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( Reaffirmed 1996








SP 30:1984 First Published August 1985 First Reprint April 1990 Second Reprint September 1992 Third Reprint September 1993 Fourth Reprint November 1998 0 BUREAU OF INDIAN STANDARDS UDC 621.3 : 006.78

The National Electrical Code was adopted by the Bureau of Indian Standards (then Indian Standards Institution) on 15 June 1984, after the draft finalized by the National Electrical Code Sectional Committee had been approved by Electrotechnical Division Council

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Printed in India at Central Electric Press, A-12/1, Naraina Industrial Area, Phase-l, New Delhi 110028 and Published by the Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi 110002.

Development programmes are interwoven to a large extent with electrical energy. Realizing the need for harnessing this most useful form of energy available, a great amount of emphasis is being laid on the implementation of the programmes for electrical power generation and a substantial portion of the national budget is being allotted for the purpose. The main feature of this effort is to plan for and execute the economic selection, installation and maintenance of electrical equipment employed in the generation, transmission, distribution and utilization of electric power. The design and practices being followed by the various agencies engaged in this type of activity could be rationalized in the light of newer equipment and processes. to remove any extraneous safety and other factors. Realizing the need for standardizing the requirements of the various Electricity Boards and other bodies; the Electrotechnical Division Council under the Code of Practice for Power Installation and Maintenance Sectional Committee has been formulating Indian Standard Codes of practice on the various aspects of handling the power equipment. These codes have been revised from time to time to align wtth the latest technology made available as well as to incorporate the experience gained in the implementation of these codes. However, time and again the need has been felt for a cogent Electrical Code covering unified practices and procedures and safety requirements to be complied with in the design, execution, inspection and maintenance of electrical installation in different locations. The lndiun E/ecrrici;.v Rules, 1956 contain specific regulations to be adhered to in the supply and use of electrical energy in the interest of safety. Nevertheless, there are several areas which need amplification and complementing. The National Electrical Code is formulated primarily to elaborate the Indian Electricity Rules which are statutory in nature and serve as a comprehensive document an electrical practices in our country. The task of the preparation of the Code is entrusted with the National Electrical Code (NEC) Sectional Committee (ETDC 56). This guiding committee and the expert groups under the same have a broad based representation from central and state government organizations, private bodies and professional institutions having wide experience in the field of electrotechnology, particularly in the field of installation engineering. The object of the National Electrical Code (NEC) is given below : The object of the National Electrical Code is to complement the lndiun E/ectricif~v Rules,. 1956 by way of elaborating as well as recommending practices to comply with their requirements. This code is to provide information in a consolidated form to electrical engineers and contractors in the country who are concerned with the design and operation of electrical installations. The presentation of information in the Code has been broadly organized in the following manner : Part I Part 2 Part 3 Part 4 Part 5 Part 6 Part 7 General and Common Aspects Electrical Installation in Standby Generating Stations and Sub-stations. Electrical Installations in Non-Industrial Buildings Electrical Installations in Industrial Buildings Outdoor Installations Electrical Installations in Agricultural Premises Electrical Installations in Hazardous Areas.

In the preparation of NEC. adogts a modified approach to this classification taking into account the following broad guidelines : a) The classification of electrical installations should take into account the skill and capabilities of the occupants utilizing the installation. d) Specific requirements for protection and safety. as it presents a method of identifying information that is classified on the basis of type of occupancy. 4) Metering of consumption. 2) Cables and accessories for power circuit. who are also familiar with the National Building Code of India 1983. however. Individual product codes are available on specific power equipment for the use of product application engineer. The information relating to each type of installation identified above is further classified and presented in the following manner : a) Assessment of the general characteristics of the occupancy from the point of view of the electrical installation therein. Considering the variety of practices being followed by the Electricity Boards and the need to collect data on the same. 3) Protective equipment. The NBC classification 01 buildings/occupancies is based on fire-safety considerations and. a method considered best meeting the needs of practising engineers. b) Heavy current installation in the occupancy : 1) Power supply and distribution system. however. it had been felt that at this stage. NEC. the efforts of product groups had been taken into account while consolidating t. 5) Emergency electric supply. air-conditioning and lifts). The compilation work\ such as the one envisaged for the National Electrical Code. apart from the fact that all the required information may not be vi . namely. such installations should be -excluded from the scope of the Code. rather than the occupancy. and does not constitute fundamental standardization work. Product details are also excluded from the compilation work for the time being. would find that a one-to-one correspondence does not exist between the building classification made in them.The National Electrical Code Sectional Committee (ETDC 56) has decided upon the above format as best suited for a compendium like this after considerable deliberations. 2) Electrical audio systems. though elaborate. 6) Reactive power compensation as applicable. and 7) Guidance on electrical aspects of building services (lighting. and b) Further classification should be based on the degree of sophistication of the electrical requirements of the building. Users of IVEC. The Code also does not cover electrical installations in underground mines. and 3) Fire protection signalling systems.he information in a handbook form. To a limited extent. excludes requirements coming under the purview of utilities. efforts have been made to fill certain gaps in consultation with the relevant Technical Committees of ISI. c) Light current installation in the occupancy : 1) Electric bells and clock systems. that the approach of the National Electrical Code has been primarily to cater to system engineers. the large generating stations and distribution substations. while closely following the same. The NEC is basically a compilation document taking assistance from detailed codes already available. It should be brought out. The Code.

In all cases. is made difficult by the need to make a judicious choice of what is to be reproduced in the Code and what is to be referred to in the parent standard.. The individual parts of the Code. technological innovations such . which deal with specific occupancies. A complete revision of the Code is also intended in due course of time. the provisions of the former shall be considered accurate. In order to keep pace with such changes and to incorporate the additional knowledge that will be gained through the implementation of the Code. can be immedia. therefore. while in others the relevant provisions have been extracted and reproduced. for detailed guidance. should also preferably be self-contained to the extent possible. vii . reference should be made to the individual standard and should any contradiction be observed between the provisions in individual code and those reproduced herein.tely adopted for use by the various interests concerned. to only draw attention to the relevant standard. a continuous programme of review is envisaged. which framed in unison with the statutory provisions of IE Rules 1956. As a general rule. On the one hand is the need to make the Code selfcontained as a reference document and on the qther hand is the need to keep it less better materials or new and better method also proved as ‘good practice’ would first be introduced in the individual standard as appropriate than in the National Electrical Code. in many instances. It contains guidelines. without calling for too many references to Part I dealing with general and common aspects. Its provisions will not be mandatory but will serve as a model for adoption in the interest of safety and economy. with minimum elaboration for their specific purpose.available in a ready format. The National Electrical Code (hereafter referred to as the Code) is intended to be advisory. It had been possible.

The contributions made by the following individuals/groups and their organizations in respect of the part/sections of the National Electrical Code prepared in collaboration with them are greatly acknowledged. Member 1. Shri D. N. Purandare Organization Electrical Contractors Association of Maharashtra, Bombay Siemens India Ltd, Bombay Chief Electrical Engineer to Government of Maharashtra, Bombay Fact Engineering & Design Organization, Udyogamandal Central Public Works Depart- Part 111 Electrical Installations ment, New .Delhi in Non-industrial Buildin s : ) lmgs Section I Domestic Dwe f. Electrical Contractors Association of Maharashtra, Bombay Part 111 Electrical Installations in Non-industrial Buildings : Section 2 Office Buildings, Shopping and Commercial Centres and Institutions Part 111 Electrical Installations in Non-industrial Buildings : Section 3 Recreational, Assembl; Buildings Part I I1 Electrical Installations in Non-industrial Buildings : Section 4 Medical Establishments Section 5 Hotels Part V Outdoor Installations Section 1 Public Lighting Installations and Section 2 Temporary Outdoor Installations 6. Shri V. S. Bhatia Shri A. N. Dutt Siemens India Ltd, Bombay Electrical Contractors Association of Eastern India, Calcutta General Insurance Corporation of India, Bombay Engineers India Ltd, New Delhi Part VII Electrical Installations in Hazardous Areas Part IV Electrical Installations in Industrial Buildings Part/Section of NEC Part II Electrical Installations in Standby Generating Stations and Captive Substations

Shri V. S. Bhatia Shri M: A. Khan.

Shri K. P. R. Pillai 2. Chief Engineer (Elect)-1

3. Shri D. N. Purandare

4. Shri M. J. Anandamurthv Chief Electrical Insnector. Government of Ta’mil Nadu, Madras 5. Shri M. L. Dongre Bombay Electric Supply & Transport Undertaking, Bombay

Shri A. Chatterjee 7. Shri G. N. Thadani 8. Chief Engineer (Elect)-1

Central Public Works -Depart- Appendix to Part III Specific ment, New Delhi Requirements for Electrical Installations in Multistoreyed Buildings.

Chairman Shri M. L. Dongre C-214 Casuarina Cooperating Housing Society Best Nagar, Ghatkopar East Bombay. Members Shri M. J. Anandamurthy Electrical Inspector (Technical) (Alternate) Shri V. G. Bapat Shri K. S. Joshi (Alternate) Shri V. S. Bhatia Shri M. M. Shethna (Alternate) Shri ‘D. K. Biswas Federation of Electricity Undertakings of India, Bombay Siemens India Ltd, Bombay Department of Science and Technology (National Committee on Environmental Planning and Coordination), New Delhi Central Public Works Department, New Delhi Representing Chief Electrical Inspector, Government of Tamil Nadu, Madras

Chief Engineer (Elect)-1 Surveyor of Works (Elect)-1 (Ahernate) Shri P. J. Damany Shri J. H. Pate1 (A/female) Shri K. Dasgupta Shri P. Neogi (AIternare) Director of Mines Safety, Dhanbad Director of Mines Safety, Sitapur (A Iternate) ’ Shri A. N. Dutt Shri Abani Dutta (Alternate) Shri G. L. Dua Shri S. K. Sethi (Ahernafe) Deputy Chief Electrical Engineer (G) Shri K. C. Gupta Shri N. Raghavan (Alternate) Brig L. G. Ketkar Lt-Co1 G. R. Mahadevan (Alternate) Shri M. A. Khan Superintending Engineer (inspection) (AIternafe) Shri S. K. Kundu Shri S. R. Chakrabarty (Alfernare)

Gujarat Electricity Board, Vadodara Calcutta Electric Supply Corporation Ltd, Calcutta Directorate General of Mines Safety, Dhanbad

Electrical Contractors Association of Eastern India, Calcutta Rural Electrification Corporation Ltd, New Delhi Railway Board, Ministry of Railways New Delhi h’ational Safety Council, Bombay Directorate General of Inspection, Ministry of Defence, New Delhi

Chief Electrical Engineer to Government of Maharashtra, Bombay

Chief Electrical Inspector to Government of West Bengal, Calcutta

Shri S. V. Madgavkar Shri R. K. Sehgal (Ahcw7ate) Shri B. S. Landalika Shri H. R. Khan (Alternate) Shri K. K. Mondal Shri I. N. Khushu (A/female) Member (Hydroelectric) Director (H ED)-1 (AIIei’nare) Shri M. Muniram Shri S. N. Narasinga Rao Shri M. Ramatar (Alternate) Shri V. H. Navkal S h r i M . R . Iv. Menon (Ahernure) Dr G. M. Phadke Shri K. P. R. Pillai Shri D: N. Purandare Shri S. S. Jhaveri (Ahernute) Shri T. Ramachandran Shri B. M. Reddy Shri T. V. Shankaranarayana Shri V. Venkateshaiah (Alternate) Shri P. D. Sharma Shri S. C. Jain (Alternate) Shri G. N. Thadani Shri S. G. Gokhale (Alrernure) Representative Shri S. Govindaraj (Alternate 1) Shri A. S. R. Sastry (Ahernure II) Shri S. P. Sachdev, Director (Elec tech)

Bombay Suburban Electric Supply Ltd, Bombay Armv Headouarters. Ministry of Defence, h’ew Delhi. General Insurance Corporation of India, Bombay Central Electricity Authority, New Delhi Karnataka Electricity Board, Bangalore Power Project Engineering Division, Department of Atomic Energy, Bombay The Bombay Electric Supply and Transport Undertaking, Bombay Indian Electrical Manufacturers’ Association, Bombay Fact Engineering & Design Organization, Udyogamandal Electrical Contractors Associations of Maharashtra, Bombay Planning Commission, New Delhi Central Electricity Authority, New Delhi Chief Electrical Inspector to Government of Karanataka, Bangalore Delhi Electric Supply Undertaing, New- Delhi Engineers India Ltd, b!ew Delhi Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd, Hyderabad

Director General, IS1 (Ex-officio Member)

Shri K. Ganesh Deputy Director (Elec tech), ISI



3 4

1. 2. 3.

Foreword Scope Definitions List of Indian Standards on Electrotechnical Vocabulary

5 5 5 IO

SECTION 3 GRAPHICAL SYMBOLS FOR DIAGRAMS, LETTER SYMBOLS AND SIGNS 0. I. 2. 3. 4. Foreword Scope Graphical Symbols List of Indian Standards on Graphical Symbols Letter Symbols and signs

SECTION 4 GUIDE FOR PREPARATION OF DIAGRAMS, CHARTS AND TABLES, AND MARKING 0. I. 2. Foreword Scope Preparation of Diagrams, Charts and Tables 20 20 20

SECTION 5 UNITS AND SYSTEMS OF MEASUREMENT 0. Foreword I. Scope 2. Units and Systems of Measurement SECTION 6 STANDARD VALUES 0. I. 2. 3. 4.

24 24 24

Foreword Scope Standard Values of voltages Preferred Current Ratings Standard System Frequency

26 26 26 27 27

SECTION 7 FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES I. 2. 3. Foreword Scope Fundamental Principles Design of Electrical Installation 28 28 28 29


I. S c o p e 2. Assessment of General Characteristics of Buildings APPENDIX A Types of System Earthing SECTlOh’ 9 SELECTION OF EQUIPMENT 0. Foreword 1. Scope 2. Selection of Equip ment SECTlOh’ 10 ERECTIOh’ AND INITIAL TESTING OF INSTALLATION 0. I. 2. 3. Foreword Scope Erection Inspection and Testing

32 32 38

40 40 40

41 41 41 41

SECTION I I WIRING INSTALLATIONS 0. I. 2. 3. 4. Foreword Scope Equipment, Fittings and Accessories Construction Methods of Internal Wiring 46 46 46 48 51

SECTlOT’! I2 E A R T H I N G 0. Foreword I. Scope 2. General Remarks 3. Earth Electrodes 4. Earth Bus and Earth Wires 5. Measurement of Earth Electrode Resistance 6. Earthing of Installations in Buildings 7. Measurement of Earth Loop ,Impedance APPENDI’X A Representative Values of Soil Resistivity in Various Parts of India APPENDIX B Additional Rules for Earthing SECTION I3 SHORT-CIRCUIT CALCULATIONS ( Under Consideration) SECTION I4 ELECTRICAL ASPECTS OF BUILDING SERVICES 0. Foreword I. S c o p e 2. General Guidelines SECTION l4A LIGHTING 3. Aspects of Lighting Services SECTION l4B VENTILATION 4. Aspects of Ventilation SECTION l4C AIR-CONDITIONING AND HEATING 5. Aspects of Air-Conditioning and Heating Services SECTION l4D LIFTS AND ESCALATORS ‘6. Electrical Aspects of Lifts and Escalator Services

57 57 57 59 62 63 63 64 65 66


71 71 71





Accidents and Treatment for Electric Shock SECTION I7 GUIDELINES FOR POWER-FACTOR IMPROVEMENT 0. Electrical Aspects of Audio System Services S E C T I O N 14F FIRE ALARM SYS-lEMS 8. Power Factor Improvement and Capacitor Rating SECTION I8 TABLES 0.SECTION 14E AUDIO SYSTEMS 7.. Scope 2. Safety Posters 6. 3. 6. Foreword Scope Terminology General Characteristics of Station installation Exchange of Information Layout and Building Construction Aspects Selection of Equipment IO1 102 102 102 102 102 102 XIII . 9.. Foreword Scope Terminology Exchange of Information Characteristices of Lightning Discharges Determination of the Need for Protection Zone of Protection Materials and Dimensions Design Isolation and Bonding Protection of Special Structures Inspection and Testing 81 81 81 81 82 82 83 83 83 86 87 87 SECTION I6 SAFETY IN ELECTRICAL WORK 0. General 3. IO. Foreword I. Electrical Call Bell Services Clock Systems 78 79 77 75 SECTION I5 LIGHTNING PROTECTION 0. Power Factor 4. Permit-to-work System 3. Safety Practices 5. 2. 3. 8. Foreword I. 2. IO. Foreword 95 92 92 92 92 93 94 88 88 88 88 91 91 91 PART 2 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS -IN STANDBY GENERATING STATIONS AND CAPATIVE SUBSTATIONS 0. Safety Instructions 4. Electrical Aspects of Fire Alarm Systems SECTION l4G MISCELLANEOUS SERVICES 9. Use of Capacitors 5. 6. . 4: 5. 5. I. 4. Scope 2. I I. 7. I.

