditions should be ensured : i) In case roads are not parallel to landing strips.These lamps have high luminous efficiency and long life.These -lamps have higher luminous efficiency and longer life than mixed incandescent and mercury lamps.1 Electric Light Sources 6. 1) Uniform design and spacing of columns is not recommended.1. 6. c) Dimensions of the light sources.2 Mixed incandescent and mercur. They are suitable for installations where colour appearance and colour rendering are important and where large multiplelamp luminaires are acceptable.4 Tubular fluorescent lamps -.0 The choice of source for public lighting is guided by the following considerations : a) Luminous flux. 6.6 Siring -. docks and navigable waterways. 3 C o l o u r --~ Where any form of road lighting is emploved there is a risk of confusion with signal light.I.6 Road Lighting in Vicinity of Railways.5 Screening ~~ In all cases where screening of a light source is required this should preferably PART 5 OUTDOOR INSTAI. 6. on the waterside.1 . 56.6.4 Glare and Masking.6.6.v lamps . it is recommended that the columns be sited.2 Consultafions --. SELECTION OF EQUIPMENT 6.1.1. c) It is particularly important to ensure that lighting of the road cannot ever be confused with the ground lighting of the flight paths by the pilots.1 The sources normally used in public lighting are : a) Incandescent lamps. following 5 .113 High pressure mercur>> vapour lamp3 (HPMV) . They are not usually employed in traffic routes. 6 .The position of individual light source on the road may fall in line with signal lights and even when fairly remote may mask them or make them difficult to recognize or may hamper the vision because of glare. b) Economy (determined by lumens/watt and life). These provisions should be met in a way that is mutually acceptable so that they may be incorporated at the design stage. river or canal) and if the lighting is single sided. 1 Requireyenrs .1. 5.6.If the road is bordered by water (lake.1 .1.. it may be necessary to employ screening to obviate the interference even though the colour of the light source is not objectionable.0 G e n e r a l . ii) In case roads are parallel to landing strips. f-l Mercury-halide lamps. if possible.1 Incandescenr installations the employment of incandescent lamps is very limited in practice. 5.ATIONS be achieved by means of properly designed luminaires and not by addition of unsightly screens to normal luminaires.* 5.1. it is essential that this interference is avoided. 6 . no lighting should be provided on the stretch of road near the landing strip.1. These are suitable for installations where colour rendering is less important and where high powers are needed. but local conditions vary so widely that it is not possible to lay down any rigid code applicable to all circumstances.. e) Sodium vapour lamps. b) Mixed incandescent and high pressure mercury vapour lamps. If these cannot be avoided by re-siting.In lighting for roads in the vicinity of railways. and d) Colour characteristics. 6. 5 . The choice between high pressure 207 . High pressure mercury vapour lamps with fluorescent bulbs are suitable for installations where colour appearance and colour rendering are important. 6. It is essential that prior consultation is made with the appropriate authorities regarding any special provision that may be necessary.For new 6. They are sometimes used for residential streets when initial cost is to be kept low.

The principal advantage of the semi-cut-off system is a greater flexibility in siting.6 Mercur)) h. cl Presence of large trees. 8) Resistance to atmospheric conditions. f-l Protection against collection of dust and . e) Resistance to heat. e) Slight humps. the general form of its distribution curves of luminous intensity pai%icularly in directions near the usual directions of vision. and g) Flood-lighting luminaires. c) Light output ratio. 6.1. and c) Many intersections and obstructions.1.2. j) Presence or absence of auxiliaries.1. The direction of the maximum intensity may vary but should be below 75”. e) Semi-cut-off integral. lide lamps .hen a certain amount qf glare may be accepted and when the luminaires are @-large size *Subject to a maximum value of I 000 cd whatever is the luminous flux emitted. that is.5 Sodium vapour lamps --The use of s o d i u m l a m p s i s convenient when colour rendering is not important and when a high luminous efficiency is desired. and 4 Nature and power of the source or sources. h) Ease of installation and maintenance. 6. the weight and area The influence of all these factors varies according to local circumstances and it is difficult to recommend one solution rather than another. the maximum intensity may vary but should be below 65’.insects. In the choice of the luminaire the following points should be considered : light distribution are considered according to the degree of glare which is acceptable : a) Post top integral luminaires. k. selected according to the relative importance of the above mentioned factors.1 Cut-c![f luminarie . The intensity at the horizontal should not exceed 50 cd per I 000 Im of flux from the light sources! and the intensity at 80’ is of the order of 1 000 cd per I 000 lm. 6.A luminaire whose light distribution is characterized by a less severe reduction in the intensity in the region 80” to 90”. Non-cut-off luminaires are permissible on/J. 6. bridges. 6. however. but should not nevertheless exceed I 000 cd.1. and its use is favoured under the following conditions : a) Smooth carriageway surfaces. d) Whether the luminaire Is open or closed type. c) Cut-off integral luminaires. b) Buildings close to carriageway.2.2 Semi-cut-of luminaire -.2. f) Non-cut-off tubular luminatres. and exposed to wind pressure. 6. 6. 6.mercury vapour fl*uorescent lamps and fluorescent tubes is in general determined by local considerations of aesthetics and cost of installation.2.1. The principal advantage of the cut-off system is the reduction of glare and its use is favoured under the following conditions : 4 Matt carriageway surfaces. k) Fixing arrangements.1 The following three fundamental forms of 208 NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE . The direction of. d) Long straight sections. especially those of architectural interest.0 The luminaire has double role of protecting the light source from the weather and redistributing the luminous flux of the source.1.These lamps are improved versions of HPMV lamps and having very much higher efficiencies in the order of 80 Im/W c o m b i n e d w i t h g o o d ’ c o l o u r characteristics. f-l Few intersections and obstructions. b) Post top non-integral luminaires.1.2 Luminaires 6. Their colour is sometimes useful to provide visual guidance. b) Absence of buildings. one essential characteristic of luminaires the choice of which directly influences the quality of the lighting.1. but the attention of lighting designers may be drawn to the fact that the most economical i_nstallation can be achieved only by the choice of the most suitable luminait‘e.7 High pressure sodium vapour lamps These lamps are improved versions of sodium vapour with efficiency of the order of to 100 Imi W with colour rendering satisfactory and of dimensions suited to fittings of small size and accurate light control.A luminaire whose luminous intensity in directions making an angle equal to or greater than 80” from the downward vertical is not reduced materially and the intensity of which at the horizontal may exceed the values specified for the semi-cut-off distribution. b) Nature of the optical arrangements and the light distribution which they provide. soiling and corrosion. The intensity at the horizontal should not exceed IO cd per I 000 Im of flux from the light sources and the intensity at 80° is of the order of 30 cd per 1 000 Im.A luminaire whose light distribution is characterized by a rapid reduction of luminous intensity in the region between 80” and the horizontal.2. There is.3 Non-cur-@ luminaire .1. d) Cut-off non-integral luminaires. It is also particularly suitable under foggy conditions.

such as lighting of residential roads or road\ bordered by trees. Type of lumlnaire Cut-off Semi-cut-of1 9-10 : Semi-cut-off Cut-off or Semi-cut-off Non-cut-off 7. but also economic considerations giving allowance for cost of electrical control units. average illumination ratio 3 Transverse variation of illumination. 8. m 6.3. TABLE 6 LIGHTING INSTALLATION IN GROUP A (Clauses 4. switching. Recommendations are made on the various components of design of public lighting installations and those require detailed calculations of the level and uniformity of illumination on the road surface and of glare. should be 6. should be employed with care. percent 0. greater tolerances on uniformity and glare arc admitted. Ratio minimum. etc) this inclination may lead to unexpected glare.1 Several factors contribute to good public temporary trial installation of a few luminaires on a stretch of road to be lighted.3 33 33 20 20 Cut-off 4.1 The electrical design aspects of public lighting lighting and those are enumerated for guidance in various parts of IS : 1944*.Attention given to the inclination of luminaires.1. Several criteria may not be satisfied for want of data such as characteristics of surface.9 Cut-off or Semi-cut-off Non-cut-off 7. roundabouts. the cut-off qualities of the luminaires and in certain situations (for example. Too great an inclination of.the luminaire may modify. An upward inclination which is generally called for reasons of aesthetics. To get some idea of the extent to which the installation would perform. Mounting height.5 m are undesirable except in special cases. F and (Ii lighting are under consideration. NOII 3 Mounting heights less than 7. bends. particularly in certain directions.1 and 7.5-9 5. 7. cable ducts. though for a detailed guidance reference should be made to the relevant part of IS : 1944*. GUIDELINES FOR SPECIFIC LOCATIONS 7.RIPTIO~: (2) GROI’P A l (3) 30 GROUP AND B ROADS A2 GROI‘P BI GKOI‘P HZ (6) 4 (4) I5 (5) 8 I Average Ifvel of illumination on road surface. etc.5 .1.5 Cut-off = 3 Semi-cut-off = 3. it may be preferable to make a installations not only take into account the i!lumination principles.3 0.4 0.2) SI No (1) D~SC.4 0.2 Tables 6 to 8 give a summary of recommendations on the various types of thoroughfares.1 Lamps and Luminaires 8.1 All’ lamps and luminaires and other fittings used in public lighting installations shall conform to the relevant Indian Standards. 8. POWER INSTALLATION REQUIREMENTS 8. Maximum spacing of luminaire height ratio 9-10 Cut-off = 3 Semi-cut-off = 3. P A R T 5 0l:TDOOR INSTALLATIONS 209 .clnd of reduced brightness. These shall be used as ready reckoners. the level and uniformity of illumination shall be as high as possible and the glare strictly Nor1 2 In Group B lighting.4 Inclination -. lux 2.1. In certain cases they have some advantages in increasing the illumination of facades. NOTE ~ Recommendations for Groups C. when there are roads at several levels. 7.2. which may be justified by the character of the road\ and by the presence of facades.5 Non-cut-off = 4 No1t I reduced. *Code of practice for lighting in public thoroughfares.1. III Group A lighting. etc.

The pillars shall be provided with electrically operated contactors of suitable current rating. Part L Lighting of main roads firs1 revision) tCode of’ practice for lighting of public thoroughfares: Part 5 Lighting of grade separated junctions. robust *Code of practice for lighting of public thoroughfares: Part 6 Lighting of town and city centres and areas of civic importance (Group E). Iux 2) Luminalres preferred IO 20 50 R EMARKS (2) 20 IO-15 Special consideratlohs.s (above grotind) I) Average hoti/-ontal illuminance. lux 2) Mounting height.be lit by two independent circuits.s i il) Pedtwrial p recinc’ts I ) Average horizontal illuminance (footway level). lux 4 6 Special considerations apply Q IO Not greater than I Not greater than I2 Tubular fluorescent lamps. 8. 8.TABLE 7 LIGHTING INSTALLATIONS GROUP D ROADS (Cbuse 7. bridges and elevated road (Group D). 9. v) Foot-bridges I) Illumination.2. or a section of it does not become completely dark. m i i ) Sho/IL>inR srree/. c’ar parh. For roads under groups A. The street lighting cables shall be terminated ia separate junction boxes or street lighting pillars. A typical street lighting pillar with control circuit is shown in Fig. lux 3) Mounting height. the cables shall preferably be terminated into the column . 8. A2 and D.iunction boxes by looping rather than ‘T’ joints. each stretch of road shall .ong bridges (> 60m) Iii) Bridges of historical importance iv) Parapet lighting: Mountmg height. The recommended sifes of the cables for various installatidn are shown in Table 9. preferably emanating frop two separate street lighting pillars.4 R EMARKS (2) D ESCRIPTION (1) A. HPSV lamps or other linear sources of luminance weatherproof. m 4) Choice of luminaire B. m Separation between rows of lighting.2 Cables 8. lux 2) Average level of illuminance (subways).1 Underground cables shall be laid for power supply !o the street lamps.s/ promenar1e. The contactor circuits shall be provided with externally mounted switches for local manual operation. As in IS : 1944 ( P a r t s I & 2)-l970* IO-12 cut-off HPMV or HPSV lamps 5-6 Special considerations Not less than 20 see IS : 1944 ( P a r t s I & 2)-1970’ Normal street lighting techniques with minor adjustments [.yeB IS Floodlight luminaires on high masts 11) L.2.2 The cable circuits for each section of the roads shall be so designed as to prevent important section of the roads from being completely off in case of a fault on the underground cables. the lamps shall be divided into at least two circuits in such a way that in case of fault on one circuit the entire junction. B and D. verminproof.2) IN TABLE 8 LIGHTING INSTALLATIONS IN GROUP E ROADS (Clause 7 . _tux C. B and D. dustproof. lux 2) Average horizontal illuminancc (under canopies). m 4 ) Luminaires i v ) Public. Auxiliary terminals of these contactors could provide facility of return indication in case of 210 .2.4 Underground cables of suitable sizes should be utilized for the purpose of control. EIevored Roads I) General lighting 2) Choice of luminaire Similar to heavy traffic road\ Cut-off Not less than 6 supervisory remote control. m 3) Luminaire 4) Light sources ii) Lighting by tigh-mast lighting I) Minimum service level value (lux) 2) Uniformity ratio $ Sd\L 3) Height of masts. For junctions also. i) Main squares [see IS : 1944 (Part 6)1981’]: I) Average level of illumination. 8.2. For roads under groups A I. separate mains shall be laid for group control of lamps on these roads.3 in case of roads in groups A. 2 ) DESGZIPTION (1) A. Bridges i) Short bridges (> 60m) 30 0. Grade Separared Junctions i) Lighting by conventional street lighting technique Complex junctions: I) General principles 2) Mounting height. NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE *Code of practice for lighting of public thoroughfares: Part 1 General prmclple>. m Choice of lamps : 1944 (Part 5)-19Xlt I) Average level of illuminance (surface of footbridge).\ee IS : 1944 (Part 5)-19X1+] .

This Photoelectric achieved by installing suitably mounted photoelect&c switches near the control points. When the need arises.4. should preferably be by underground cables laid specially for street lighting purposes. b) b) Ripple Control. use of telephone cables) to give control impulse to group control points.4. 4-core Single phase. In case of necessity. a) voltage Control -. ripple control equipment could be used with suitable sensing devices at the control points. 4-tore 3-phase. 8.4.street lights may be either through overhead wires 01 underground cables. This could be achieved by either of the following schemes: 8. This could be programmed to switch off on demand by a pre-determined control frequency signal.In case special control cables are not available. T i m e SM.2.3 Power Supply . Ripple Control-.This may be achieved by injecting audio frequency impulse through suitable power supply network and installing suitable sensors at control points. b) 8.Brown-out . The time switches may be manually spring wound or electrically operated.o or more lamps. 4-core 3-phase. Even in such cases. 3-phase.TABLE 9 RECOMMENDED TYPES AND SIZES OF CABLES R OAD G R O U P (1) SIZE OF CAHLES (2) T YPE OF CAHl.q-phase. These could be installed for each individual lamp. In case of discharge lamps this scheme would not be suitable. it would be possible to programme alternate (or any other combination) lamps to respond to specified ripple control signals. The contactors shall be controlled by electrically operated switches mounted for external manuali local operation. The photoelectric switch shall be mounted so as to be free from the glare caused by head-lights of motor vehicles and protected from the weather.4.4 Control of Street Lighting Installations 8. Applying reduced voltage to such lamps would automatically reduce the illumination to any desired level. M u l t i p l e L a m p Luminaire5 --.Electronic relays respond- a) Special Re/aj% C o n t r o l . However.control is necessary in vulnerable cities with heavy vehicular traffic at the time of war.3 Black-out Control . rt-core 3-phase.Special control cables are laid (alternatively. Ripple Control -. brown-out could be effected by switching off alternate lamqs and complete black-out by switching off all the lamps. where complete black-out is not practicable. each controlled either PART J 0l:TDOOR 211 . the entire area could be switched off by ripple control impulse.1 The contactors may be provided with additional circuitry for remote/automatic control. Special relays operated by normal supply or electronic impulses may be provided. b) 4 UHF Control . with one year seasonal variations. In case overhead wires are employed these should also be specially for street lighting purposes.This could be advanta- a) may be control .T h i s m a y b e achieved by special control cables laid up to the street lighting pillar.The contactors may. With suitable design these could also be utilised to switch off unwanted lights after peak traffic hours are over.5 The junction boxes with suitable sized contactors with independent fuses shall be provided for each phase. Following schemes for remote control are recommended: 4 Remote Control .In case ripple control is adopted.Black-out control may be required to be adopted in case of war in vulnerable areas. Following alternatives for brown-out control are recommended: 8. complete black-out would be necessary at the time of possible air raids. these would need to be regulated from time to time due to seasonal variations. In case of electrical operation the time switches should be of electricallywound mechanically-operated variety so as INSTALLATIONS geously adopted in areas where the source of lighting is filament lamp. alternately.-On main roads the luminaires adopted could have tw.The local electrically operated contractors may be controlled through time switches. ing to predetermined control frequency could be installed at each switching point.The supply to the .2 Automatic* Control .4 BroMsn-out Control . 8. B and D. This scheme enables return indication of the operation by auxiliary contacts of the contactors. The control could then be utilized to switch off the lamps instantaneously on demand by civil deferice authoriries. C) A”: BI 82 c D 3-phase. 8.It should be possible to instail pre-programmed electronic micro-processors. The fqllowing controls are recommended.itc*hes . 4-tore Electronic Control Suitches . be controlled automatically by use of auto-control devices.ES mm? 16-25 16-25 16-25 IO-25 IO-25 16-25 (3) to prevent their being affected by variations in supply frequency. The supply to lamps on roads under groups A. 4-tore Single phase.

either one or two phases could be switched off. the time. though could not be achieved on short notice is recommended in case of prolonged operations. the wattage of the lamps could be reduced by replacing the same with lower wattage lamps.by different phase or by separate ripple control signals. are aesthetic. Half of / CANOPY HINGE / HANDLE WELDED TO DOOR \ CDOUEILE HINGED DOORS / L O C K 9A Street Lighting Pillar F I G. or alternately alternate lamps be switched off by suitable ripple control signals. Firstly. an attractive or at least a non-disturbing daytime appearance which harmonizes well with the surroundings is. MISCELLANEOUS CONSIDERATIONS 9. the lighting installation serves no useful ! purpose.In case of prolonged brown-out operations. PILLAR-ccmfd. town and village has its own character 9. Secondly. of great importance. therefore. There are no simple or universal rules for aesthetically satisfactory design and layout since every city. In case of necessity. Aesthetic considerations should relate to the unit formed by the luminaire and its support and the situation in which it is placed.1 Aesthetics-The aesthetics of a lighting installation are principally judged by day. This. the unit formed by the luminaire and its support should be considered. the siting of the luminaires in the scene may lead to even if the luminaires unpleasant effects themselves considered in isolation. 212 NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE . 9 A T Y P I C A L S T R E E T LIGHTIN‘~. d) Replacement qf Lamps -.

PART 5 OUTDOOR INSTALLATIONS 213 .Wiring (Manual) F I G. 9 A TYPICAL S TREET L IGHTING PILLAR-CO&.FUSEWAYS FUSEWAYS FUSEWAYS I CONTACTOR 1 9B Inside Layout K 5 N 11 CD a m K IL 8 L2 L3 9C Typical Contactor.

2 Lighting Columns as Hazards .ROTARY SWITCH (EXTERNAL) ROTARY SWITCH ( INTERNAL 1 ‘r’ RELAY 9D Typical Wiring for Remote/ Auto Control F I G. If the vehicle collides with a lighting column the severity of injuries to the occupants is likely to be increased. Arrays of luminaires. Form of bracket. Where there is a footway close to the carriageway. Columns and surroundings: Size and type of luminaire. Ther6 is evidence to suggest that the number of such collisions decreases with the increase of distance of the column from the edge of the carriageway. NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE .5 m. Normally the clearance between column and carriageway should be at least 1. The points of general application are: 9. and e) Assembly of column. bracket and luminaire. I n exceptional cases a smaller clearance may be used. a) b) cl 4 Design and siting. n 8) Material and colour.A motor vehicle involved in an accident frequently leaves the carriageway and the probabijity of this happening increases with the speed of the vehicle. 9 A T Y P I C A L S TREET L I G H T I N G P I L L A R and what may look well in one place may be in&ngruous in another. the column s h o u l d b e s i t e d b e h i n d t h e footway.

usually pirallel to the major road. a lesser traffic value than that of a major road A road round an urban area enabling traffic tc avoid the urban centre Radial road A road providing direct communication between the centre of an urban area and the outer districts Street with frontages comprising a high proportion of commercial premises (usually unlit at night). or part of a road. and with a high proportion of heavy goods vehicles in the traffic stream Street with frontages comprising a high proportion of shops or other premises which may be lit at night and with heavy pedestrian (and possibly pedal cycle) traffic Street with the majority of froritages comprising private houses A link between the radial or ring roads and the local access streets Street giving direct access to buildings and land with a minimum of through traffic A subsidiary road.ATIONS . or IO which is assigned.APPENDIX (Clause 3.KIP7loh o t T Y P E (2) KOAD TERM (1) A TERMINOLOGY FOR ROAD TYPES OF DESCRIPTION p2. in particular. Roads of this type should have two or several separate and one-way carriageways ’ A road similar to. and giving access to premises That portion of a road reserved exclusively for pedestrians A way. Service road Footway Cycle track Ring road P A R T 5 0I:TDOOR INSTAI. but lacking some feature of a motorway. A main route in the through communication system of a country A road which has. accessible only from interchanges and on which. reserved for use only by bicycles Commercial street Motorway Shopping street Express road Residential street Collector road Distributor road Local street All purpose road Trunk road! Major road Minor road. I) TLRM (1) Road Street Dts(. TYPF: OF R O A D A general term denoting any public way for purposes of vehicular traffic A road which has become partly or wholly defined by buildings along one or both frontages A road reserved for’motor trafiic. for example: ~~ not dual-carriageway __ not fully access-controlled _~ not all intersections grade-separated Road usable by all traffic (including pedestrians and cyclists) Used to distinguish other roads from motorways. stopping and parking are prohibited.I.

NOTE ~ Exhibition or fair site lighting installations of the permanent type shall conform to the requirements specified in Part 5 Set I of the Code. construction site equipment. imperative to lay down the necessary precautions to be observed for such installations from the point of view of safety. NATE .Construction site irstallatlons arc thobe which include sites where the following are carried out: a) Construction of new building. cl Temporary. 0. b) Works of repair.0 For the purposes of this Section. FOREWORD 0. the guidelines specified in this Section shall be applicable for longer durations subject to fresh inspection and tests with the prior app!oval of the supply authority (see a/so 8. N OTE I -Construction site installations for very long periods of times. etc 3.3 Temporary installations covered in this section are enumerated in 3 and are classified based on the duration of their existence in use. where the equipment are quite similar to those in heavy conditions shall con. Exceeding 24 Hours . intended to be used for a temporary period not exceeding 6 months.1 The following environmental factors shall apply to temporary outdoor installations: electrical installation open to sky or partially covered. It may be noted that this section basically intends to lay down additional safety measures to be adopted in the design of temporary installations.s -.temporary use. the following definitions in addition to those given i n Part I /Set 2 of the Code shall apply. therefore. 3.b.1 Electrical installations are often required to be designed and erected for use for short periods of time ranging from a few hours to few months alld are connected to the supply source in open ground. Installations . TERMINOLOGY 2.form to the requirements in Part S/&c 3 of the Code. and the general guidelines for outdoor installations under heavy conditions from the point of view of selection and use of equipment given in Part S/Set 3 shall also be referred to.1. fairs. b) Temporary. En\ironnWnr (1) CLASSIFICATION Characterrrsrics (2) Remarks (3) External lighting fittings. GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF TEMPORARY INSTALLATIONS 4. etc. the characteristics defined below generally apply. Installations . religious and other public function. The construction site installations are also characterised by frequent modifications.These include temparary installations which cater to loads for the purposes of marriages.In special cases. It is. erected in the vicinity of construction sites solely for the purposes of supplying the electrical Presence of water Possibility of splashes from any direction Possibility of jets Temporary installaof water in any tions in parts direction Partial or total covering by water Presence of foreign Presence of small objects solid bodies Presence of dust in significant quantity Impact High severity Construction.An NOTE 2 -.SECTION 2 TEMPORARY OUTDOOR INSTALLATIONS 0. alternation.3).1 Temporary Installations (Outdook) . 216 N A T I O N A L ELEaRICAL C O D E .2 The major risks in the use of power in such installation arise from short circuit resulting in fire accidents and exposure to live wire resulting in shock. etc.for Durations not Exceeding 45 Da. 0. SCOPE 1. demolition sites needs of building construction work such as lighting and power loads.1 The temporary outdoor electrical installations covered in this Section are those intended for the following purposes: a) Temporary Installations for Durations not Exceeding6 Months -Outdoor installations ‘open to sky or partially covered. 1.for Durations not 4.0 General guidelines on the assessment of characteristics of installations in buildings are given in Part I /Set 8 of the Code. 4 Temporarll Installations ./or Durations not Exceeding 7 Dajcy ~ These include installations site of temporary nature intended for a week long public function or outdoor lighting installations of buildings and parts in view of festival and other reasons. 2. S u c h i n s t a l l a t i o n s a r e g e n e r a l l y unprotected from environmental hazards as compared to installations in buildings. extension or demohlion of existing buildings: and c) Public engineering works. 2.1 This section of the Code covers the requirements for outdoor electrical installations bf .These include fairly larg loads such as for exhibitions.1 Environment 4. 1. reception. For the purposes of installations falling under the scope of this section.