16. 9. 6. IO. 15. 3. 9. APPENDIX Foreword Scope Terminology Classification General Characteristics of.7. ASSEMBLY BUILDINGS 0. 5. 4. 5. 3. 8.Installation Supply Characteristics and 1 Parameters Switchgear for Control and Protection Service Lines Metering Earthing in Domestic Installations Building Services Fire Protection Testing of Installation Miscellaneous Provisions A Particular Requirements for Locations Containing a Bath Tub or Shower Basin I08 I08 I08 I08 I08 109 I IO Ill Ill III II2 II3 113 II3 II3 SECTlOIS 2 OFFICE BUILDINGS. IO. 3. 14. 13. 7. 13. I. 12. 2. xiv Foreword Scope Terminology Classification General Characteristics of Installations Supply Characteristics and Parameters Testing of Installation Miscellaneous Provisions 123 123 123 123 123 124 126 126 . SHOPPING AND COMMERCIAL CENTRES AND 1NSTITUTIOtiS Q. 7. I I. 4. I. Generating Sets Transformer Installations High Voltage Switching Stations Low Voltage Switching Stations and Distribution Panels Station Auxiliaries Wiring in Station Premises Earthing Building Services Fire Safety Requirements Lightning Protection Testing and Inspection 102 103 103 103 103 104 104 104 104 104 104 PART 3 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN NONINDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS 0. 2. Foreword 107 SECTION 1 DOMESTIC DWELLINGS 0. I I. 7. . 4.6 . 2. 6. I. 5. Foreword Scope Terminology Classification General Characteristics of Installations Supply Characteristics and Parameters Testing of Installation Miscellaneous Provisions 117 II7 II7 II7 II7 II8 121 I21 SECTION 3 RECREATIONAL. 8. 17. 12.

7. 7. APPENDIX Foreword Scope Terminology Classification General Characteristics of Installation Supply Characteristics and Parameters Testing of Installation Miscellaneous Provisions A Particular Requirements for Swimming Pools 144 145 146 147 148 151 152 152 152 152 152 153 155 155 156 SECTlOh’ 6 SPORTS BUILDINGS 0. 6. Building Services 9. 5. 4. I. 6. Miscellaneous Provisions APPENDIX A Zones of Risk in the Operating Theatre When Using Flammable Anaesthetic Mixtures of Anesthetic Gases and Cleaning Agents APPENDIX B Patient Environment APPENDIX C Example of an Electrical Installation in a Medical Establishment APPENDIX D Schematic Representation of Protective Conductors and Equipotential Bonding in Operating Theaters APPENDIX E Safety Supply Systems APPENDIX F Safety Supply System of a Hospital (Example) SECTION 5 HOTELS 0. ESTABLISHMENTS 127 127 126 129 129 130 131 138 139 140 140 141 142 Foreword Scope Terminology Classification General Characteristics of Medical Establishments Safety Considerations Supply Characteristics and Parameters Additional Requirements for Hazardous Locations in Hospitals 8. Scope 171 172 XV . 5.EDICAL 0. 2. Standby and Special Safety Supply System I I. 2. 4. APPENDIX Foreword Scope Terminology Classification of Sports Buildings General Characteristics of Sports Buildings Supply Characteristics and Parameters Testing of Installation Miscellaneous Provisions TO PART 3 Specific Requirements for Electrical Installations in Multi-Storeyed Buildings 159 -1. 3. I. Foreword I. 4. Testing of Installation IO. 5. 2. 6. I. 3. 3. Measures against Interference Provision 12.SECTION 4 M. 7.59 159 159 160 160 163 163 164 PART 4 ELECTRICAL lNSTALLATlONS IN INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS 0.

Emergency] Standby Power Supplies 7. Foreword 3A GENERAL Scope Terminology Types of Permanent Outdoor lnstallatiops General Characteristics of Permanent Outdoor Installations 220 220 220 221 222 SECTION 3B EQUIPMENT AND AUXILIARIES 5. 3. 3. General Characteristics of Industrial Buildings 5. Building Services 9.. Terminology 3.2. Supply Characteristics and Parameters 6. Guidelines for Specific Location 8. 2. 2. Protection and Safety 8. Additional Requirements for Temporary Outdoor Installations 7. Classification 4. 5. Foreword Scope Terminology Classification General Characteristics of Temporary Installations General Requirements for Temporary Outdoor Installations 6. Classification of industrial Buildings 4. 4.IGHTING I N S T A L L A T I O N S 0. I. Power Installation Requirements 9. Miscellaneous Considerations APPEFDIX A Terminology of Road Types SECTION 2 TEMPORARY OUTDOOR INSTALLATIONS 0. 4. General Principles 5. Testing dnd Commissioning 216 216 216 216 216 217 217 219 2:3 196 196 196 I98 I98 199 207 209 210 212 215 I95 SECTION 3 OUTDOOR INSTALLATIONS 0. Designs 6. Terminology 3. Scope 2. Foreword SECTION I PUBLIC L. SECTION I. Miscellaneous/ Special Provisions APPENDIX A Examples of Industries Based on Fire Safety APPElVDlX B Selection of Wiring Systems APPENDIX C Requirements for Fire Safety in Specific Industries APPElVDlX D Recommended Values of Illumination and Limiting Values of Glare Index-Industrial Buildings APPENDIX E Power Factor in Industrial Installations 172 172 173 174 I78 I78 I79 I 79 180 1x1 183 184 I91 PART 5 OUTDOOR INSTALLATIONS 0. Selection of Equipment 7. Rules for Equipment and Auxiliaries \vi 222 . System Protection 8. Foreword ‘I.

7. (iencral Rulc~ lor P r o t e c t i o n i n O u t d o o r I n s t a l l a t i o n 225 S1IC.O R SAF-E’IY h.A’l‘IONS 7.t IO?.EMlSES 0. Requirement\ for Permanent Outdoor Installations StICTtON ?tJ AI)t)t-I’IONAL G U I D E L I N E S F O R S P E C I F I C AREAS 8. 3. APPENDIX APPENDtX Foreword Scope Terminotogy Statutory Regulations Fundamental Concepts Classification of Hazardous Areas Specific Guidelines for Electrical Installations in Ha. 2. 31) RPQ\IIREMt:N t S FO!i INS-I-At. I.rardous Areas Testing of Installation A Indian Standards for Electrical Equipment for Use in Hazardous Atmospheres B Recommendations for the Protection of Diesel Engines for Permanent Installation in Hajrardous Areas C Recommendations for Storage Batteries for Use in Zone 2 Areas D Examples of Industries and their Working Places which Require Considerations in Regard to Hazardous Locations E Lightning Protection of Structures with Explosive or Highly Flammable Contents. 5. Foreword scope Terminology Classification General Characteristics of Agricultural Premises Supply Characteristics and Parameters Services in Agricultural Premises Testing of Installation Miscellaneous Provisions 235 236 236 236 236 237 239 239 239 PART 7 ELECTRlCAL INSTALLATIONS IN HAZARDOUS AREAS 0. 8. 7. Additional Guidelines for Installations in Specific Areas 231) 227 PART 6 ELECTRICAL 1NSTALLATlONS 1N AGRICULTURAL PR. 6. 5.l. I. 243 244 244 245 245 246 248 261 261 262 263 APPENDIX APPENDIX 264 265 267 APPENDIX INDEX . 6.WC t tOS 3C‘ PRO It-C 1 t’OS t . 2. 3. 4. 4.


As in the Original Standard. this Page is Intentionally Left Blank .

Efforts have also been made to ensure that all the relevant details required for the understanding of the Code are available to the extent possible within Part I and references of individual standards have been kept to the minimum.4 Effort has been made to make this part self-contained. . These Indian Standards are listed at the Forewords to each Section. felt essential to bring out the fundamental and general principles governing electrical installation practice together with common aspects applicable to all types of installations in a separate part to serve as a reference document on such matters. 0.2 The details enumerated in this part are generally applicable to all types of occupancies and are to be read as modified or supplemented with the information provided in the relevant Parts of the Code.1 Each part/section of the National Electrical Code covers the requirements relating to electrical installations m specific occupancies. so that users of the Code can derive utmost advantage in using it for application in the field even for occupancies not explicitely covered by the scope of subsequent Parts of the Code.3 This part of the Code is basically a compilation of guidelines available in several Indian Standards dealing with the various general aspects relating to electrical installation practice. 0. Individual sections of this part would therefore have to be read in conjunction with the relevant Indian Standards from which information has been condensed.PART 1 GENERAL AND COMMON ASPECTS 0. 0. It is. however. FOREWORD 0.

on boardships. 2. 2.5 The Code covers only electrical aspects of lightning protection of buildings and in so far as the effects of lightning on the electrical installations are concerned. SCOPE 1. 2. shopping and commercial centres and institutions. . 0 Hotels. c) General safety procedures and practices in electrical work. 2. and g) Sports buildings. d Medical establishments. 2.1 This Section of the Code describes the scope of the National Electrical Code. 2.2 The Code applies to electrical installations such as those in: a) Standby/emergency generating plants and bullding substations. and m) Installations in hazardous areas. and b) Power generation arid transmission for such systems.1 The National Electrical Code covers the following: 4 Standard good practices for selection of various items of electrical equipment forming part of power systems. It does not cover lightning protection aspects from structural safety point of view. h) Industrial premises.e atmosphere. NOTE 2 . 4 Additional precautions to be taken for use of electrical equipment for special environmental conditions like explosive and activ.Where change in the occupancy places it under the scope of a different section of the Code. b) Recommendations concerning safety and related matter in the wiring of electrical installations of buildings or industrial compatibility promoting structures. the same installation shall be made to comply with the requirements of the Code for the new occupancy.6 The Code is also not intended to apply to: a) Systems of distribution of energy to public.7 The Code also does not cover guidelines on the payment for electrical work done in installations. motor vehicles. installations in rolling-stock. and aircraft or installations in underground mines. N OTE I . between such recommendations and those concerning the equipment installed.3 The Code applies to circuits other than the internal wiring of apparatus.Any type of installation not covered by the above shall be classified in the group which most nearly resembles its existing or proposed use. SCOPE OF THE NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 2. 4 Recreational and other public premises. c) Office buildings. 4 NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE .4 The Code does not apply to traction. 2. b) Domestic dwellings. k) Agricultural premises.SECTION 1 SCOPE OF THE NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 1. j) Temporary and permanent outdoor installations.

1 .Accidental connection 01 a conductor to earth. DEFINITIONS 2. A substance or body which 2. taken along a given path.I’ Cirr~Lrirs Series ~~~ An arrangement of elements so that they all carry the same current or flux. It may however be noted that for further guidance.1.A n a r r a n g e m e n t o f bodies or media through which a current can flow.1. Potential D(/fkretwP ~~~ The line of integral from one point to another of an electric field.1 This Section of the Code covers definitions of terms.2 Equipment 2.1. 2. It may sometimes be felt that the definitions are not sufficiently precise do not include all cases. abnormal 2.1 Each part of the Code gives. The term is. the connection is called a dead earth.7 Electric Current ~ The movement’ of electricity in a medium or along a circuit. 2.1.I2 Cot?t?rc’tiotl (.often applied _to the group of phenomena which accompany a short circuit between points at different . NIIJI.1 . Series Parallel. the deP Initions given below shall apply.1. 5 2.3 Dielectrics ~.9 Arc A luminous discharge of electricity across a gas.1.An arrangement of elements of which some are connected in series and others in parallel.lO Flasho\!et discharge round an insulating material. N OTE ~ A list of ‘Indian Standards on clcctrotcchnicc~l vocabulary relevant for the purposca of the Code i\ gkcn in 3. The current 2. be found in other publications designed with different objectives and for other readers.1 I Spark mcnon of shol-t d u r a t i o n wII_ich charactcri/cs a disruptive discharge.1.I Outdoor electrical equipment are those \uitablc or installation in open air.SECTION 2 DEFINITIONS O. recourse should be made to IS : 1885 (series) on electrotechnical vocabulary containing a compendium of terms in the field. 2. The principal object of this exercise is to provide definitions which are sufficiently clear so that each term is understood with the same meaning by all concerned.0 For the urposes of the National Electrical Code. 1. 2.1 . The direction of the current is accepted as opposite to that of the motion of negative electricity. Users may find it convenient to refer to a detailed list of terms and their definitions contained in this section that are relevant to electrical installation practice. apparatus and circuits forming part of an electrical installation or a power system.1 Electrical Equipnlenl .I4 Earlh Leakage Crtrrettl flowing to earth on account of imperfect insulation. 2 .4 Elecrrotle ~~ A conducting element used for conveying current to and from a medium. 2 . characterized by a large current and a low voltage gradient.1.5 Currenr ~~ The elementary quantity of electricity flowing through a given section of a PAR-I’ I GENERAI. A brillinntlv l u m i n o u s phcno2.1.The electrical machines.1 Fundamental Definitions 2.FOREWORD 0. 2.17 Short-Circrrit -~ The intentional or accidental connection of two points of a circuit through a negligible impedance. 2. 2. in addition to those contained in individual parts sections. 6 Elec-tric Circuit ~.8 Voltage.1.16 O\wloatl Operating conditions in an electrically undamaged circuit which causes an overcurrent. Such differences are inevitable and should be accepted in the interest of uniformity and clarity. SCOPE 1. When the impedance is negligible. do not take account of certain exceptions or are not identical with those which may. 2.2 Cotltluc~rol allows current of electricity to pass continuously. have been drawn up by the relevant expert groups under the Electrotechnical Division Council with the object of striking a correct balance between absolute precision and simplicity. 2.1. 0. where necessaq definitions of terms and phrases relevant for the comprehensions of the requirements stipulated therein. It does not however constitute a treatise on electrical engineering. 1 . The passage of a disruptive 2. _ Parallel ~-~ Electric or magnetic circuits are said to be in parallel (or shunt) when current or flux is d i\ idcd between them.2. 2.1.2 The definitions contained in the Code.1 Capacitor A system of two conductors (plates) separated over the extent of their surfaces by an insulation medium which is capable of storing electrical energy as electrical stress.potentials.15 It~sulation decrease in insulation resistance. often accompanied by partial volatilization of the electrodes. Faltll A n 2.1.A material medium in which an electric field can exist in a stationary state.13 Earth Fault --. conductor divided by the corresponding indefinitely small time. AND COMMON ASPECTS .