In case supply at voltages above 650 V *Code of practice for design.1 The following factors of utilization apply: Uiilization (1) Capability of persons Characteristics (2) Uninstructed persons Remarks (3) Majority of occupants say in an exhibition circus fairs Instructed persons Asy.1 Commissioning of Substation . etc conditions of evacuation Nature of processed Construciion o f structure Fire risk Combustible Shamianahs. small animals) Solar radiation Solar radiation of hbrmful intensity and/or duration Depends on the location of the installation Hazard from exposure of equipment Generally applicable for installations located outdoors Seismic effects 6. c’ircuses.2 If the equipment used in temporary and provisional places of work in the open.1 Temporary. GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR TEMPORARY OUTDOOR INSTALLATIONS 5. 5.In case the loads at construction sites or to exhibitions.inSide pation. The power supply authority’s line should be brought up to the substation in a separate enclosure. birds. installation shall in general conform to the requirements stipulated in the relevant Section of Part I of the Code. ADDITIONAL REQUIREMENTS FOR TEMPORARY OUTDOOR INSTALLATIONS Presence of flora! No harmful mould growth hazard Presence of fauna Hazard from fauna (insects. such as for marri. 6. of overhead power lines: Part I kV.subject to movement such as tents. Lightning 4. tRe suppP y intake arrangements could be through either of the following: a) A HV feeder. difiicult an enclosure. b) A HV feeder and step-down transformer. c) A service line at voltages below 250 V. in respect of wiring of circuits.2. cabinet or distribution board shall consist of only components belonging to one and the same installation except for circuits for standby supplies.Circus. in particular. then the ‘supporting poles. such a s building sites are similar to those used in surface mining applications. are large and the power supply authority has no network in the vicinity of the temporary installation that could be utilized then it would be necessary to establish a temporary substation where the switchgear and transformer can be installed.0 The type of outdoor itMallations will depend on the magnitude and duration of the installation. signalling or control. Depending on the availability of s are ca acity. a smgle distribution point. or d) A tapping form one of the existing serviceconnection. 6. tents The nature of construction materials used in temporary installations may be combustible.p&es to operating adequately advised or supervised by skilled persons Contact of persons with earth potential Conditions of evacuation during emergency Frequent Construction sites Low density occupation easy conditions of evacuation Small gatherings. made to the guidelines contained in Part S/Set 3 of the Code.1. references shall be. in 6. etc.tant to clearly differentiate them. demolitions sites equipmrnt. One construction site may be served by several sources of supply.Environment (1) Vibrations Chorocteristics (2) Medium severity Remorks (3) Constructions. of overhead power lines: Part I kV. conductors. The substation site shall be so selected that it is as close to the load centre as possible. tCode of practice for design. If overhead line is laid up to the temporary substation. location and installation of PART 5 OUTQOOR INSTALLATIONS 217 . Such as wooden cloth structures in tents Structures which are weak or .1 Supply Intake Arrangements 6. ages and similar functions Hieh densitv bccu. Section 2 Installation and installation and maintenance Lines op to and including I I installation and maintenance Lines up to and including II maintenance. of the existing distribution system. laree oublic gatherings. insulation and the method of stringing the conductors and the mechanical strength of the line as a whole shall conform to the relevant provisions of IS : 5613 (Part I /Set I)-1970* and IS : 5613 (Part l/Set 2)197lt. including fixed or mobile power generators. Section I Design. All the circuits supplied from the same point of supply comprise one installation and it is impoy.1. removable partitions etc Structural design flexible or unstable 5. etc.2 Utilization 4. materials of the line. Additional requirements are giver.

1. 6. 6. preferably laid underground. 6.1. shall be laid at a depth of 900 mm.2. etc.2.i.3 The main switch shall be installed on a firm and vertfcal surface. then: 6. Only in the case of load for purposes mentioned under 3. 4 mixed wiring o f i n s u l a t e d a n d b a r e conductor .5 The main switches shall be located at a height not exceeding 1.2.1. 6. towns and thickly populated localities.3 The enclosure or the which the main-switch is installed that the equipment within shall be the environmental conditions (see cupboard in shall be such unaffected by 4. partly underground and In such an event. The height of the cable shall not be less than 2 m when run inside the compound and at least 5 m when run along or across road. and partly overhead may be used. the outgoing end of the main switch shall be connected to busbar of adequate size and various subcircuits shall be connected to this busbar through double or triple pole switches.2. When laid underground. The switches shall be mounted on a firm support and shall be at a height between I ‘m and 2 m from the floor level.2 Control of Circuits 6. covered with sand. 6.9 In cities.1. or alternatively. In case the cable passes underneath the passages.1.4 There shall be adequate ventilation in the room where main switches are installed and there shall be operational space around the switch in accordance with good practice.2. 6.1(a) especially outside cities and town bare conductors are permitted. 6.1.1.10 For temporary installations in cities and towns for. depending upon whether they are single phase or 3 phase circuits.2. For main circuits.1.2 The main switch shall be adequately protected from ingress of water. (c) and (d).1.1. 6.1. 6.1). it is advisable to wire up the installation with insulated wires including for main circuits in open compounds or running along or across roads.6 The cable shall be laid either underground or supported in the air.7 In selecting the equipment and cables.1 At the origin of each installation a unit containing the main controlgear and the principal protective device shall be provided. b) mixed wiring. Alternatively.2. cables shall be used. The subcircuit switch shall be so spaced that there shall be a minimum clear distance of 60 mm “--tween the NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE . 6.1. purposes described under 3.1.1 A device shall be provided on the incoming cable to each supply unit and each distribution unit for switching and isolating. The incoming and outgoing cable/wires of the main switch shall be firmly supported so that cable and wire ends connected to the main switch shall not be subjected to any mechanical force.1(b). Precautions shall be taken to ensure that this cable when laid underground is done so with the same meticulous care as is done for a permanent installation. The switch room shall be accessible at any time of the day or night to authorised persons. 6. at exhibitions. if the premises where temporary electric supply required is isolated.11 In cities and towns.1 On large temporary installations like those on construction sites. In case overhead wires are used in the installation they should conform to the relevant Indian Standards mentioned in 6. With this type of arrangement it shall be possible to switch off the supply at the intake point or at the distribution point. When laid overground.1. which can withstand the mechanical vibrations created at the installation site as well as the wind pressure at the location.2.2. the cable 218 6. bare conductors shall not be used.2.2 Means of emergency switching shall be provided on the supply to all current using equipment on which it may be necessary to disconnect all live conductors in order to remove a hazard.2. transmitted to it from any portion of the cables and wires. it shall be supported on rigid poles.overhead wiring.2. 6.2.2. An independent earthing shall be established inside the installation premises.1. the rating shall be decided taking the environmental conditions into account.2.28 The supply intake point shall be placed outside the periphery of area which is accessible to the general public.1.2.is required. The main switch shall be installed in an enclosure or a wooden cupboard and as close to the metering point as possible (see also 6. the cables shall either be cleated with saddles of proper sire along the walls of a permanent structure if available.2 Subcircuit 6.5 m so as to be accessible in emergencies. 6.2.2.1. a suitable enclosure to install the switchgear and the metering arrangement shall also be erected.2 Power Distribution 6.1). 6. circuses. it shall be laid in whole or split pipes. bricks and earth for providing mechanical protection.4 The main switch on the installation shall be connected to the point of supply by means of an armoured cable and the termination of this cable shall be adequately protected from rain water.1 Main Circuit 6. Crossing of the road shall preferably be avoided. the underground part of the installation and the overhead part of the installation shall separately conform to the requirements as mentioned in this Section.2. they shall be cleated along the walls of structures with proper saddles.1.

4 Ta ed joints shall not be used at heights less t Ran 3 m. at a place where it is safe from atmospheric conditions. 6.3 When the specified duration of use of the installation as defined in 2.2.23 The distribution boards the subcircuits shall be at an accessible height but not less than I m.3. 6. All switches. 7. short circuit and earth leakage by suitable protective devices. (b) and (c) shall be ready at least 24 hours prior to connection of supply. 7.5 A broken bulb of a lamp in a series circuit is a risk and therefore series lamps shall not be strung or hung at heights less than 3 metres. The earth continuity wire shall be a single core insulated wire and shall be connected to the locab earth plate and taken along the cable connecting the supply intake point and the mainswitch on the installation.3.2. A defective series lamp shall not be allowed to remain in its position and shall be immediately removed. No flammable material shall be stored near the service intake point or the operational area of electrical equipment or appliances.2. with the.saddles to the masonry wall or wooden partition wall. therefore. 6.2. shall get their duplicate earth connection from the earth continuity busbar on the sub-distribution board. 6. If such a place is not available. For local earthing. then a drawing may also be given to the electric supply authority. Wherever armoured cables are used.2 For local earthing the earth electrode shall be burried near the supply intake point.2 Temporary supply is generally used at public places and for public functions and. the armouring shall be connected to earthing arrangement of Power Supply Authority. the distribution board shall be placed in a cubicle. In a 3 phase circuit the loads on the 3 phases shall be balanced. The taped joints shall be properly supported and preferably clamped on either side of the joint so that the joint is not subject to a strain.2. TESTING AND COMMISSIONING 8.1 The installation as a whole shall be protected against overload.2. PART 5 OUTDOOR INSTALLATIONS 219 .2. The ronnection from this earth continuity wire shall be taken to various subdistribution boards and terminated on a busbar. In construction sites. For large public functions.1(a). At the point of supply the load on the neutral shall not be more than 20 percent of the computed value of the load in the phases. protection of persons against indirect contact shall be assured by automatic disconnection of supply appropriate to the system of earthing. exhibitions. The Icad wires connected to the subcircuits switches shall be suitably supported on wall with clips and shall not be left hanging. 6. the guidelines specified in this Section shall be applicable subject to fresh inspection and tests as above.2. may also be indicated.2.2. 6. For series lights used f o r decorative purposes no taped joint shall be used.1(c) there should be a period of at least 6 hours after compl&ion of the work and prior to connecting supply for the purpose of testing the installation and visual inspection. so as to properly test the installation and find the loads in different subcircuits.2 The various tests on the installation shall be carried out as laid down in Part I /Set IO of the Code. Spans more than 2 m shall have guide wire support.6. prior approval of the supply authority. etc. All appliances and equipment connected to subdistribution board. In the case of installation described’ in 3.1 is required to be extended beyond the stipulated period of 6 months.6 Installation at construction sites The enttre area where the temporary supply will be used.2. an independent earth continuity wire stiall be used. Subcircuit distribution board shall be installed. 8. PROTECTION AND SAFETY 7.2 Ihe outgoing wires from the subcircuit \\+itches inside the enclosure shall be cleated firmly on wooden battens’ or taken through cc)nduits which are fixed by means of. sockets and fixed appliances shall be protected from rain by enclosing these in cubicles. extreme care shah be taken to ensure that there is no risk of any type of hazard either from electrical shock or fire.1 Supply to all temporary installations should be connected by a specific date for the user and therefore the installation work meant for types of installations in 3.1 All appliances and equipment on temporary installation shall be connected to a system of duplicate earthing one of the Power Supply Authority and one local. shall be indicated beforehand and in case the electric supply is required at construction site for pipe lines. 8. suitable fire extinguishers shall be kept at the supply intake point and near the main switch of the installation. On this drawing different points where various from appliances/equipment are intended to be used. 8. Socket outlet shall either be protected by residual current devices having operating current not exceeding 30 mA or be supplied by safety extra-low voltage or electrical separation of circuit each socket outlet being supplied by a separate transformer. The distribution boards shall be fixed on firm supports or on pole firmly planted in the ground.3 Earthing 6.2.

The object of this Section is to set out the guiding principles so as to ensure the safety of persons. shovels and other excavators. The design and selection of equipment and components have to take into consideration the expected loading. This process includes: Operaring : which means. 2. b) Secondary processing. operating characteristics and cycle duty. means alterations. 1. signal supervisory and communication system. property and the proper functioning. TERMINOLOGY 2.Winning and stacking machines are used in the process of uncovering or detaching materials from the earth’s surface or stacking such material. etc.1 Outdoor installations of the permanent nature require special treatment as compared to temporary installations of short durations (less than 6 months) primarily owing to the continucus exposure of the former installation and equipment forming part of it to heavy conditions of service at site. i n c l u d i n g t r i p p e r carriages. 2.operations. for operations of equipment and machinery therein _ used for the purposes such as: a) Winning. 2. adjusting. b) Spreaders and stackers. SCOPE 1. removal of faults and testing.FOREWORD 0.A movable or stationary mechanical item of plant designed for NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE .An area accessible only through the use of a tool or key.1 Operations (Electrical) . 0. area 2. the area shall be clearly and visibly marked by appropriate signs. ditch bunker loaders. 2. bucket-chain excavators. livestock. stacking and primary processing.0 For the purpose of this Section.7 Transport Conveying System . It is intended to provide necessary guidelines for such installations in this Section for the purposes of the practising engineers and the relevant authorities. Area . namely: bucket-wheel excavators. operational. 2. and h) Ancillaries.3 Electrical Operating Area . 220 Nwt ~~ However this Section shall be applicable to building sites and earth-moving sites as far as the equipment used therein are similar to those used in surface mining application. 0. 0.5 Working Level (Bench).2 Operating. 9 Floating dredgers. draglines.2 This Section of the Code attempts to cover the general requirements applicable to equipment and auxiliaries for a variety of permanent outdoor site installations which are enumerated in 3.The process of performing work through the controlled application of electrical power. These machines are designed to be able to change location according to operational requirements. issued by the International Electrotechnical Commission.1 This Section of the Code covers requirements for permanent outdoor installations. The area shall be clearly and visibly marked by appropriate signs. The working level and/or working area may change location with the progress of . d) M o b i l e c o n v e y o r s . reclaimers. Jz) Control.An area accessible to operating personnel in the normal performance of their duties.3 The general characteristics of permanent outdoor installations are enumerated in 4.6 Winning and Stacking Machinery . switching. d) Associated pumping and water supply systems. controlling and supervision. 2.4 Closed Electrical Operating Area . e) Haulage trucks. the definitions given in Part I together with those given below shall apply: 2.2 This Section does not cover temporary and provisional places of work of durations less than 6 months for which reference shall be made to Part S/Set 2 of the Code. including hoppers and surge bins. They include the following: a) Excavators.An accessible only by the opening of a door or the removal of a barrier. e) Loading stations.SECTION 3 PERMANENT OUTDOOR INSTALLATIONS O.4 In the preparation of this Section considerable assistance has been derived from IEC Publication 62 I ‘Electrical installations for outdoor sites under heavy conditions (including open-cast mines and quarries). transportation and storage conditions. as well as the special and arduous environmental. c) Transport conveying.That part of an open-cut mine or quarry on which machinery and/or rolling stock are in operation. c) Mobile conveyor bridges. and I31 Mobile electric drills. 9 Power generating and distribution systems. SECTION 3A GENERAL 1. Servicing : which maintenance.

2.1 The following are the types of permanent outdoor install. but which is moved between periods of use. c) Bucket conveyors. d) Paddle or scraper conveyors.An insulated cable specially designed to be towed by a mobile machine.28 Return Conductors .An interconnecting electric line between distribution substation and load point. which would be connected to earth if the system were to be earthed.Any 2. exposed conductive parts are walls of enclosures. 2.An insulated cable specially designed to be frequently reeled on and off a cable drum or reeler mounted on a mobile machine.0 The types of permanent outdoor installations covered by this Section are given in 3. etc.An insulated cable that may be moved from time to time according to the operation without necessarily following the movements of the machinery. locomotives) by means of a collector or pantograph. b) Cham conveyors. 2.8 Primary Processing machinery necessary to prepare material won from the earth prior to its transport to the final processing or utilization areas. 2. 2. e) Screw conveyors. 2. 1 6 S e l f . by means of a collector.the installation. 2.An electrically powered vehicle usually operating on rubber tyres used for transport of materials and which may have a self. 2 . Machinery .21 Movable Distribution Cable .26 Overhead Collector Wire . 3.An apparatus or assembly of apparatus which is permanently installed in a determined place and which is not normally moved during or between periods of use. 2.An apparatus or assembly of apparatus which is too heavy to br portable but which is capable of being moved without discontinuity of electric power during use.27 Overhead Distribution Line (Feeder) .13 Movable Apparatus.That point of the power system.Circuits and devices designed to prevent danger to personnel or livestock and damage to plant in the event of abnormal or unintentional operation. a judicious estimate has to be made of the environmental factors that influence the performance of. and f) Hydraulic conveyors systems.18 Exposed Conductive Part -A conductive part which can be touched readily and which normally is not live but which may become live under fault conditions.19 Earthable Point . material won from the earth.An apparatus or assembly of apparatus which is too heavy to be portable.--Typical. return current. operating handles. N OTE .10 Fixed Apparatus . No’rE Cables are net included as part of apparatus.9 Secondary Processing Machinery .11 Portable Apparatus . PART 5 OlJTDOOR INSTALLATlONS .29 Safety Circuits and Devices . 2.An electric line used for supplying moving machinery.14 Haulage Truck . 2.25 Overhead Distribution Traction Line (Feeder) ‘-~~ An line having electric bare conductors used for the interconnecting line between the power source and traction wire. 2.15 Movable System 2 i4 railway Railway system which is designed to be tiovable to another location without dismantling.contained or external power supply. The general characteristics and service conditions enumerated in 4. 221 2.Any machinery necessary to process at a point remote from the open cut or quarry. 2. NOTIl-he earthable point may be the neutral point depending on the type of power system.24 Overhead Traction (Trolley) Wire . 2.An electrical installation in which the generation and utilization plants are housed within the same structure. 2.the conveying of materials continuously from one location to another. 3.A device which causes a signal to be given in the event of reduced insulation resistance to earth.ations covered by this Section: a) Open-cuf or Open-cast Mine .Conductors (which may be rails) used for carrying the.An apparatus or assembly of apparatus intended to be normally held in the hand during use and which can be carried by ‘a person.C o n t a i n e d P o w e r S u p p l y .An electrical installation in which the generation and utilization plants are not housed within the same structure.12 Mobile Apparatus . 2. etc. T Y P E S O F P E R M A N E N T O U T D O O R INSTALLATIONS 3. with its electric power source disconnected.17 External Power Supply . 2.1 cannot be made uniformly applicable to all such installations.20 Insulation Monitoring and Warning Device .An electric line having bare conductors used for supplying vehicles (for example. of the transformer and/or generator. 2. such as a reclaimer.1.23 Trailing Cable . bauxite. 2.22 Drum Cable -. iron-ore. 2. They include the following: a) Belt conveyors. for example. Depending on the site conditions and the nature of the operation involved.An open air sire for the extraction of materials or minerals such as coal.

1. etc).N OTE ~ Underground mines are excluded from the scope of this Section.Components shall be des. including temperature.The electrical specifications of ail components shall be not less than that required by the relevant Indian Standard. information regarding the duties. etc.1 Some of these conditions. 5. Supply voltage variations. RULES FOR EQUIPMENT A N D AUXILIARIES 5. clay. etc.8 Noise Limitations ~ Consideration shall be given in the design to limit the noise level in accordance with local rules.5 Operating Conditions . mail or cargo. gas.0. 5.3 Materials ~ Materials used in component construction shall be appropriate f o r t h e environmental conditions. 5. cl Dockyards .4 Protection -.1 Selection of Equipment and Ancillaries 5. Insecure powrt supply and transients. 5.1 E x c h a n g e qf Information . coils. moisture.Protection shall be provided against damage and/or overheating during normal operation. SECTION 3B EQUIPMENT A N D AUXILIARIES 5.0. jetty’s. including rodents or other small animals. marine h) Flammable and/or explosive material/or j) Vermin.Before 222 4 the bracing of the core. 5.Transformers shall be so selected that: ink areas. and c) diy type transformers including cooling NAT-IONAL ELECTRICAL CODE .A yard with facilities for receiving classifying and dispatching railway roiling stock ( see also Section 3E). refueiiing parking or maintenance. altitude.6 Site Conditions . However surface installations of underground mines are covered by this Section.0. siewing and angles of inclination (tilting and mounting) which may occur under expected operational conditions. stators. hostile environment.he Code. container terminal. passenger berths. overspeed. are listed below which may differ from their normal values: a) Altitude.. operational. dust or liquid) is present in such quantity as to create a hazard and contact is possible between any exposed part of the component and the combustible material.1. repair docks. gravel. wind pressure. b) Quarry . intended to accommodate aircraft for the purposes of loading and unloading passengers.An open air site for the extraction of materials such as limestone.7 Combustible Materials ~ If combustible material (for example. shafts and couplings. kS Localities prone to natural calamities.Rotating machines used in applications where high acceleration. the temperature of the exposed part shall not exceed the limits specified in Part 7 of t. operating characteristics and cyclic duty taking into consideration the protection required in special and arduous environmental. reversing or braking may be employed shall be so selected that they are capable of withstanding the expected stresses on parts such as rotor windings or cages.0. atmosphere.0.0 The design and the selection of components shall be on the basis of expected loading. deceleration. installation and maintenance so that the electrical equipment or apparatus is procured to suit those conditions.0 General 5. 5. blocking of ventilation ducts. rotating machines shall be so located or guarded to prevent inadvertant contact with moving parts. Necessity for special measures may be decided in consultation with ail concerned. 5.A defined area on a land aerodrome. Supply frequency variations. GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF PERMANENT OUTDOOR INSTALIJATIONS 4. transportation and storage conditions: 4. 5.1. e) Railwyav Marshalling Yards .0. etc.or in expected fault conditions. and ml Ecological impact. should be gathered by the engineers responsible for their procurement. railway yards.1 Rotating Machines .2 Relevant Standards . atmosphere. b) c) d) e) Low and/or high ambient temperature. r) g) Environment (dust.includes loading and unioad- ordering electrical equipment for outdoor sites.0. 5.igned to meet such conditions as vibration.2 Transfi~rmers .Components shall be installed so that design features such as cooling systems shall not be impaired by external factors such as position. location and installation conditions under which they would operate. b) they are totally enclosed. internal leads and the tank of transformers on mobile and movable installations are capable of withstanding vibrations.0. to the extent that the operations therin are identical with those described in 1. Airport Aprons . High or low humidity. stator end windings. acceleration. 4. etc.

considering the type of insulation.4 Switching Devices --. and fl Measures to limit harmonics. (0 minutes) rms current expected. In high voltage systems. subject to the requirements of 5.Lvrs -. output and control circuits. Where supplying cyclic loads. the metallic armouring of a movable distribution cable may be used as a protective conductor provided that the security against breakage of the armouring (taking irito account strength. the armouring may. Suitable protective measures shall be applied to reduce the touch and step voltages. and c) Protective in measures as specified 15 : 1 0 0 2 8 ( P a r t 2)-1982* for transformers with flammable cooling medium. or b) substantial semiconductive elements in contact with the protective conductor. 5. 5. Adequate precautions shall be taken to prevent spillage of the cooling medium causing pollution. and d) Suitable installation precautions to prevent hazards to personnel from electric areas. 223 voltage.2 Protective conductor . b) Protection against interference with commuc) Protection against spurious operation due to electrical coupling with other apparatus. b) Use of flame-retardant cooling medium.All multicore *Code of practice for selection. This may be achieved by either: 4 monitoring the protective conductor against increase in resistance by the use of pilot cores. 5.3. nication or electrical control equipment.5.Where cables are fitted with substantial longitudinal semiconducting layers for the purpose of providing a current path to the protective conductor in the event of a fault. and transient overvoltage conditions.1 Phase conductors .53 Armouring as protective conductor Where : the cross-sectional area of a single composite strand of the armouring is greater than 6 mm2.Selection of phase conductor size should take into consideration the expected load current. e> Feedback supervision.1.1. installation and maintenance of transftirmers: Part 2 Installation.1.4 Limiting temperatures under short circuit -~ Cables shall be selected so as to ensure that the maximum allowable conductor temperature.5. 5. PART S OUTDOOR INSTALLATIONS . The following additional protective measures are suggested from fire: a) Use of dry type transformers.The precautions are recommended: following cables of the movable distribution. short-circuit current and duration o f f a u l t .3 Static Converters ---. 5. measures shall be provided to minimize internal partial discharge or to render such effects harmless (for example. drum and trailing types.5. For certain classes of movable distribution cables. 5. 5.1. automatic movement of the mechanism.1. high frequency monitoring or other means. etc.5. s h a l l c o n t a i n a protective conductor.1. etc ) is at least equal to that of all the conductors. special measures shall be taken to guard against deterioration of the earthing circuit.The following measures are recommended for switching devices for outdoor sites: a) Selection of proper design that no unintentional switching may be caused under expected operational and risk conditions. the resistance between the semiconducting element and the protective conductor should be :ested to ensure that it is suitable to carry the prospective fault current. is not exceeded under expected short-circuit fault conditions.system are protected against harmful ingress of dust. where required suitable means to cl Suitable labelling of switching devices which are not meant for interrupting load or fault currents. lay. Such measures may consist of a) metallic screens. The voltage drop should be calculated for both starting and maximum load conditions. 5. where necessary.1.1. a) Protection against harmful effects of over- The protective conductor may be in the form of core(s) and/or screen(s). elongation.5. b) Ensuring.5.5 Cables 5.1. v o l t a g e d r o p a n d t h e mechanical strength required for the expected method of handling. field gradient control).1. the current-carrying capacity should be based on the long time (for example. and provided that the armour conductivity is at least equal to that of a protective conductor of the required nominal cross-sectional area which would otherwise be required.6 Semiconducting la. form the protective conductor. or b) cables should be specially designed and used in accordance with the requirements of relevant Indian Standard whether or not they are used on a drum.5 Protection against partial discharge -For flexible cables having nominal voltages greater than 4 000 V. d) Protection against interaction between earthing systems of the input. enable isolators to be locked.

5. and b) For cables rated at above I 000 V. control or supervisory cores shall be insulated to a voltage level equal to that of the power cores.5.st lin7itation Where the normal mode of operation of the machine requires infrequent rotation through an arc of up to 360” in either direction. control or supervisory cores separated from power cores by conductive rubber screens if on an unearthed system or metallic screens if on an earthed system.5. Where cables designed specially for this purpose are used. shall not be used where fatigue may occur. control and supervisory cores shall have such cores insulated from all other conducting elements of the cable. NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE . for example. 5. control or supervisory cores may be used for reeling drum applications. 1 . for either system.Multicore cable which contain power. drum cable and trailing cable shall be tested by the cable manufacturer for partial discharge.1. 000 V shall have pilot. shall be distinctly and indelibly colourcd green and yellow also see Part I : Set 4 of the Code over its whole length so that in any I5 mm length one of these colours shall cover at least 30 percent and not more than 70 percent of the surface. When using single-core cables for alternating current circuits. the other colour covering the remainder of the surface.tiL~cJ 5. cl Composire multicore cables on reeling drums . such insulation or outer taping shall at least be identified at each end by the green yellow colour combination applied in accordance with the foregoing paragraph. pilot.1. For voltages above I 000 V. and that excessive bending and compressing are avoided. 5.5. in which the protective conductor is insulated.12 Sheathing. all conductors of a given circuit shall follow the same magnetic path to neutralire the resultant magnetic flux. ratios may be reduced to 25 and 50 times respectively.wreen. All such cables (except bare earthing conductors) shall be insulated for the maximum voltage applied to any cable in the duct. Suitable supplementary identification may also be used.s and/or atmouring fiw ~ahle.5. the pilot.1. Where the normal mode of operation of the machine requires frequent rotation through an arc of up to 360’ in either direction.the protective conductor is insulated. 9 P a r t i a l dischar~qe pet~fowiance F o r cables rated at above 4 000 V each production length (minimum length I50 m) of movable distribution cable. 5 . In cases where cables are handled only by tools. frequent handling or ground movement.rihle c. cables with lead alloy or aluminium sheaths or mineral-insulated metal-sheathed cables.1 Plo~~ision (?f .10 T e r m i n a t i o n s o f ’ fle. shall be the earth continuity check pilot. in which .11 Pwar cable tbl. 5. 5 . conduit or sleeving. the distance between the clamping supports of the cable shall be not less than 50 times the largest cable diameter in the cable run.5. 3) Cables operating at above I 000 V in an earthed system shall have metallic screens separating the power cores from the pilot core(s). or outer taping. they shall have metallic screens and:‘dr armouring or shall be provided with conducting elastomeric screens of substantial cross-sectional area and so placed as to limit the touch and step voltages that may arise in the event of a cable fault. these means o f special insulated requirements shall apply only for voltages above 4 000 v. such insulation. both power and control.ahks Flexible cables shall be terminated in such a way that their ends are not under stress or under tension effects. the only control core(s) which may be included in a multicore cable.i.1. protrc. and 4) Cables operating at up to and including I. the following applies: a) For cables rated at ap to and iticluding I 000 V. b) Mlrlticore cables -~ For voltages up to and including I 000 V.s aho\v I 000 I/‘~ Where flexible cables are handled manuaily while energized. due to vibration.1. the above. Multicore cables containing power and control cores shall comply with the following requirement as appropriate: 1) Any cable containing pilot. 2) Cables operating at above I 000 V in an unearthed system shall have either metallic screens or individual conductive rubber screens separating the power cores from the pilot core(s). Cables having extruded metallic sheaths.8 Identification of cwnd~rc~tor Unless o t h e r w i s k required.5. both power and control. conduit or sleeving may be used for several circuits. Alternatively. multicore cables may be used for several circuits.Cables may be laid directly on or in the ground provided that tte outer sheath is designed for the operating 224 conditions. 5. the distance between the clamping supports of the cable shall be not less than 100 times the largest cable diameter in the cable run.13 Segregation of’ pobcler and control cores a) Single-cure cables Single-core cables which are installed in a common duct.1.

Tables I and 2 may be used to indicate clearance distances between conductors and earth in a TN or TT system by using the phase-to-earth. 5. 6. or b) involve provision of an interlocking device such that the removal. opening of enciosurrs.5. The measures under (b) are intended as a safety feature and should not be used for normal isolation purposes.1. 6. 5. the socket while the’circuit is energized.or tool necessitates previous switching off of all live parts. interlocking is not required provided suitable and adequate operational procedures are implemented. size and arrangement.subject to the voltage limitations given in (b) above provided that the cable is specially designed for such reeling duty.1.). and eight times the cable diameter for cables which are constructed in accordance with 5. 5. 6.Where and bolted plug/sdcket connectors or bolted connections are used.5(a) or (b.Any safety circuits shall incorporate fail-safe principle PART 5 OUTDOOR INSTALLATIONS as far as reasonably possible.s no hazard to personnel created by automatic restarting. an insulation monitoring device shall also be provided for safety.2 Use qf bolted plug/socket connectors bolted connections . NATE I -These tables need not apply within electrical apparatus wiring devices or manufactured assemblies nor when the installation is covered by other sections of the Code. Some of the principles suggested are: a) closed circuit principle.1.1. and c) fail-safe principles with solid state switching devices. 5. For unearthed control circuits.13 Barriers and enclosures shall be firmly secured in place. these shall: a) necessitate the use of key or tool.6.1. GENERAL RULES .be in accordance with Tables I or 2. measures shall be taken to prevent the plug from being engaged with.1.1 Protection Against Direct Contact 6.1. the degree -of mutual interference shall be considered.r both of the following: 4 The provision of isolating switches which are interlocked with the plug/socket so as to prevent connection or disconnection while the circuit is energized and to prevent switching the circuit when the plug/socket connection is incomplete.FOR PROTECTION IN OUTDOOR INSTALLATIONS 6. voltage.4 Where access to the install&ion is necessary by removal of barriers. diffeient voltage levels in the same area nor extreme environmental conditiorq. 5. or 225 .6 Cable Connectors Where plug and socket connectors are used at voltages above 1 000 V.1. by high frequency monitoring. NATE 2 -Tables I and 2 take into consideration the fact that the system voltage may vary up to 20 percent from the rated operating voltage.2 All live parts shall be inside enclosures or behind barriers providing at least the degrees of protection’ in accordance with Table 3. or by other means.1.8 Safety Circuits and Safety Devices . etc.1.15 Bending radius for jlexible cables over 2.1. they shall have sufficient stability and durability to resist the strains and -stresses likely to occur in outdoor conditions. For unearthed control delrices. The additional requirements applicable for permanent outdoor installations are given in the following clauses. The measures shall consist of one o.6. N OTE 3 . tray or duct. b) The provision of protective conductor monitoring by means of either a pilot core. etc. or fire.5. opening or withdrawal without the use of a key .1 Use of plug/socket connectors - N OTE 4 -These minimum clearance distances in Tables I and 2 do not take into consideration such factors as creepage distances.5 mm diameter-The recommended 5.1 Complete Protection by Means of Barriers or Enclosures 6.7 Control Circuits and Control Devices Control circuits and control devices shall not automatically reset after tripping unless resetting of the control device either does not cause automatic restarting of the device or there i. SECTION 3C PROTECTION FOR SAFETY 6. multicore ar?d single-core are used on a common rack.5.1.1.5.1.14 Separation of cables in racks Where power and control cables.1.1.0 The general rules for protection for electrical installation inside buildings. measures shall be taken to limit the leakage and capacitance --currents that they shall not exceed 70 percent of the drop-out currents. as enumerated in Part I /Set 7 of the Code are applicable for outdoor installations of permanent nature covered by the scope of this Section.1 The minimum electrical clehrances in air between field installed bare conductors and between such conductors and earthed paris (such as barriers and enclosures) Shall. b) proving function operation principle. and taking into account their nature. minimum bending radius for flexible cables during installation and handling in service is six times the cable diameter for cable not constructed in accordance with 5. 6. or disengaged from.5(a) or (b). 5.1.

namely. N OTE 3 .2) VOLTAGE WITIII~: OP E R A T I N G A R E A S (21 B AND ( A C ) (1) WITHIK ELECTHIC.1.1.AI.IS0 160 270 380 520 950 1 350 I 850 TABLE 3 MINIMUM PROTECTION AGAINST DIREKT CONTACT BY BARRIERS OR ENCLOSURES (APPLICABLE TO LIVE PARTS ONLY) (Clauses 6.1. mm 60 70 90 160 270 380 520 TABLE 2 CLEARANCE DISTANCES FOR OUTDOOR INSTALLATIONS (Clause 6. mm IO 150 20 21s 30 325. see IS : 2147-1962 ‘Design of protection provided by enclosures for low voltage switchgear controlgear’.TABLE I CLEARANCE DISTANCES FOR INDOOR INSTALLATIONS (Clause 6. from contact with moving parts or to prevent ingress of so Id foreign bodies. 226 NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE . mm 1 40 3 65 6 90 IO 115 20 21s 30 325 45 520 60 700 110 I loo 950 Minimum distance for instal40 lations protected against overvoltages or connected to cables. I. As used in the present standard.1) Maximum rms value of rated operating voltage. Additional protection may be required for protection .S. This applies in particular to those parts of enclosures which might serve as a standing surface See Note I No protection IPOX if L1<6m V Partial protection IPOX* if u > 660 V or no simultaneously accessible parts at different voltages are situated within arm’s reach See Note I LI>loooV Complete protection IPSX within arm’s reach Complete protection IPSX within arm’s reach Partial protectiofi IPIX* Partial protection IPZX Partial protection IP 1 X* beyond arm’s reach beyond arm’s reach U = rated voltage of the installation between lines NOTE I . the IP classification is intended to specify only the degree of protection required to protect persons from contact with live /! arts . up *For electrical operating areas and closed electrical operating areas. protection equivalent to IPIX is also considered to be achieved by placing out of reach or by the interposition of obstacles.1. 45 520 60 700 110 I 100 150 I 550 220 2200 . the voltage bands in the above table may be increased In the ratio of to I 500 V and above. I ) Maximum rms value of rated operating voltage. by means of protective barriers or handrails.For details on IP classifications. kV Minimum distance for installations subject to overvoltages. I. mm Minimum distance for installations protected against overvoltages or connected to cables.In the case of dc voltages. I : I . such as dust. OP E R A T I N G AREAS W ITHIN C~.The use of floor plug and socket connector is not precluded but such sockets shall be covered when not in use. kV Minimum distance for installations subject to overvoltages. for example. NATE 2 .ostn EL E C T R I C A L OP~HATISG AR E A S (4) (3) Partial protection IP IX* if UG 660 V or no simaltaneously accessible parts at different voltages are situated within arm’s path Complete protection IP2X if CJ> 660 V or IWX if U > 660 V for top surfaces or barriers or enclosnres which are readily accessible This applies in particular to those parts of enclosures which might serve as a standing surface See Note I 50 < I/G 1 000 V Complete protection IP2X* or IP4X for top surfaces or barriers or enclosures which are readily accessible.

Under 7.8.the power generation systems shall meet the requirements of motor starting. 7.ATIONS 7.2 QJ.. 1 . insulation monitoring devices are not required for vulcanizing heating platens where the power circuit is supplied from a transformer having electrically isolated windings. Where the equipment is required to operate under.8.1. 7.8 External Pok’er Supply Systems 7. REQUIREMENTS FOR PERMANENT OUTDOOR INSTALLATIONS 7. and inherent ac motor oscillations due to transient load changes.1.1. o r m o v a b l e i t e m s o f equipment and there is no external supply.1. SECTION 3D REQUIREMENTS FOR INSTALLATIONS 7.nal fire protection due to the fuels used [see 51. an insulation monitoring device is not required for power circuits which are supplied by a. rms load and frequency stability.4 S.Consideration should be given to the need for special and/or additio. limit switches.S Electric consideration.1. 7.Overload and short-circuit protection for transformers.The supply system shall meet the requirements of cyclic or periodic loads. 7. 6..For mobile and movable off-board auxiliary equipment (such as welding equipment. mobile.\stems -.1. peak load.f’Board Auxiliary.9 Self-Contained Power S_vstems 7.9.The effects of equipment starting and of the duty cycle on voltage levels.4 Supplr.The following recommendations apply to drives with a periodic or cyclic duty as well as to certain other drives with a continuous duty. the normal mounting bolt or screw connection is adequate. Stacking and Primary Processing Machinery 7.2.1.l. shall be taken into consideration to ensure the safety of personnel and equipment.I.For the mounting of motors.1. 7. or the combination of supply system and motor design characteristics is such as to permit automatic re-energization.9.3 Insulation Monitoring Device jar IT S.1.1 -Effect on voltage levels .stem design .1.1.1. automatic reclosing or transferring devices should not be used in the power distribution system unless such device has sufficient time delay to allow motor disconnection. cables.c) ensure automatic disconnection when removal.7 Drives ~-. 7.In IT systems. regeneration. special protective connections to the structural parts of the installation are not required if the connecting surfaces between the electrical equipment housing and structural parts provide an adequate conducting area.I. etc.83 Automatic reclosing or transferring Where regeneration may delay the oneration of undervoitage devices.~tem design . termination boxes. 3 E a r t h i n g .8. motor starting. opening or withdrawal without the use of a key or tool is attempted.2 . etc.1 A Insrrlation Monitoring Devices for Vulcanizing Heating Platens . t o off’hoartl eyiiip~)t~‘tIt When power 1s suppiled to off-board nroh~lt~ .1 Winning.2 Fire protection . 7. damage or the malfunction of equipment. 7.7.1.ind movable equipment conditions given in 7.1..corrosive atmospheric conditions or extreme vibrating conditions.6 Electric consideration. PART 5 0l:TDOOR INSTAl. taking account any restrictions imposed by the electricity supplier. 7.When the supply of electrical energy is self-contained within stationary. such as by a transformer having electrical isolated windings or by a generator or storage battery.see Table 3.stem voltage . Equipment . limit switches. a visible main equipotential bonding conductor shall be provided between such auxiliary equipment and plant. power source from within the machine.1 . This is also applicable for the mounting of all types of electrical equipment in cubicles.In the case of an IT system. 6. sockets.1.. For protection requirements see 6.1 $\.Under . 7. the device is fitted with ‘out of step’ protection.1.It is important that the equipment manufacturer and user mutually understand whether the voltage specified is under no-load or full load conditions. 7. etc. which may result ir.3 Partial Protection by the Provision of Obstacles .1 The provisions of Part I /Set 7 of the Code shall apply. Hand Lamps . vulcanizing transformer<.7. shall take into consideration the starting requirements and cyclic nature of the load.2 Supp(v systems -The effect of load fluctuations on the supply system shall be considered.1.2 Partial Protection by Placing Live Parts Out qf Reach -see Table 3. Mobile and Movable 7. 7 . 6.9. etc) where the protective conductor is not monitored nor visible. 7.2 Protection Against Indirect Contact 6.1 S.1 M o u n t i n g qf’ Components .1. etc.trl‘ 2P? Tools . such equipment need not be connected to the general mass of the earth. In such cases. 9 .2 Overcurrent protection --.1. a separate protective conductor shall be connected to motors.

Emergency devices may be arranged to operate simultaneously in a number of different circuits.11. 7. the simultaneous existence of two or more faults within the remote controls system need not be expected.2 Synchronous motor control controls shall be of a type in which the contacts are opened by a positive mechanical action and can only be reclosed by a further mechanical action.12 Emergency? Stopping and Emergency Devices 7. 7.1 . which may remain energized after disconnection of power circuits.13 Provision for Supply Isolation .11.3 Stop control .12. For example.1.Where the cutout devices are actuated remotely they will be a) Automatic field removal . However. vibration or voltage fluctuations on control devices shall be taken into consideration. 7. contactor. conditions given in 7.8. Where several circuits are divided the respective contact elements shall be connected in series. c) Power toss protection .Where synchronous motors are used to drive loads which may be regenerative. an automatic field excitation control is recommended.rated by a pullwire shall be arranged so that a pull on the wire in any direction will stop the controlled equipment.4 tnterlocking of start controls Where equipment can be started from more than one location. for example. When mechanically latched control devices are used and re-energization following loss of supply power would endanger personnel or equipment. ensuring that safety of personnel and equipment is not endangered by inadvertant operation of control devices.applicable.Where synchronous motors are used to drive any part of the installation.1.Stop controls ope.1 Emergency stopping . means shall be provided to trip the motor starting switch or incoming line switch upon loss of power supply. b) Location of stop controls . disconnection of the external excitation is permitted if protection against selfexcitation is provided. when rotation converters are used.1. The stop arranged as series tripping system. 7. provision shall be made to guard against unauthorized starting. devices . etc. means shall be provided to automatically trip the latched control device on loss of supply p’ower. 7. unless start-up alarms are used. automatic motor field removal on disconnection is required.11 Control Circuits and Control Devices vibration and voltage 7.1.2 Emergency.1.1. provided that such means otherwise comply with the intent of 7.The devices described in the following paragraphs shall not be used for purposes of isolation or immobilisation to allow work to be carried out on parts which would otherwise be electrically energized or moving: a) Stop control circuits -The circuits of stop control and of other safety protection devices should be as simple. A number of emergency devices may be arranged in groups. 7.A means of mains supply isolation shall be provided to isolate the power circuits from the equipment or parts thereof mclusive of control and motor circuits.1. the equipment is in sight from all starting locations.3.1 .Under consideration. When automatic reclosing or transferring devices are used in the distribution system. The emergency device may use remote control systems. Frequency sensitive devices are recommended. except for lift call control. shunt tripping systems may be used providing the above-mentioned conditions are maintained. fluctuations-The effect of shock. 221 NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE . The power disconnect device may be a remotely operated power manually or circuit-breaker.guarded against madvertant access. providing at least the same protective measures as for the above devices are applied to ensure positive and reliable operations.11.Where synchronous motors are used to drive periodic or cyclic loads.Disconnection of power or other equally effective means shall be provided for stopping the drive under emergency conditions. shunt tripping devices may be used providing the tripping device and its stored energy tripping supply are monitored and regularly maintained. reliable and direct acting as is practical.12. 7. the control system shall permit operation from only one nominated location at any one time. d) Pullwlire stop controls . b) Automatic field excitation controi . The device shall also be tripped on operation of protective devices.1. or the equipment is . However. each group may operate in single or multiple circuits.10 Cable Tvpes .1. c) Locking of stop controls .A stop control shall be located near each start control.3 are applicable.1. separate means of isolation may be provided for control circuits. audio-frequency of timemultiplex operations. Additional stop controls may be provided. Acceptable methods include locking of stop controls in the ‘off position or ensuring that only the person operating the stop control has access to the start control. Emergency stopping can be accomplished by means other than disconnection of power. 7. However.Where required.11.11. However.1 Shock. provided special measures for the safety of personnel and equipment have been implemented.

Although the stop control may be reset automatically.O p e r a t i o n m a y 7.3 @F-hoard Equiiwlent . such as by sensors. and a) An IT system is used.~ cables .8.3. ClJrldlcl~til~it~~ (!f Structural d) prevent run-back.1 General .riliar~~ Movable 7. Parts .6 Electric Hand Hand Tools . D e v i c e s .4 Pumping and Water Supply Systems 7.2 Location of stop controls --. 7.S t o p controls shall be provided.3.Under Lamps .3.1 .for IT S.1 Mounting cJf Components -see 7.Under Where a continuous metallic riser pipe is fitted between the motor and the well head. bonding .wenis . supp!.2 Secondary Processing Machinery .Well TIpe Pumps 7.3.3 Transport Conveyor Systevs 7.1. an equipotential bonding conductor shall be provided to the electrical equipment unless the structural parts of the conveyor are mechanically fastened and/ or electrically bonded together. NOTE Manually operated stop controls may also provide the function of an emergency stop.1 Stopping sequence -.3.1. b) Personnel do not have access down the well.see 7.see 7.2. however. 7.3.for Monitoring 7.Under consideration.3.1.9 Slop Controls -. 7.s e e 7.4. such structures and frames shall be considered as extraneous conductive parts and shall be included as part of the whole plant in the design of .2 Eyuipotential Bonding Conductor and Mobile and t. provided that the conveyor upstream of the zone is proved to be unloaded.4.2 Continued operation after . restarting shall be initiated manually. no protection conductor is required between the motor and the protective conductor connected directly to the fixed iiser provided that: a) the supply cable is terminated close to the well head. that is.8 Cables without cables 7.9.the protective measures against indirect contact.4.Where electrical equipment supplied at a voltage in excess of 50 V is mounted on a conveyor structure and the cable to the equipment does not include a protective conductor. and cl personnel do not have access down the well. All accessible points along the pullwire operated stop control are considered as stop controls.9. It is recommended that stop controls be located at the head and tail ends of a conveyor and that pullwire stop controls be used along the length of the conveyor. b) the conductivity of the metallic riser (stand pipe) and the connections (couplings) shall be at least equal to the conductivity of the protective conductor which would otherwise be necessary. Au.4.Where semiconductive sheaths.The operation of a s t o p control on a conveyor shall stop that conveyor and: a) aI1 upstream conveyors to a controlled loading point. 7. The c6nductivity of the metallic structural parts of the conveyor and its fastenings shall be at least equal to that of the otherwise necessary equipotential bonding conductor. Where individual stop controls are used. c) initiate b r a k i n g t o stop the conveyor iti safe time. Stop controls shall be accessible from any side of a conveyor to which there is access. metallic screens or armouring are suspended from structures or frames of movable conveyors.5 Insulation Vulcanizing Heating Platens . 7.3 E q u i p o t e n t i a l equipotential bonding conductor shall be installed between the main earth terminals of the supply 229 .An 7.The devices described in the following clauses shall not be used for purposes of isolation or immobilisation to allow work to be carried out on parts which would o t h e r w i s e b e electricatly e’nergized or moving.1.Under 7. and c) Equipotential bonding is provided.first earth continue after. On very long conveyor systems.8..1.3.1.7.3.3.1 Deep. 7.3.4.7 Electric consideration. the operation of a stop control within one stop zone need not stop all upstream conveyors beyond that zone.1.3. by ensuring that all metallic parts are linked together.Electrically initiated explosive devices should not be stored or used in the vicinity of such installations as hazards may exist due to fault currents flowing in the ground when syslems continue to operate following the first earth fault.3. 7.10 S t o p p i n g of Dokwhill Con\vJws Under consideration. 7. they shall be located not more than 15 m from any accessible point along the conveyor. b) cause the material from all upstream conveyors to be diverted to an alternative route..4 Insulation Monitoring Device . NOTE ~.2 Poccvr consideration. the first ‘earth fault only when all of the followmg condltions are met: fbu/t.3. 7. 7.3.l Risers as protective condustors ~- consideration.

a) Multipurpose yard . The number of humps can be increased depending on the work-load.and the well head(s).= 2. C) A class$cation j.l.5 Double line to earth faults . 8. a) Gra\lit\* _\. (in amperes) is the rated current of the power fuses or.6 Power Supply Cables . 8.Under consideration. 8.3.1.3. 230 c) Flat . classifying and despatching vehicles to their several destination.4. NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE . b) A reception Jsard-. 0.8 Safety Circuits and Safety Devices .0 General 8. may be provided. in the case of circuit-breakers. 7.Protection shall be provided to disconnect the supply in the case of a double fault (phase-earth-phase).A marshalling yard with facilities for receiving.ard---.5 is suggested for the time being.Yards with flat shunting neck d) e) A departure .3 Each yard can be of any one of the three formations based on method of construction: a) Baloon or classification type.1 Classification 8.2 The railway yards are also classified into three main categories depending on their handling capacity and way of working: where 1.5 Pumps Other Than Deep-Well Types Under consideration.1 Lighting of Aircraft Aprons .1.1.3.1. their enclosures shall be connected to this bonding conpuctor. A sorting jlard This is a yard in which wagons are separated in station order and reformed into trains in special order to meet the requirements of the section ahead or any other special transportation requirements. 7. Shunting is done without engine.A yard in which the loads of incoming trains may stand clear of run’ning lines while waiting for their turn to be dealt with.1.4. It is mostly suitable for metre gauge.The provisions of relevant Indian Standards shall apply.2 times the releasing current for the instantaneous or short-time delay trip. 8. Normally one hump handles I 000 to I 500 wagons per day.0. are called flat yard. Disconnection follows the second fault. 7. ADDITIONAL GUIDELINES FOR INSTALLATIONS IN SPECIFIC AREAS 8. where the conductor shall be connected directly to the fixed riser. Where transformers are located at the well head.uemption from insulation monitoring device -.is: R < -% ohms KX I. 8.2 Lighting of Ports ‘and Harbours -The provisions of relevant Indian Standards shall apply. 7. They also deal with traffic originating at or destined for centres. and c) Grid type.art/ A yard where natural gra- dient -is available. These yards are mechanized where wagon level crosses 2 500 wagons per day.5 m height. That . 7.2 Guidance from relevant experts shall be t a k e n i n r e s p e c t of specific areas before installation work begins. The equipotential bonding conductor shall be so dimensioned that the voltage drop between any two points (of resistance value I?) that may be contacted simultaneously shall not exceed 50 V.13arci This is a yard in which loads are kept waiting for departure.dzals from 300 to 700 wagons per day.to 2. b) Ladder type.3. so as to form them into trains and prepare them for correct marshalling.A y a r d i n w h i c h trains are broken up on the different lines for the various directions or stations irrespective of station order. NOTL ~ A value of K. It. track levels in specified crest of 2.1 The requirements given in Sections 3A to 3D are applicable to the specific areas described in this Section in so far as the operations are identical with those described.0. NO~F Yards with grid type formatIon are reception-cwudespatch yards.3 Lighting Installations in Railway Marshalling Yards 8.ard -. and K is a multiplying factor. 8.An insulation monitoring device (or earth fault detector) is not necessary.1 The classification in respect of yard area is based on the speed and intensity of traffic both vehicular and otherwise.4 E. Hump yards are those where shunting necks have shape of a camel hump.llard ~~ Hump yard created by raising consideration. A device such as one which detects a change in neutral displacement on the occurrence of the first and second earth faults.7 Control Circuits and Control Devices ~ Under consideration. It is utilized for classification and sorting of loads.Under b) Hump . SECTION 3E ADDITIONAL GUIDELINES FOR SPECIFIC AREAS 8. 7.