also assemblies of such devices and equipment with associated inter-connections. 2.2. . 2. for the purposes of protecting.19 Fuse.Equipment fastened to a support or otherwise secured in a specific location. 2. measuring instruments. 2 . Switch-Fuse-A switch in which one or more poles have a fuse in series in a composite unit.A compact mechanical device for making and breaking a circuit both in normal conditions and in abnormal conditions. the other working by induction. carrier.11 Auto.14 S~c.A piece of apparatus.Breaker ( Mechanic*al) -~~ A mechanical switching device capable of making.A device designed to produce sudden predetermined changes in one or more phjvsical systems on the appearance of certain conditions in the phJsica/ system controlling it. heat or motive power. with fuses.2.2. forms an integral part of the equipment.24 D.Equipment intended to convert electrical energy into another form of energy. apparatus.Either fixed equipment or equipment not provided with a carrying handle and having such a mass that it cannot easily be moved.A switch in which a fuselink or a fuse-carrier with fuse-link forms the moving contact of the switch.A machine for converting mechanical energy into electrical energy.2.2.8 Electric Motor .2. 2. 2 2 F u s e . used for external connection between &rminals ‘of equipment. wiring material and appliances. controlling or connecting more than one outgoing circuit fed from one or more incoming circuits. 2.Equipment which is moved while in operation or which can easily be moved from one place to another while connected to the supply. the term electrical equipment can in general be used to any item used for such purposes as gtneration. 2. 2.An enclosure containing bus-bars. such as those of overcurrent and short-circuit. NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 2.3 Portable Equipment .L i n k .2. the rotor or a stator.2. 2. 2 . 2.20 Enclosed Distribution Fuse-Board . 2.23 Miniature Circuit.10 Motor Generator Set .5 Stationary Equipment . distribution and conversion of electric energy.2.4 Hand.26 Interconnecting Bus-Bar .‘cubicle containing bus-bars connected to incoming and outgoing distribution feeders controlled through links/fuses.2.21 Carrridge Fuse-Link .Held equipment intended to be held in the hand during normal use. transmission.7 Generator . transformers.2.An alternating current motor without a commutator in which one part only.18 Circuit. opens a circuit in which it is inserted and’ breaks the current when this exceeds a given value for a sufficient time.2. carrying and breaking currents under normal circuit conditions which may include specified operating overload conditions and also carrying for a specified time currents under specified abnormal circuit conditions such as those of a short-circuit. measuring. ‘provided at its two ends with metal contacts. transmission. 2. for example.Transformer . 2.ljpe Fuse .. 2.A machine for converting electrical energy into mechanical energy. 2. carrying for a specified time and breaking currents under specified abnormal circuit conditions such as those of a short-circuit.2.2.12 Transformer .2. accessories. if any.15 Switch (Mechanicat) .2 Current Using Equipmenr .2.17 Fuse-Switch .A fuse-link having a totally enclosed container. 2. a gauge piece and a fuse-link.A conductor other than cable. conversion.Na7W2 ~~ For the purposes of this Code. Equipment .A totally enclosed structure.2:13 Reia.2.A non-interchangeable fuse comprising a fuse-base a screw type fuse-. (Including GUS-Operaled Relal!) . in which the motor.Portable 2. 2. 2.25 Distribution Pillar . A antI Conlro~~eur 2. enclosures and supporting structures intended in principle for use in connection with generation. protective devices.A machine which consists of an electric motor mechanically coupled to a generator.2.A switching device that by the melting of one or more of its specially designed and proportioned components. 6 .6 Fixed Equipmenr . 2. which by electromagnetic induction transforms variable voltage and current in one or more other windings usually at different values of voltage and current and at the same frequency.T h e part of the fuse including the fuse-element which requires replacement by a new fuse-link after the fuse has operated and before the fuse can be put back to service. the shape of which varies according to the type of the fuse.A transformer in which the primary and secondary windings have common part or parts.9 I n d u c t i o n M o t o r . without continuously moving parts.Breaker . Controlgears are switching devices intended in principle for the control of electrical energy consuming equipment..A mechanical switching device capable of making. light. 2.i~chgcar general term covering switching devices and their combination with associated control. usually cylindrical. protective and regulating equipment. distribution or utilization of electrical energy such as machines. is connected to the supply network. carrying and breaking currents under normal circuit conditions and also making.

the diameters of the cores and of the wires being sufficiently small to afford flexibility.Wire in Rehirable Fuse). a switch. Covered aerial conductors.3.16 Consumer’s Terminals .3 Aerial Conductor .A device designed to protect electrical apparatus from high transient voltage and to limit the duration and frequently the amplitude of followcurrent. 2.12 Conductor. 2. 2. P A R T I C.3. 3 . Two flexible cords twisted together are known as ‘Twin Flexible Cord’ NOTE .3.An insulated incombustible support normally used for insulated cable. regardless of whether or not it is supplied as an integral part of the device.3.31 Lightning Arrester (Surge Diverter) .The ends of the electrical conductors situated upon any consumer’s premises and belonging to him at which the supply of energy is delivered from the service line.18 GUI-0~ Any appliance for automatically interrupting the transmission of energy through any conductor when the current rises above a predetermined amount. Earthed . 2. which are laid up together. a socket-outlet.3.3. It includes all branches and extensions derived from that particular way in the board.7 Cable. are not separated from each other. 2. A r m o u r e d . 2.35 Cable .19 Dead .An outgoing circuit connected to one-way distribution fuse-board and intended to supply electrical energy at one or more points to current-using appliances.3.10 Cleat .3.3. AND COMMON ASPECTS . The fuse-carrier does not include any fuse-link.Cables are said to be ‘bunched’ when two or more are contained within a single conduit.3. which is designed to melt and thus open the circuit.11 Conductor. 23. e a c h p r o v i d e d w i t h i t s o w n insulation.2 Apparatus -.2.20 Direct Earthing System . 2.6 &ble.An assemblage of parts including one or more fuses arranged for the distribution of electrical energy to final sub-circuits.JN”RAl. Flexible -A cable containing one -:-or more cores.A connector dedgned for the purpose of connecting together two or more conductors of different materials (normally copper and aluminium) for preventing electrolytic corrosion.13 Conductor.3.Electrical apparatus including all machines. N OTE .8 Circuit .2.An arrangement of conductor or conductors for the purpose of conveying energy and forming a system or a branch of a system.A conductor adequately covered with insulating material of such quality and thickness as to prevent danger. 7 2 .3. if not enclosed.serving as a mechanical protection. 2.A cable provided with a wrapping of metal (usually in the form of tape or wire).That part of a rewirable fuse.3. 4 B u n c h e d . Insulated aerial conductors. each formed of a group of wires.Any device.A length of single-insulated conductor (solid or stranded).Four classes of aerial conductors are recognized: a) b) c) d) Bare aerial conductors. for example. 2. a fuse.9 Circuit.3. a lampholder.For the maximum diameter and minimum number of wires for flexible cord. The fuse-base comprises all the parts necessary for insulation. or a ceiling rose. duct or groove or. associated with the wiring and electrical appliance of an installation. without the intervention of a further distribution fuseboard other than a one-way board. 2. 2. The term ‘lightning arrester’ includes any external series gap which is essential for the proper functioning of the device as installed for service.A flexible cable having conductor of small cross-sectional area.29 Fuse-Base. 2.2.A conductor not covered with insulating material.At or about earth potential and/or disconnected from any live system.A system of earthmg in which the parts of an installation are so earthed as specified but are not connected within the installation to the neutral conductor of the supply system or to earth through the trip coil of an earth leakage circuit-breaker. 2. or (Ho or more such conductors.Board . Sub . Insulated .3. SCP relevant standard.2. 2.30 Fuse-Carrier-The movable part of a fuse designed to carry a fuse-link.The fixed part of a fuse provided with terminals for connection to the system. Fkxible .17 Cord.1 Accessory .14 Connector Box or Joint Box. 2. appliances and fittings in which conductors are used for of which they m a y form a part. Final.2.A box forming a part of wiring installation provided to contain joints in the conductors of cables of the installation.3. Bare . 2. a plug.28 Fuse-Element (Fuse.2. 2.A conductor with no provision for its insulation from earth.27 Bimetallic Connector . for example.15 Conductor for Portable Appliankes . 2. fusible cut-out. 2.A combination of a plug and socket arranged for attachment to a portable electrical appliance or to a flexible cord.3 Wiring Practice 2.Any conductor which is supported by insulators above the ground and is directly exposed to the weather. 2.3. The insulated conductor or conductors may or may not be provided with an overall mechanical protective covering. 2. 2.21 Distribution Fuse. and Weatherproof neutral-screened cable. 2.3.

3.34 Service -.A conductor is said to have double insulation when insulating material intervenes not only between the conductor and its surrounding envelope (if a cable) or immediate suport (if bare). roofs.3. verandah.3. conductors and 2. in addSon. resistance or impedance in the earth connection.3. b) Of an appliance . as far as and including the ceiling rose or socket.T h e equipment required for delivering energy from the electric supply system to the wiring system of the premises served.3. and a conductor is said to be .36 S w i t c h b o a r d .High . a pendant with ceiling rose.A device used to open (or close) a circuit when either negligible current is interrupted (or established) or when the significant change in the voltage across the terminals of each of the pole of the disconnector occurs. Lighting .29 Insulation Double Of a conductor .2. 2.31 Multiple Earthed Neutral System .The voltage which normally exceeds 650 volts (but less than 33 kV). 2. balcony. tarpaulin shelters. High .37 Voltage. Extra.3. NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 2. 2. an electrolier. fixed platforms. the conductor of. to be earthed are connected to the general mass of earth and.A device for supporting or containing a lamp or lamps (for example. but also between the envelope or support and earth.313 Voltage. SHAMIA NA HS. A three-pin socket-outlet point shall include. chimneys. 2.28 Disconnector . 2.22 Earth --A connection to the general mass of earth by means of an earth electrode.The voltage which does not normally exceed 250 volts.30 Live or Alive-Electrically charged so as to have a potential difference from that of earth. 2.4. are connected within the installation to the neutral conductor of the supply system. 2. etc. including any clamp. plinth.26 Fitting. 3 . 2. 2.3.Any structure for whatsoever purpose and of whatsoever materials constructed and every part thereof whether used as human habitation or not and includes foundation. a single-phase or dc installation which is earthed by the supply undertaking (or otherwise at the source of the supply). 3 3 Point-A point shall consist of the branch wiring from the branch distribution board.35 Socket-Outlet and Plug . pipe or other conductor electrically connected to the general mass of the earth. and the middle wire or common return conductor of a three-wire dc or single-phase ac system. four-wire system. 2. floors. or a portable unit. Tents. plumbing and building services.A system of earthing in which the parts of an installation. 2.The final conductor by which the connection to the earth electrode is made. be noted that voltage ranges as defined internationally are at variance with the above definitions.25 Earthing Lead . 2. walls. for example.3. in order to protect against electric shock in case of breakdown of the functional insulation. a bracket. 2. The socket-outlet is designed as a fixed member and the plug portion carries multiple metal contacts which connect with corresponding metal contacts in socket portion.3.An assemblage of switchgear with or without instruments but the term does not apply to a group of local switches or a final sub-circuit where each switch has its own insulating base. An object is said to be ‘earthed’ when it is electrically connected to an earth electrude. erected for temporary and ceremonial occasions with the permission of the Authority shall not be considered as building.39 Volrage.3.The voltage exceeding 33 kV under normal conditions.4 Miscellaneous Terms 2. the connecting wire or cable from the earth pm to the earth stud of the branch distribution board. 2 . 2. fluorescent or incandescent) together with any holder.3.32 Neutral or Neutral Conductor Includes the neutral conductor of a three-phase 8 . 2.3.24 Earth Electrode-A metal plate.‘solidly earthed’ when it is electrically connected to earth electrode without a fuse.3. specified.3. together with a switch as required. 2.1 Building .40 Voltage. part of a building or anything affixed thereto or any wall enclosing or intended to enclose any land or space and signs and outdoor display structures.An appliance having accessible metal part is doubly insulated when protective insulation is provided in addition to the normal functional insulation.A material capable of being easily ignited.3. It may however. cornice or projection. in addition.40 are based on the provisions of IE Rules.The voltage which normally exceeds 250 volts but does not exceed 650 volts.37 to 2.outlet or suitable termination.23 Earth Continuity Conductor -The conductor. shade.3. or reflector. switch.A device consisting of two portions for easily connecting portable lighting fittings and other current-using appliances to the supply. circuit-breaker. in the open position it provides an isolating distance between the terminals of each pole. Low . Medium . N O T E-The definitions given in 2. connecting to the earthing lead or to each other those parts of an installation which are required to be earthed.27 Flammable .

R&e)-. -protective conductors. -exposed conductive parts.4. in any direction.4 Impulse . 2. but not preventing dehberate action. 2.25 ‘Industrial Tariff .4.4. 2. Where a finished ceiling is not provided. 2. N OTE -The power factor is generally measured by the ratio of.19 Instailed Load-The sum of the rated inputs of the electrical apparatus installed on the consumer’s premises. 2.A tariff applicab!: to electricity supplies taken mainly for lighting and other small appliances.4.14 Supply Terminals-The point at which a consumer received energy. 2. protection against direct contact.22 Meter Rent . 2.13 Nominal Voltage (of an Installation) Voltage by which an installatio or part of an installation is designated. kWh to kVAh consumed during the specified period.4.27 Heating Tar$f .16 Distribution Undertaking . shortest Distance .1 Simultn~eousl~~ A c c e s s i b l e P a r t s Conductors or conduciiveb parts that can be touched Bsimultaneously by a person or where applicable by livestock. of the energy consumption within a specified period (year. out the components to be taken into account and the methods to be employed in calculating the amounts to be charged by the supply/distribution undertaking to the consumer. 2. N OTE -This current may have a capacitive c o m p o n e n t including that resulting from the deliberate use of capacitors.4.A tariff applicable exclusively to industrial consumers. Ideally it appioximates a double exponential form.9 Enclosure .A statement setting.23 Tari$f .A tariff applicable particularly or exclusively to domestic consumers. N CTE .4. Service . -extraneous conductive parts.A line for connecting a current consuming installation to the distribution network. 2.The magnitude of electricity supply. 2. 2.A part providing protection of equipment against certain external influences and.17 Consumer or. for example.6 Creepage distance between two conducting parts along the surface of the insulating material or along the joint of two insulatihg bodies. 2. 2.2 Occupancy or Use Group-The principal occupancy for which a building or a part of a building is used or intended to be used.The. 2.The amount to be paid per unit of energy (kWh) consumed. an occupancy shall be deemed to include the subsidiary occupancies which are contingent upon it.4.An amount to be paid for a specified period for metering. 2.11 Obstacle . N O T E-The actual voltage may differ from the nominal voltage by a quantity within permitted tolerances.10 Barrier . Leakage Current (in an Installation) ~~~ A current which flows to earth or to extraneous conductive parts in a circuit in the absence of a fault. and -earth electrodes.24 Domestic Tariff .18 Demand .4.4.Usually an aperiodic transient voltage or current which rises rapidly to a peak value and then falls.3 Room Height-The vertical distance measured from the finished floor surface to the finished ceiling surface. Other forms are sometimes’used for special purposes.29 Load Factor .4.A part providing protection against direct contact from any usual direction Of access. 2.Simultaneously accessible parts may be: -live parts. 2.21 Kilowatthour Rate (kWh .A zone extending from any point on a surface where persons usually stand or move about to the limits which a person can reach with the hand in any direction without assistance. the same clause may provide for a decrease in charges in the opposite case. 2.28 Power Factor Clause .4. PART I GENERAL AND COMMON ASPECTS 2. 2.4.8 Arm’s Reach’. fans and radios. 2.4.A tariff applicable to electricity supplies taken for space heating or for thermal applications or for both. Customer-The party who receives electricity from the supply or distribution undei-taking for his own needs or for further distribution.T h e part of the installed load of consumer supplied by the supply undertaking. the underside of the joints or beams or tie beams shall determine the upper point of measurement ‘for determining the head robm.15 Service Line. 9 . 2.The party supplying electricity to consumers entirely from extrernal sources of power via a distribution network.26 Lighting TariJf .part preventing unintentional direct contact.20 C o n n e c t e d L o a d .4.5 Clearance -The distance between two conducting parts along a string ~ stretched the shortest way between these conducting parts.4. expressed in kW or kVA. according to the characteristics of the supply.4.A clause setting out increase in charges to be applied if the ratio of the kWh to kVAh consumed by a consumer during a specified period below a set limit.4. for the purposes of classification of a building according to occupancy. 2. generally more slowly.A .The ratio. 2. and associated equipment installed.4. to zero.4. 2.4. 2. expressed as a numerical value or as a percentage.4.

Section I General aspects IS : 1 8 8 5 ‘ ( P a r t I6/Sec 2)-1968 L i g h t i n g . etc) to the energy consumption that would result from continuous use of the maximum kW demand occurring within the same period. Section 3 Lamps and auxiliary apparatus IS : I885 (Part I 7).I979 Switchgear and controlgear (/irst revision) IS : 1885 (Part 27)-1969 Static power convertors IS : 1885 (Part 28)-1972 I n s t r u m e n t t r a n s formers IS : 1885 (Part 29)-1971 Mining terms I S : 1885 (Part 30)-1971 O v e r h e a d . Section I General terms IS : I885 (Part 5 I Set 2)-1979 I n d u s t r i a l electro-heating.Other Parts/Sections of the IS : 1885 series cover terminology relating to the field of electronics and telecommunications. conductars and accessories for electricity supply IS : 1885 (Part 34)-1972 Cinematography IS : 1885 (Part 35)-1973 Rotating machinery IS :. NOTE -The load factor for a given demand is also equal to thelratio of the utilization time to the time in hours within the same period.month.sion) IS : 1885 (Part 42)-1977 Power capacitors IS : 1885 (Part 43)-1977 E l e c t r i c a l e q u i p ment used in medical practice IS : 1885 (Part 49)1978 I n d u s t r i a l p r o c e s s measurement and control 1s : 1885 ( P a r t 5I1Sec I)-1979 I n d u s t r i a l electro-heating. 10 NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE . Section 2 Resistance heating IS : I885 (Part 53). L I S T O F I N D I A N S T A N D A R D S O N ELECTROTECHNICAL VOCABULARY IS : 1885 Electrotechnical vocabulary: IS : 1885 (Part I)-1961 Fundamental definitions IS : 1885 (Part 8)-1965 Secondary cells and batteries IS : 1885 (Part 9)-1966 Electrical relays IS : 1885 (Part IO)-1968 Electrical power system protection IS : 1885 (Part I I)-1966 Electrical measurements IS : 1885 (Part l4)-1967 Nuclear power plants IS : 1885 (Part l5)-1967 Primary cells and batteries I S : 1 8 8 5 ( P a r t 16/Set I)-1968 L i g h t i n g . day.1980 Mica (superseding 1s : 1174) IS : 1885 (Part 54)-1980 Insulators IS : 1885 (Part 55)-1981 Electric fans N O T E . 1885 (Part 37)-1974 Tariffs for electricity IS : l&5 (Part 3X)-1977 Transformers (&r’s/ re\ri. t r a n s mission and distribution of electrical energy IS : 1 8 8 5 ( P a r t 32)-1972 Cables. 3. Section 2 General illumination lighting fittings and lighting for traffic and signalling IS : 1885 * ( P a r t l6/ Set 3)-1967 L i g h t i n g .