Queen points are the second pair of points the wagon meets on either of the two diverging lines taking off from the king points and these divide the classification lines into four sub-portion. ii) High pressure sodium vapour lamps. 1.3. most important locations are ‘king points’ and ‘queen points’ and order of priority for lighting is determined accordingly.1.3. b) sorting yard .rovided with suitable sized contactors with independent fuses for each phase.2 Means shall be provided to control supply to group of towers with controlgear located in feeding substation/switching substat ion.zone wise.4 For the purpose of illumination. i) High pressure mercury vapour lamps. The contactors shall be controlled by electrically operated switch mounted for external manual local operation. d) despatch yard.3.3. PART 5 OUTDOOR INSTALLATIONS 231 .2 lux Small yards 0. qf equipments a) Light sources .4 The junction boxes shall be p.3.station wise. 8. Each luminaire may be provided with 2 lamps of 400 W or I lamps of I 000 W. and e) through goods yard.3 Levels of illumination would depend on the type of marshalling yard. rather than ‘T’ joint.3. 8.4.4 Power Installation Requirements 8.3. 8.5 lux 8. Minimum size of cable shall be IO to 16mm? 4 core.3. efc 5 lux 1.3.8.3 The cables shall be preferably terminated on column junction boxes by looping joints.The following sources of light a’re recommended for the purpose of yard lighting.3. 8. The levels given below are recommendatory.3. 8. Type Important yard Minimum Special Location Maximum Like Shunting Neck. along the track and across the tracks should be done in accordance with IS : 1255l983* b) L u m i n a i r e s . c) reception yard.Nood lighting types of luminaires are recommended for yard lighting installation. N OTE I King points are the first pair of points that the wagon meets after passing over the hump summit and these divide the hump yard into two portions.1 For the purpose of designing the lighting system.0 The source of . Laying of cables in yard.3 Design 8.3. 8.4. the recommended height of tower is 30 m. *Code of practice for installation and maintenance of paper insulated power cabies (up to and including 33 kV).2 Selection 8.4.electric supply shall be located at a suitable place nearest to the yard. King Points.4. These are two in each hump yard.3.4.2 Different segments (functions) of yards are: a) classification yard ~-.3.2 lux IO lux 5 lux NOTE 2.3.1 The power supply to the towers shall be through underground armoured cables. 8.

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0. 03 In the preparation of this draft. Section 705. it has been felt necessary to cover the requirements of such installation as a part of the Code.1 This Part of the Code is primarily intended for covering the specific requirements of electrical installations in agricultural premises which include premises where livestock are present and farm produce are handled or stored. Agricultural and Horticultural premises.PART 6 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN AGRICULTURAL PREMISES O.2 Installations in agricultural premises are different from those covered in other Sections of the Code in that the external influences on the electrical services are quite different from those encountered elsewhere.FOREWORD 0. . the presense of livestock and other extraneous factors necessitate laying down specific requirements. and the use of electricity for certain essential purposes. Part 7 Requirements for special installations or location. Even though the overall power requirements for such installations would be small. assistance has been derived from IEC Pub 3647-705 ‘Electrical installations in buildings. With the increase in sophistication in organizing the farm output of the country. issued by the International Electrotechnical Commission.

Special precautions pation difficult to be taken where conditions of animals are present evacuation High density occupation easy conditions of evacuation Layer House Poultry housing i Stationery Brooder House - Portable Conditions of evacuation during emergency Sheep folds (sheep and goats) I4ggeries Horse stables o equine houses Cattle housing Cattle sheds for average farmer (3 milch animals with their calves and pair of bullotks) Cattle sheds for rural milk producer (average of about 20 animals) Organized milk produces (130 animals) Large dairy farm (about 500 animals) Nature of processed or stored materials Building design Flammable mate.0 General guidelines on the assessment of general characteristics of buildings are given in Part I /Set 8. For example: Animal1 Bird Housing Sub-Classificarion Presence of water Possibility of splashes from any direction. 3. and b) livestock houses. stdres and stalls Presence of corro.Barns rial including dust Propagation of fire is facilitated and risks due to structural movement of structures which are weak NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE * . 3. GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF AGRICULTURAL PREMISES 4. CLASSIFICATION 3. SCOPE 1.1 Livestock houses are further classified depending on the type of climatic conditions: a) Plain areas with moderate rainfall. TERMINOLOGY 2.2 Utitrzation .2. sheepfolds.1 This Part of the Code covers requirements for the fixed electrical installations in agricultural premises excluding .2 Livestock houses can also be classified depending on the type animal or bird housed.The following conditions apply: Ulilization (1) Characteristics (2) Remarks (3) Electrical resistance of human body Contact of persons with earth potential Low resistance due to wet conditions Persons are frequently in touch with extraneous conductive parts or stand on conducting surfaces Low density occu.2. etc. cow houses. houses are Houses .Examples of such premises are stables.Livestock houses are premises where livestock are present for long periods of time during the day (such as in a dairy farm) with or without associated farm units.1. Harmful hazard present Electromagnetic influences Harmful presence of induced currents 4.dwellings or similar locations situated in these premises.g. 3. piggeries. Possibility of je:s of water from any direction Presence of dust Presence of foreign solid bodies in significant quantity Locations where equipment may be subjected to splashed water. I.lizers or plant ting subsprotective products are stored or tances handled b) Continuously subjected to Presence of flora and/or mould growth Harmful hazard present Insects.1 Installations in agricultural premises shall be broadly classified into: a) farm houses. b) Arid areas and high altitude areas.a) Intermittent or Applies to locations in which livestock accidental subsive or polluting are present or fertijection to corsubstances rosive or pollu.2 This part applies to premises where livestock are present.Farm 3.1. 4. birds and small animals Presence of fauna. the definitions given in Part 1 /Set 2 of the Code shall apply. and c) Heavy rainfall areas and high rainfall humidity areas.1.2 Livestock Houses . 3. stalls. for e.The following conditions generally apply: Environmen/ (1) Characrerisrics (2) Remarks (3) 2. 4.1.1. For the purpose of installations covered by this Part the conditions given below apply.1 Environment .1 Farm premises where livestock are not normally present and are those utilized solely for the purposes of handling or storing farm inputs and produce. hen-houses. N OTE . external lighting fittings Locations where hose-water is used regularly Applies to barns.1 For the purposes of this Part.

and as high as practicable.1 Main switchgear shall not be installed: a) within reach of livestock. and &a Office. These .2. 5. d) Byproducts handhng.2. 5. 5.4 Cables 5. b) Sheering and store room. 5.1 It is recommended to protect final subcircuits. d) Ration room.3 In meat houses and abbattoirs.2.4.3.1 Protection Against Electric Shock . The minimum height above ground shall be 6 m. the following subunits are firesent: a) Animal sheds before slaughter. 5.1.conditions are also applicable to locations directly connected through extraneous conductive parts to the locations where livestocks are present.5 Cable couplers shall not be used in agricultural premises. 5. the conventional voltage limit in locations in which livestock are present or situated’outside is (I. Due considerations shall also be given to locations presenting fire-risks.5. dressing and washing.1.2 Where additional protection against mechanical damage to cables is required. ram or buck shed.3. c) Utensils room. it. 5.4. cl Flaying. b) Milk recording and testing room. 5.1 information shall be exchanged among the people concerned on the electrical needs of the premises before installation work begins. protection against direct contact shall be provided by: a) barriers or enclosures affording at least the degree or protection IP 2X.1.2. 5. and 0 Office. the following sub-units are present: a) Sheds such as flock shed.3.3 Isolation and Slz. 5._ = 25 V. 5. F o r a c h i e v i n g p r o t e c t i o n by automatic disconnection of supply. 5.2. f-l Laboratory. Due consideration shall be given to the evacuation of aliimals in case of emergency. it shall be possible to isolate and control the buildings individually. the rated operating residual current not exceeding 30 mA and as low ai practicable but avoiding nuisance tripping. Each installation may have to cater to the services requii-ed in the subunits of the premises which depend on the type of agricultural premises as enumerated in 3. be provided by the use of nonmetallic materials.2 Protection Against Fire . supplementary equipotential bonding shall connect all exposed conductive parts which can be touched by livestock and the protective conductor of the installation.2. e) Stores.3 Where long runs of cable must b c placed along the sides of buildings. N OTE -~ A metallic grill connected to the protective conductor laid in the floor is recommended (see Fig. SUPPLY CHARACTERISTICS AND PARAMETERS 5.4 Where conductors or cables are carried overhead supported by buildings or by poles. etc.4.2.Heaters used in the rearing and tending of livestock shall be secured or hung on a safe mounting so that an adequate spacing from both animals (risk of burns) and combustible materials (fire hazard) is assured.4. 5.4.4.3 Selection and Erection of Equipment Equipment shall be so selected that they suit the environmental conditions of use and shall be installed in such a way that their normal functioning is not affected by the external influences enumerated in 4. sick shed. ati c) Shepherd house. 5. Devices for emergency electrical 237 PART 6 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN AGRICULTURAL PREMISES . shall. a residual current protective device shall be installed having a rated residual operating current of OSA. they shall wherever possible be placed on the outside of the buildings.irrhjng -. or b) in any position where access to it may be impeded by livestock. wherever possible.2 In cattle housing.2 Where an installation serves more than one building.For fire safety purposes. 5. Where electrical equipment is installed in livestock building. e) Inspection. o r b) insulation capable of withstanding a test VOItage of 500 V for one minute. I). by residual current devices.4 System Protection 5. the following sub-units are present: a) Sheds for animals.3 Means of access to all live parts of *switchgear and other fixed live parts where different nominal voltages exist shall be marked to indicate the voltages present.2. 5. b) Slaughter shed.1 In sheepfolds.1 All cables shall be placed out of reach of livestock and clear of all vehicular movement.For the application of protective measure by safety extra-low voltage in locations in which hvestock are present or situated outside.2.2 Wiring Systems 5.

roof-lights shall be provided to give 50-200 lux of artificial lighting.8 m above floor. 6. Il. in halls where meat or carcasses are hung. 4. I EX A M P L E OF EQIIIPOTENTIAI. but in the case of the latter lack of proper ventilation or lighting loads to insanitation and discomfort to the livestock thereby leading to retarded growth.- Earth. without the busbar. FIG. 6. 15. structural steel mat Tethering device 7: Automatic watering device 8. 6.0 Farm houses and iivestock’houses do not in general require sophisticated electrical services. 12. IO. For the purposes. NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE . high mortality or poor fertility. For poultry sheds of 6 m width and below. For sheds of larger width two rows df lamps properly interspaced may be desirable. 9. through direct interconnection of conductive parta. to arise in the event of panic by livesfock.In large dairy farms.1 Poultry Housing . Milking apparatus Steel structure Protective earth conductor (PE) Earth electrode Busbar for equipotential bonding* Earth electrode for lightning protection Earth electrode for electric fences ‘Equlpotential bonding can also be achieved. conductor Sheet metal and foil partitions Water pipe Manure removal device Potential equali7ation.3 shall be adhered to. BO N D I N G ON AG R I C U L T U R A L P R E M I S E S switching including emergency stopping shall not be installed within reach of livestock or in any position where access to them may be impeded by livestock. IW (GLS) or SW (fluorescent) 238 per bird or I W per 28-38 cm are considered adequate. In unrefrigerated work rooms. The light sources shall be hung at a height not less than 1. ample artificial light and ventilation shall be provided by electrical means.A minimum of 14 hours day length shall be provided to the birds and artificial lighting shall be provided for the-same. 13.3 Farm Cattle Housing . for example. 6. one row of bulbs in the centre shall be adequate. with a regular supply of fresh air and light. account being taken of the condition likely.1 to 6.2 Abattoir . Feeding apparatus :: 3. The houses are required to be maintained’ reasonably cool in summer and warm in winter. SERVICES IN AGRICULTURAL PERMISES 6. a temperature of not greater that1 iS”C would be required and air-conditioning may be required. the illumination shall be at least 500 lux. The overall intensity in every abattoir shall not be less than 200 lux throughout the slaughter hall and workroom and at places where meat inspection is carried out. The guidelines given in 6. 5. The lamps shall be hung at/ a height not less than 2 m above floor level. 14.In meat houses and abattoirs.

1 Before commissioning the installation shall be tested and inspected as given in Part l/See IO of the Code. shall be fitted with a separate switch marked accordingly.ROVlSlONS 8. etc. 8. 8.Where electric fences are in *the vicinity of overhead lines. PART 6 ELECTRICAL INSTAI. for example. falling lines. 8. PREMISES 239 . and b) for continuity of supply. such as in a dairy farm. a fast acting.emergency supply system is recommended.ATIONS IN ACRICI:I:Fl’RAI. it shall be essential to provide: a) a warning device for indicating failure of air circulation system.2 Electric Fences -. TESTING OF INSTALLATION 7.7. Any earth electrode connected to the earth terminal of an electric lfence controller shall be separate from the earthing system of any other circuit and shall be situated outside the resistance area of any electrode used for protective earthing.1 For large scale livestock keeping. appropriate distances shall be observed to take account of induction currents. during threshing time. MISCELLANEOUS P.3 Circuits of wirings which are only occasionally used.I.

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TiONAL E L E C T R I C A L C O D E PART 7 .

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PART 7 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN HAZARDOUS AREAS O. The scope of this Part therefore includes installations in hazardous areas such as petroleum refineries and petrochemical and chemical industries. gases and vapours which in industry are generated. handled and stored are combustible. 0. This Part of the Code does not include provisions for installations in underground mines.6 While preparing this Part. it is frequently possible. 0. 0. sparks or hot surfaces produced either in normal operation or under specified fault conditions. 0.7 As distinct from the hazardous areas in buildi& on the surface.5 This Part includes generalized statements and recommendations on matters on which there are diverse opinions. to locate much of the equipment in less hazardous or nonhazardous areas and thus reduce the amount of spcciai equipment required.2 Many liquids. several standards for electrical equipment for explosive atmospheres have been referred to.FOREWORD 0. essential ignition sources include arcs. Some of these standards deal with particular construction techniques. These standards are listed in Appendix A. walls or dams. Some examples of industrial locations which require application of the guidelines in this Part are given in Appendix D. 0.4 It is recognized that when electrical equipment is to be installed in or near a hazardous area. It is. others with aspects of standardization which are relevant to more than one techniques. With regard to electrical installations. where during normal operations a hazardous atmosphere is likely to occur in sufficient quantity to constitute a hazard had to be treated in a special manner from the point of the design of electrical installation. 0. important that sound engineering judgement should be exercised while applying these guidelines.Hazardous areas can be limited in extant by constructlon measures.3 This Part of the Code is intended to provide guidelines for electrical installations and equipment in locations where a hazardous atmosphere is likely to be present with a view to maximizing electrical safety. therefore. by taking care in the layout of the installation. The requirements laid down herein are in addition to those specified in Part 4 of the Code. Ventilation or application of protective gas will reduce the probability of the presence of explosive gas atmosphere so that areas of greater hazard can be transformed to areas of lesser hazard or to nonhazardous areas. . N OTE -. that is. environmental conditions in mines demand special consideration. processed.1 Hazardous atmosphere is the atmosphere where any flammable gas or vapour in a concentration capable of ignition occurs. Any area. When ignited these may burn readily and with considerable explosive force when mixed with air in the appropriate proportions.

forms an ignitable mixture and gives a momentary flash on application of a small pilot flame under specified conditions of test. a flammable gas-air mixture. These limits are called the ‘lower explosive limit’ (LEL) and the ‘upper explosive limit’ (UEL). 2.5 Hazardous Area ~ An area where during normal operations.1. 2. w h e n mlxed with a i r In c e r t a i n 244 proportions.20 Nonhazardous (Safe) Area .. 2. 2. not apply to the areas in underground mines.An atmosphere containing any flammable gas or vapour in a concentration capable of ignition.rardous atmosphere. The ternpcrature of a liquid 2. the electrical installations in hazardous areas shall complv. 2.4 Hazardous (Flammable) Atmosphere .0 For the purpose of this Part. 2. under normal ambient pressures and tempet-atures. so as to form a ha.ardous area or a remotely hazardous area. in which after ignition.7 Flammability Range -~ The range of gas or vapour mixtures with air between the flammable limits over which the gas mixtures are (i continuously explosive. vapour. 2. will form an ha/ardou~ atmosphere. 1 4 I g n i t i o n T e m p e r a t u r e ~~~ T-he l o w e s t temperature at which ignition occurs in a mixture of explosive gas and air when the m e t h o d specified in IS : 7X20-1975* is followed. 2. of. This Part also doe:.I of the Code. TERMINOLOGY 2. liquid and:or mist which can react continuously with atmospheric oxygen and which may therefore. petroleum refineries and other similar areas where halard\ of explosion due to gases and vapours exist. Precautions may be necessary to ensure safety but guidance on this aspect is outside the scope of this Part. and in which flammable gases and volatile liquids arc processed.The extreme values P the concentration of a flammable gas or or vapour in air under atmospheric conditions. with the requirements for industrial installatcon in nonhazardous areas laid down in Part 4 of the Code. loaded.I flnmmable \apour.6 Ex losive (Flammable) Limits ~. 2. 2. the following definitions shall apply. 2 . is in gaseous state but which is handled in a liquid state under the applied conditions of pressure and ‘or temperature. 2. gas or mist under an!’ foreseeable operating conditions.Ga: or vapour .A flammable material is a gas. NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE .12 Flash Point liquid gives 50 much vapour that this vapour.2 Flammable Gas-Air Mixture A mixture of flammable gas. in addition tb those given in Part . which can be ignited by an electrical arc or spark.16 Restricted Release ~~ A release (normal or abnormal) of flammable gas or \‘apour which can be diluted below the lower flammable limit.3 This Part does not apply to installations in hazardous areas having ignitable dusts and fibres.17 Unrestricted Release ~ A release (normal or abnormal) of flammable gas or vapour which cannot be diluted below the lower flammable limit.An area no part of which has within either a haT.13 Boiling Point boiling at an ambient pressure ot lOI.1 I Liquefied flammable Gas Flammable gas which.2 1 Electrical Apparatus for Hazardous Areas Electrical apparatus which will not ignite rhe *Methods of test for Ignition tempcraturc\. SCOPE 1 . 2.4 In any plant installation irrespective of size there may be numerous sources of ignition apart from those associated with electrical apparatus. unde’r atmospheric conditions. 2. 2. 1. flame or hot surface.T h e density of a gas or a vapour related to the density of air at the same prcssurc and the same temperature. 1 This Part of the Code covers recommendations for clcctrical installations in chemical industries.3l~~mmable Gas or Vapour . combustion spreads throughout the unconsumed mixture.9 Flammable I>iquid producing . mist or liquid may be released into the atmosphere so that a hasardous atmosphere could be formed.18 A d e q u a t e Ventilation -.2 In addition to the recommendations given in this Part.1 Flammable Material . 1. The temperature at which the 2.15 Source of Release A source of release is a point or location from which a gas. kPa. dispersed in air. sustain fire or explosion when such reaction is initiated by a suitable spark. a halardous atmosphere is likely to occur. or the risk of presence. A adequately ventilated area could be naturally ventilated or artificially ventilated.10 Flammable Mist Droplets of flammable liquid. 2. A liquid capable of 2. 1. vapour. stored.Adequate ventilation IS that which IS sufficient to prevent accumulations of significant quantities of gas-air mixtures in concentration over one-fourth of the lower flammable limit. 2. 2.3 Hazard -~ The presence. unloaded or otherwise handled. vapour or mist with air.19 Re’lative Density of Gas or Vapour -. when mixed with air. 2.

A gas which cannot be ignited when mixed.3 Testing . if any. b) Mixing of flammable gas or vapour with air or oxygen in the proportions required to produce an explosive or ignitable mixture. Dhanbad (Bihar).in this regard are available at Central Mining Research Station (CMRS). Then .measures should aim at reducing the likelihood of occurrence of either or both of the above factors SO that the likelihood of coincidence is SO small as to be negligible. 2. hot surfaces.24 Type of Protection . Dhanbad. 3. Department of Explosives. Similarly consideration should be given to design and operation of process equipment to ensure that even when it is operating abnormally. 4.27 Inert Gas . associated therewith) by any part of any surface (internal or external) the exposure of which to a flammable atmosphere may involve a risk. 4. 2. with a flammable gas or vapour in any concentration.1 In following the recommendations of this f’ire or explosion when the following three basic conditions are satisfied: a) Presence of sufficient quantity of a flammable gas or vapour. S T A T U T O R Y R E G U L A T I O N S 3. Unauthorized action may invalidate the area classification. FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS 4. 4. its physical characteristics and the natural tendency of vapours to disperse in the a t m o s p h e r e s h a l l b e recognized.22 Ignition Capable Apparatus . 2. the various statutes and regulations in force in the country. PART 7 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN HAZARDOUS AREAS . or b) eliminate the source of ignition. it is important that no modification to equipment or operating procedures are made without discussion with those responsible for the area classification.26 Flame Arrester -~ A device for releasing gas from an enclosure in such a way that in case of an internal explosion there is no appreciable increase in internal pressure and the released gas will not ignite the surrounding flammable atmosphere. 2.23 S a f e t y M e a s u r e s .Equipment to be installed in hazardous area have to be certified by a recognized testing authority. 3. 2. Facilities for testing . applicable to the installation and use of electrical apparatus in hazardous areas shall be kept in view. In applying this principle to any potential hazard the quantity of the substance that might be liberated. Nagpur (Maharashtra). 2. Flammable substances. Bombay (M aharashtra).4 Marking of equipment shall confdrm to IS : 824l-l976*. Once a plant has been classliied.Apparatus which in normal operation produce sparks. the potential release of which shall be considered in area classification of electrical installations (see 5) include the followings: a) Nonliquefiable gases. b) The Chief Controllerate of Explosives.ardous.2 Attention is invited to the fact that the manufacture and use of equipment in hazardous areas is controlled by the statutory authorities listed below for the area of their jurisdiction: 4 The Directorate General of Mines Safety.Measures taken to ensure that electrical apparatus cannot cause an explosion. 3.25 Maximum Surface Temperature -The highest temperature attained under practical conditions of operation within the rating of the apparatus (and recognized overloads. and c) Vapour or flammable gas. 4.3 Where it is necessary to use electrical apparatus in an environment in which there may be a flammable atmosphere and it is not possible to: a) eliminate l i k e l i h o o d o f a f l a m m a b l e atmosphere occuring around the source of ignition.Specific measures applied to electrical apparatus to prevent ignition of a surrounding flammable atmosphere by such apparatus. Bihar.1 Flammable gases and vapours may cause a *Method of marking for identifying electrical equipment for explosive atmospheres. and c) The Directorate General Factory Advice Services and Labour Institute. It is necessary to ensure that process equipment which has been subjected to maintenance shall be carefully checked during and after re-assembly to ensure that safety aspect or integrity of the original design has been maintained before it is returned to service.2 It is recommended that plants and installations in which flammable materials are handled or stored be so designed that the degree and extent of hazardous areas are kept to a minimum. or a flame which can ignite a specific flammable mixture. b) Liquefied petroleum gas. 3. and c) Occurrence of ignition. the amount of flammable material released to the atmosphere is minimized in order to reduce the extent of the area made haz.4 In most practical situations where flammable materials are used it is difficult to ensure that a 245 Part.surrounding flammable atmosphere in which it is used.

the boundary between compounds which may be considered lighter-than-air is set at a relative vapour density of 0. Some of these characteristics have a direct influence on the degree and extent of hazardous areas while the others affect the design of electrical equipment. any arc or spark would almost certainly lead to fire or explosion.Earlier. 5. may be caused only by the atmospnere IS likely to occur in Hrghly improbable and simulnormal operation taneous occurrence of an arc or spark together with a and* if it does occur it will exist hazardous atmosphere arising out of failure of conditions for a short time of control. Conversely where the likelihood of a flammable atmosphere is reduced. such as the vapour space of closed process vessels.0 A complete knowledge of the physical properties of the flammable*materials involved is essential for classifying a hazardous area.1 The objective of the hazardous area classification is to ensure an adequately safe level of operation of electrical apparatus in flammable atmospheres using the fundamental concepts outlined in 4. 5. N OTE . an area not classified as Zone 0. 5.The lower the ‘lower flammable limit’ the larger may be the extent of the hazardous area.2 Extent of Hazardous Area 5. and where movement may not. It presupposes only that any abnormal occurrence is rapidly dispersed so that possible contact with electrical apparatus is of minimum duratton Norc: I . The latter effects will increase with compounds of greater relative vapour density.1 Relative dertsirt* .2.The area classification is given in Table I. lighter-than-air. d) volatility. NOTE 3 .75.nazardous atmosphere will never occur. Reliance is therefore placed on using electrical apparatus which has an extremely low likelihood of creating a source of ignition in situations where a flammable atmosphere has a high likelihood of occurring.In process industries. Zone I or Zone 2. The basis for hazardous area classification recognises the differing degrees of probability with which flammable atmospheres (explosive concentrations of combustible gas or vapour) may arise in installations in terms of both the frequency of occurrence and the probable duration of existence on each occasion. is deemed non-hazardous or safe and no special precautions are necessary. NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE .This area classification deals only with risks due to combustible gases and vapours and combustible mists. CLASSIFICATION OF HAZARDOUS AREAS 5. a relative density less than one. It may also be difficult to ensure that the electrical apparatus will never give rise to a source of ignition.1. 5.3). A vapour density greater than one. It is recommended to avoid installing electrical equipment in Zone 0 areas to the extent possible. In Zone 0.1. heavier-than-air. Any electrical apparatus must afford a degree of protection as near as practicable to absolute. It does not deal with dusts since these material can be quiescant for long periods of time until they are disturbed into suspension by a suitable mechanism (ser also 1. the hazard is likely to occur at any time requiring fullest practicable application of measures Zone 0 Zone I An area in which a flammable atmosphere is likely to be present periodically or occasionally during normal operation Zone 2 An area in which Zone 2 is applicable to areas where hazard is unlikely and a flammable .2.1. and may thereby ‘spread some distance horizontally and at a low level. a localised source. be predicted without a detailed assessment. and f) ignition energy.2. therefore.0. for the combustible indicates the gas or vapour will rise in a comparatively still atmosphere. indicates the gas or vapour will tend to sink. storage tanks or closed containers. In the petroleum industry such a condition is rarely encountered except in confined spaces. that is. b) flammable limits. Properties< of primary interest from an ignition standpoint are: TABLE I AREA CLASSIFICATION ZONES (1) DESCRIPTION (2) An area in which a flammable atmosphere is present continuously.1 Properties qf Flammable Materials 5. This limit is chosen so as to provide a factor of safety for these compounds whose densities are close to that of air. 246 NOTE 2 -. classified areas were called divisions.2 Flammable limits . a) relative density. or is present for long periods R EMARKS (3) This classification is applicable only where the harard will exist continuously. In Zone I. e) ignition temperature. electrical apparatus which has an increased likelihood of becoming a source of ignition may .be used.1 Area Classification .2.By implication.Where a substantial volume of gas or vapour is released into the atmosphere from. c) flash point. 5. that is.0 General 5.

2. On the other hand.2.Boiling point can be used for comparing the volatility of flammable liquids. 247 PART 7 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN HAZARDOUS AREAS . Some examples of persistent risk points are as follows: a) Interior of pressure vessels and pipes containing gas-air mixtures. the extent of hazardous area may be reduced.The extent of a .2. 5.1.5 Release velocity -.7 Ventilation .5 Ignition temperature ar. like those used for measurement and control of process variable.2.9 For vapours released at or near ground level.2.For flammable liquids.ld ignition energy . 5.point .Some liquids (such.2. 5. etc.2.1 Risk points . .4 Rate sf release. they may limit the mo?ement of a cloud of an explosive gas atmosphere and thus may reduce the extent.2. and as the height above ground increase.2 Factors A. the areas where potentially hazardous concentrations are most likely to be found are below ground. NOTE .2.be the extent of the hazardous area.hazardous area may increase with increasing temperature of process liquid provided the temperature is above the flash point. c) Free space immediately above open dipping. a stronger breeze may so accelerate. Examples of occasional risk points are the immediate vicinity of mechanical glands.6 Air current .2.3. the opposite is true. the potential hazard decreases.Air currents may substantially alter the ‘outline of the limits of potential hazard. with constant release rate. N OTE . 5.2. The lower the flash point. and 4 Thi immediate vicinity of vapour exhausts and liquid outlets where these are designed to discharge as part of normal plant function. tk larger may.2..1. there being little or no potential hazard at and below ground and greater potential hazard above ground.Elevated or depressed sources of release will alter the areas of potential hazard. 5. dykes. the release velocity increases above that which causes turbulent flow. 5.[fecting Extent of Hazard 5. Minor releases of flaimable material may be part of normal operation’ but leakage which entail repair or shut down are not part of normal operation. 5.0 In cases where electrical apparatus.3 C o n c e n t r a t i o n of vapour . 5. the equilibrium liquid temperature corresponding to saturated concentration at lower flammable limit should be compared with the relevant maximum liquid temperature.3 Internal Hazards 5. the more closely it approximates a flammable gas.Normal operation is the situation in which all plant equipment is operating within its design parameters.2. b) Free space above liquid level in tanks.2.2. this may introduce additional source of internal and/or external release and consequently influence the external area classification. The lower the initial boiling point the greater the vapour pressure for a given liquid temperature and hence the greater concentration of vapour at the release source resulting in greater extent of hazardous area.2.2 Temperature ef process liquid .2.2.Obstacles (for example. *Classification for hazardous areas (other than mines) for electrical installations: Part I Areas having flammable gases and va pours (/irsr rr16ion). 5.8 Obstacles . walls) may impede the ventilation and thus may enlarge the extent.Due to an improved ‘dilution for release of flammable gases. the concentration of the released vapour is related to the vapour pressure at the relevant maximum liquid temperature.2. following factors need to be considered for determining the degree and extent of hazardous areas while applying the guidelines given in IS : 5572 (Part I)-l978* 5. 5. as certain halogenatcd hydrocarbons) do not possess a flash point although they are capable of producing a flammable atmosphere: in these cases. seals relying on wetting by the fluid being pumped and other localized spillage points and of vapour exhausts and liquid outlets designed to discharge only on plant malfunction.With an increased rate of ventilation.2. 5. vapours and/or mists in the air. A very mild breeze may serve to extend the area in those directions to which vapours might normally be carried.1. are connected directly to gas or a liquid process equipment. a hot surface).4 Volatility .T h e e x t e n t o f hazardous area may increase with increasing rate of release of flammabie materiai. However. the extent of hazardous area may decrease if.3 F l a s h atmosphere cannot exist if the flash point is significantly above the relevant maximum temperature of the flammable liquid.For lighter-than-air gases. The extent may also be reduced by an improved arrangement of the ventilation system.0 In addition to the properties of tlammable materials involved.2.2. NOTE .2. the dispersion of vapours that the extent of potentially hazardous area would be greatly reduced. thoSe at ground are next most likely. It should be noted the liquid or vapour temperature after the release may be increased or decreased by the ambient temperature or other factors (for example. baths.Ignition temperature and ignition energy of a flammable gas or vapour are taken into account in the design of electrical apparatus for hazardous areas so that these dd not present an ignition risk. 5. The rhore volatile a liquid and the lower its flash point.2.2.2.A flammable 5.

location.2. the abnormal release would be unrestricted.2 Detailed guidelines. and ii) Fixed roof tank with vent.3.2 Protection against lightning shall be provided in accordance with Part I /Set 15 of the Code. cd.2. for example. 5. reference should be made to the impact t e s t r e q u i r e m e n t s a c c o r d i n g t o I S : 82b91976* for the apparatus before deciding on any additional measures such as the provision of guards for transparent parts.2. The connection between metal part to be grounded and the grounding conductor shall be made secure mech. and ii) Source of hazard above ground level.1. This applies also when the abnormal release (when occurring) would be restricted. SPECIFIC GUIDELINES FOR ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN HAZARDOUS AREAS 6. *Specification for electrical equipment with type of protection ‘n’.1 Mechanical Slrength All apparatus shall be installed with due regard to the possibility of external mechanical damage. 6. *<‘L\sification of hazardous areas (other than mines) for clcctrii‘al installations: Part I Areas having flammable gases a n d vapours (/ir.2. 6. the internal hazards are comparable to the external hazards in Zone 2. of a restricted normal release the internal hazards are comparable to those in a safe area. shall be used. When there is a normal release. Grounding conductors which shall not reach a hazardously high temperature due to the anticipated maximum earthfault current flowing.tion).1. 5 .1.2. a) Open-air situations (freely ventilated process area): i) Source of hazard located near ground level.1’ Zonrs of Ha:ard 5. but when the same apparatus is installed in Zone I or Zone 0 the external hazards determine the actual hazard condition. the area classification would determine the actual hazard. 2 .2 When apparatus in which the internal hazards arc comparable to Zone 2 is installed in a safe area’ or in Zone 2. the internal hazards determine the actual hazard condition.4. and the portions of conductor which are likely to be corroded or damaged shall be well protected. all utility and process pipelines should be bonded to a common conductor by means of earth bars or pipe clamps and connected to the earthing system at a point where the pipelines enter or leave the hazardous area except where conflicting with the requirements of cathodic protection. by. however.3 Portable and transportable apparatus shall be grounded with one of the cores of flexible cable for power supply. The earthing conductors shall be sufficiently strong and thick. on the above situations can be had from IS : 5572 (Part I)-1978*.5 Earthing and bonding qf pipelines and pipe-racks ~ Unless adequately connected to earth elsewhere. 6.3. Specific guidelines for installations in hazardous locations are given in Appendix E. the internal releases cannot create a flammable gas atmosphere. provided that there is no normal release and that an abnormal release would be very infrequent and of a relatively short duration. 5.rtrn[ o.2.1 The hazards created inside the electrical apparatus by an internal release of flammable gas or vapour may be compared to the external area classification as follows: a ) Where pressurization with inert gas is appli- 6.2 Earthing and Bonding 6. b) Where dilution with air is applied in case c) In all other types of protection. The earth continuity conductor and the metallic screen wherever provided for the flexible cable should be bonded to the appropriate metal-work of the apparatus and to earthing pin of the plug.5. because no oxygen is present. it is recommended that steel pipe racks in the process units and off-site areas should be earthed at every 25 m. Where adequate protection cannot be ensured. Interconnection system with other buried metal scrviccs and/or earth terminations for equipment grounding for the purpose of equalizing the potential distribution in the ground should preferably be made below ground. the internal hazards are comparable to the external hazards in Zone 2. 6.1 ‘The treatment of hazardous area.1.4. the internal hazards are comparable to the hazards in Zone 0 and the abnormal relcasc is not relevant. c) Storage tanks: i) Floating roof. 248 NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE . 4 E. from the point of view of determining the extent of hazardous zones (and their classification) around the source of halard differ in the following broad situations: 6.rr rc~~Y. When.4 Efficient bonding should be installed where protection against stray currents or electrostatic charges is necessary. In addition.2.1. b) Enclosed premises and surrounding area (process area with restricted ventilation).1 Earthing shall be in accordance with Part I /Set I2 of the Code.1.2. When an apparatus in vvhich the internal hazards arc comparable to Zone I is insta!led in a Zone 0 hazardous area.anically and electrically by using adequate metallic fitting.2.1.1 General 6.

for many situations but should not be 249 electrical equipment for hazardous atmospheres are effective unless the apparatus is operated within the limits indicated by its nameplate marking and is properly maintained according to the recommendations of appropriate Indian Standards.2 The means of isolation. This applies equallv to single ptiase subcircuits.3 When the means of isolation is not immediately adjacent to the associated ap’paratus. slackened conduit joints and corrosion. Electrical tests should be carried out at fixed.33 Protection and control apparatus shall be normally located in a non-hazardous area. the conductors should be protected against mechanical damage (see 6. 4) Mineral insulated metal sheathed cable.2 Wiring Installation 6.5.3.1 It is essential that the severity and duration of faults internal or external to the electrical apparatus be limited by external means to values that can bc sustained by the apparatus without disruptive effect. effective provision should be made to prevent the restoration of supply to the apparatus while the risk of exposure of line conductors to a flammable gas-air mixture continues. with sheath overall. overcurrent. 1 . The sheath of a metal-sheathed cable should not be used as the neutral conductor.1. 1 All electrical circuits should be provided with an effective means of complete circuit isolation. For intrinsically safe circuits. may.3. to avoid the possibility of arcing occurring at the point of contact or invasion of the intrinsically safe circuits by current arising from contact or electrostatic or electromagnetic induction. In addition.1. in addition to’ overload/overcurrent and short-circuit protection. with advantage. Flexible cables are a potential source of hazard.3. 4 .1 Factors Ajfecling Choice of Wiring Svsrem 6.1. Unarmoured lead-covered cable is not acceptable.6.1. However.2.2. together with the portable apparatus.1.2 Care shall be taken when inspecting equipment in hazardous areas.2. with an outer protective sheath.Types of wiring and systems which may be used for installation in hazardous areas are: a) cables drawn into screwed.4. some protection will have to be afforded to such conductors primarily to prevent contact between conductors of intrinsically safe circuits and those of any other system. Such means of isolation should be provided for each item of electrical apparatus and/or each subcircuit.4 Isolarion 6 . 6. there is normally no need to have special enclosures for the conductors.1. intervals. For (b) the following types of cables may be used in principle: 1) Lead-sheathed and armoured cable. deterioration of cement. the neutral being isolated by a removable link. and b) cables which are otherwise suitably protected against mechanical damage. cracked glasses. solid drawn or seamless conduits. 6. PART 7 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN HAZARDOUS AREAS .1.5). be adopted as’ the earth-monitoring device. the switch shall break all poles.1. The diameter of each strand of the conductor shall be not less than 0.300 mm of copper or equivalent size of conductor in the case of aluminium conductors as specified in relevant Indian Standard. 6. In case of distribution systems with isolated neutral. When the means of isolation is located in a non-hazardous area.5. 6.1.0 General. 6.1. 6.ld be provided with the appropriate type of protection.2 All circuits and apparatus in hazardous areas shall be provided with means to ensure disconnection quickly in the event of excessive overloads. such apparatus shou. circuits shall be made dead before removing covers.2. 2) Plastics or rubber-sheathed steel screen protected or armoured cable. The means of isolation shall be capable of being locked in the ‘OFF’ position.3 Automcrli” Ekclricai Proreclion 6. shall be a switch which breaks all poles. 3) Cables enclosed in a seamless aluminium sheath with or without armour. they should be frequently inspected. or both should be included in the protection of the portable and transportable apparatus. and 5) Braided screen-protected flexible cables.1 None of the protection techniques for 6. Protection *of the circulating-current type which automatically cuts off the supply in the event of the earth continuity conductor becoming disconnected. Requirements tor the installation of general power systems’may not apply to the installation of apparatus and systems with type of protection ‘i’ (intrinsic safety). E q u i p m e n t s h o u l d b e examined for mechanical faults. and which is provided with an appropriate type of protection against explosive hazards. including the neutral. earth-leakage protection or earth monitoring.1 Screwed steel conduit systems are satisfactory. 6.1.5 Operation and Maintenance 6. including the neutral.4.1. Where its installation in a potentially hazardous area cannot be avoided.4 Apart from sen-powered apparatus and handlamps. 6. 6. an automatic earth-fault alarming device may be considered adequate. when located in a hazardous area.1. internal shortcircuit or earth-fault conditions.

6 Where trunking. a common electrode may be used for this independent earth and for the lightning-protective system of the installation.as to avoid contact with other circuits. 6. and an) 250 .1. The cable u s e d t o c o n n e c t t h e o\. 6.2. Wiring\ of circuits which have been approved as intrlnsically safe may follow’ the requirements of generaI electrical wiring except that the following requirement\ shall -be obserced: a) The conditions of use laid down on the test certificate issued by the approving authorit) shall be observed.2.2.2. it should be terminated outside the hazardous area and be fitted at or near the terminal pole with an effective surge-protection apparatus.7 Where an overhead supply line is used for either power or telecommunication circuits. d) T h e w i r i n g \hiill be adequateI! p r o t e c t e d against mechanicai damage.2.junction of the cable with the installation and bonded to the earthing lead of any lightning protective system associated with the hazardous area.1. ducts and pipes. The casing. contact.2. complying with IS : 15S4 (Part I)-l976* with an cxt ruded plastic outer sheath may be used l. 6. 4 F o r telecc.3 is unavoidable.2. 2 .ith should bc plumbed or m e c h a n i c a l l y g r i p p e d a n d waled a n d t h e armouring should be carried O\CI the lcad joint.2.2. Conduit should not be used if it is likelv to be subjected to vibration.Vhere cables or conduit pass through a f l o o r . Where the overhead line supplying a building f o r m i n g : I hazardous area is supported by the building. in the case of cable the insulation of the sheath may be sufficient to prevent danger.2. 6.. contact between components referred to in 6. pipes or trenches’ are used to accommodate cables.3 PVC-insulated and armoured cable. If convenient. 6.2. conduit or sheathing of the cable should’ be bonded to the equipment or pipework in such a manner and at such intervals as to ensure that under the worst fault conditions.1. precautions should be taken to prevent the passage of combustible gases. owing to particular circumstances.1 Correctly designed terminations complete with armour clamp\ shall be prokidcd for armoured cable\. 6. a n d t h e c o n n e c t i n g cable to the installation consequently is short. vapours or liquids in trenches. 1 . wall.u~i bhcrc vibration might cause fracture or loosening of joints and where excessive stress may be imposed as a result of its rigidity or where corrosion or excessive internal condensation of moisture is likely to occm. vapours or liquids from one ar-ca to another. 50 that no space remains around the cable through which combustible gas liquid or vapour might spread.ided for them should be made good with cement or similar incombustible material to the full thickness of the floor. the earth electrodes for the surge-protection apparatus on the overhead line may be used for earthing the c a b l e s h e a t h o r taxing and for any lightning NATIONAL El. 6. duets.2. Leads h e a t h e d c a b l e s h o u l d be usal Hhcrc spillages may affect the intcgriti of the cable and or 3110~ migration of the liqujd through rhc c a b l e .4 Where. the Iced sh(. e q u i p m e n t o r pipework u s e d f o r c a r r y i n g combustible gases. and e) A l u m i n i u m :trmouI-ed or sheathed cable shall not be used in Zone 0 areas. conduit or cable\. l-he a r m o u r i n g s h o u l d b e carried into the clamps to pro\idc m e c h a n i c a l support to the cable and to ensure electrical continuity. Alternatively cable glands may be used for this purpose.5 ‘. partition or ceding. the uiring in the hazardous arca should c o m p l y w i t h the rc‘quirt’mcntc of thih htandald. and to prevent the collection of combustible gases.2 Lead-sheathed and armoured cables arc suitable for underground installation. and the adequate ventilation or sand filling of trenches. the hole pro\. armouiing or sheathing and armouring should be electrically continuous and the end adjacent to the point of connection with the overhead line should be bonded to the earth electrode of the overhead line.E<l RIC‘At. 6. 6 .mmunication c i r c u i t s . Such precautions may involve the sealing of trunking. wall.2. c-ODE 6. Where such cable is Icad covcrcd and armoured. traverse 3 hazardous area in passing front one non-ha/ardou.2. b) The wiring shall be so madc. c) l-he w i r i n g s h a l l b e \o made as to avoid electromagnetic or clcctro5tatic i n d u c t i o n from other cil-cuit(s).2.2.2.2.2. vapour or liquid which may be present.s area to another.or above ground or underground installation. vapours or liquids. the passage of any current will not give rise to incendive sparking or bring about a tedperature rise approaching the ignition temperature of the combustible gas. partition or ceiling.5 In Zone 0 areas only intrinsically hal’c circuits shall be installed and its uhe shall be kept to an unavoidable minimum.3 Where practicable. \houId bs a v o i d e d between apparatus. the casing or sheathing should be independently earthed as near as possible to the .erhead line with the installation in the hazardous area should comply with the recommendations for wiring systems in ha/ardous areas. SteelHire armour is: preferred for underground use. either d e l i b e r a t e o r accidental.2 Where circuit:. Alternatively. the armouring. In addition. 6. plastic-insulated and armoured tclcphonc cables may be used.

1 Conduits shall be solid-drawn or seamless.23. NOTE -.2 Elbows of the solid type may be used for the immediate connection of conduit to apparatus.4. 251 *Specification for construction and testing of electrical apparatus with ty e of protection ‘e’.4 Where. a stopper or sealing box or appropriate sealing device shall be inserted on the side remote from the hazardous area.2. 6.2.8 All joints in an assembly of conduit should be painted aftet assembly with moistureresisting paint to inhibit .2.3. Conduit.3.3.2. in addition. measured from any point in the installation. couplings. including those in or hetwan flameproof enclosures and conduit. and all inspection fittings should be of the fiameproof type. that is. conditions associated. or cable sheaths and armour.3. 6. There shall be no union.2.3.4 Laving qf Cables 6.3.5 All screwed joints should be pulled up tight and should. attention is drawn to the necessity of ensuring that the resistance of all joints. 6. Cables shall be adequately supported throughout their length.3. interconnection should be provided with the type of protection appropriate to the zone.4.3 The lengths of the screwed part of any conduit should be in accordance with the requirements of IS : 2148-1968:.6 Surface-mounted conduit should be supported by spacing saddles.2.8 The wiring entry to the apparatus.protective system associated with the hazardous area. screwed and galvanized. The use of running couplings is not recommended but where it is impracticable to avoid their use.2. 6.2. be provided with locknuts. other than those of the inspection type.3. in concrete trenches. etc. or in cable ducts. the apparatus used for.12 For process pumps. 6.2. for electrical equipment with type of protection ‘n’. 6. 6.3.2. free from intermediate joints.2. 6. Where discontinuities cannot be avoided.2 Cable runs should.23. is such as to ensure reliable operation of the protection devices in all seasons. factorymade assemblies should be used and the running coupling should be secured by locknuts.2. PART 7 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS TN HAZARDOLIS AREAS . should not be used except for the immediate connection of conduit to apparatus.2.2. boxes or sealing fittings. 6. The types of the cable for use in hazardous areas shall be as specified in this Section.10 Seals shall be provided within 450 mm where conduit run is terminated on the apparatus.the development of rust. 6. boxes or fittings that passes through a hazardous location with no fittings less than 300 mm beyond each boundary may not be sealed if the termination points of the unbroken conduit are in non-hazardous locations.13 Where there is a probability that any vapour or moisture in the air may he condensed into liquid within the conduit runs. 6. that depend upon a single seal diaphram or tube to prevent process fluids from entering the electrical conduit system. Rising cab!es should be clipped. :Specification for flameproof enclosures of electrical apparatus (/irsf revision).2. 6. has been certified. 6.2. in a run of conduit. Horizontal cables may be carried on supports.2. canned 6.9 Unused cable entries in electrical apparatus should be closed with plugs suitable for the type of protection used.3. connections for instruments. and that the total resistance of the earth-fault current path. irrespective of size.2. it is necessary to employ a joint other than a screwed coupler.7 Elbows or tees. should maintain the type of protection used.It is important to ensure efficient earthing and bonding in a flameproof installation. +Specification.2. certified unions approved for flame-proof purposes should be used. either during installation or subsequently. independent of external connections. box or fitting in the conduit between the sealing fittings and point at which the conduit leaves the hazardous locations. 6. cable trays or through protective troughs or tubes.9 Where a run of conduit. with the use of flameproof apparatus. coupling. unless a self-contained’ assembly.1 Cable systems include cables laid above ground or cables laid underground directly buried. 6. 6. care being taken to avoid excessive pressure when clamp supports are used.2. passes from a hazardous area to a nonhazardous area. continuous and therefore.2. an additional approved seal or barrier shall be provided with an adequate drain between the seals in such a manner that leaks would be obvious.2. direct or indirect.11 Metal conduit containing no unions. should be fitted with a stopper box at each point of connection with apparatus or fittings. In view of the operating be uninterrupted. having an exiernal diameter of more than 25 mm.3.4.3 All cables shall be provided with adequate mechanical protection. 6. is such as to prevent a dangerous rise of temperature or voltage from the passage of fault current. cleated or otherwise attached to suitable supports which provide adequate mechanical protection.10 Where cable terminals are used in apparatus and accessories with the type of protection ‘e’ or ‘n’they shall be fixed in position so as to ensure maintenance of the creepage and clearance distances as specified in IS : 638l-1972* and IS : 8289-1976t. proper means shall be provided to prevent accumulation of or to permit drainage of such liquid periodically. where practicable.3 Laying qf Conduits 6. 6.

6. pipes or a r c u s e d t o accommodate cables. surge suppression devices should be fitted.5.2. shall be flameproof type for flameproof enclosure and double-compre\sion type for enclosure having type of protection other than flameproof.2.2.4.8’ Correctly designed complete with armour clamps shall be provided for armourcd cables. inserted it shall make connection before or at the same time as the main contact arc made.q. 1 2 W h e r e t h e r e i s r i s k o f mineralinsulated cables being exposed to excessive v o l t a g e s s u c h a s i n d u c t i v e surges.2 An effective cable clamping device so designed as not to damage the insulation of the flexible cable.2.9 Cable glands.2.4. if ncccssary. 1 1 W h c r c elcctrol!. 7 Protet. 6. 6.In order to avoid the formation of sparks liable to ignite the explosive gas atmosphere. 2 .5 Pl1r. trenches 6. 4 .1 Flexible cable of the types specified below may be used for connection between a fixed source of supply and the portable transportable apparatus through flatieproof plugs and sockets: a) Ordinaq t o u g h r u b b e r sheathed tlcxible cables.5 The passage of cables from a hiTardous area to a non-hazardous area should. it should be kept clear of such surface or covered with a protective sheath.2 Plugs and sockets shall be of the type that provides for connections to the earthing conductor of the tlexible cables. 6 .tive Spark ing M e a s u r e s . Fittings should bc arranged for scaling the cable i n s u l a t i o n a n d b e pro\.7.4.4. In the case of other types of paper-insulated armoured cables.1 Dangers jirom li\?e parts --. thq s h o u l d b e s u i t a b l y explosionprotcctcd. 6 .6.2 Datlgers Jwm e. 4 . In addition. nary tough rubber sheathed tlcxible cables. preference should be given to non-draining cables. ducts and popes and the adequate ventilation or \and filling of trenches.5..13 Aluminium sheathed cables. Use of screened cables are also permitted.6.idcd w i t h m e a n s f o r ensuring adequate earth continuity. Where such cables are load covered and armoured. b 6. b) Ordinaq t o u g h pol!chloroprcnc shcathcd flexible cables. Lapours or liquids in trenches. be provided with adequate means to prevent the transmission of flammable material into the non-hazardous area co:isidcration should also bc given to the treatment of cables against fire transmission. means should be provided to prevent sharp bending of the cable at both points of entry. 6.10 Cable fittings for mineral insulated cables shall be suitable for use with the appropriate apparatus to which they are to be attached.insulated cable may result from contact with walls or other surfaces to which the cable is attached.2. and particularly where such cables ma)’ be exposed to high temperature.7 Cables capable of tr-ansmitting gases or vapours through the core shall be sealed in the hazardous location in such a manner as to prevent passage of gases or vapours into a non-hazardous location. any contact with bare live parts other than intrinsically safe parts shall be prevented.2. cl H e a v y t o u g h r u b b e r s h e a t h e d flexible cables.4.4.tic c o r r o s i o n o f c o p p e r sheath of mineral . precautions s h o u l d b c t a k e n t o ’ . In certain cases a warning label may be sufficient. I he contacts of grounding conductor shall be mechanically and electrically of at least the same quality as the main contacts and when the plug i:. Those shall be of interlocked switch t)pc. vertical runs should be avoided. the armouring should be carried into the clamps to provide mechanicai support to the cable and to ensure electrical continuity. 6. and d) Plastic insulated cables equivalent to ordi.4.precent t h e passage of combustible gases.1 Plugs and sockets for installation in Zone 2 areas shall bc flameproof type. 6. should not be 252 NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE . installed in contact with Lvalls o r f l o o r . Congideration should be giLen to the avoidance of frictignal contact N ith such cables. 6.2. Such precautions may involve the scaling of trunking.vposed and e. Lapours or liquids from one area to another. unless sheathed with a protective covering. Where surge supprccsion devices are installed in hazardous areas.2.2.c ntItJ So1~Xrl. should be provided at the points of entry of the flexible cable to the apparatus and plug.2. where used.2.f~om Datlgcrol:s 6. the lead sheath should be plumbed or mechanically gripped and sealed and the armouring should be carried over the lead joint. 6 . 2 . ducts. and to prc\ent the collection of combustible ga\es. 2 .2.rtrancous c~nndwri~~e purrs It is impracticable to cover all possible systems in this case but the basic principles on which safety depends are the limitation of earth c u r r e n t s ( m a g n i t u d e a n d potentials on equalizing conductors).7. 6.6 Where trunking.4.2.4 Where paper-insulated armoured cables are used. terminations 6.6. Where this requirement is not met by construction other precautions shall be taken.2.v 6. 6.