415 V. Considerable amount of standardization had been achieved in the field of symbols for electrotechnology that it is now possible to device electrical network schematics using them so that these schematic diagrams could be uniformly understood by all converned. OHz. FOREWORD b) Alternating Current.1.7 Dirwt Current.11 Winding.2 The symbols contained in this Section of the Code have been drawn up by individual expert groups under the Electrotechnical Division Council.SECTION 3 GRAPHICAL SYMBOLS FOR DIAGRAMS.1 This Section of the Code covers graphical symbols for diagrams.1.1.1 A Positive Polaritj~ + 2. Three-Phase. Delta Direct Current A 2.12 Terminals -5OHz PART I GENERAL AND COMMON ASPECTS 0 . For further details.5 Negatilv Polarity 2.6 Direct Current. SCOPE 1. 110 V 2 Neutral. 0. (Part 2)-1983 Reference Tables for symbols and subscripts.8 Underground Cable 220v 2.1 Fundamental Symbols 2. 3wf. Star a) Alternating Current. 0. 220 V 110 v 2.1 The purpose of the Section of the Code is :o summarize a list of graphical symbols which are to be used for installation diagrams. 50 Hz 2.1.3 It has also been felt essential for the purposes of this Section to draw the attention of practising engineers to standardized letter symbols and signs.1.1. the graphical symbols given below shall apply. I . N O T E-A list of Indian Standards on graphical symbols used in electrotechnology relevant to the Code is given in 3. letter symbols and signs. Three-Phase with neutral. 1.9 Overhead Line 2. 2 Conductors. LETTER SYMBOLS AND SIGNS 0. 2.1. 50 Hz 3Nw50Hz 2.1 2. 50 Hz For the purposes of the Code. For additional symbols in the subject reference should be made to IS : 2032 (series) on graphical symbols used in electrotechnology. 3 Conductors including 2N 2.10 Winding. GRAPHICAL SYMBOLS 2.15 ” c) Alternating Current.1. General Symbol 2.2 Alternating current. the following Indian Standards could be referred to: IS : 3722 Letter Symbols and Signs used in Electrical Technology ( P a r t I)-1983 G e n e r a l G u i d e l i n e s o n symbols and subscripts. They represent a consensus of opinion in the discipline and are recommended for direct adoption. Single-Phase.3 Neutral N 2.

8 Auto.3 Motor k# 2.m Earth - i t Induction Motor with Wound Rotor li 2.2 Generator 0 G AC generator $2.1.2.Transformer 2.19 Fault Windings Transformers with Two Separate 0 0 M 8 2.15 Inductance.4 Synchronous Motor 0 MS 2. Capacitor 2.2.13 Resistance.5 Mechanically Coupled Machines 2. Squirrel Cage 2. Three-Phase.1 Flexible Conductor Inductor + 2.1 r16 Winding LF_ 0 M 2.9 II-Phase Transformer with Three Separate Windings-Star-Star-Delta 0 G DC generator G 0 I2 NATIONAL ELECI-RICAL CORE . Variable Resistor 2.14 Impedance * 2.2.6 Induction Motor.1. Resistor.2.17 Capacitance.2 Equippent 2.1.

2.12 Star-Delta Starter 2.20 Signal Lamp rl A 2.2.2. 1SA A n 2.2.Transformer Starter 2. SA.21 Link 2.2. Cubicle Box. Main Fuse Board with Switches 2.Line Starter for Reversing 2.19 Fuse 2.2.z.14 Rheostatic Starter 2.18 Isolator 2.24 Plug 2. YoR (4 Socket Outlet. Distribution Board.15 Snitch 1 t 2.2.16 Contactor 2.23 Socket Outlet.11 LX.2.10 Starter Circuit-Breaker PART 1 GENERAL AND COMMON ASPECTS 13 .13 Auto.2.2.on.

30 Ohmmeter 0 EI L coscp Wiring on the Swface 2.34 Watthour Meter 0 V 2.25 Voltmeter 2.42 Lamp Mounted on a Ceiling NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE .33 Integrating Meter X 2.27 Wattmeter 0 Master Clock L 0 W 2.41 Lamp cl 2.2.37 Current Transformer 0 2.38 Voltage Tran$ormer LJJ M Wiring in Conduit R 0 2.35 Clock 0 A 2.2.31 Indicating Instrument (general symbol) 0 Power Factor Meter Ammeter tl Wh 2.32 Recording Instrument (general symbol) 0 2.28 Varmeter VCN 0 2.2.

56 ManualI. Water Heaters 2.46 Heater XY Emergency Lamp 2.2.? Operated Fire Alarm 2.2.48 Bell A 2.50 Ceiling Fan 2.45 Flood Light 2.55 Television Receiving Srt 2.44 spot Light X c = 2.57 Automatic Fire Detector Sh?tch R 2.2.52 Fan Regulay S t o r a g e T.54 Radio Recviling Set I III2.2.2.IST O F I N D I A N S T A N D A R D S GRAPHICAL SYMBOLS ON IS : 2032 Graphical symbols used in elcctrotechnology: IS : 2032 (Part 2)-I962 Kind of current distribution system and methods of connection IS : 2032 (Part 3)-1962 Circuit elements and variability IS : 2032 (Part 4)-1964 Rotating machines and transformers IS : 2032 (Part 5)-I965 Generating stations and sub-stations IS : 2032 (Part 6)-1965 Motor starters IS : 2032 (Part 7)-1974 Switchgear and auxiliaries (first revision) IS PART I CENERAI.53 Aerial C\ 2.49 Buzzer 2.51 Exhaust Fan II I cl 0 0 3 . AND COMMON ASPECTS .

KY .1. 9.E Ilk>! No. geometry.S AND SIGNS 4. In order to enable uniform understanding of t.. synibols of units. Several disciplines interact with TABI. Electric welding equipment IS : 2 0 3 2 ( P a r t 22)-1978 Irlstrument t r a n s formers IS : 2032 (Part 23)-1978 Instruments for process measurement and control IS : 2032 (Part 25)-1980 Electrical installations . angle (plane angle) 2.c WYontl Olhcr unit\ iirc mlnutc . 5.EC’TRI(‘AI. the result that terminolo y used’in one disci line becomes clc~sely interre ?ated with that o P the other.he meamng they represent. C!ClC wcond per Ihc WI m kIlogramVorcc (kgl’) t’or Height i s .Ind haul ‘. numerical values. LETTER SYMB0I.imcrcr ua\clcn~lh arc. the letter symbols and .L’ rnc. dynamics and thermodynamics.a140 gl\cn a\ hiloponc (hp) I6 \ ‘L\TIONAI. kinematics. 3 4..1 Quantities and units used in electro- 4. X. (1) NAMt Ok I R EF E RE N C E GABLE c FOR wmoLs AND S U B S C R I P T S SI UN I T h QI. names of quantities and of constants and subscripts referred to frequently is given in 4.2 Guidance on the choice of alphabet and their type.signs used in abbreviatibns for denoting quantltles. m m m m m m \otumc tlmc cuhlc mc..1 Symbols and Subscripts 4. For the purposes of this Code.. \urt. IO.0. CODE . thtir functions and units shall contorm to those recommended in. II wlld angle length breadth hclpht. 6 7. 12.ANTII\ (2) Naie (4) radian Symbol ’ (5) rad Other units are degree minute and second I. 4.c 5. dcprh Ihlchnc\\ I-adlu\. 4..111 Table I gives a reference likt of symbols and subscripts used in electrotechnology. and guidance on the use of subscripts are covered in IS : 3722 (Part I)-l983* Ready reference tables for symbols and subscripts are contained in IS : 3722 (Part 2)1983*. radial d8..eltcr symbols and signs used in Electrotcchnology: Parr I General guidance on symbols and subscripts. IS : 3722 (Part I)-l983* and IS : 3722 (Part 2)-1983*.n ships 4. other subjects such as radiation and light. Part 2 Rcfcrcncc lables for symbols and subscripts.IS : 2032 (Part IO)-1969 Measuring instruments IS : 2032 (Part I I)-1970 Electrical installations in buildings IS : 2032 (Part IS)-1976 Aircraft electrical symbols IS : 2032 (Part l8)-1976’Symbolsand connection diagrams for integrating meters Es : 2032 (Part 19)-1977 Electrical equipment used in medical practice IS : 2032 (Part 21)-1977.rca stcradian met re met rc mcl rc met rc mcl rc met rc mcI rc \qu. tr/ kg AlbO.0. a list of symbols. l L. representation of vector quantities. EI.0 General technology cover in addition to electricity and magnetism..

49. 44. I a V u E CL c I J e R P G Y Z X 6 P degree Celsius I per kelvin volt volt volt coulomb farad ampere ampere per square mctrc webcr ohm ohm mctre siemens sicmcns per metre ohm ohm radian watt var voltampere OC K“ V V V C F A A. 33. 31. 36.TRUE I REFERENCE TABLE FOR SYMROLS AND SU~RIPTS-Conrd ITEM No. tension.m s S/m R n rad W var VA Temperature Interval of )K ::xzY (clccrric) potential potential difference. 48. Q s A tl N tt K PART I GENERAL AND COMMON ASPECTS 17 . 35. OF @hW’lTlTY NAME CHIEF REMARKS (1) 16. 39. 46.. rn’ Wb n fI. 38. 43. 37. voltage electromotive force electric flux capacitance (electric) current current density magnetic flux r&tancc rcsistivity conductance conductivity impedance reactance loss angle active power reactive power apparent power power factor dissipation factor number of lurns In a winding turns ratio transformation ratio of an instrument transformer 34. 19. 28. 22. 32. work energy power efficiency thermodynamic temperature. 30. 23. 42. absolute temperature temperature (Celsius) W E P r) T J J W Also expressed in percent kelvin K 25. per cubic IlwR ‘hewton newton metrc newton per squaremetre (Pascal) joule jouk watt N N. 29. (2) density (mass density) force torque pressure (3) P F T P (4) kilogram. 27. 17. 47. 26. 41. 40.m Pa (6) 20. IS. 21. 24. 45.

‘Letter symbols and signs used in Electrotechnology : 3722 (Part 2)-19X3* NOTE 2 . number of phases 53. Ill NATIONAI. luminous intensity 55. E candela per square metre lux cd Im cd rn’ Ix NOTE I .For alternatiw symbols and other units of designation. ELECTRICAl. illumination I I I candela lumen 1. . luminance 57. number of pairs of poles 54. transformation ratio of a voltage transformer 51. the corresponding quantity IS numeric and its value is written as a number : Part 2 Reference tables for symbols and subscripts. (1) Q U A NT I T Y (2) (3) K Name (4) Symbol (5) I \ REMAUKS (6) 50.TABLE I REFERENCE TABLE FOR SYMBOLS AND SURSf?RIPTS-Conrd ITEM N AME OF CHIEF SYMIWI.we IS without the unit symbol.Wherever symbol for the unit is I. transformation ratio of a current lranbformer 52. illuminance. luminous flux 56. (‘ODE . St UNIT A NO.

CHARTS AND TABLES.3 The guidelines for marking of conductors gicen in 2. they show the inteknal or external connections or the successive operation in a specified order.1.1. 2 .3 Wiring Diagrams or Wiring Tables Wiring diagrams are intended to guide the making and checking of the connection of an installation or equipment. 19 . Three types are defined below: a) Blocli diagram .Explanatory diagrams are intended to facilitate the study and understanding of the functioning of an installation or equipment. 0 . 2.2 Explanaktry~ Tables Explanatory charts or tables arz’ intended to facilitate the study of diagrams and to give additional information. PREPARATION OF DIAGRAMS. I.1 Various types of diagrams and charts are required to be prepared during the planning and execution stages of an electrical installation work. c) operations and physical quantities. and b) Time seywnce charr or rahk .1 Unit H. ensure safety to operating. It shows by sypbols an installation or part of an installation and the electrical connections and other links concerned with its operation. 2.1 Classification According to Purpose 2. 2.0 The main classifications are: a) explanatory diagrams.FOREWORD 0. cl Equi\~alenr circuir diagram . block symbols or pictures without necessarily showing all the connections. such as terminal blocks and the wiring between them. b) Circuit diagram .1. maintenance personnel.Diagram representing the connections between the different units of an installation.3 Tab/e .0. their purposes and -format and the guiding principles for preparing them for the sake of uniformity.Relatively simple diagram to facilitate the understanding of the principle of operation. installation. 2.3.1. I Erplottator~~~ Diagrams . and d) the states of several items.0. Two examples are given below: a) S e q u e n c e chart or rahle .6. For an equipment. Charrs . b) operations and time.iring d i a g r a m . l-he) provide for a common basis f o r understanding and identifying conductors and tipparatus terminal\: but more one which in addition takes account of the time intervals between successive operations.1977 General requirements for diagrams (Part 4)-1977 Circuit diagram (Part 5)-1976 Interconnection diagrams and tables 0.2 Inrerconnection diagram . 2. AND MARKING O.Special typ of circuit diagram for the analysis and calculation of circuit characteristics. It is therefore necessary to define the different types of diagrams. charts and tables.1 Diagram -~ A diagram may show the manner in which the various parts of a network. charts and tables in electrotechnology and for marking of conductors. PART I GENERAL AND COMMON ASPECTS 2. 2.A table replaces or supplements a diagram or a chart.0 General 2. and d) location diagrams or tables.SECTION 4 GUIDE FOR PREPARATION OF DIAGRAMS. 0.1.CHARTS AND TABLES 2. The contents of this Section are based primarily on the following publications: IS : 8270 Guide for the preparation of diagrams. group 01 apparatus or items of an apparatus are interrelated and or interconnected.I This Section of the Code covers guidelines for preparation of diagrams.Explanatory diagram intended to facilitate the understanding of the functioning in detail. 2 Char1 . b) explanatory charts or tables. charts and tables for electrotechnology : I)-1976 Definitions and classi(Part fication (Part 2)-1976 Item designation (Part 3).3.D i a g r a m representing all connections within a unit of an installation. The diagrams may sometimes show the layout of the different parts and accessories.A c h a r t m a y s h o w t h e interrelation between: a) different operations. SCOPE 1 .2 This Section of the Code covers general guidelines on the subject. 2. It is a diagram in which an installation or equipment together with its functional interrelationships are represented by symbols.1. Table I of the Section are in line with the guidelines accepted internationally on such matters. c) wiring diagrams or wiring tables.

the methods of representation are given below: a) Assembled representatiorr -. b) Semi-assembled representation -~~ The symbols for the different parts of an item of apparatus or of an installation are separated and arranged in such a way that the symbols for mechanical linkages between the parts which work together may be drawn easily. equipment. different kinds of symbols as well as symbols of different forms are shown.1 Number of conducrors . $(. or partly to the topographical (ph\. circuit descriptions and in the equipment.1 Paper sizes_ for drawings shall preferabl! be according to the international A-series (XV IS : 1064-196lt).2. b) Multi-line representation . 3) circuits or conductors which belong to the same signal path.1. ma! he b) the arrangement of the symbols representing the elements or parts of an item of apparatus (for example. and 5) conductor symbols which would follow the same route on the diagram.T h e 2. terminal blocks. This designation correlates the Item on different diagrams.4. N OTE I -A location diagram need not necessarily be to scale. It shows the item designations used in related diagrams and tabler.3 Topo~yraphic~al p o s i t i o n s o f t h e 5)mbols o n t h e d i a g r a m correspond wholly.2.3. Any of the wiring diagrams may be replaced or NOI I aupplcmcnted by a table.Diagram showing the terminals and the internal and/or external conductors connected to them.The symbols for the different parts of an item of apparatus or of an installation or equipment are drawn in close proximity on the diagram.1).4. parts list. 2. chart. CODt. 4) circuits which follow the same physical route. *GUI& Ior preparation 01 dugram\.A c c o r d i n g to the arrangement of the symbols representing the elements or parts of an item of apparatus on 20 . devices Or elements represented by a single symbol (see 2. 2. a single line may represent: I) circuits of a multiphase system. The item designation is shown at an appropriate place near the graphical symbol of the item. N OTE 2 -Several typer of diagrams may be combined Intlo a single diagram.3 Item Designation 2. repwserttatiort .1.2 of IS : 8270 (Part 2):l976* 2.3). b) Architectural diagrams.Lclines o n assignment of item designation. forming a mixed diagram. The choice of drawing sizes should be decided after taking into account the necessary factors enumerated in 2.4 Localion D i a g r a m s o r T a b l e s . cl the placing of the symbols to correspond 2.1. plant.1 Item is a term used for component. groups together with standard letter codes for the same are covered in IS : 8270 (Part 2)-l976* 2.cparated a n d arranged in such a uay that the circuits ma!’ easily be followed.A location diagram or table contains detailed information about the location of parts of the equipment. 2. Cu. for example. devices or elements represented by a single symbol.1 The method of representation is distinguished bv: a) The number of conductors. sub-assemblies. a n d tahle~ lor electrotcchnolog! Part 2 Item de\lgnation.Each conductor is represented by an individual line.sical) location of items represented.2. +SpeclCwatlon ior paprr \IICS. detached o r assembled) (see 2.According to the number of conductors.1. the two methods of representation as given below may be distinguished: a) Single-line representation -.2. ELECTRICAl. Several similar items of apparatus may accordingly be represented by a single symbol.2 Classification According to Method Representation Of 2. c) Dctachecl r~~pre:8erltatiorl The symbols for the different parts of an item of apparatus or of an installation are :.2 In IS : 2032:. In particular. which is represented by a graphical symbol on a diagram. plug-in units.2 Arrangemen/ c$ swlbols . The same drawing may form both an explanator) and wiring diagram.2 An item designation may be used fol general or special ptirposes depending on the kind o f i n f o r m a t i o n r e q u i r e d . and with the topographical layout of the devices (see 2.1.raphwal symbols u s e d i n clectrotcchnolog! ( P a r t \ to ‘25).33 Terminal diagram . etc. and c) Network diagrams. rhe diagram.1.2). 2. etc.3. NATIOSAI. unit. T h e f o l l o w i n g arc e x a m p l e s w h e r e topographical representation may bc used: a) Wiring diagrams. 2) circuits which have a similar electrical function. NOI ISe\crtil of the\e method\ of repruentatlon used on the umc dugwm. 2.4 General Rules for Diagrams 2. modules.Two or more conductors are represented by a sirigle line.2.

6.6 Marking and Arrangement of Conductors 2.0. Information on the internal connections of units are normally not provided but references to the appropriate circuit diagram [ SEC IS : 8270 (Part 4)-1977*1 may be provided. orientation of symbols and met:hods of indicating symbol location are ‘covered In IS : 8270 (Part ?)-1977* 2.2 The diagrams may employ single or multiple representation and may be combined with or replaced by tables. Parr 5 lntcrconnwmn diagrams and tablea.2 DC .5.0 General 2. from the terminals to which they ar-e connected. .1 or 2.idc a. The latter are recommended when the number of interconnections is large. symbol sizes. the red shall be on the left or farthest away as viewed from the front.The order of phase connection shall be. Supplementary marking is used as supplement to b) When the run of the conductors is vertical.1 AC . The basic rules for the choice of symbols shall be: a) to use the simplest form of symbol adequate for the particular purpose.2.2 according to the system. 2.2. the same place as the phase connections.6.3 Guidance on layout.All the powbre examples are also not covered there.1 Interconnection diagrams and tables provide information on the external electrical connections between equipment in an installation. yellow. b) When the run of the conductors is vertical.1 I d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f I n s u l a t e d a n d Bpre konducrors .2. the neutral shall occupy the middle position.durposes of this code. red. conductors Part 3 General requlrrmPnt\ for diagrams Par1 4 CIKUII diagrams. 2.2 The various methods of marking applicable to electrical installations and the equipment which form part of them are covered in IS : 5578-l970* 2. *Guldc lor marktng of insulated PART I GENERAL AND COMMON ASPECTS 21 .2. 2.For the . equipment and apparatus. Reference is -also drawn to the provisions contained in relevant Indian Standard.5.1 l-he purpose of marking is to pro\.2. yellow and blue: a) When the run of the conductors is horizontal. The relative order remains applicable even if any poles of the system are omitted. the red shall be on the left or farthest away as viewed from the front.4. The rules also apply for marking conductors in assembies.6. and c) to use the chosen form consistently throughout the same set of documentation.6. line thinkness.6. . chart\ and table\ for c) When the system is 3-wire with the conductors in the same place. identification and types of interconnection diagrams and tables are giveri in IS : 8270 (Part 5)-l97h* 2. meanb whereby conductors can be id!xntified in a circuit and also after they hake been detached a main marking based on the electrical functiortof each conductor or group of conductors.41wernIs . 2. Main marking is a system o f m a r k i n g charactcri7ing each conductor or group of conductors irrespective of their electrlcal function. provided clarity is maintained.vr. the red shall be on the top or on the left or farthest away is viewed from the front.6. They are used as ari aid in the fabrication of wiring and for maintenance purposes.2 Arrangement qf Conductors 2.2. C) When the system has a neutral connection in d) Unless the neutral connection can be readily distinguished from the phase connections.\rena -~ Ihe arrangement shall be as follows: When the run of the conducto-rs is horizontal.3 Specific guidelines on the application of IS : 2032 from the point of view df choice of alternative symbols. b) to use a preferred form wherever possible.6.0 Bus-bars and main connections which are substantially in one plane shall be arranged in the order given in either 2. 2.5. electroteclln~~lop~: *Guide lor preparatton of dlagramb. 2.5 Interconnection Diagrams and Tables 2. the red shall be on the top or on the left or farthest away as viewed from th’e front. the order shall be red.0.6. the provisions of Table I below shall apply for the general application of marking conductors in installation. Any symbol may be composed using the guidanc:e from relevant Part of IS : 2032 and Section 3 Part I of the Code.6.6. blue and black. the neutral shall occupy an outer position.

GRAPHICAL SYMBOLS AND COLOURS (Clause 2. Noiseless (clean earth) TE Frame or chassis Equipotential Terminal MM CC NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE .TABLE I ALPHANUMERIC NOTATION.6. I) DE>IGNATION OF C ONDUCTORS I~JENTIFICATI~N w 1 A \ Colour (4) Red Yellow Blue Black Red Yellow Blue Black + Red Blue Black Red Black Alphanumeric Notation (2) Graphical Symbol (3) (1) Supply ac system Apparatus ac system Phase I Phase 2 Phase 3 Neutral I Positive Negative I Midwire Phase seutral I Phase I Phase 2 Phase 3 Neutral LI L2 L3 N U V W N L+ LM L N SUPPlY dc system Supply ac system (single phase) Protective Earth conductor PE E Green and Yellow No colour other than the colour of the bare conductor Under consideration.

1.1 The International System of Units (Sl) have received worldwide acceptance and in’ every country legislation for their adoption either exists or is being introduced. 2.2 ~‘cllilol. 2.1. 1 A m p e r e (unit of electric current) A constant current which. PART I GENERAL AND COMMON ASPECTS 23 .10 Teslu (unit of magnetic flux density) The tesla is a magnetic flux density of I Wb/m’. when it is charged with a quantit. 01 of quantlt\ (unit 2.1. of electricity of one coulomb.6 Volt (unit of electric potential difference atid emf) .The difference of electric potential which exists between two points of a conductor carrying a constant current of one ampere. 1 . ITNITS AND SYSTEMS OF MEASUREMENT 2.3 r~rot/ (unit of ctectric capacitance) capacitance of an electric capacitor having a difference of elect.ll~ The quantit! of elcctricitlj conveyed electricity) in one second by a current of o n e a m p e r e . recommendations on the selection of their multiples and submultiple\ and supplementary remarks (if any) are enumerated in Table I. provided no emf is generated in the conductor. Use of Sl Units in matters relating to electrical engineering practice has many advantages. S C O P E 1. 8 Wurf (unit of electric power) -~ T h e power which results in the production of energy at the rate of IJ. It has been introduced in India under the Weights and Measures Act. 2.2 This Section of the Code. 2.5 Ohm (unit of electrical resistance) l-he electrical resistance between two points of a conductor when a constant potential difference of one volt.4 Henry (unit of electric inductance) . maintained i n t w o parallel straight conductors of infinite Icngth. applied to thehc points. produces a current of one ampere in the conductor.1 Absolute Units 2 . 2. Reference may therefore be necessary to IS : 10005-1980*.1. 2. FOREWORD the plates. 2 . 0. 1 . 2.1. when the power dissipated between these points is one watt. The 2.The inductance of a closed circuit in which an emf of one volt is produced when the current in the circuits varies at the uniform rate of one ampere per second.1.SECTION 5 UNITS AND SYSTEMS OF MEASUREMENT 0.1. 1. for reasons of brevity. is restricted to electrical units only. of negligible circular CI-W\ section and placed at a distance of one mctrc apart In a v a c u u m will product a force ol 2 X IO ’ newton per metre length between the conductors. together with their expression in terms of other units.1 This Section of the Code covers units and systems of measurement in electrotechnology. 1 .‘s.-ic potential of one LOII hct\+een 2 .2 The electrical units defined in 2.of magnetic flux which.1. 7 Weber (unit . composed of a single turn one volt if it is uniformly second. magnetic flux) The linked with a circuit produces in it an emf of reduced to zero in one 0.9 Siemens (unit of electric conductance) The conductance of a conductor of resistance I ohm and is numerically equal to I ohm-‘. 1976.

TABLE I ELECTRICAL UNITS OF MEASUREMENT ~(ClOUSP 2.‘. fkm.2) Q UANTITY SpOlOL NAME EXPRESSION TERMS O F OTHER UN I T S IN (1) Electric current Power Quantity of clectricity.J~R kS. mz.s~z. Ir Volt V m*.i’A’ MS/m. MW.A’ m. k0.A-’ mF.WI. nH. WA. mA.s-‘.4 c/v V/A NV V.s-‘. mR.A-* rn-‘.s*. nT mH.A“ m’. mfIm. nF/m. PS mWb mT. Kfl. kW. W C - (4) EXPRESSION m TE R M S OF SI BASE Uhs (9 S ELECTION OF MIILTIPLES (6) m*. electric charge Electric potential. kS/m MV/m. nH/m pF/m.m. mS. potential difference. PC M V . nC. rrF.S Wb/ m’ Wb/A mW. PF GR. PH.A kA.A* m’.mpere watt (2) (3) A. pF/m henry/ metre farad per metre I per henry ohm. PT.‘.kg-‘. PA GW. Mf-l.PW coulomb kc. J/s . rV/m rH/m. PH henry siemens/ mctrc volt/metre m3.s-‘. electromotive force Capacitance Electrical resistance Conductance Magnetic flux Magnetic flux density Inductance Conductivity Electric ticld . .s“ s. 24 NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE . V/m.A-’ PC. kV/m 01 V/mm.A-’ V Farad ohm siemens wcber tesla F n S Wb T H S/m V/m m’. mctrc H/m F/m H-’ f3. nflm.A-’ kgs’.s-‘.m m~‘.kg. mV/m. .S’.strength Permeability Permittivity Reluctance Resistivity a.‘.kg.

Voltage Limits for AC Systems 2.0. This standardization helps in laying a sound foundation for further work reiating to product or installation engineering.1.3 6. currents and frequency is one of the primary exercises undertaken at the national level.1. 2.1 For the sake of completeness.Phasr. because of economic and other co+iderations.1 The voltage at any point of the system under normal conditions shall not depart from the declared voltage by more than the values given below: a) 6 percent in the case of low or medium voltage.0 General 2.2 I2 24 36 72. NOIE 2 I IO kV is not a standard voltage for transmission purposes but this value has been included for the sake of equipment thal are required for use on the I IO kV systems already in existence.2. d u r i n g 1 9 5 9 . values of 240 V si’nglephase atid 240 415 V *three-phase had been adopted.voltage shall be 2201440 v. 2.Pl*I. SCOPE 415 v 3. 2.1. However. standarcJ values of nominal voltages were 230 V for singlephahc and 230 400 V for three-phase system.3 The standard dc distribution . 2. the importance of highest system voltage.6 7.2.2. 1.SECTION 6 STANDARD VALUES 2.6 kV I I kV f: K (voltage to neutral .1 This Section of the Code covers standard values of ac and dc distribution voltages.The standard voltage shall be 240 V.1.1. 2. all the standard values of voltages given in IS : 5851962* relating to ac transmission and distribution systems are reproduced in this Section.2 This history of standardization of system voltages nart. N O T E-The permissible variations given above are in accordance *vith Indian Electricity Rules.rating of equipment with respect to highest system voltages only. which are generalI!.5 percent in the case of extra high voltage.1 The standard voltages for three-phase system shall be as under: 0. it is noted that for most of the types of installations covered in subsequent parts of the Code.\.2 For medium and low voltage distribution system. 1956. 0. extensions to existing systems at this voltage may have to be made at the same vbltage.0 6.22 II0 132 220 400 $ kV kV kV kV N O T E I . preferred values of current ratings and standard system frequency.These boltages refer to the Ime-Id-line v o l t a g e .2 For installation design purposes.Wire System .2. Trcvo. The values of voltages recommended as standard in this SeAon are based on the contents of IS : 585-1962*. 2.6 II 22 33 66 132 220 400 V v kV kV kV kV kV kV kV kV kV 264 457 3.3 kV 6. t o a l i g n w i t h I E C rccommcndation\ and in view of’ the economic adbantageh thry offered.1 Standard Declared Voltage 2.2 .I Sitl~lc.2.0.5 I45 245 420 v v kV kV kV kV kV kV kV kV kV LOWSI Vohage ‘216 374 3.0 IO 20 30 60 I20 200 380 V v kV kV kV kV kV kV kV kV kV 2.Phase S_wem *Vol~gc\ systcmb and frequency for tran\mi\\wn a n d distribution This variation in voltage should not be confused Noit with the permissible variarion from the declared voltage as given in 2. PART I GENERAL AND COMMON ASPECTS 25 . IO percent above the corresponding nominal voltages given in 2. STANDARD VALtiES OF VOLTAdES 2.1 Standardization of basic parameters such as voltage.3 In the case of voltages above I kV. or b) 6 percent on the higher side or 9 percent on the lower side in the case of high voltage. It is realized that.1 . the original recommended. and are applicable to the supply aurhorities.0. only the lower voltage values would be relevant. 1.1. Howclcr.2 Three. the limits of boltage between which the system and the equipment used in the system shall bc capable of operating continuously are as follows: Highest Voltage (Uln) 240 415 3.-rly those of systems operating below medium voltage levels is enumerated in IS : 585. or c) 12. 2. is recognized and product standards relate the voltage.

1 The standard system frequency shall be 50 H7.2 The limits within which the frequency is to be maintained are governed by the IE Rules. 4. NATIONAL EI. the R5 series. PREFERRED CURRENT RATINGS 3.ECTRICAI. If intermediate values are required.1 The preferred current ratings shall be selected from. 4. CODE . the same shall be selected from RIO series (see IS : lO76-1967*).3. STANDARD SYSTEM FREQUENCY 4.