. fault protection devices for certain applications in Zone I. 6. 6. metal cable sheaths. which are not intended to be connected to the equipotential bonding system.7. 6. 6. The type TT power system is not permitted in Zone 0. cl For an IT power system (neutral isolated from earth or earthed through impedance). Instantaneous earth fault protection shall be installed.5 Electromagnetic radiation .3. located in hazardous areas are live extraneous conductive parts which shall be considered potentially dangerous (especially if equipped with the impressed current m&hod) despite their low negative potential.2. The neutral and the protective conductor shall not be connected together. NATE-Potential equalization between vehicles and fixed installations may require special metins. A power system of type TN-C (having combined neutral and protective functions in a single conductor throughout the system) is not allowed in hazardous areas.To avoid dangerous sparking between metallic parts of structures. PART 7 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN HAZARDOUS AREAS .5 The selected electrical apparatus shall be adequat@ly protected against corrosive and solvent agencies. or combined in a single conductor. The conductance between metallic parts of structures ‘shall correspond to a cross section of at least IO mm’ of copper. NoTt -~ It may also be necessary to provide instantaneous earth. No cathodic protection shall be provided for metallic parts in Zone 0 unless they are specially designed for this application.1.3 Potential equalization .3.7. when insulated flanges in connecting pipelines are used. for example some intrinsically safe apparatus.1. to an acceptable low level.1 The selection of electrical apparatus for explosive gas atmospheres is based on the general principle that the likelihood of the simultaneous presence of a hazardous atmosphere and a source of ignition is reduced.Account should be taken of the effects due to strong electromagnetic radiation.Cathodically protected metallic parts b) If a type IT power system (separate earths for power system and exposed conductive parts) is used in Zone I. However there are certain pieces of tiqui’pment.1.4 Cathodically protected metallic parts -.3. all exposed and extraneous conductive parts shall be connected to the main or supplementary equipotential bonding system. an insulation monitoring device should be used to indicate the First earth fault. Enclosures need not be separately connected to the equipotential bonding system if they are secured to and are in metallic contact with structural parts or piping which are connected to the equipotential bonding system. 6. However equipment in Zone 0 shall be disconnected instantaneously in case of the first earth fault. These construction requirements should ensure that the protection against explosion is not reduced when the apparatus is used in the specified conditions of service. 6.1. 6.2. Therefore. 6. steel wire armouring and metallic parts of structures but shall not include neutral conductors. Where gases of different degrees of hazard exist in the same area.6 Particular consideration shall be given to the location of apparatus which incorporates aluminium or light alloys in the construction of its 253 4 For all power system installed in Zone 0 irrespective of the voltages due attention should be paid to the limitation of earth fault currents in magnitude and duration.3 Selection of Equipment 6.2 When the electrical apparatus does not have an internal release of flammable material. in a hazardous area.1 General 6. conduits.Guidance on permissible power systems is given below: a) If a Dower svstem with an earthed neutral is used: the tipi TN-S system with separate neutral (N) and protective conductor (PE) throughout the system is preferred. for example.1. either by the monitoring device or by a residual current operated device. the actual hazard is a combination of the external and internal hazards and both must be taken into account when selecting an adequate type o protection. the type of protection appropriate for the highest degree of hazards shall be applicable. For additional information. it shall be protected with a residual current device even if it is a safety extra-low voltage circuit (below 50 V).. se@ relevant Indian Standards.3.3. and against water ingress and thermal and mechanical stresses as determined by the environmental conditions. potential equaiization is always required for installations in Zone 0 and Zone I areas and may be necessary for installations in Zone 2 areas.3.2.4 The selected appartus will normally have a recognized type of protection and should also be selected for the appropriate temperature class and the appropriate apparatus group applicable.1. the classification of the hazardous area surrounding the electrical equipment decide the selection of an adequate type of protection.3. 6. The bonding system may include normal protective conductors.7.3 When the electrical apparatus has an internal release of flammable material.

6.2 Sc~kcrion of’ t.3. there is also a danger of ignition at a hot surface exposed to a flammable atmosphere. However.2. enclosures or other enclosures may sometimes be eliminated by the adoption of special design.enclosure. the selection of electrical apparatus shall be made with full considerations to the facility and frequency of inspection and maintenance.1.3. lesser sub. N OTE I --A‘ reference ambient temperature of 40°C is normally assumed when apparatus is designed to operate within one of the temperature classes indicated above.1.otdrrrt~ 6. 6.3.2.1. 3 and 4 as applicable. For apparatus with other types of explosion protection. or the lowest values of ignition temperature if more than one combustible material is present.2. or 2) Safe gap data in the case of installations for flameproof enclosures_ Apparatus certified to the constructional and design requirements for a particular group may also be used with compounds of lesser risk and *Guide for selection of electrical equipment of halardous areas tSpecilication for flameproof enclosures for electrical apparatus. preparation for spares and repairing materials and the extent of allowable interruption of power supply during maintenance work.Besides the danger 6f explosion caused by an electric spark or arc. again to consideration of temperature classification and chemical compatibility. These have been outlined in IS : 55711979* reference to which should be made (see a/so 5. that is--the lone (see 6. follows: a) The classification of the area.1.. 6.3). 6. or the upper-limit temperature for any unprotected surface according to IS : 8239-1976 (WC 6.2.4 Apparafus groups . 6.3.8 It is advisable that the selection of made after full electrical apparatus be considerations hake been given not only to the initial cost of installation but also to the expected life and expenses for operation and maintenance of the apparatus.ject group. the permitted maximum surface temperature have been classified in’ IS : 8239-1976* a!.3. 6 .1 In order that electrical apparatus may be selected for use in hazardous area. the maximum surface temperture may be based on a reference ambient temperature other than 40°C is used.3.2.10 The necessity for equipment with flameproof. 3 .9 Unless otherwise specified for a particular equipment. Flammable gases and vapours fall into fairly well-defined groups when classified with reference to their ignition temperature.7 As electrical apparatus for flammable special safety require gas atmospheres maintenance after they are installed.3.be noted that for apparatus with type of protection ‘d’ flameproof enclosure. The maximum surface temperature of any unprotected surface of electrical equipment should not exceed the ignition temperature of the gas or vapour. No’rE 2 It should. 6. internal surfaces are equally important if the explosive gas air mixture has access to them c) The characteristics of the gas or vapour involved in relation to (see 6.~pc of protection -. the guidance provided in Table 2 shall be followed in the selection of equipment for hazardous rlreas. To simplify the manufacture of apparatus. For special applications. b) The ignition temperature of the gas or vapour involved.. any equipment which in the opinion of the authorized inspector affords a degree of safety not less than that afforded by the equipment specified may be accepted as an alternative.1. the value will be clearly marked on the apparatus.3 Temperature classes -. NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 234 .The selection d t)‘pc of protection of the equipment for different lone of hazardous areas shall be made an accordance with Tables 2. I) Ignition current or minimum ignition e n e r g y in the case of installations of intrinsically safe apparatus.tion P.1 of IS : 2148-1981-q.3).For the purpose of flameproof enclosures and intrinsic safety. 6. This will permit determination of the. Similarly electrical apparatus which is designed so that it may be used with certain fammable materials in a particular lone ma!’ be used with flammable materials in /one of lesser risk Hithout restriction provided it is determined that the flammable materials likeI!. b) l’hc temperature classification.3. the surface to be considered is the external surface. temperature classification required for the apparatus.3. the following information is necessary: which would be allocated therefore to J. such as pressurized equipment.2. to b e p r e s e n t are compatible with the following characteristics of the apparatus: a ) The apparatus grouping (where this is applicable). therefore.3. gases and vapours have been classified according to the groups or subgroups of apparatus required for use in the particular gas or vapour *Classification of maximum surface temperatures of electrical equipment for use in explosive atmospheres.2.1). and c) Chemical compatibility. 2 Selec.

an internal explosion of the flammable gas or vapour which may enter it or which may originate inslde the enclosure. a) Pressurization with air and alarm in case of less of air pressure [Ex-p( I)] b) Pressurization with air and automatic switching off from electric supply in case of loss of air pressure [Ex-p(2)] c) Pressurization with inert gas and alarm in case of loss of inert gas pressure [Ex-p(3)] d) Pressurization with inert gas and automatic switching off from electric supply in case of less of inert gas pressure [Ex-p(4)] e) Dilution with air and alarm in case of loss of air supply [Ex-p(S)] f) Dilution with air and automatic switching off from electric supply in case of loss of air supply c) Pressurized enclosure-Type of protection ‘p’ [Ex-P(6)] *Intrinsically safe electrical apparatus and circuits (firs/ rethion). under prescribed test conditions. or with a smgle fault. by breaking or closing the circuit) or accidentally (for example by shortcircuit or earth fault) is incapable. tspecification for flameproof enclosures of electrical apparatus (. Zone I a) Type of protection adequate for Zone 0. Zone 0 Apparatus in this category is incapable of causing Ignition in normal operation. 3 . without suffering damage and without communicating the internal flammation to the external flammable gas %r vapour for which it is designed. doors are properly secured. 2 . (Conrinued) PART 7 E:LE(‘TRICAL I N S T A L L A T I O N S I N HA%ARDOI:S AREAS 255 .WWJ~I~ rnision). (Ex-i. intrinsically safe electrical apparatus catagories ia and ih and associated circuits should be employed Type of protection ‘i’. b) Flameproof equipment--Type of protection ‘d’ Flammproq/ Enclosure (Ex-d) An enclosure for electrical apparatus that will withstand when the covers or other accL%!. when this is not practicable. PTessL~ri:ed f?nnc/osure ( Ex-p) [see IS : 7389 (Part I)-197621 An enclosure for electrical apparatus in which the entry of flammable gas or vapour is prevented by maintaining the air (or other nonflammable gas) within the enclosure at a pressure above that of the external atmosphere. or with any combination of two faults applied with a specified safety factor for current and ior. through any joints or structural openings in the enclosure (WC IS : 2148-1981. It is placed in one of the following categories: a) CU/CKWI.) Apparatus in this category is incapable of causing ignition in normal operation. This type of protection has following categories (for choice see Table 3).). An intrinsically safe apparatus is one in which all electrical circuits are intrinpically safe. of causing ignition of a prescribed gas or vapour. with a specified safety factor for current and/or voltage. DESCRIPTION (3) lnrrrnsic Sq/er_v (Ex-i) (see IS : 5780-1980*) A circuit or part of a circuit is intrinsically safe when any spark or thermal effect produced normally (that is. or with any single fault applied. 2 ) Zi)xE (1) TYPF OF PROTCCTION (2) No electrical equipment should be allowed.TABLE 2 TYPES OF PROTECTION FOR DIFFERENT HAZARDOUS AREAS ((‘lousrs 6.3. ZSpecification for presburi7ed enclosures of electrical appartus for use in explosive: Part I Pressurized enclosure with no internal source of flammable gas or vapour (firsr re\*itrt~). voltage.1 9 und 6 .

H hich the apparatus ha\ been designed.ond revision).I \our-ce of ~gnltlon like an ale or spark from corn~rlg unto c~nl.I\.~cl with the Inflammable g a s o r \apour. c) Increased safety apparatus protection ‘e’. Norr.n in \\hlch IIIC./\ (t Y-c‘) (WC’ IS h?X 1-1972$) A method ol protcctl~.w IS 7724Flectrtcal apparatu\ which ha\ all it\ Ii\c I975*) p a r t \ cntircl) e m b e d d e d in a ma\\ of powder> material. intrinsically sale electrical apparatus and circuits. \o a\ to gl\c InctcCl\i+ securlt! aga~nht the po\\lhlllt! r11 C\CCI\I\C temperature5 and the occurrcncc 01 ate\ or \parh\ in electrical apparatur uhlch di>ci !~ot p r o d u c e arc\ 01 \parks i n norm31 WI\ ~LC A m e t h o d oI protection in u htc. d) Hermetically sea!ed apparatus protection ‘s’ (see Note I) 1 ypc 01 Nort I Special protection category IS reserved for those types of protrctlon that cannot be classilied as belonging wholly to any one of the above types. and b) IP 44 for insulated parts. flameproof enclosures of electrical apparatus (ser. *Specification tSpccification :Speclflcation @Specification . n o a r c occur\ Nithin the outer cxplosi\r atmosphcrc either h! the transmi\+lon o f f l a m e o r h! the overheating of the fail\ of the cnclo\ure.rical apparatus for llse in explos~e gas atmospheres. it is necessary to determine the appropriate apparatu\ grouplr.UIC\ additional to those a d o p t e d in ordinal! !ndu\trlal practice a r e applltd. Norb 3 ~~~ Oil-immersed apparatus may bC used only m case its security will’pot apparatus. (see Note 2) type of /~1l~rW\<‘~/ . It may be that a combination of several types of protection is incorporated within one piece of apparatus. e) Oil immersed apparatus Type of protection ‘0’ fJ Such other apparatus as mav he rpeclflcall> c e r t i f i e d o r as:iessed for use in Zone I arear\.h the cquipmellt ]\I 40 de\lpned and con\tructcd t h a t t h e cutcrnal intlammable ga\e\ or Lapour\ cann~>t e n t e r t h e cnclo\ure and hence prc\ent\ . be impaired by tilting or vibration of the NOlb 4 For apparatus with type of protection ‘p’ ‘c’.SCJ/<. However. ‘9’ only area classification and ignition temperature are required. in huch a \cay that under the conditions of WC for. electrical equipment with type of protection ‘n’. oil-immersed eiect. 01 PROTFL’llOh (2) d) Sand filled apparatus~-Type protection ‘q’ of Surrd-/i/M U/I/XI~&LC\ (Fx-q) (. 256 NAtIONAt ELECT?fICAL C O D E .iSpeclllcatlon 71 Spccillcatlon for for for for lor for sand-filled protection of electrical equipment for use in explosive atmospheres. the apparatus with type of protection ‘e’ and ‘n’ should be used with enclosures providing at least the following degree of protection: a) IP 55 where there are uninsulated conducting parts mternally. rvpe of protectmn 6s’ Zone 2 a) Tlpe of protection applicable for Zone 0 or Zone I.TABLE 2 TYPES OF PROTECTION FOR DIFFERENT tlAZARDD1’S AREAS Ccmrtl JOV6 (1) TYpt. where apparatus ‘is protected by Ex-‘I’ or Ex-‘d in addition to one of these types of protection. ‘n’ and where applicable. construction and testing of electrical apparatus with type of protection ‘e’.g according to IS : 5780-1979 ij and IS : 214% 19818) respectively. 2 For outdoor installation.

2.2 Stark Electricit!! . NH. Zone-2 Zone-i NH. Zone-2 Zone-l NH.4.apparatus is sub-divided according to the requirements appropriate to the.1.5 mm less than 0.1 Exceptional Circumsfances 6. electrical 6. Adequate. NOTE -. gases and vapours are classified according to the ratio of their minimum igniting currents (MIC) with that of laboratory methane. Adequate. The groups of the apparatus are: ~~ for mining applications (fire damp) ~.- : Non-hazardous area.X Below 0. These sub-groups with a representative gas and the design parameters are as follows: Appar.3. provided that adequate measures have been taken to ensure an adequate level of safety.1 In exceptional circumstances (for example. of the internal components of circuits have type of protection adequate for Zone-l. if the internal components of circuits are not ignition-capable during normal operation.1 Where unavoidable. research.TABLE 3 MINIMI’M ACTIONS IF FAILURE OF PROTECTIVE GAS FOR TYPE OF PROTECTION (Clause 6. i. n NL) OF P ROTECTION P(3) P(4) P(5) P(6) i--7Normal Abnormal Restricted None Unrestricted Restrtcted Restricted Unrestricted Unrestricted Not relevant Legend N Not relevant Not relevant H P(2) .applications in other industries. for which a particular group of enclosure is suitable are listed in IS : 9570-1980*.2. For flameproof enclosures.3 Pressurized Rooms Hydrogen Various gases and vapours.3.4.3 Individual Features Equipmenf for Hazardous Areas features of individual equipment in hazardous areas are indicated 6.9 mm < 0.4.1) IISTERNAL RELEASE AREA C LASSIFICATION T YPE ’ d e i.4. None-2 Zone-l NH.see IS : 7689-1974* 6.3. For intrinsic safety. Group II . Group I Group II 6.45 and 0.1) AKEA Cl \SSIFI<‘ATIO\ (1) Zone I Zone 2 ‘p’ E NCLOSURE DUES NOT C O N T A I N I GNITION -CAPABLE A PPARATUS (2) Alarm No action required E NCLOSURE C ONTAINS I GNITIONC APABLE A PPARATUS (3) Alarm and switch off Alarm TABLE 4 ADEQUATE TYPES OF PROTECTION FOR ELECTRICAL APPARATUS WITH AN INTERNAL SOURCE OF RELEASE (Clause 6.S m m Minimum lgnirion Currenr Ratio Above 0.3. 2 Y / atmosphere. development or repair-work. Adequate. it is either regularly supervised by trained personnel or gas-free conditions are regularly monitored. gases and vapours are classified according to their maximum experimental safe gap (MESG).8 Betbeen 0.9 mm Greater than 0. *Classification of flammable gases of vapours with air according to their maximum experimental safe gaps and minimum igniting currents. nature of the flammable.1. atmosphere for which the apparatus is intended. and in emergency situations) apparatus may be used which is not specially designed for use in Zone I or Zone 2 hazardous areas. PART 7 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN HAZARDOUS AREAS 251 .4.The essential for installation in Table 5.4 Miscellaneous Requirements Electrical of . Zone-2 Zone-I Zone-O f I I 1 I J . 6. 6.2 Apparatus which is intended to be used for short periods only may be of normal industrial design but only when operating in Zone 2. Not adequate. switchgear and equipment may be located in a pressurized room within a hazardous area meeting the following requirements: *Guide for control of undesirable static electricity.45 6.Represenrarive atus SuhGas &TO”P IIA IIB IIC Propane Ethylene Ma rimum Eqwimenral Safe Gap > 0. Zone-2 Zone-I NH.4.

auxiliary devices may be deleted or installed in a safe zone rendered safe by pressurization. for example. type of protection ‘i’ Transformers and capacitors that are dry type or contatning liquids that need not have an)i special enclosure provided that the following requitements are satisfied: Cable boxes shall be suitable for specified level of current and fault clearing time Only off-circuit manually-operated tapchangers shall be allowed with provision for locking the operating handle in position Auxiliary devices shall be intrinsically safe or if they have sparking contacts. instrumentation purposes. b) Motors with type of protection ?t’ a n d ‘e’ However all normally sparking parts such as slip-rings and brushes shall be provided with type of protection ‘d’ or ‘p’ Motors provided with a combination of the above forms of protection.protection Motors No motor shall be used a) Motors with type of protection ‘d’ b). these shall be: i) type ‘d’ or hermitically sealed. the enclosure together with the enclosed apparatus shall be type ‘d’ protection a) Lighting fittings for Zone I b) Lighting ftttings with type of protection ‘e’ or ‘n’ iv) Switchgear and controlgear No switchgear and controlgear shall be used. necessary precautions against spread of fire (see 1646-1961) shall be complied with iii) Lighting fittings No lighting fittings shall be used All ltghtrng fittings shall be flameproof. Any other sparking accessories or switch shall comply with the requirements for Zone I area Where oil-filled transformers are used. a) All power and drstribution Transformers and capacitors suitable transformers and capacitors for Zone I areas with type ‘d’ protection b) For control and. circuit-breakers. Motors with type of protection ‘p’ ii) Transformers and capacitors No transformer or capacitor shall be used in this area. fuses and other equipment. iv) of enclosed break type Or. alternatively. slip-ring motors in which the main enclosures and windings are offype ‘e’ but the normally sparking parts of type ‘d’. If necessary a suitable guard shall be provided by means of cables in screwed steel conduits.3) E QUIPMENT (1) I) ZONE 0 (2) in this area ZONE I (3) Z ONE 2 (4) a) Motor suitable for Zone I areas.3. iii) of mercury in glass type with adequate mechanical protection. ii) under adequate head of oil. and the equipment is provided with a general purpose (Conrimed) 2!% NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE .TABLE 5 FEATURES OF ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT (Clause 6. When not practicable use type 5’ protection All equipment where arcing may occur under normal conditions of operation shall be type ‘d’ unless the interruption of current occurs in a hermetically sealed chamber. Provision against lateral displacement necessary All switches.

TABLE 5 FEATURES OF ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT-Contd
EQUIPMENT (1) ZONE 0 (2) ZONE I Z ONE

(3)

(4)

2

enclosure and also if the current interrupting contacts are oil-immersed, enclosed break switches for lighting. etc. with flameproof breaking chamber, mercury in glass switches and enclosed break microswitches v) Generators No generators shall be used in Zone 0 area Generators with Type ‘d’ and ‘p’ protectton Equipment suitable for Zone I areas Generators with type ‘n’ protection or ‘0’ and haying brushless excitation system and sparking parts, if provided shall comply with Zone I requirements vt) Diesel engines Unacceptable The use of permanentaly installed diesel engines to the avoided Where ncccs~~ry, they shall be protected as given i n Appendts H vii) Storage batteries Shall not be used. Storage batteries shall not be installed in Zone I areas except those in portable lamps where the enclosures housing the bulb. jwitch and battcrv shall be flameprooi type The use of permanently installed diesel engines to be avoided Equipment suitable for Zone I areas

Storage batteries shall be of type *e’ protection (see Appendix C)

a) The pressurized room shall be situated in

vicinity

such area within a hazardous location, which is least hazardous and from which the operators working in the room can easily evacuate in the event of an accident. ceiling, floor, doors and the like shall be on non-combustible materials and shall be sufficiently resistant to explosion blasts or other mechanical effects. room shall be such as not-to allow gases or vapours to penetrate easily through them. and at least one of them shall face the direction of no source of hazard as for as practicable.

of doorways is maintained higher than the atmospheric pressure outside the room.

b) Main structural parts such as wells, pillars,

.i) An alarm or other device shall be provided so that any disorder in the pressurization system may’ be assuredly noticed. ” k) Openings to lead uirings or pipings from the hazardous locations into the room shall be so constructed as not to admit explosive gases into the room. by filling tightly the space around conduits or pipes with cement or similar incombustible materials.
N o r t - - E l e v a t e d ambient temperatures c a n b e e x p e c t e d i n pressurized room\. Accordingly, tt is advisable that due account be taken while selecting electrical equipment for installation In pressurized rooms.

cl Structural materials and construction of the d) More than one doorway shall be provided,

e) The design of the doorway facing the hazar-

dous area shall be such that the doors can only be opened outwards from the interior and they shall be double doors. In case it is necessary to provide a window facing the hazardous area, the window shall have enough strength to resist an explosion blast. blowout of gases or other possible mechanical effects. The source of air shall be free of hazardous concentrations of flammable gases and vapours contaminants and any other foreign matter. It shall be determined from the nature of the process and the physical layout.

6.4.3.2 Prior to commissioning apparatus p r o t e c t e d b y pressurization o r c o n t i n u o u s dilution, it shall be verified by competent personnel that the installation of the equipment fulfils the requirements of relevant Indian Standards, either by inspection of the reference documents, or by tests if necessary. The following shall be considered: a) the protective gas supply is suitable, that is. impurities in the protective gas will not reduce the level of safety such as by attacking the enclosure or ducting material or introducing flammable material into the enclosure. b) The apparatus design and safety provisions are such that purging can be completed satisfactorily.
259

h) The voiume and pressure of supplying air

shall be such that the air pressure in the

PART 7 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN HAZARDOUS AREAS

NOTE -Satisfactory completion of purgin would include pas&g a volume of protective gas o Bat least five times the free internal volume of the protected
enclosure and associated ducting, prior to energizing the electrical apparatus.

b) connected at one point to the potential

equalization conductor if this exists in the
whole area of the installation of the intrinsically safe circuits, or

cl The minimum pressure required is maintained with the minimum protective gas supply stated by the manufacturer. not exceeded.

cl connected to earth at one point only if
earthing is required for functional or protective purposes. The installation method shall be chosen with regard to the functional requirements of the circuits according to the manufacturers’ instructions. If the circuit is isolated attention should be given due to static charges.
More than one earth connection is permitted on a network provided that the network i s galvanically separated into circuits each of which has only onC earth point.

d) The maximum temperature limits stated are
With regard to installation practices, following shall be considered: the

4

For wiring swtems:

from earth, particular to any possible danger

9 When cable wiring systems are used, the

cable entries shall prevent excess leakage of the protective gas and ensure that sparks or incandescent particles do hot escape from the enclosure.

ii) When conduit’wiring systems a;e used, it is recommended that all conduit entrances to an enclosure be sealed to prevent excess leakage of protective gas unless the conduit system is being used as a duct for supplying the protective gas.

b) The point at which the protective gas enters

the supply duct’ or ducts should be situated in a non-haz.ardous area.

c) Ducting should, as far as possible, be loca-

ted in a non-hazardous area. If ducting p/asses through a hazardous area, it shall be checked for leaks prior to start-up of the electrical apparatus to ensure that the requirements of 6.3,3.2.1 (a) are met.