3 b+‘orktmn. however. that is. 0 . 2. the materials and other items shall be those approved by the competent authority. equipment and their accessories.1.1 ate based on IEC Pub : 364-2 ‘Electrical installations of buildings. In case an Indian Standard does not exist. The basic criteria in the design of electrical installation are enumerated in this Section which could be taken note of in the planning stages.1 This Section contains the fundamental principles for electrical installation.1. which would enable use of natural lighting and ventilation to the maximum.0 General 2 .2 In all cases. enumerated in 3. It may be added that subsequent requirements of the Code would. I E. 1. Unless otherwise exempted under the IE Rules.0 c) Fxtra high voltage l i n e s 3. however. etc.4 The building services plan shall also include at the early stages all the details of services that utilize electrical energy and the requirements of the electrical installation in order to enable the designers and others involved to decide the coordination to be ensured. 0 .~gr 2. a recognized authority.7 2.30 m for ever) additional 33 kV or part thereof shall he prwided 2.1. 1. Part 2 Fundamental principles’ issued by the International Electrotechnical Commission.3 Lighting and Ventilation .The installation shall generally be carried out in conformity with the requirements of the IE Rules (1956) as amended from time to time. it is essential to consider those aspects of design of buildings as vital. used in an electrical installation shall conform to Indian Standard Specifications wherever they exist. Attention is. SCOPE electrical engineer shall be ensured from the planning stage of the installation.1 This -Section of the Code enumerates the fundamental principles of design and execution of electrical installations. FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES 2. The provisions that would have to be made for the accommodation of substation. 27 2 . drawn to the general requirements stipulated in Section 14.0 ( s e e NOTE) (SW NOTE) Nolr F o r e x t r a h i g h v o l t a g e l i n e s a p a r t j r o m t h e mlnimum clearances indicated.SECI’ION 7 FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES O. openings. etc.r~ H*ith I n d i a n E1ecrricir. in.1. the civil work.FOREWORD 0.2 Distance from Electric Lines shall be allowed to be erected or re-erected. appliances. 2.rchange q/ It@mation 2.1.2 The fundamental principles for protection for safetv f r o m v a r i o u s hazards in the use of electricity. transformer switchgear rooms.ship Good workmanship is an essential requirement for compliance with this Code.0. f i t t i n g s . In all such cases.1 I 2 I.2 h) High \ 0ltagc Ilnes 3.1. 0.o~ Ilne\ a n d medwm \olt. lift wells and other spaces required to be provided for service cable ducts. 1 .1. 2. a rertical and horizontal clearance of 0. Measures for achieving protection against the various hazards are under consideration by the National Electrical Code Sectional Committee. 2 Materials A l l m a t e r i a l s . The workmen shall also hold the appropriate certificate of competency. provide sufficient guidelines in respect of achieving the desired level of safety.v Rules .1 Coordination No building 2. 2. from the point of safety 2. u n l e s s t h e f o l l o w i n g mtnimum clearances are orovided from the overhead electric supply lines: ’ Verricol m Horizonral m a) 1. AND COMMON ASPECTS . Part I. and also the relevant regulations of the electric supply authority concerned.1 Proper coordination and collaboration between the architect.From the point of view of conserving e. 1 Co~~ornrir. the work on electrical installations shall be carried out under the supervision of a person holding a certificate of competency issued by. the relevant authority shall be consulted. building engineer and the PART t GENERAI.5 Up IO and mcludmg 11000 v Abwc I I kV up IO a n d mcludmg 33 kV 3. and such other relevant data shall be specified in advance. or a modification.7 2.3 Sufficient coordination shall be ensured with the civil architect in the initial stages itself to ensure that sufficient building space be allotted for electrical installation purposes such as those required for sub-station installation.1. 2. it shall also be ensured that the current carrying capacity and the condition of the existing equipment and accessories are adequate. The specific nature of each occupancy calls for additional i n f o r m a t i o n w h i c h a r e summariired in the respective Sections of the Code. or any additions or alterations made to the existing b u i l d i n g . 2 . whether the proposed electrical work is a new installation or an extension to the existing one.rergy.

4 Preventing a current from passing through the body of any p’erson or any livestock. and g) Fannage.1 Protection Against Direct Contact Persons and livestock shall be protected against danger that may arise from contact with live parts of the installation.1. Electrical Space for 2. G&era1 provisions are outlined in Section 14. b) Nature of demand. Persons and livestock shall be protected against dangers that may arise from contact with exposed conductive parts. and b) The proper functioning of the electrical installation for the use intended. j) Disconnecting devices.6 are intended to ensure’ the safety of persons. where the value of that current is equal to’ or greater than the shock current. 3 . This protection can be achieved by one of the following methods: a) Preventing a fault current from ‘passing through the body of any person or any livestock.Fdr information df the electrIcal engineer. k) Preventing of mutual influence between electrical and noneiectrical installations. shall advise of the electrical requirements necessary for the lifts and escalators to be installed in the building. reference shall be made to IS : 3792-1978’.In electrical installations.3.1 to 3. Emergency control.0.2 Proper coordination shall be ensured to provide for necessary arrangements to install and serve the electrical equipment needed for the airconditioning and heating services in the building. Type of wiring and methods of installations.4.6 Location and Equipment .) Automatic di&onnection of the supply on the occurrence of a fault likely to cause a current to flow through a body in contact with exposed conductive parts.1. and b) excessive temperatures likely lo cause burns. Part I. e) r) f3) h) Cross-section of conductors. and ml Accessibility.0. b) Limiting the fault current which can pass C.5 Lifts and Escaiators. 1 .1.0 The requirements stated in 3.0 General .1 For information regarding recommended limits of thermal transmit^&nce of roofs and walls and transmission losses due to different constructions. e) Location and requirements of switchrooms. 4 Room/spaces required for electrical utility.1 The design of the electrical installation shall take into account the following factors: a) The protection of persons. two major types of risks exist: a) shock currents. 3. 3.electrical installation shall be so arranged that there is no risk of ignition of flammable materials due to high temperature or NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE . and.Even though specific provisions regarding the choice of location and space requirements for electrical installation in buildings Protective equipment. livestock’ and property against dangers and damage which may arise in the reasonable use of electrical intitallations. livestock and property in accordance with 3.1.1. the lift/escalator manufacturer in consultation with the building planners. d) Environmental conditioni.1 Protection for Safety 3. This protection can be achieved by one of the following methods: c) Layout. 3 P r o t e c t i o n Agpinst Thermal EJfects in Normal Ser\Vce .2 Protection Against lndirhct Contact - INSTALLATION 3.2 The following factors shall therefore be kept in view: a) Characteristics of the :available supply or supplies. 3. 3. r) Levels of illumination.4 Heat Insulation 2..1. c) Emergency supply or supplies. DESIGN OF ELECTRICAL b) Limiting the current which can pass through a body to a value lower than the shock current. have been provided in the relevant parts of the Code the following asp&s shall be taken note of in general while planning the building design: a) Need for and location and requirements of building substation. 2. 2.2.The . b) Load centre and centre of gravity of buildings. fires and orher injurious effects. 3. NOTE .4. through a body to a value lower than the shock current.

3. etc. and 4) prospective short-circuit .1. c) Values and tolerances: I) voltage and voltage tolerances (see Section 6 of Part I).2 Yupplies Other Factors of Design 3. are to be determined by: a) location of points of power demand.5 Protection Against Fault Currents Conductors. Also.2.4 Environmental Conditions (see Section 8 of Part I) 3.The above listed items concern primarily the safety of electrical installations. for example.2 Nature of Demand-The number -and type of the circuits required for lighting. PART I GENERAL AND COMMON ASPECTS 29 . d) other mechanical stresses to which the conductors may be exposed. control. d) any special conditions. b) the admissible voltage drop. and the methods of installation depend on: a) the nature of the location. signalling.5 Cross Section of Conductors -the cross section of conductors shall be determined according to: a) their admissible maximum temperature. characteristics).Partxular attention should be given to earth fault currents. 3. 3) maximum current allowable.3 Emergency Supply or Supplies (see also Part 2 of the Code) a) Source of supply (nature. b) loads to be expected on the various circuits. e) Particular requirements of the supply undertaking. Persons or livestock shall be protected against injury and property shall be protected against damage from ‘any excessive voltages likely to arise due to other causes (for example. power. during normaLoperation of the electrical equipment. c) the electromechanical stresses likely to occur due to shortcircuits.2.1.1. earthed (grounded) neutra P or mid-wire.1. 3.1 Characteristics qf the Available Supply or aj Nature of current: ac -and/or dc. protection. and iii) protective conductor. 2) frequency and frequency tolerances (see Section 6 of Part I). c) daily and yearly variation of demand.4 Protection Against Overcurrent Persons or livestock shall be protected against injury.2. telecommunication. d) Protective measures inherent in the sup ly.! - While the general principles of protection against hazards in an electrical installation are given in 3. This protection can be achieved by one of the following methods: a) Automatic disconnection on the occurrence of an overcurrent before this overcurrent attains a dangerous value taking into account its duration.1.6 Profecrion Againsr Overvolrage Persons or livestock shall be protected against injury and property shall be protected against any harmful effects of a fault between *live parts of circuits supplied at different voltages. atmospheric phenomena or switching voltages). signalling. etc.2.current (see Section 13 of Part I).2.electric arc.1 to 3. 3. 2) For dc: i) conductors equivalent to those listed above. 3. compliance with 3.1. N OTE .4 assures their protectron against any fault currents. b) the nature of the walls or other parts of the building supporting the wire. telecommunication.2. and property shall be protected against damage due to excessive tempeatures or electromechnical stresses caused by any overcurrents likely to arise in live conductors. there shall be no risk of persons or livestock suffering burns. Cross-sectional areas greater than those required for safety may be desirable for economic operation. ii) neutral conductor. 3. NOPE 2 .1. -and e) the maximum impedance with respect to the functioning of the short-circuit.7 Methods for Prorecrion for Safer. heating. and any other parts intended to carry a fault current shall be capable of carrying that current without assuming excessive temperature. and b) Circuits to be supplied by the emergency source. e) requirements for control. 3. includrng overcurrents caused by faults.The choice of the type of wiring 3.6 g u i d e l i n e s on the methods f o r achieving protection and the choice of a particular protective measure are under consideration.6 T)qpe o f W i r i n g arid M e t h o d s o f Installations . and b) Limiting the maximum overcurrent to a safe value and duration. N OTE I . 3.For hve conductors. other than live conductors. b) Nature and number of conductors: 1) For ac: i) phase conductor(s).

3. 32.t~ic.eell Electrical ud . testing.9 Disconnecting Delkes -~ Disconnecting devices shall be provided so as t0 p e r m i t disconnection of the electrical installation.2. and 30 NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE . b) earth-fault current. and interruption of supply.‘l’ accessibility of wiring to persons and livestock. 4 voltage. voltage and time which are suitably related to the characteristics of the circuits and to the possibilities of danger. protection against the effects of: a) overcurrent (overload.The characteristics of protective equipment shall be determined with respect to their function which may be. 3. short-circuit). circuits or individual items of apparatus as required fOJ maintenance.2. for inspection. operation. 3. The protective devices shall operate at values of current. fault detection OJ repair. c) overvoltage. and d) undervoltage and no-voltage. there is necessity f o r i m m e d i a t e 4 sufficient space for the initial installation b) accessibility testing. e) the electromechanical stresses likely to occur due to short-circuits. for example. in interrupting device shall be installed in such a way that it can be easily recognized and effectively 2nd rapidly operated.8 Emergency Control. 3.7 Protective Equipment . maintenance and repair.2.10 Prevention ej’ Mutual Injluencv BetH.Where in case of danger. and later replacement of individual items of electrical Iu\~uIIu~~o:?: The electrical instaiiatlon shall be arranged in such a way that no mutual detrimental influence will occur between the electrical installation and nonelectrical installations of the building.11 Accessihilit~~ of Electrical Equipment ~~ The electrical equipment shall be arranged so as to afford as may be necessary: 0 other stresses to which the wiring may be exposed during the erection of the electrical installation or in service.2.

2 Table I suggests the classification and codification of external influences which require assessment in the design and erection of electrical installation. e) Presence of foreign solid bodies. Out of these influences. h) Presence of flora and/or mould growth. d) Diversion of installation from the point of view of control. SCOPE 1. c) Contact of persons with earth potential. standby and safety supply services. prospective shortcircuit currents. testing and maintenance.This assessment shall include those characteristics of main.1 An assessment of the general characteristics of buildings is essential before planning for the needs of an electrical installation. n) Seismic effects. 0. 2.FOREWORD 0.1 The characteristics of the following external influences shall be assessed: I) Environments a) Ambient temperature.1 Identification of General Characteristics 2. 0. c) Altitude.. I. d) Conditions of evacuation in an emergency. f) Preserce o f c o r r o s i v e o r p o l l u t i n g substances.1 . WE Appendix A.The following shall be assessed: N OTE .SECTION 8 ASSESSMENT OF GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF BUILDINGS O. safe operation.2 Identification of External Influences on the Electrical Installation 2. Part I). However mqe severe conditions may prevail at outdoor sites and these require special considerations. types of systems of live conductors and types of system earthing. nominal voltage. j) Presence of fauna.Each condition of external influence is designated by a code comprising 2 group of two capital letters and a number as follows: 31 4 Maximum demand and diversity from the b) Type of distribution system.2 This Section follows the internationally recommended method of identification of the external influences on the electrical installation such as environment.2 of Section 7. Supplies and Structure . 2.0 An assessment of the general characteristics of buildings as enumerated below is essential from the point of view of design and protection for safety of the electrical installa!ion. utilization and method of construction of the building. ASSESSMENT OF GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF BUILDINGS 2.For t y p e s o f system earthing. electrostatic or ionizing influences. and q) Wind. k) Electromagnetic.2. b) Electrical resistance of human body.2. it is hoped that this Section would also enable understanding of installations not explicitly covered by the Code. 2) Utilization a) Capability of persons.3 The contents of this Section are primarily intended for installations inside buildings though to the extent possible they could be utilized for outdoor sites.1 This Section of the Code covers guidelines for assessing the characteristics of buildings and the electrical installation therein. those which are specifically important for specific occupancies are listed at the relevant Sections of the Code. NOIF. b) Atmospheric humidity. 3) Construction of Buitdings a) Constructional materials. 2. point of view of economic and reliable design (see 3. PART 1 GENERAL AND COMMON ASPECTS . d) Presence of water. Based on the work of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) under IECjTC 64 “Electrical Installations of Buildings’ this section covers a checklist of various factors that require assessment. p) Lightning. T h e s e characteristics when assessed shall also be taken into consideration in the selection and erection of equipment. c) Supply characteristics such as nature of current.O Purposes. However. and b) Building design. and e) Nature of processed or stored material. which include. NOTE I . m) Solar radiation.2. g) Mechanical stresses. 2.

c) starting currents d) harmonic currents. Those characteristics are to be taken into account in applying the requirements of this code so that. having regard to the frequency and quality of maintenance expected: C = construction of buildings T h e s e c o n d l e t t e r relares t o t h e n a t u r e o f the exrernal injuenre A B c T h e n u m b e r relates to r h e c l a s s w i t h i n e a c h external inJluence I 2 . and g) earth leakage currents. 2. a) any periodic inspection and testing and maintenance and repairs like1 to be necessary during the intended lifye can be readily and safely carried out.DINGS \ CLASS (ClNl/\<’ 2 2. not taking into account the thermal contrthution of the equipment to he installed. for example: a) transient overvoltages. Influences on outdoor installations are separately defined in the respective parts of the Code. . that authority shall be consulted.An assessment shall be made of the frequency and quality of maintenance the installation can reasonably be expected to receive. Table I) are given in descriptive language only. users of the Code would be familiar with the codification in terms of which the requirements would be stated in future editions. during its intended life.2) CII\K. f) high-frequency oscillations. the characteristics of influences (co1 2.An assessment shall be made of any characteristics of equipment likely to have harmful effects upon other electrical equipment or other services or likely to impair the supply. C H A R A C T E R I S T I C S O F BI’II. Where an authority is to be responsible for the operation of the installation.T h e jirsr letter external injluence A = environment B = utilization relates IO the general category of 2.NERAI. and c) the reliability of equipment for proper functioning of the installation is appropriate to the intended life. the protective measures for safety during the intended life is ensured.~‘\ (2) Awl I( \.\(‘II~KISI. Lower and upper limits of ranges 01 ambient temperature: -WC -400 c -2YC -5°C +5”c t5oc +50 c +5”c +5oc +40” c +400 c +6ooc AAI AA2 AA3 AA4 AA5 AA6 (Conrinued) 32 NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE . 3 For example. Codification for the same (see NOTE I above). is not intended to be used NOTE 2 . IO\\ \\I) I-\ \\ll’l I \ (3) COIN DESIGSI IO\ (1) (4) Environment I) Ambient temperature l-he ambient temperature 10 he considered for the cqulpment is the temperature at the place where the equipment is to he installed resulting from the influence of all other equipment in the hame location. It is hoped that in due course the. the code AC 2 signifies: A = environment AC = environment altitude AC2 = environment altitude > 2 000 m The code given here for marking equipment. e) dc feedback. Those characteristics include.T h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s d e f i n e d f o r e l e c t r i c a l installations are those accepted by the IEC and as applicable for electrical installations in buildings.3 Compatibility . For the time being. uhcn operating. the effectiveness of. b) rapidly fluctuatirig loads. as recommended by IEC are given in co1 4 for information. TABLE 1 ASSESSMENT OF GF.4 Maintainability .

Locations where hosewater is used regularly (yards. heache\ quays. S e a s h o r e locatIon\ huch as piers. 2) Atmospheric humidity 3) Altitude 4) Presence of water Negligible Probability of presence of water is neghgible Locations in which the walls do not generally show traces of water but may do so for short periods.1 h a r ADI under consideration <2OOOm >ZOOOm AC1 A PPLICATIONS E XAMPLES AND C ODE (3) (4) AC2 Free-falling drops Possibility of vertically falling drops AD2 Sprays Possibility of water falling as spray at an angle up to 60’C from the VertlCal Possibility of splashes from any direction AD3 Splashes AD4 Jets Waves lmmeralon Possibility of . 10 certain external lightmg fittings. ventilation dl les rapidly. 1001s and small objects are examples of foreign solid bodies of which the smallest dimension is at least 2. dust may be present but is not slgmficant to operation of the electrical equipment. Locations where equipment may be subjected lo splashed water. Presence of foreign solid hodIt where the smallest dlmenslon is not less than 2. etc. Locations in which water vapour occasionally condenses as drops or where steam may occasionally be present. Locations such as iwlmming pools uhere electrical equipment is permanently and totally covered with water under a pressure greater than 0. AND COMMON ASPECTS 33 . Locations in which sprayed water forms a continuous film on floors and ior walls. AD5 AD6 AD7 Submersion Possibility of permanent and total coverlng by water AD8 5) Presence of foreign solid bodies: Negligible The quantity of nature ot dust or foreign sohd bodies i\ not slgmficant. LocatIon\ which may be flooded and or uhere water may be at least I50 mm ahove the highest point of equipment. NOI I. (1) CHAI~A~TE~I~TICS (2) The average temperature over a 24 hour period must not exceed 5°C below the upper limits. this applies. construction site equipment. In conditions AEI and AE3. Wires are examples of foreign solid bodies of which the smallest dimenslon is not less than I mm.5 mm. for example! in the form of vapour which good. car-washing bays). Combination of two ranges to define some environments may be necessary.S mm Presence of foreign solid hodies where the smallest dimension is not Ins than I mm. Installations subject to temperatures outside the ranges require special consideration. the lowest part of equipment being not more than I m belou the water surface.Comd (‘I \\\I h\IGSArIO”.TABLE 1 ASSESSMENT OF GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF’ BUILDINGS . etc. for example.jets of water from any dIrectIon PosGbihty of water waves Possibility of intermittent partial or total covering by water. AEI Small Objects AE2 Very small objects AE3 P A R T 1 GENERAI.

such as chemical works and cement works.Provisional classification. such conditions are found in factory.\ . Quantitative expression of vibration severities is under consideration. garages.~‘l-i WiS~II(‘S (2) Presence of dust in significant quantity.TABLE 1 ASSESSMENT OF GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF BUILDINGS CI \ss DI+I<. AHI AH2 AH3 9) Presence of vermin No hazard No hazard (Conrinued) 34 NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE . EXAMPLM (3) coot (4) AE4 AFI Atmospheric Installations situated by the sea or industrial zones producing serious atmospheric pollution. Household and similar conditions. etc). other laboratories or in locations where hydra-carbons are used (boiler-rooms.\ (1) DtJst 6) Presence of corrosive or polluting substances: Negligible The quantity or nature of corrosive or polluting substances is not significant The presence of corrosive or polluting substance of atmospheric origin is significant. this type of pollution arises especially in the production of abrasive.w~.. Locations where some chemical products are handled in small quantities and where these products may come only accidentially into contact with electrical equipment. insulating or conductive dusts. c) Other mechanical stresses 8) Presence of fungus and/or mould growth No hazard Hazard No hazard of fungus and/or mould growth hazard of fungus and/or mould growth The hazard dcpcnda on local conditions and the nature of fungus. AGI AG2 AC3 b) Vibration Low severity Medium severity High severity N OW . AK1 AK2 Under consideration AJ Household and similar conditions where the effects of vibration are generally negligible. Industrial installations subject to severe conditions. AF2 Intermittent or accidental Intermittent or accidental subjection to corrosive or polluting chemical substances being used or produced AF3 Continuous Continuously subject to corrosive or polluting chemical substances in substantial quantity. IXstrnction should bc made bctvvccn harmful growth of vcgctatton or condittons for promotion of mould grovvth. Usual industrial conditions.. chemical works. Usual industrial conditions. Conrrl I IOX CII .Provisional classification. AF4 7) Mechanical Stresses: a)’ Impact Low severity Medium severity High severity N OTE . laboratories. Severe industrial conditions. Quantitative expression of impact severities is under consideration. APPLI(‘ATIOYS AK. For example.

Harmful presence of ionizing radiation. In general. IO) Electromagnetic. .presence of insects in harmful quantity or of an aggressive nature. The risks AQ2 and AQ3 relate to regions with a particularly high level of thunderstorm activity. AQI AQ2 AQ3 14) Wind (Under consideration) Utilization I) Capability of Persons Ordinary Children Uninstructed persons Children in locations intended for their occupation.presence of small animals or birds m harmful quantity or of an aggressive nature. electrostatic fields. AP4 over 30 up to and including 300 Gal over 300 up to and including 600 Gal greater than 600 Gal 13) Lightning Negligible Indirect exposure Direct exposure Hazard from supply arrangements Hazard from exposure of equipment Installations supplied by overhead lines. the frequency of seismic acceleration is between 0 and IO H z . Parts of installation> located outside buildings. Harmful hazards of stray currents.Conrd C LASS D E S I G N A T I O N (1) Hazard C%A~AUTERI~~I~~ (2) Hazard from fauna (insects. Harmful presence of electrostatic fields. if the seismic wave resonates with the building. Harmful presence of electromagnetic radiation. AMI Stray currents Electromagnetics loni7ation Electrostatics Induction I I) Solar radiation Negligible Significant 12) Seismic effects Negligible Low severity Medium severity High severity AM2 AM3 AM4 AM5 AM6 ANI Solar radiation of harmful intensity and/or duration. birds.TABLE 1 ASSESSMENT OF GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF BUILDINGS . Nurseries BAI BA2 ( COrIliflUPd) PART I GENERAL AND C O M M O N A S P E C T S 35 . however. seismic effects must be specially considered. AN2 Up to 30 Gal (I Gal = I cm/s’) API AP2 AP3 Vibration which may cause the destruction of the building is outside the classification. electrostattc or ionizing influences Negligible No harmful effects from stray currents. gstinction should he made between: (4) AL2 . electromagnetic radiation. small animals) A PPLICATIONS E XAMPLES AND C ODE (3) The hazard de nds on the nature of the vermin. ioni7ing radiation or induction. Frequency is not taken into account in the classification. Harmful presence of induced currents.

Processing or storage of explosive or low flashpoint materials including presence of explosive dusts. processing or storage of flammable materials including presence of dust. Metallic surroundings such as boilers and tanks. Oil refineries. sufficient experience to enable them to avoid dangers which electricity may create (engineers and technicians) BA3 Instructed BA4 Skilled BA5 2) Electrical Resistance of the Human Body Classification (Under consideration) 3) Contact of Persons with Earth Potential None Low Persons in non-conducting situations Persons do not in usual conditions make contact with extraneous conductive parts or stand on conducting surfaces. old persons) Electrical operating areas Persons adequately advised or supervised by skilled persons to enable them to avoid dangers which electricity may create (operating and maintenance staff) Persons with technical knowledge or Closed electrtcal operating areas. Barns. Persons are frequently in touch with extraneous conductive parts or stand on conducting surfaces. Persons are in permanent contact with metallic surroundings and for whom the possibility of interrupting contact is limited. BEI BE2 Buildings of normal or low height used for habitation. to prevent processed materials being contaminated by electrical equipment.) BDI BD2 BD3 BD4 Explosion risk Contamination risks BE3 Foodstuff industries. by broken lamps. wood-working shops. hydrocarbon stores. Presence of unprotected foodstuffs. Handicapped Persons not in command of all their Hospitals physical and intellectual abilities (sick persons. easy conditions of evacuation.Certain precautions may be necessary. High-rise buildings open to the public (hotels. etc. difficult conditions of evacuation. cinemas). High density occupation. for example. hospitals. (Conrinued) 36 NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE . High density occupation. either numerous or of large area. Low density occupation. easy conditions of evacuation. Locations with extraneous conductive parts. Locations open to the public (theatres.Con/d CII 4K \(‘trKISTI(‘S (2) A P P L I C A T I O N S AND CODE EXAMPUS (3) (4) Norm ~. in the event of fault. and similar products without protection.This class does not necessarily apply to family dwellings. difficult conditions of evacuation. pharmaceutics. 5) Nature of Processed or Stored Materials No signifiant risks Fire risks Manufacture. BCI BC? BB Frequent BC3 Continuous BC4 4) Conditions of Evacuation in an Emergency Low density occupation. paper factories.TABLE I ASSESSMENT OF GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF BUILDINGS . kitchens. N O T E . High-rise buildings. Norr-conducting locations.

The TT power system has one point directly earthed. chimney effects). Three types of TN systems are recognized. a) TN Systems-TN power systems have one point directly earthed. TN C-S system: TN-C system: b) TT s. Second letter indicates relationship of the exposed conductive parts of the installation to earth: T = direct electrical connection of exposed conductive parts to earth. the earthed point is normally the neutral point).llstem -. CB3 Flexible or unstable CB4 A P P E N D I X A (Clause 2. the exposed conductive parts of the electrical installation being earthed. Structures which are weak or subjects to movement (for example. then exposed conductive parts of the installation being connected to that point by protective conductors.TABLE 1 ASSESSMENT OF GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF BUILDINGS. 37 . I . NOTE I . air-support structures. independently of the earthing of any point of the power system.O) TYPES OF SYSTEM EARTHING The folloGng types of system earthing are taken into account in this Code. Installations needing support.Figures I to 5 show examples of commonly used three-phase systems. according to the arrangement of neutral and protective conductors as independent of the earth electrodes of the p o w e r s y s t e m . CBI CB2 APPLICATIONS EXAMPLES (3) AND CODE (4) Buildings mainly constructed of combustible materials Wooden buildings CA1 CA2 Movement Buildings of considerable length Risks due to structural movement or erected on unstable ground. false ceilings. settlement of ground . and N = direct electrical connection of the exposed conductive parts to the earthed point of the power system. neutral and protective functions combined in a single conductor (PEN conductor). _ High-rise buildings. Forced ventilation systems. (for example. displacement between a building and the ground. the exposed conductive parts of the installation being connected to earth electrodes electricallv PART I GENERAL AND COMMON ASPECTS s= c= neutral and protective functions provided by separate conductors. Subsequent letter(s) (if any) indicate arrangement of neutral and protective conductors: c) IT qstem -~ The IT system has no direct follows: TN-S system: having separate neutral and protective conductors throughout the system. (in ac system. in which neutral and protective functions are combined in a single conductor in a part of the system. or Contraction or expansion joints. and in which neutral and protective functions are c o m b i n e d i n a single conductor throughout the system. and I = all alive parts isolated from earth. removable partitions.Conld C LASS DESIGNATIOK CHARAUERISTI~S (2) . oscillation) Tents. NOTE 2 -The codes used have the following meanmgs: First letter indicates relationship of the power system to earth: T = direct connection of one point to earth.or building foundations). connection between live parts and earth. or one point connected to earth through an impedance.Constructions of Building I) Constructional Materials Non-combustible Combustible 2) Building Design Negligible risk Prtortgation of Buildings of which the shape and dimensions facilitate the spread of fire (for example. Flexible wiring.


2. c) asymmetrical load. of Part 1 of the Code.4 Power .Iitions of Installation .1 A series of product codes have been brought out in the field of electrotechnology which covers details of selection.1 Conformity to Indian Standards L. NOTE -This Section shall be read in conjunction with the Indian Standard codes on individual equipment. 1. b) inrush current. shall be suitable for the duty demanded of the equipment.2. 2. 2. SELECTION OF EQUIPMENT 2.If influence on the characteristics of electrical equipment. the rated frequency of the equipment shall correspond to the frequency likely to occur in the circuit. an item of equipment does not have by design the properties corresponding to its location it may be used on condition that adequate additional protection provided as part of the completed electrical installation.2.Every item of electrical equipment used in the installation shall conform to the relevant Indian Standard specifications wherever available.Electrical equipment shall be suitable with respect to the maximum steady voltage (rms value for ac). 0. has an frequency 2. This Section of the Code is prepared in such a manner as to bring out only the essential criteria for selection of equipment.2.2 Characteristics .All electrical equipment shall be selected so that it will not cause harmful effects on. if any) during which it may be expected to flow. 2.3 Con.3 Frequency .2.5 Guidelines on the selection of specific equipment are covered in the relevant Indian Standard codes of practice.Every item of electrical equipment selected shall have suitable characteristics appropriate to the values and conditions on which the design of the electrical installation (see 3. likely to be applied.For certain equipment.All electrical equipment to be selected on the basis of its power characteristics. the factors which may have an influence include: a) power factor. NOTE . however.4.2.4 Prevention of Harmful effects . i n p a r t i c u l a r . In this context. installation.2 Current . and with respect to the current likely to be carried in abnormal conditions and PART I GENERAL AND COMMON ASPECTS 39 . operating time of protective devices. fulfil t h e requirements given in 2. If. 2.1 to 2. as well as overvoltages likely to occur. 2.2. FOREWORD the period (for example. it may be necessary to take account of the lowest voltage likely to occur. The general characteristics of building installations are assessed according to the guidelines given in Section 8. 2.2 of Section 7 of Part I) characteristic of its location to which it may be exposed. 2.SECTION 9 SELECTION OF EQUIPMENT 0.2 of Section 7 of Part I) is b a s e d a n d s h a l l . and maintenance of electric power equipment. other equipment or impair the supply during normal service including switching operations.All electrical equipment shall be selected with respect to the maximum steady current (rms value for ac) which it has to carry in normal service.1 This Section of the Code covers general criteria for selection of equipment. and users of the Code are recommended to make reference to individual product codes for detailed guidelines. SCOPE 1. taking into account the load factor and the normal service conditions. and d) harmonics.1 Voltage .All electrical equipment shall be selected so as to withrtand safely the stresses and the environmental conditions (see 3.

0. 2. or an addition to the existing installation. these parts shall be so located as to prevent accidental contact therewith. 2.1 For the erection of the electrical installation. SCOPE 1. as soon as practicable. A complete check shall also be made of all the protective devices. 2. Where the temperature of any exposed parts of electrical equipment is likely to cause injury to persons. Guidelines on such aspects are outside the purview of the Code.1. among other things. inspection and testing shall be carried out in accordance with the Indian Electricity Rules.4 Connections between conductors and between conductors and other electrical equipment shall be made in such a way that safe and reliable contacts ire ensured. shall include checking whether all equipment. However. contact prcssui-e and contact area. This. a reference could be made to individual equipment codes which cover maintenance schedules: 0. NATIONAL EI. used in the installation are of adequate rating and quality to meet the requirements of the load. 1956 have been complied with.1 General Requirements 3.4 The contents of this Section are based on iS_: 732 (Part 3)-1982* 1. a general inspection shall be carried out by competent personnel to verify that the provisions of this Code and that of Indian Electricity Rules. INSPECTION AND TESTING 3. 3.2.2. wires and cables. 0. After putting the installation into 3.1 This Section of the Code covers general principles of erection of installation and guidelines on initial testing before commissioning. F O R E W O R D 0. ERECTION 2. 1956. range of settings and for co-ordination between the various protective devices.5 All electrical equipment shall be installed in such a manner that the designed cooling conditions are not impaired. is put into service.1. CODE 40 .3 In addition to initial testing. is a necessary prerequisite under the Giutory -provisions.1 Testing and ensurmg that the installation conforms to the predetermined conditions before the installation could be energized. individual product standards cover more detailed guidelines on precommissioning c h e c k s f o r i n d i v i d u a l equipment. periodic testing and preventive maintenance checks are necessary.3 Protective conductors and neutral conductors shall be identifiable at least at their terminations by colouring or other means. with respect to the rating. these shall be rectified.7 Attention is also drawn to the provisions contained in relevant Indian Standard codes on installation of specific equipment which shall be adhered to during erection of the installation. accessories.1 Before the completed installation.At the completion of wiring. adequacy of clearances.2 The equipment.2 While a complete check list of items to be checked and necessary tests to be done are included in this Section. the nature and frequency of such measures depending on the nature of the electrical installation in question.6 All electrical equipment likely to cause high temperatures or electric arcs shall be placed or guarded so as to eliminate the risk of ignition of flammable materials. General workmanship of the electrical wiring with regard to the layout and finish shall be examined for neatness that would facilitate easy identification of circuits of the system.0 General.6 of Section 4 of Part I). soundness of termination with respect to tightness. *Code of practice for electrical wiring installations: Part 3 inspection and testing of installation. In the event of defects being found. These conductors in flexible cords or flexible cables shall be identifiable by colouring or other means throughout their length (see 2.ECTRICAI. 2.SECTION 10 ERECTION AND INITIAL TESTING OF INSTALLATION 0. This Section lists the aspects/parameters that are required to be verified before an installation could be certified as ready for energizing and use. good workmanship by suitably qualified personnel and the use of proper materials shall be ensured.2 service periodic inspection and testing shall be carried out in order to maintain the installation in a sound condition. and the installation retested. characteristics of the electrical 2. as determined in accordance with Section 9 of Part I shall not be impaired in the process of erection. 2. 2. 3.1. fittings. 3.3 Where an addition is to be made to the fixed wiring of an existing installation the latter s h a l l b e e x a m i n e d f o r c o m p l i a n c e with recommendations of this Code. Inspection of the Installation 3.