6.4.4.2 Where a safety barrier is used, the maximum fault voltage in apparatus connected to the barrier input terminals shall not exceed the fault voltage rating of the barrier. for example, 2 5 0 V. Where a safety barrier requires a connection to earth, the connecting load to the earthing terminal of the safety barrier should be as short as possible. The cross section of the connecting load shall t,ake account of the short circuit current to be expected, and shall have a minimum value of 1.5 mm2 copper. Consideration should be given to the need for. earthing of the supply system connected to the barrier input terminals. 6.4.4.3 In installations with instrinsically=safe circuits, for example, in measuring and control cabinets, the terminals shall be reliably separated fiom the tion-intrinsically safe circuits (for example. by a separating Ijanel, or a gap of at least 50 mm). The terminals of the intrinsically safe circuits shall be marked as such. All terminals shall satisfy the requirements of relevant lndian Standards. Where terminals are arranged to provide separation of circuits by spacing alone, care shall be taken in the layout of terminals and the wiring method used. to prevent contact between circuits should a wire become disconnected. 6.4.4.4 Enclosures and wiring of intrinsically safe circuits should meet the requirements which would be applied to similar types of equipment which are intended to be installed in nonhazardous areas otherwise having the same environmental conditions. If a n e n c l o s u r e contains both intrinsically safe circuits and non-

d) Exhaust ducting shall vent to a non-hazardous area or otherwise be designed to prevent the emission of sparks 3r hot particles such as by the use of spark arrestors or baffles. Care should be taken tp ensure that the exhaust does not result in a secondary hazardous source in an otherwise nonhazardous area Safk Installations -- A 6.4.4 Intrinsicall~l fundamentally different installation philosophy has to be recognized in tIie installation of intrinsically safe circuits. In comparison with all other types of installations, where care is taken to confine electrical energy to the installed system as designed so that a hazardous environment cannot be ignited, the integrity of an intrinsically safe circuit has to be electrically protected from the environment in order that the safe energy limitation in the kircuit is not exceeded, even when breaking, shorting or earthing of the circuit occurs.
As a consequence of this principle the aim of
the installation rules for intrinsically safe circuits is to maintain separation from other circuits. 6.4.4.1 Intrinsically safe circuits may be installed either: a) isolated from earth, or
260

intrinsically safe cirCuits, the intrinsically safe circuits shall be clearly identified. In installation containing both intrinsically safe apparat.us and apparatus having another type of protection, the intrinsically safe circ_uits shall be clearly marked. 6.e.4.5 Marking may be achieved by labelling
NATIONAL ELECTRICAL

CODE

or colour coding of enclosured, terminals and cables. Where a colour is used for this purpose it shall be light blue. 6.4.4.6 Where intrinsically safe circuits may be exposed to disturbing magnetic or electric fields, suitable attention shall be given to transposition or shielding to ensure that these fields do not adversely affect the intrinsic safety of the circuit. 6.4.4.7 Unless specifically permitted, conductor of intrinsically safe circuits and conductors of non-intrinsically safe circuits shall not be run together in cables, cords, conduits, or bundles. In cable ducts and trays, intrinsically safe cables shall be separated from non-intrinsically safe cables by a mechanical barrier. Such a barrier is not required if all cables are provided with additional protective sheathing or sleeves which provide equivalent separation, or if the cables are securely fastened to ensure that physical separation is maintained. 6.4.4.8 A flexible cable may contain more than one intrinsically safe circuit if the cable installation is such as to minimize the risk of damage which could cause interconnection between different circuits. 6.4.4.9 The installation of intrinsically safe circuits shall be such that the extreme permitted values, such as capacitance, inductance and inducatance to resistance ratio, are not exceeded. The permissible values shall be taken from the certificate, the nameplate of the apparatus, or from the installation instructions. 6.4.4.10 Where intrinsically safe circuits are interconnected to form a system, due account shall be taken by calculation or by measurement of the resultant combination of electrical parameters, such as inductance, and capacitance, which may affect the intrinsic safety of the system as a whole.

NOTE - In addition to electrical sparking due account should be taken of thermal effects particularly where noncertified apparatus is used.

6.4.4.11 The following equipment is considered to be intrinsically safe without certification: Devices whose electrical parameters, according to the manufacturer’s specification, do not exceed any of the values 1.2 V, 0. I A. 20 J or 25 mW need not be certified or marked. They will be subject, however, to the requirements of relevant lndian Standard specification, if they are connected to a device which contain a source of energy which could cause the circuit to exceed these parameters. 7. TESTING OF INSTALLATION 7.0 All equipment intended for use in hazardous areas shall be approved by a recognized, testing and certifying authority (see 3.2). 7.1 Installation tests should include insulation resistance and earth continuity resistance and the checking of fused ratings and other protection devices, settings and operation. 7.2 For periodical electrical testing, the following precautions shall be followed:

a) Insulation tests should, in general, be carried

out with certified intrinsically safe insulation tester for use in hazardous areas. out with certified intrinsically safe earth tester embodying a hand-driven generator suitable for use in hazardous areas. protective devices, where practicable, and the operation of other protective devices should be checked.

b) Earth continuity tests, in general, be carried

cl The rating of fuses and the settings of

APPENDIX (Clause 0.6)

A

INDIAN STANDARDS FOR ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT FOR USE IN HAZARDOUS ATMOSPHERES IS : 2148-1968 Flameproof enclosures of electrical apparatus (first revision). IS : 5571-1979 Guide for selection of electrical equipment of hazardous areas (fht revision) IS : 5572 (Part I)-1978 Classification of hazardous areas for electrical installations: Part I Areas having gases and vapours wrsr revision) IS : 5780-1980 Intrinsically safe electrical apparatus and circuits @rst revision) IS : 6381-1972 Construction and testing of electrical apparatus with type of protection ‘e’ IS : 6539-1972 Intrinsically safe magneto-telephones for- use in -hazardous atmospheres IS : 6789- 1972 Bolted flameproof cable couplers and adaptors. 1s : 7389- 1974 Pressurized enclosures of electrical equipment for use in explosive atmospheres (Part l)-1976 Part I Pressurized enclosures with no internal source of flammable gas or vabour (first revision) I s Y IS : 7693-1975 Oil immersed apparatus for use in explosive gas atmospheres
261

PART 7 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN HAZARDOUS AREAS

IS : 7724-1975 Sand-filled protection of electrical equipment for use in explosive atmospheres IS : 7820-1975 Methods of tests for ignition temperatures IS : 8239-1976 Classification of maximum surface temperatures of electrical equipment for use in explosive atmospheres IS : 8240-1976 Guide for electrical equipment for explosive atmospheres.

IS : 8241-1976 Methods of marKIng for identifying electrical equipment for explosive atmospheres IS : 8289-1976 Electrical equipment with type of protection ‘n’ IS : 9166-1979 Spark test apparatus for intrinsically safe circuits IS : 9570-1980 Classification Jf flammable gases or vapours with air according to their maximum experimental safe gaps and minimum igniting currents

APPENDIX B [Table 5? hem (iv)]
RECOMMENDATIONS FOR THE PROTECTION OF DIESEL ENGINES FOR PERMANENT INSTALLATION IN HAZARDOUS AREAS

B-O. To ensure a maximum degree of safety in the event of a permanently installed diesel engine I or 2, it is being necessary on Zone recommended that it should have the following protection.
B-l. The, starter shall be either of flameproof electrical type (usually operated from the mains supply) or of the following non-electric types: a) Pneumatic, b) Hydraulic, c) Spring recoil, d) Inertia, or e) Hand start. Any other electrical equipment associated with the engine shall be flameproof. Electrical equipment shall be effectively earthed and bonded. B-2. Cooling fan blades shall be made from nonmetallic materials which do not accumulate electrostatic charge. B-3. All belts shall be of antistatic fire-resistant type. B-4. In order to contain discharge of sparks or flames from the exhaust system, a gas conditioner box and a flame trap shall be installed. Alternatively, the exhaust should be designed to discharge to a location within a safe area. B-5. To prevent flashback through induction system, wherever possible, air intakes for engines shall be located in a safe area. Alternatively, a flame trap should be installed. B-6. The surface temperature of the engine and exhaust system shall not exceed 250°C when tested under full load conditions. In some situations cooling of the exhaust manifold and piping may be necessary, using water jacketing or
262

finned coolers and/or high temperature cut-outs or alarms should be provided. However, when either the free movement of air is restricted by thermal or accoustic shielding or the ignition temperature of the surrounding flammable atmosphere is below 200°C, exposed surface temperature of engine shall not exceed the minimum ignition temperature of the gases involved. B-7. To prevent overspeeding of the engine due to induction of flammable gases or vapours, means shall be provided to stop the engine. It can be either: a) a valve to close the air intake, or b) a system to inject carbon dioxide into the air intake. B-8. Alarms or automatic shutdown devices shall

be provided, activated by excessive water temperature and low lube oil pressure. B-9. 4 system using an’ alarm or trip device to protect the engine from excessive vibration should be considered. B-10. An engine having a crankcase volume of over 0.5 m3 shall be provided with relief devices. Relief valves or breathers on engines shall be fitted with flame traps or dischar e into the induction system downstream,of the #ame trap, if fitted, and upstream of the shut-off valve, if fitted, as specified B-7. Dipsticks and/or filler caps should be screwed or effectively secured by oth,er means. B-11. Intake and exhaust system design shall meet the following minimum requirements: a) The length of the flame path through or across any joint shall b6 ‘not less than 13 mm, b) Suitable metal-clad or other acceptable
NATIONAL ELECl’RICAL CODE

jointing material shall be interposed between all joint faces to ensure that leakage does not occur.

c) Where valve spindles pass through the walls
of anv component of the induction system. the d-iametrical clearance shall not exceed 0.13 mm for an axial length of not less th’an 25 mm. unless end caps are fitted, and

d) No screw. stud or bolt-hole shall pass

through the wall of any component of the system. B - 1 2 . L)ecompression s y s t e m s s h o u l d n o t normally be provided. However. if they are essential, then the decompression parts should be provided with flametraps and ducted away to safe area. B-13. The fuel injection pump and governor, where fitted, should be so designed that reverse running of the engine is not possible.

APPENDIX C [Table 5, /rem (vii)]
RECOMMENDATIONS FOR STORAGE BATTERIES FOR 1lSE IN ZONE 2 AREAS Storage batteries for use in Zone 2 areas shall be of increased safety type. These shall meet the following requirements. C-l. Celluloid and similar combustibles shall not be used as constructional materials. ‘, C-2. Battery containers as well as fittings and insulating parts outside the enclosed cells shall not consist of porous materials, for example, wood or other flammable materials and shall be resistant to flame and the action of electrolytes. C-3. Openings, of calls necessary for the escape of the gases given 6ff shtiil ‘be so constructed as to prevent splashing of the electrolyte.‘ C-4. The exterior of the cells shall be so constructed as to resist impact, and the cell cases shall be firmly fixed. C-5. The cells shall be so built into the containers that working loose of connection of the cells with one another is impossible and normally a discharge voltage exceeding 24 volts shall not appear between adjacent rows of cells. The creepage distance between two poles of adjacent cells shall not be less than 35 mm. Where the discharge voltage exceeds 24 volts, the

c-o.

creepage distance shall be correspondingly increased by I mm per 2 volts. Where voltage of batteries is not less than 50 volts. either the battery case shall be sub-divided by partitions or the batteries shall be grouped into containers so that in no grouping does a voltage exceeding 50 volts occur. In these cases. the partitions or the containers shall have, heights at least half that of the batter) case. C-6. The battery case shall be so constructed as to ensure sufficient ventilation in order to prevent accumulation of gases given off fro’m the batter). and the free space within the case shall be as small as possible. C-7. The metallic cover of the battery case shall be lined, with materials resistant to electrolyte. C-8. The cover of the battery case shall have special fastenings. C-9. Exposed live parts of battery contained in a case shall be protected with rubber or equivalent insulating materials. However, the opening for checking voltage may be provided.
Charging of storage batteries shall be conducted in NoTt non-hazardous location, while the cover of the hatter:, enclosure is kept open.

APPENDIX (Clause 0.3)

D

EXAMPLE OF INDUSTRIES AND THEIR WORKING PLACES WHICH REQUIRE CONSIDERATIONS IN REGARD TO HAZARDOUS LOCATIONS D-l. Though it is difficult to determine hazardous locations merely according to kind of industries or kind of working places, typical industries and working places which require .considerations in regard to hazardous locations are listed below: I ) Ammonium sulvhate manufacrurina industry - Places wiere gaseous raw materials are produced, electrolysis of water is conducted or synthesis of ammonia is carried out. 2) Soda manufacturing industr>! --- Working places of electrolysis, synthetic hydrochloric acid manufacturing and liquid chlorine handling. 3) Elec:ric ,/tirnac,e industr~~ .--- working places where calcium carbide is pulverized and storage of it. 4) Compressed or liyuqfied~flammahle gas industry--- Working places where flammable gases
263

PART I ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN HAZARDOUS AREAS

25) Printing industr. 23) Drj?-cleaning industr. 11) Vegetable oil industry.Working places where flammable where coal tar is fractionally distilled or light oil extracted from coal is refined or fractionally distilled. brushing or by other means.W o r k i n g p l a c e s where washing using flammable liquids and recovery of the said liquids are conducted. 21) Brecc+ng industrrv . solvent extraction plants . reacted.Working places where gaseous raw materials or volatile flammable liquids are produced. filled or stored. 20) Gum products industry* . 9) Synthetic resin and plastic marwfacturing industry . Storage of containers filled with flammable gases.1. applied. --. Places ‘where volatile flammable liquids are transported. Storage of these liquids. 24) Finishing processes -. 14) Drugs and medicines manefacturing industry . 18) Photographic sensitive materials manujacruring industr. distilled. 26) Aircrqft hangars .Location where petrol or other volatile flammable liquids. prepared.facturing industry .Working places where volatile flammable liquids are added.l distillation industry .Working places where dry distillation or rectification is conducted. where flammable thinners are used. filled or stored. Storage of volatile flammable liquids.Location used for storage or servicing of aircraft in which gasoline. Storage of volatile flammable liquids.Working places where hydrogen is produced or added.or volatile flammable liquids are added.fihres manufacturing industrlj Working places where flammable gases . distilled or extracted. 10) Synthetic .:.quids. applied or recovered.Places where alcohol is distilled. Places where volatile flammable raw materials or finished products are stored.are produced. 264 NATIONAL ELECI’RICAL CODE . Storage of the said liquids.. prepared.Working places where flammable gases or volatile flammable liquids are handled in large quantity.Working places where volatile flammable paints or thinners are produced. plants. 15) Paints manufacturing industry . eth.Working places where volatile flammable liquids are added.Working places where gum arabic is produced or applied.Working places where extraction or recovery is conducted using volatile flammable liquids. 22) Processed paper or coated cloth manefacturing industr. locations where paints. lacquers finishers may occur. 17) Perfumes and cosmetics manefacturing industry . Coal tar products industry .Working places where flammable gases or volatile flammable liquids are handled in large quantity.Working places where printing is done using inks with addition of volatile flammable liquids. flammable liquids are added. 19) Oil refining and petrochemical indust. recovered or distilled.Working places where volatile flammable liquids are distilled or filled. Places where benzene or the other volatile flammable liquids are filled or stored.Working places 16) Insecticides and germicides manufacturing industry . hardened oil and glvcerine manu. refined reacted. Storage of volatile flammable liquids. Storage of these li.Working places where preparation of volatile flammable paints. compressed or filled.! -.Working places where flammable gases or volatile flammable liquids are handled in large quantity. lacquers or other flammable finishers are regularly or frequently applied by spraying. Storage of the gases and liquids. jet fuels or other volatile flammable liquid or flammable gases are used.v . Other working places where flammable gases or volatile flammable liquids are used in large quantity. Places where volatile flammable liquids are filled or stored. 12) Fatty acids. 8) Acetylene.! . I?) Wood dr. and where readily ignitable deposits or residues from such paints. dipping. recovered or stored. Hydrogeneration . added or stored. gases or volatile flammable liquids are handled in large quantity. or liquefied flammable gases are transferred to the fuel tanks of vehicles. Worki’ng places where various refining processes or chemical reactions are conducted. produced.vlene or methanol deriilative manefacturing industries . 27) Petrol birnks and service stations .Working pi&es where volatile 6) Dyestgffs and their intermediates manufacturing industry . 7) Fermentation industry .

such as vertical and horizontal air terminations and other means. should be fixed to the roof of the structure. In case of doubt. the air termination network may be replaced by a network of earthing strips arranged on the surface in accordance with expert advice.3 Where the expense of the method given in E-2. stored or used or in which highly flammable or explosive gases. according to the risk. Protection of a different deg-ee may be secured in the case of both self-protecting and other structures by installation of various types of protection equipment. and 4 0 Location of structures not inherently self- g) For structures not inherently self-protecting. If two or more parallel’ horizontal qf Building with explosives dust or flammable vapour risk Integrally mounted system with vertical air terminals 1. E-2. or the equivalent. The supports of the network should be adequately earthed.Recommended Tvpe Proreccrion a) ‘Storage of flammable liquids and gases in all-metal structures. c) Maintenance of containers in good condition. For this reason higher degree of protection is essential for these structures. a network of horizontal conductors with a spacing of 3 m to 7. E-l.5 m. The height of the horizontal conductor should be sufficient to avoid all risk of flashover from the protective system to the structure to be protected.1 For the protection of structures with explosives or highly flammable contents the general principles are given below. E-2. If one horizontal conductor only is used. b) Closure or protection of vapour or gas openings against entrance of flames. vapours or dusts are manufactured. 4 Avoidance. including its services. masts. this clearance should be increased by I m for every IO m of structure height above I5 m to prevent sidesflashes. and where no risk is involved in discharging the lightning current over the surfaces of the structure to be protected.2 by virtue of the fact that soil has an impulse breakdown strength which can be taken into account when determining the risk of flashover from the protective system to the structure to be protected.4 If the vertical conductor is separate from the structure to be protected. essentially gas-tight. the protective angle to be applied may be as much as 45’ within the space bonded by the conductors. the recommendations for bonding between metal in the structure. or metal conductors entering the structure given in E-4. E-2. E-3.5 m high and horizontal air terminals spaced 3 to 7.2) LIGHTNING PROTECTION OF STRUCTURES WITH EXPLOSIVE OR HIGHLY FLAMMABLE CONTENTS E-O. but it should not exceed 30’ outside that space. The recommendations given in E-l to E-IO should be followed for structures in which explosive or highly flammable solids. conductors are installed.5 m from each other dependmg on the type of storage and processes involved 265 .5 A structure which is wholly below ground and which is not connected to any services above ground may be protected by an air termination network in accordance with E-2. should not exceed 30”. so far as potential hazards are concerned. E-2. the establishment of zones of protection through use of earthed rods.1 These should generally be of the integral mounted system with the horizontal air terminals running along the perimeter of the roof in all cases except for buildings r?ntaining highly Type of Building . the minimum clearance between it and the protected structure shall be not less than 2 m. vicinity in the event of a lightning stroke. Where this method is adopted. vapours or dusts may accumulate.2 is unjustified. gases. I .APPENDIX E (Clause 6. liquids. E-2. should be ignored. TYPES OF LIGHTNING PROTECTION SYSTEM E-3. Also the minimum clearance between the suspended horizontal air termination and the highest projection on the protected structure shall be 2 m. The presence of explosives or highly flammable materials in a structure may increase the risk to persons or to the structure and th. PRECAUTIONS E-1. the protective angle adopted. Avoidance of spark gaps between metallic conductors at points where there may be an escape or accumulation of flammable vapours or gases.1. Following precautions should be taken for the protection of structures and their contents from lightning. Where the depth of burying is adequate.2. so far as possible. expert advice should be sought. GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF PROTECTION E-2.2 An air termination network should be suspended at an adequate height abqve the area to be protected. protecting in positions of iesser exposure with regard to lightning. of the accu- mulation of flammable air-vapour mixtures about such structures.

the methods recommended in IS : 2309-1969* should be adopted.5 m unless other considerations.3 m high and horizontal air terminals spaced 7.2 Major metalwork inside the structure be bonded to the lightning protective E-4. This clearance applies also to the planting of new trees. E-4. E-5. This metal casing should be electrically continuous within the structure. Discontinuous metal wire fencing on non-conducting supports or wire coated with insulating material should not be employed. This ring conductor should preferably be buried to a depth of at least 0. The sparkover voltage of the lightning protective device should not exceed one-half the bieakdown withstand voltage of the electrical equipment in the structure. for example. should be provided at the termination of the overhead line. Such connections should be made at least in two places and should. rails or guides not in continuous electrical contact with the earth. It should be earthed at the point of entry outside the structure on the supply side of the service and bonded directly to the lightning protective system. components and wires of all fences. reinforcement and services. so far as is possible. should be connected in such a way as to provide continuous metallic connection between themselves and the lightning protective system. such cables are not recommended for the above purpose. They should be about 75 m away and the other a further 75 m away.5 . The earth terminal of this protective device should be bonded direct to the cable sheath or armouring. and of retaining walls in close proximity to the structure. E-5. The resistance value of the earth termination network should be maintained permanently at IO ohms or less. E-S. a length of buried cable with metal sheath or armouring should be inserted between the overhead line and the point of entry to the structure and a surge protective device.3 The earth terminations of each protective system should be interconnected by a ring conductor. electrical cable sheaths. On account of the low impulse strength of mineral-insulated metal-sheathed cable.2 The metal uprights. The following types of protection are recommended: E-3. E-4. *Code of practice for the protection of building and allied structures against lightning.3 should be equipped with twice the number of down conductors recommended in Part I /Set 15 of the Code. or the ring conductor should be connected to the ring c o n d u c t o r s o f one o r m o r e n e i g h b o u r i n g structures until the above value is obtained E-4. be equally spaced round the perimeter of the structure at intervals not exceeding I5 m.1 All major members of the metallic continuous metal including structure. but structures near existing trees should be treated in accordance’with IS : 2X)9-1969* E-4. o f t h e t y p e c o n t a i n i n g voltagedependent resistors.4 Where the electrical conductors are connected to an overhead electric supply line. Small explosives storage buildings Buildings storing more dangerous types of explosives.3 The vents o f a n y t a n k s c o n t a i n i n g llammable gas or liquid and exhaust stacks from process plants emitting flammable vapours or dusts should either be constructed of nonconducting material or be filled with flame traps. E-5.Type of Building Recommended 7jape 01 Prorecrion Explosives storage building Integrally mounted system with vertical air terminals and Pxplosives workshops 0. which enter a structure of this kind.5 Metallic pipes. for example. should system.m. the recommendation in E-4. such as the need for bonding other objects to it.1 For a buried structure or underground excavation to which access is obtained by an adit or shaft. If this value proves to be unobtainable. or risk of corrosion make it desirable to leave it exposed in which case it should be protected against mechanical damage.5 as regards extra earthing should be followed for the adit or shaft at intervals not exceeding 75 m. E-3.4 Structures of this category should not be equipped with a tall component. NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE . *Code of practice for the protection of building and allied \tructurer against lightning. testing. such as spire or flagstaff or radio aerials on the structure or withm I5 m of the structure. should be bonded to the lightning protective system. MISCELLANEOUS REQUIREMENTS E-5. should be bonded together gnd connected to the lighting protective system.2 Each separate structure protected in accordance with E-2. nitroglycerine (NG) and for Vertical pole type Suspended horizontal air terminations at least 2 m higher than the structure and with a spacing of 3 m initiatory explosives manufacturing sensitive explosives and very small buildings. steel ropes. BONDING E-4.3 Electrical conductors entering a structure of this category should be metal-cased.

2 Wiring I. 2. 2.8.30 Fuse. 6. 5.3. 2. l-axed 1 .14 C o n s u m e r I. 2.3.26 Cables I.2. Hand held.6 tquipment.1 Flectric~l installations i n 6 Fence\.1.1 Guide for preparation I.Audu)-s! slems General aspects 1. Electrical 1.2 Industrial buildings 4. 2. preferred rated 1. 2. 3. 3 Celling fan.12 Farthahle point 5. 4 Recreational buildings 3.2 Requirements.2 F i x i n g tu walls I. 2 . 2. 2. Insulated 1.6 Protective I.2. Bimetallic I. 2.1 Bulldmg. S&lion Nuniber (if any) in italics and the specific clause number in Roman.3. 2. 2. 2.3. 7 Wlrlng s!stcm 6.1 I Conductor.3 Conductors Arrangement of 1.7 Acces\ory I. IO.5.4.1.9 Arm-a reach 1.lphting design I. D-type 1. Flrctric 6. 2. 2.13 Conductor. _?. 2.13 Apparatus. 148. 2 .2 Rigid. 2. 2.4 Recessed I. 2. design I. I. Bunched 1.2 Wiring 1. IO t’la\h point 7.4 Conduit Flexible I. Neutral 1. 2. Double 1. 2. 2.24 Farth fault 1.6 Electric current I. 2.?. 2. 4 Hotels 3. Assessment of 6. 4 . Exposed 5. 2 . 2. 2. 4. 14C.2.3. 2. 14G.3.2 Equipment. 2.3 IX Dead I. 2.6 Passing through walls. 3 Explanatory 1.3.21 Fuse-switch 1.28 Fuse-link 1.6 Cables.2. 2.3 Disconnector 1. II. 24 19 Diclectrlc 1. 4 Vrntila~ion. Bare 1.1 Silea of 1 . 2. 2. 2. 2. 2. 52. I. 2. general 1.h o a r d I&butron 1. 2.29 Load. 14G‘. l. Earth continuity I. 14c‘. 2. 9 Equipment I. Induction 1.19 1 arthed neutral system. 4.1 M a r k i n g I. 2.4.4 Classification 6.24 Fuse-element 1. 2. 2. 2.14 LTlectric circuit 1. IO Apparatus. 2. App A Safety in 3. 20 Flammable material 7.1. 2.3. 3. 4 Sports buildings 3.\ Clamps 1. 2. 2. 2.5 Cable. F!e. 7. Enclosed distrlbutlon 1. 2.29 Insulation fault 1. 2. 4 Safrt! 6. 14E. classification of 3.3. 2. 14G‘.19 Meter rent I. I. 2. 3 Charts Classification 1.2 Equipment.2 Sequence 1. 2. 7 Call-bells I.4 Fncloaure 1. 2 6.3 Fquipmenr.1 S e l e c t i o n o f si7e 1. 5 Heat Insulation of 1.1 (~cnclal ayocct~ 1 .2. 2. 2.5. 2.17 C u r r e n t 1. . 2. 2. 2. 2.8 Circuit-breaker 1.4. 2.3. 2 .1 Building point 7. 2 . /4F.5 C l e a t I. 2. II. 2. 2. /. 2. 2.?. 2. 2.5 Cable. 2. 4 Institutions 3. Flexible 1.6.3.2. 2. 2. 2. 2 . 3 . 2.1. 2. 7.3 Ventilarlon. 2.2.4.4.32 Connector.2. 7 Flammable 1.2. Stationary I.8 Motor. Creepage I. 2.1 Equipment. 2.3. 14G‘. 2. 4 Ot’fice buildings 3.1.2. 5. 2. II. 2.21 Farth electrode 1.8. 2. 14G‘. 7. 2. Miniature I. 2.2 resting 1.2a Time sequence 1.1 B Bathrooms equipment. 2. 18 S u r f a c e 1. 4. 2. 2. 2.1 Circuit I. Current using 1. 2. 2.lquificd 7.2.3.3.22 Fuse-link.2. 10.20 Fuse-carrier 1. 6 lesting 6. 2.4. 2. 4. 8 Flammables liquid 7 .28 Generator I. 4. 1. 2. II.3 Rigid steel I. 4 ldcntificatlon of 1. 2.{A.4 IKqu~pment. 14E Poucr supply 1. 6. lloors 1. . 3. X. Direct 1. Portable appliances 1. Connection of I. FIxed 5. 3.10 Conductive part. lransport 5.6 Distribution pillar 1. 14c‘.2. 2.4.5 Fxplo\~ve Ilmit\ 7 . non-metallic J. 14C. . 2. 2. 3A. 2. 2. A-4.10 Building 1. 2.4.25 Di\trlbution undertaking J.1. II.4. 2. connected I. 2. 4. 4.INDEX Evcr~ key word III the index is followed by a designation of location in the Code (Indci numhcl) dcrwtcd h!i Explanatory Note the Part number in bold.xlble 1. 2. I . Assessment for 1.17 c Call-bell. 4.1 I Flammable ga\ or vapour 7 . Portable 5. 2. I6 Contt-c~lgeal 1. 4. 2. ‘2. 141).1 Clock5 1 . Selection of 3.7 Identification of 1. 2. 2. 8.12 Conductor.2 Conductor. 4 Temporary outdoor installations 5.26 Connector box 1. A-2.1 I A r c I.25 Earthing system.9 267 D Defimtions I . 14.2. 2 Fla\ho\cr 1. General 1.26 Flammahiltty lange 7 .17 Fuse-wire 1. 2.4 Haulage truck 5. 5.18 C o n d u c t o r I.1 Apparatus. 4 Assessment of 1. 2. Cartridge 1. 8 General characteristics. I.15 Conductor.3. 2. CI. 2. Electrical I. ‘4. I Flammahlc miht 7. I2 Clearance 1. 4 Shopping crntres 3. 9. 4. Icahagc. 4. 5 Audio-systems 1. 2.23 Conductor. 14c‘. 2. 3A. 10. R HeacIng 1. 2. 2 D o m e s t i c dwellmgs 3.13 Bus-bar.14 Ignition temperature 7. 2.1 W i r i n g 1. 2 10 !-lammahlr mlxturc 7 . A-3 Z o n e s .1. 2. 2. 2.2. Simultanec~u\l> I. 2. 14E. 2. 2. 2. 2.4 Insulation. 2. 2.2.1. II.5. -7. 6 l. I4 Con\e)tnp \! \trm.2 Gcnc~al characteristics.6. 7 .2b Clearance Definition 1.3.l a m m a h l e ga‘.18 Circuit-breaker.3. 5. 2. 2.16 Earth 1 . HazardoIls atmosphere 7. 2 3 I9 D e m a n d 1. -7. 2. 2 3.2. 2 9 F u s e . Armoured 1. 2. 2. 2. 2.2 Speclllc bulldingc (SW under individual titles) Agt’lcuitural premises Cables 6.28 Distance. 2.4 X B a r r i e r I .1 General aspects 1.20 E a r t h leakage current 1.IA Ceiling roses J. 3.2 Apparatus.? Accessible part\. 2.1 E l e c t r i c a l mstallation in 3. I Ire .3. 3A. 14E. 2. 2.3.4.2. 2.3.4. II.3. electric Equipment 1. 14G. _‘. 2. 2.2.1. 2. 3.4 I iltr and escalators 1. I.30 Load. . 4. Multiple I. 2. 2 .3.3 Conductor. 2. 2. II. 6.3. 2. 2. 3 Con\umer‘\ terminal 1. 2.26 L i v e 1.27 I .4.2. 2. 2.2. -7. 2. 2. 2 . 2.2 Clock systems D e s i g n I.1 Cbaractcristlcs of buildings. 2.31 Lighting fitting 1. Movable S.4. 2 2 .3. 2.1.23 Circuits. 2. 2. 2. 2. 5.3 Hazardous area 7. 2. 2.3 Ser\lces 6. 2. Electric 1. 3 LLlghting. 2.3.7 Capacitor 1. 2.2. 2. Earthed I.1. 2 . 9 . JC Rcgulatorc 1 . 2. 4. 2. 2 .4 INDEX . -7. I.21 I-use-board.22 Motor. 2.5. 2. Building services Atr-conditlonmg 1. 2. 2. 2. 2 I2 l-use I. 2.14 Impulse 1. Interconnecting I.7 E l e c t r o d e 1.12 Cut-out I. 2.3. 2. /4E.15 Lighting arrester 1. 10.2 I9 Fu\e-base I.5.1. 7. Portable 1. 2. //. 2. 14G Power supply 1. gcncral 1..2 Definition I .7 Halard 7. 2.2 .1.13 Apparatus.3. Xl. 2.1.2. 9. 7. dcslgn 1. 2. 14A.4. 2. 2.thcr~~ ot rhc clxc~w~ number Indicates that the uhole Section or Part is relevant to the aspel’t A Air-cond:cloning l)c\~gn.2. i. 2.5 Electric lines and buildings 1. 2.S I Current.3. 2. 2. 2. 7. 2. I. 3A. 4 Medical establishments 3. 2. 2. 6 &-lame arrester 7. 7 C o r d . 7.1 5 Current.1 General aspects I. 7. Installed 1. II. 14C. 3A. -7.20 Load factor I. 2. //. 9. General Aprlcultural buildings. I . 2. 14G Location I.2. 2.1 Fire-protrction 1.3.2. 2.1 I3 Farthing lead I. 14C Requlrementb. Mobile 5. 2. Aerial 1.

2.2 L o c a t i o n I. 7.1 Supply 4. 2. Earthing Alphanumeric notation 1. choice of 7. 4.3. I Metal sheathed wiring system 1.2. 4. 10.1 I IE Rules Cohformity to I. I. 5. 5.4. 5. 5. Appendix A Switchboards 3.1 Apartments 3. 7 Heating 4.3 Services 4.1 Clocks 3. Appendix C Testing 7. Secondary 5.3 Specific buildings (see under indivi ual titles) Wiring. 3. 14. 2.1 Lifts 3. 2.2 General. self-contained 5.4 Hospitals (see under Medical Establishment) Hotels Air-conditioning 3. Pipe 1. 2. 34. 8.40 Voltage. extent of 7. 6.2.0 Switchgear. 8 Socket-outlets 3. 3.0 Temporary outdoor installations 5. 4. 34.4. 2. 3A.5 Influence. 2.9 Loop impedance 1. 2. 3. 9 ’ Space for I.4 Classification 4. 4.11 Subcircuit. 3A. 4. 9.1 Industrial buildings Air-conditioning 4.-i.24 Public dighting installations 5. Depth of burial I. Lighting protection 1. main 4. 14. 6. 1. I Electrode. 2. Appendix B Earthing. 4 H Hazardous area Apparatus. 8. 2. Heating I.4. 2. 3 F Fire-safety.3 Protection. 5.9 Protection. 7. 2. 5.4. 8.3 Examples of 7.3. Medical 3.1. 5. 5.2 IE rules for 1.4.1. 5. 4.3 Diesel engines 7. I Asse bly buildings 3. 1.6 Working level 5. 6 Equipment.2 Statutory regulations 7. Table I Object of 1.1. /I.6 Equipment. power 4. Medium voltage 4. 5. 8.3.6..5 Testing 1. 8. 4.3. 4. 4. Portable 7.2 Electrodes. 4 Lifts 3.2. 2. 5.24 Tariff. Estimation of 3.10 Neutrial I. Unrestricted 7. 8.4. 2. 1.4 Telephones 3. 2. 2. 5. 8. Fig.3 L i g h t i n g 3. Industrial 1. 2. 2.4 Terminal I.0 Circuit-breaker.4. 6 Wiring 3. 2. 4.3 Lighting 3. 2. I.1. 2. 2. 3.2.0. I . 2. IS. 4.1 Zones.1 Conductors. IS.2.4. 2.la) Circuit 1.2.3.1. 2. Restricted 7. 5.5 Pressurized room 7. domestic 1. Design data 1. Restrictions for 4. 7. 12. 2.4. 6. 8. 2.6. 1.1.3. Source of 7.3 Switchgear. 2. 3. Electrical 5. 5. location of 4. 2.2 Wiring 4. 6. 5. 10. 6. 2. 2. 2.6 Exhaust Fans I. 6.1. 12.3. Extra-high 1.32 Non-hazardous area 7. 2.1.2 Frequency Limits 1.29 Service 1. I7 Risk Zones.2 Symbol 1.2 Wiring system. 2. 2. 3 Distribution. 1. 2.14 Tariff 1. 6.2. 2. 2.. fire-fighting I. 4. 1. 10. 6.4 Fire-safety 3.31 Switch 1.ying machinery.4 fire-safety 4.3.5. 2. /2.4 Rules for I. 6. 2. 3. 5. 6. 9. 5. 4. Lighting I. 2.Motor generator set.1 Maintainability I. 12.0.6 Socket-outlets 3. 8.5 Plugs and sockets 7. /2.2.1 Equivalent circuit I.12 Transformer. Table I System 1. 2.3 Intrinsically.20 Obstacle I.2.3.2 Identification 1. 6.1. 3 Electrode resistance 1. 3 Storage batteries 7.2.3. 2. 4 268 INDEX . I.4 Industrial premises 4. 2.1 I Occupancy 1. 2.1 Systems. 2.15 Switchboard I.4 E q u i p m e n t 1. 6. 4 Load. 3. Ic) Explanatory I. Types of 1. I2 Hazardous areas 7. 1.4 Swimming Pools 3. 7. 2. 5. 6. 5. 2. 5.1 Guide for preparation I. common aspects 1. 2. 12.8 Voltage.4. Low I.2 Wiring.4 Selection of I.1 Equipment.1 Classification 3.4 Operations. 2. 14.3. Assessment of 3.6. 2. 5. 2 Room height 1. B-4 Wiring system.1 I Voltage 1.1 Electrode. 2. internal ‘7.7 Static electricity 7. 5.4 Isolation 7. 2.3 Domestic dwellings Air-conditioning 3. 2.2. 2. 2. 5.22 Design constderations 1.2 Call-systems 3. 2. 5.3.36 Switch-fuse 1. 9 Electrical Installations 3.1 Wiring 3.1.0 Cables. 12. 140.2 Earthing. 12. assessment of 3. Bonding 7.2. 2.2. 2. 2. 2. 2. electrical Compatibility I. 12. 8.3.1. 5. 2.1. 8. 1. 5. Fig. 5. 4.2 to 2. 6. 2.4.4. Processing machinery.3 Lighting 4. 5. 1. Appendix D. External 5. 4.2.3 Temination. 5. location of 3.14 Surge diverter I. 2. 2. 5. 4. I.39 Voltage. 5.16 Release. 6.1 Safety circuits 5. 1. 2. Type of 7.2. 2.3. 4. Medium I. 3A.3 Distribution. I . 2. 5. 2. 2.8 Power supply. 6. 2.1. Choice of 7. 2. B-3 Continuity conductor 1. 2. 2.3 Switchboards.2 Emergency supply 4. 2. 7. IO. Laying of 7.2 Testing 3. 6. 2. Fire-alarm I. sub. 7.13 Winning. Laying of 7. Control of 4. I Conduits. / Fire-safety 3. Nominal I. 2. 1. 2. 2.3 Bus.2. 2. 5. Electrical Agricultural premises 6 Air-port aprons 5. 1. 7.37 Voltage. 6. 3. I. IO Noiseless 1.1 Overload 1. Types of 3.29 Safety devices 5.1. choice of 4.2. 5.13 Release.1 Services 3.3 Electrodes.23 Definition 1: 2.6 Lift and escalators 1.17 Po~. 5.2.2 Electrical installations in 7 Equipment. 8 Static electricity. selection of size 3.6 Cables. 5. 2. automatic 7. 2.2. 1. 5. Plate I.l. /2. 12.4. 6. Table I Audio-systems 1. 6.2 Operating area 5.2 Hazards. Types of I. Pr.r6 supply.4 Classification 7.5 Sub-station 3.3 Electrical installation 3.15 Short-circuit I. 5. wire I. 2. Lighting protection 1. Fundamental concepts 7. 2. 5. 9. 3.3. External Codification I.2.3 Ventilation 4. 6.lb) Classification of 1. safe 7.2. 2.2.2 Standard values I. 2.1 E Earth. 2. 2. 2. I .1 W i r i n g I. design 7.1 Substation 4.2 Classification 3.16 Switchgear I. 2.5 General characteristics. final I. 2. 6. 2. Auto 1. 5 Emergency supply 3. 3.2 General characteristics.6 Electrical installations in 4 Electra-heat installations 4. Medical 3. 2. 8.4. 5.l. 5. 5. 8.1. 2. Appendix E Operation and maintenance 7. 1. 14.8. 1. 2. 2. 2.5. Selection of 4.9 Supply terminals 1.2. 7.35 S p a r k 1.5 Diagram Block 1.1.3 Relay.3 Definition.3. 2.1 Transformer 1. 2. 6.1. 2.38 Voltage. 4 Hazardous areas. 2. 2. 6. 1. 2. /I. 3A.23 Tariff.4 Lightning protection 7.2 Lifts 4. I Power-factor compensation 4.16 Point I.3 Sparking. I2.. 8. Earth leakage 1.3 Circuits. 5.4 Earthing 3. 34. 2.15 Release. 6.2.2 Installation. High 1.2.1. 2.33 Potential difference 1.2.4. 5. 4.0.1. Protection from 7. 12. 2.1.4 Wiring system. 2. Fire protection Detectors 1.3 Unit wiring 1. 8. 1.17 Socket-outlet and plug 1. 2. 3E. 6. 6. 4. Primary 5.27 Tariff.2 Cables. 5. 2. 7 Wiring in 7. 2. Stacking machinery 5. 2. 12.5 Electrode. 2. selection of 7. 2.1 Metering 3.4 Distribution boards 3. 8. 3A. assessment of 4. I I.25 Tariff.27 Temporary -installations 5. 4.2 Rooms.1 General characteristics.2 Switchboards. 4 Interconnection I.34 Service line I. 2.4 Electrode.

9 General aspects 1.1 Outdoor installations Permanent outdoor 5. 6. 4 Lifts 3.3. 4. 5. 3 Direct contact.1 Conductor. 4 Emergency supply 3. 10. 2. 5. 10. 3.1 Testing 5. 2. 5.3 Power installations 5. 1. 8.2.2 Switchboards 3. 2. 3E Domestic dwellings 3.4 Transformers 5.1. 2. 3D. 2. /I. 5. 15. 7. 1. 5. 4. Protection against I. 1. 4. 12. 6. Lamps Electrical aspects. 4 Conductors 1. 17. 7. 2 Design I. 3. 17. 3. 8. 2 Methods of protection I.Bathrooms 3.-.2 Lighting.K 8. 1. 1.1. 4. 2. 3 Railway yards ‘5. 38. 7. 6. 16.1 Fire-protection 3. 7. 2. 12. 2. I Educational buildings 3. 4 Primary processing machinery 5.0.2. 5. 2 Medical establishments Air-conditioning 3.3 Electrical installation 3. 3 Construction sites 5.3. 2. 8 Quality 5. 6. 3 Cables 5.2 Control 5. 1. 17. A-l Temporary outdoor 5. 3. 5. 5. 5 Shopping and commercial centres 3. 3.1 ’ Levels of illumination. 7.Urrent Protection against 1. IS. 4. specific buildings (see under individual titles) Outdoor 1.2 Testing 3. 7.5 Telephones 3. 3 Non-industrial 3 Office buildings 3. Principles of 5.3 Economics of 1. 4.2. 8 Wiring 5. 5 Safety 5. 5. Protection against 1 . 3. 3E. 7. 5. Protection against 1 . main 5. 4.7 General characteristics. 3. 7. 2. 5. I.I. 3.2 Specific buildings (see under individual titles) Wiring 1. 5. 4. 3. 1.2 Medical establishments 3. 8 Sub-station 3. 3E.6 Equipment.6. 4 Mercantile buildings 3. 7. I I Zones of 1.5 Hazardous areas 7. 2. 2 Sports buildings 3. material for I . 3 Emergency supply 3. IS. 2. I. 2. 2.6 Definition 5.1 Clocks 3.5 Telephones 3.3 Mechanical effects I. . 140 Requirements. 6.1 Equipment for 5. 5 Central 1. 1. 4.2.1 Clocks 3. 5. 7. I . 8. -5.3 Light sources 5. 17. I. 4. 6 M Marking Alphanumeric. 6. 3 Thermal effects. 3D.1 Public lighting 5.2 Substation 5. 140. 1. 4. 38.3 Switching devices 5. 1. 2. 5. 4. 3D. 2 Farm houses 6 Fault currents. 12. 8.5 General characteristics. 5.6. 3C. 4.1. 4 Emergency lighting 3. 2. 1. 2.2 Systems of 1.1. 2. 3.4 Electrical installations 3. 7. 4.1.12 Industrial 4 Inspection 1.6 Domestic dwellings 3. 15. 4. AsseJsment of 3. 15. 7. 2. 8. 1. 5.3 7.6 Substation 3. 1. 3 Residential buildings 3. 1. 2. 3E. characteristics.1 Roundabouts 5. 6. 4. 1.1 System design I. 2 Testing of 1. Cable 5. t. 1. 8. 5. 4. 5 Indirect contact. 140. E-2 Explosion protection 3. Water supply system 30. 4. /I. 5. E-l Essential circuits 3. 1. Table 8 Power installation. standby 2 Hazardous area 7 Hospitals 3.3 Recreational buildings 3. _?B.0. 5.4 Protection against I. 4 Capacitor rating I.2 Transport convey or system 5. 17.2 Safety 3. 10. IS. 6. 5.1 Classification 3. 8 Testing of systems 1. 1.2. 8.6.2 Audio-visual 3.2. 2. 4. 140.2 Poultry 6 Protection for safety 1. 7.2 of R Railway marshalling yards Classification 5. Common aspects I. 1.2. Permanent outdoor 5. shape.2 Discharge.1.1 Pumping. 5. selection of 5. 7.2 Junctions 5. 5.2.2 Car-parks 5. 6.6 0 Office-buildings Air-conditioning 3. I I Lifts 3.6 Measurement Electrical units 1. Appendix A Requirements 5. 3.1.2. 3.3 Metering 3. 5 General characteristics 5. 4.2 Waterways 5. 7.2. 4. 2.3 Lighting 3. 3 Ports. 5.5 Fundamental principles 1. 4. 9 Wiring 3. 4. 711 Fire-safety 3.2.6 Direct contact. 5. 6 Set:oAd&y processing machinery 1 5.1 Temporary outdoor 5. 6 Flyovers 5. I Generating stations. 6. 7. 12. 2 Erection I. I. 5. Roads 5.4 Rotating machines 5. I L Lifts Earthing 1.2 Main squares 5.3 Workmanship I. /5. 6. Assessment 3. D. 1. 4.6.4 Design 5.3 Railways 5. Harbours 5. IS. 4 Interfe’rence suppression 3. 7 Sefetv 5. 1. 2. electrical 1. 6.3 Types 5.4 Industrial . 7.3.3 Lighting protection General. 5.2 Anti-static floor 3. 2.1.1 Dockyards 5. 3. 7. 6. 4. 4.3 Lighting 3.6.4 Fire-safety 3. 2.6 Specific buildings (see under individual titles) Wiring for I. 5.3 General characteristics. I Earthing 5. 6.5 Levels of illuminatian. 4.2 Call-bell system 3. 3.4 Electrical installations 3.1 5. 5. Table 8 Supply 5.6. 38. 1. I. 3E.2 Zones of risk 3.1 Bridges 5. 2 Outdoor 5 Oy. 3.1 Classification 5.5 Connectors. 1. /I Lighting Conductor. 3.4 Shopping streets 5. 3. 7 Sub-circuit 5. 2. I Circuit Installation measures 3.5 Lighting 3. 4. 4. general 1. 2. 7. 5 Materials 1. open-cast 5. 2. 5 Safety supply systems 3. 6 Wiring 3. 7. I.4 Recreational Air-conditioning 3.6 Roads 5. A-l Business buildings 3. 2. 38. 17 Individual 1.3 Public lighting installations Aerodrome 5. 2 General characteristics. 5. 2. 4 Requirements 5. I Quarrys 5.1 Institutional buildings 3.5.3 Item-designation I. 5.1. 2.1 Luminaires 5. 8. f4A Fittings 1. 2 Livestock houses 6 Lodging houses 3. /I. IS. I. INDEX 269 .3 Classification 3.4 Services 3.2 Testing 3. Requirements for 5. Table 8 Classification. 2. 5. 2. 9 Sub-stations.3 Vision. 17. I5 Thermal effects I. 4. 7. Table 7 Cables 5. Protection against 1. 4. I. 3. I Rooming houses 3. 4. 2. Appendix E Isolation and bonding I. JB. 2. 6.2 Supply 5. 3A.2 Static converters 5. Ov$rltage Protection against 1.buildings 4. 4. 2.1 Lifts 3. 2 Circuit. 13. IO Services 3. 4. 1.7 Mines.2 P Power factor compensation Capacitors for 1. 7. 3A. 8. 5 Docks 5. 6. 3. 4 Electrical Effects 1. Assessment of 3. 7. 3. 2. protection against 3C. 9.3. 2. 3. 6 Swimming pools 3.5 Aims of 5. Assessment of 5. 8. 2.3 Lamp-holders. 4 Hotels 3.2 Call-systems 3. 14.5 G r o u p I.1 Paging system 3.1 Lighting 5. 6.5 Guidelines for 1.3.

3 Permit-to-work. 3. 2.1 Wiring 3. 3. 5. /I Hazardous area 7. 5. 3. 3. 6.2. I/. /I. 4. 6 Wrring 3. 3. II. 6.1 Explanatory 1.4 Office building 3.3.2a) Time sequence 1. 10.2 Instructions I. A-3 Zones. 5. 16. 6. 4 Lifts and escalators I. Common aspects 1. 16 Equipment.3 Wiring of 1.2. 2. 2 lnspcction of 1 . 5. 3. 2 P o s t e r s I. 5. 4 Protection for I. 6 Fire-safety 3. I3 Sports Buildings Air-conditioning 3. 4. 5 Metal sheathed I.2.1 270 INDEX .2. 5. Selection of 2. A-2. Plugs 1.2 Marking of 1. 14. 6.5. 4. 12.1. 3. 146 Specific buildings (see under individual titles) Voltage Declared. Domestic 3. 5.5.l. 5. l6. 3. 6. 5. II. 4.1.3 Services 3.1 Voltage. 2. 5. If. 6 Wiring 3. 5. 3. 5. 3. 6. 6. A-4 Electrical Installations in 3. 16. 6.5 Domestic dwellings 3.5 Location 1. 3. 2 Letter 1. /3 Socket-outlets. 6.1. 14. Wiring systems Agricultural premises 6. 5 PJactices I. Devices for I.2.6 Distribution 1.1. /6.2b) Wiring I. 6.1.1.2 Selection.2 Medical establishments 3.1 Single phase system I. 6. 3. 4. Installation design I. 5.2. 6. /I.1. I. 2.4 internal methods of 1. II.3 Selection. I Audio systems 1. 1. 3. 5. 2.1 Fire-alarm 1.1 Types 1. values 1. 4. Wiring installations.3 Switchboards 3. 4. 2.1 Substation 2. 5.3 PVC sheethed 1.4 Cleated I. Y 1. 7. 4 Subscripts 1. Industrial 4.2 Assembly buildings 3. 5. 3. 5. 6.i Industrial 4. 5. 14. I Sports buildings 3.3 Testing 3.5.1 Score-board 3.1. 10. 5. 4. 5.2 U Units Absolute I. 6. 6. A-5 Switchboards A r r a n g e m e n t o f a p p a r a t u s 1 . 2.1. 2. II.1.2 Limits. 4. If.1 Short-ctrcuit calculation\ I. A-5 Testing 1. 5.2 T Tables Classification 1.1 Hotels 3. 8. classification 3.1 ‘Three phase system I.1.1 V Ventilation General aspects 1. 3. standard value I.5. 5.2. 4. 16.6 Substation 3. 10. Il. 16.1. 5.7 Testing 1.1 High voltage 2. 2 System International 1. 6. 4.1 Supply C o m m e n c e m e n t 1. I/. 4 Group switching 3. 2.3 Light sources 3.3 Transformer Installations 2 Testing 1.1.2 Recreational buildings 3.2. 3. Assessment of 3. 5. I.2.1 Auxilltartes 2. /I. system for I. 4 Interconnectiq-.1 Swimming pools 3.1 Definition I. 7. 3. B-4 Rubber-sheathed 1.1 Working distance for I. 5.2 Short-circuit calculations 1.3. 4. 2. 7.Services 3.2 Symbols Graphical. 3. 7. 3. 9. 5.5 Substation 3.1 Surface Conduit I. 6. 6. 3 Clocks 3.5. 6. 2. Specific buildings (see under individual titles) Reception and distribution 1. 3.4 Testmg 3. I I Equipment. 12. supplier 1. 6. 6.8 Limits. 6. 6.t I. 7.1. 3. 6.5.1.3 Identification of 1.2 Electrical installations 3.1 Call-bell 1.1. 2. 5. 4. 2. 5. 2.1. 4.5 Lifts 3.5 Wood casing 1. selection 01 3.2 Guide for preparation 1.1. 4. 2. 14. 4.4 General characteristics. j. 6.1 Tables for.1 Substations Building.2 s Safety Electrical work 1.1 Classification 3.3. 5.3 Recessed conduit 1.2. 14. App-A Safety 3. 5 Swsimmtng Pools Equipment. /I.2 W Wiring. II.4 Sequence 1. 5. 2.1 Clocks I.2 Audio-systems 3. 5.1 Emergency 2 Emergency. /I. industrial 4. 2. 7.2. 3.5.4 Lighting 3.0~ voltage 2.1.5.4 Control-room 3. 10.1 Pressurized rooms 7.1 Restrictions. ‘6. Hazardous area 7.7 L o c a t i o n o f 1. 4. IO.1 Selection. 5. 6. /I.2 General. 4.1. II. IO Specific buildings (see under individual title) Wiring in 2. /I. 4.1 Electrical 1.3 Conduit 1. 2. 6. 1.3. I/. 5.