and 32) all incoming and outgoing circuits of panels are’clearly and indelibly labelled for identifications both at the front and at the rear.2. 24) Insulators . 13) earth pipe troughs and cover slabs are provided for earth electrodes/earth pits. bus bar tightness. transformer tap position. 2) all connections to the earthing system are feasible for periodical inspection. PAHT 22) the gap in the horngap fuse and the size of 23) the switch operates freely. operating rods. 3. 21) clearances in the front. there is any oil leak. 16) Panels and switchgears are all vermin and damp proof and all unused openings or holes are b!ocked properly. are kept in the substation. 5) two separate and distinct earth connections are provided for the motor/apparatus. 25) in the case of transformers. etc. are in order. 17) the earth bus bars for tightness and for corrosion free joint surface. etc. etc. fuse adequate. control switchfuse is provided at an accessible height from ground for controlling supply to overhead travelling crane hoists. 2) phase-to-phase and phase-toearth clear3) all equipments are efficiently earthed and properly connected to the required number of earth electrodes. etc. 11) all construction materials and temporary connections are removed.3. and are clean. adequate arrangements to pump out water that has entered due to seepage or other reason is provided. 27) bushings are free from cracks and are clean. 4) suitable linked switch or circuit-breaker or lockable push button is provided near the motors/apparatus for controlling supply to the motor/apparatus in an easily accessible are fixed and the equipment are fully painted.2 Installation at Voltage not exceeding 650 V. and tlie handles are provided with locking arrangements. 20) safety devices. 3) sharp cable bends are avoided and cables are taken in a smooth manner in the trenches or alongside the walls and ceilings using suitable support clamps at regular intervals. vent pipe. sufficient ventilation and draining arrangements are made. are removed. 8) all cable trenches are provided with nonflammable covers. brass bolts and nuts with lead washers are provided in the pipes/ plates. 4) the required ground *clearance to live terminals is provided. 9) free accessibility is provided for all equipment for normal operation. automatic safety shutters/doors interlock. relays. 7) in case of indoor substation. For earth connections. overhead bus bar trunking. contactors. 19) adequate head room is available in the transformer room for easy topping up of oil. bus bar covers/ shrouds.1 Substation Installations ~~ in substation installation it shall be checked whether: handle interlock for safe and reliable operation in all panels and cubicles. are in order. 5) suitable fencing is provided with gate with lockable arrangements. oil sumps/pits are free from rubbish and dirt and stone jelly and the earth connections are visible and easily accessible. 31) in case of cable cellars. etc. buchholz relay. fire-fighting equipments. maintenance.2. 28) accessories of transformers like breathers. all the blades make contact at the same time. 18) control switchfuses are provided at an accessible height from ground. The arcing horns contact in advance. are adequate. 6) the required number of caution boards.are free from cracks. 1) the installation has been carried out in accordance with the approved drawings. rubber mats. Jl I GENERAL AND COMMON ASPECTS . rear and sides of the switthboards. 15) earth pipe troughs. 29) connections to gas relay in transformers are in order. horizontal and vertical barriers. 26) connections to bushings in transformers are tightened and have good contact. 14) earth electrodes are of GI pipes or CI pipes or copper plates.It shall be checked whether: all blocking materials that are used for safe transportation in switchgears. 30) oil and winding temperature are set for specific requirements in transformers. 10) all na. ances are provided as required. 12) oil levels. Neutral and lightning arrester earth pits are marked for easy identification.

s u b .3. 15) flat ended screws are used for fixing conductor to the accessories. the third pin being suitably earthed. 4) tamper-proof interlocked switch socket outlets are used for locations easily accessible. 2) all earth connections shall be checked for continuity. 13) adequate precautions are taken to ensure that no live parts are so exposed as to cause danger. or alternatively.After inspection.m a i n b o a r d s a n d switches. any testing of the electrical installation in an already existing installation shall commence after obtaining permit to work from the engineerincharge and after ensuring the safety provisions. 2) ends of conduits enclosing the wiring leads are provided with suitable bushes. 8) four core cables are used for overhead travelling crane and portable equipments.3 Lighting. 8) cartridge fuse units are fitted with cartridge fuses only. before an installation or an addition to the existing i. 3. the wiring is enclosed to the full lengths. conductors or cross over of conductors take place. 13) the fittings and fixtures used for outdoor use are all of weather proof construction. 6) a separate earth wire is run in the lighting installation to provide earthing for plug points.3 Testing of Installation 1) wooden boxes and uanels are avoided in 2) neutral links are provided in double pole _ factories for mounting the lighting boards and switch controls. 7) proper connectors and junction boxes are used wherever joints are to be made in . fixtures. fittings and switchgears used in the hazardous area are of flame proof application. 9) clear and permanent identification marks are painted in all distribution boards. IO) the polarity is checked and all fuses and single pole switches are connected on the phase conductor only and wiring is correctly connected to socket outlets. conduit and conduit properly earthed. fixtures and equipment. tallation is put into service. and 16) in the case of air circuit-breakers. and similarly.42 1) all switchboards shall be tested for di- electric test in the manner recommended in IS : 8623 (Part I)-l977*. 3) the operation of all protective devices shall be tested by means of secondary or primary injection tests.2. 4) the operation of the circuit-breakers shall be tested from all control stations.3. *Factory built assemblies of switchgear and controlgear: Part I General requirements.The lighting circuits shall be checked whether: 3. NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE . and 17) number of wires in a conduit conform to provisions of this Code.Switchboards shall be tested in the manner indicated below: 3) the plug points in the lighting circuit are all of 3-pin type. etc. 15) the relays are inspected visually by moving covers for deposits or dusts or other foreign matter. and no fuse is provided in the neutral. 9) if flexible metallic hose is used for wiring to motors and equipments.0 Gerwtd. armoured cable wiring is used. 3. provisions of arc chutes in their respective poles are made. the fourth core being used for earthing. the following tests shall be carried out.the metal rails on which the crane travels are electrically continuous and earthed and bonding of rails and earthing at both ends are done. 5) lighting wiring in factory area is taken enclosed ir. switch fuses which are used for lighting control. and separate supply for lighting circuit is taken.1 Switchboards . II) the screens and armours of the cables are earthed properly. switchboards. I) spare knockouts provided in distribution boards and switchfuses are blocked. 14) proper terminal connectors are used for termination of wires (conductors and earth leads) and all strands are inserted in the terminals. as necessary. IO) the cables are not taken through areas where they are likely to be damaged or chemically affected. 14) ammeters and voltmeters are tested and calibrated. 3. 16) flat washers backed up by spiring washers are used for making end connections. 12) the belts of the belt driven equipment are properly guarded. and the hose secured properly.

The following tests shall be done: a) The insulation resistance shall be measured by applying between earth and the whole system of conductor or any section thereof with all fuses in place and all switches closed. AND COMMON ASPECTS . R1 = I 000 + 2P where R. be disconnected from the circuit during the test. 8) contact resistance of main and isolator contacts shall be measured. b) The insulation resistance in megohms of an in?tallation measured as in (a) shall be not less than 50 divided by the number of points on the circuit. = Rated phase-to-phase voltage. but in that event the insulation resistance between the case or framework. Megohmmeter of 500 V or 1 000 V rating shall be used. the insulation resistance will initially drop considerably.6 Earthing .~.s as listed in IS : 1002X (Part 2)-1981* shall be car-ricd out.vr r~\~ision). provided that it does not exceed 500 volts for medium voltage circuits. b) The insulathon resistance as measured at ambient temperature does not always give a reliable value. d) The insulation resistance shall also be measured betwetn all conductors connected to one pole or phase conductor of the >upply and all the conductors connected to the middle wire to the neutral on to the other pole of phase conductors of the supply. since moisture might have been absorbed during shipment and storage: When the temperature of such a motor is raised. PART I GE:NERAI. heating and power appliances and electric signs..For checking the efficiency of earthing the following tests are recommended (see IS : 3043-1966*).3.\/~). and except in earthed concentric wiring. Such a test shall be made after removing all metallic connections between the two poles of the installation and in these circumstances the insulation resistance between conductors of the installation shall be not less than that specified in (b).. provided that the whole installation need not be required to have an insulation resistance greater than IMR. if desired. 6) the operation of the circuit-breakers shall be tested for all intedock.u. countersigned by the certified supervisor under whose direct supervision the installation was carried out. If the resistance is measured at a temperature different from 25OC.2 ~.3. all lamps in position or both poles of installation otherwise electrically connected together.5) indication/ signalling lamps shall be checked for working.5 Wiring Installation . e) On completion of an electrical installation (or an extension to an installation) a certificate shall be furnished by the contractor. Star points should be disconnected. 3.I)I~~~. and all live parts of each rheostat. All commissioning tests 3. *Code of practice for earthing. Minimum acceptable value of the insulation resistance varies with the rated power and the rated voltage of the motor. installation and maintenance of transformers: Part 2 Installation. Cable installations shall be 3. and P = Rated power kW. = Ksuptibn resistance in MR at 0 E. and 9) the specific gravity of the electrolyte and the voltage of the control battery shall be measured. the value shall be corrected to 25°C. 43 a) The insulation resistance of each phase winding against the frame and between the windings shall be measured.4 Motors and Other Equipment .5 MR.3. If any suspicion exists on this score. appliance and sign shall be not less than that specified in the relevant Indian Standard specification or where there is no such specification shall be not less than 0. 3.3. may. This certificate shall be in a prescribed form as required by the local electric supply authority. +Code of practice for installation and maintenance of power cables up to and Including 33 kV (/ir. The following relation may serve as a reasonable guide: 2 0 X E. 7) the closing and opening timings of the ciicuit-breakers shall be tested wherever required for autotransfer schemes. c) Control rheostats.3 C’cihlc~s chcckcd ah laid doun in IS : 125%19X3+. a dc voltage of not less than twice the working voltage.3.The following tests are made on motor and other equipment: 3. Where the supply is derived from three-wire (ac or dc) or a polyphase system the neutral pole of which is connected to earth either direct or through added resistance. even below the acceptable minimum. the working voltage shall be deemed to be that which is maintained between the outer or phase conductor and the neutral. *Code of practice for selection. motor winding shall be dried out.

44 NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE . b) The earth resistance of earthing grid is measured.a) The earth resistance of each electrode is measured. c) All electrodes are connected to the’grid and the earth resistance of the entire earthing system is measured. These tests shall preferably be done during the summer months.

The socketoutlet shall not necessarily embody the fuse as an integral part of it. it is necessary to install an interlocked plug and socket or alternatively a socket outlet which automatically gets screened by the withdrawal of plug.the distribution/sub-distribution board. etc.1 A switch shall be provided for the control of every lighting fitting or a group of lighting fittings.1.1 A major portion of fixed installation design in a building relates to wiring installation.5 0.3 The contents of this Section are based on IS : 732 (Part 2)-1982* 1. 2.3 Lighting Fittings 2.2 Each socket outlet shall also be controlled by a switch which shall preferably be located immediately adjacent thereto or combined therewith. Guidance on such matters are covered in respective Sections of the Code. depending upon the type and weight of the fittings.3 A ceihng rose shall not embody fuse terminal as an integral part of it.4 Ordinary socket outlet may be fixed at any convenient place at a height above 20 cm from the floor level and shall be away from danger of mechanical injury. SCOPE 1. Where fittings-wire is used for wiring fittings. qQUIPMENT FITTINGS AND ACCESSORIES 2. etc. Specially designed ceiling roses shall be used for multiple pendants.3.2 Socket Outlets and Plugs 2. conductors connecting such current-consuming devices shall be of flexible cord with an earthing core and the earthing core shall be secured by connecting between1 the earth terminal of plug and the.1 This Section of the Code covers the essential design and constructional requirements for electrical wi.1 Ceiling Roses and Similar Attachments 2 .3 The switch controlling the socket outlet shall be on the live side of the line. PART I GENERAL AND COMMON ASPECTS 2.5 4 2.2. 0. with suitable discrimination with back-up fuse or miniature circuit-breaker provided in. water cooler.1 Each 15A socket outlet provided in buildings for the use of domestic appliances sych as air-conditioner.0 I . The requirements specified in this Section are based on safety and reliability considerations.75 l6/0.3 No flammable shade shall form a part of lighting fittings unless such shade is well protected against all risks of fire.3.2 12810. Where control at more than one point is necessary as many two-way or intermediate switches may be provided as there are control points. 2. 0. steel chains.2.2 2410. shall be provided with its own individual fuse.1.2.2 8010. N OTE ~ In situations where a socket outlet is accessible to children. 2. the sub-circuit leads shall termmate In a ceiling rose or box with connectors from which they shall be carried into the fittings.2 Normally.The use of fittings-wire shall be restricted to the internal wiring of the lighting fittings. 2. Where a lighting fitting is supported by one or more flexible cords. 2. 2.body of current-consuming devices. Design and consiruction.2 2 : 5.3. 0. Celluloid shade or lighting fitting shall not be used under any circumstances.ring installations. This Section of the Code is primarily intended to cover guidelines on design and construction of wiring installations which are commonly applicable to all types of occupancies.2 Where necessary lighting fittings shall be supported by suitable pipe/conduits. *Code of practice for electrical wiring iE. only one flexible cord shall be attached to a ceiling rose.2. 2.2 4810.2 3210.2 It may be mentioned that the general design guidelines for wiring given in this Section have to be carefully considered while applying them to specific occupancies and a proper selection of the method is to be decided depending on local conditions.5 In an earthed system of supply.5 2.SECTION 11 WIRING INSTALLATIOlVS 0. the maximum weight !o which the twin flexible cords may be subjected shall be as follows: Nominal CrossSectional Area of Twin Flexible Cord Number and Diameter in mm of Wires Maxrmum Permissible Weight kg mm* 0. .3 8. a socket outlet with plug shall be of three-pin type with the third terminal connected to the earth. brackets fabricated from structural steel.o 1.4 Fitting-Wire . 2.2. When such socket outlets with plugs are connected to any current+onsuming device of metal or any noninsulating material or both.Lampholders for use with flexible pendants shall be provided with c o r d grips. FOREWORD 2. 2.takitiOnS: Part 2.8 14.A11 lampholders shall be provided with 45 .5 Lampholders . 1 . 1 A ceiling rose or any other similar attachment shall not be used on a circuit the voltage of which normally exceeds 250 V . 2.

2. and shall in addition be secured by means of split pins. c) Fan clamps shall be of suitable design according to the nature of construction of 46 2. The bushing shall be of insulating material unless a jacketted type or cord is used. d) Exposed live parts within porcelain fixtures shall be suitably recessed and so located as to make it improbable that wires will come in contact with them. irrespective of being painted to match the surroundings. etc. There shall be a spacing of at least 125 mm between live parts and the mounting plane of the fixture. Blocks shall not be less than 4 cm deep. sectional area not less than 1. 2. alternatively the two pipes may be welded.5 mm* aluminium and shall be protected from abrasion.7 Lamps . but if joints are unavoidable then such joints shall be screwed to special couplers of 5 cm minimum length and both ends of the pipes shall touch together within the couplers. There shall be no joint in the suspension rod. The minimum clearance between the ceiling and the plane of the blades shall be not !ess than 300 mm. these boards shall be well varnished with pure shellac on all four sides (both inside and outside). Regulators and Clamps 2.1 In wiring other than conduit wiring. Care shall be taken during fabrication that the metal does not crack while hammering to shape. Metallic guards shall be earthed suitably.5 m above the floor level. 2. 4 Canopies on top and bottom of suspension e) The lead-in-wire shall be of nominal cross- b) A bushing or the equivalent shall be rods shall effectively hide suspensions and connections to fan motors. the clearance between the bottom-most point of the ceiling fan and the floor shall be not less than 2. Fan clamps for reinforced concrete roofs shall be buried with the casting and due care shall be taken that they shall serve the purpose. brackets.0 mm’ copper or 1. but in a:1 cases care shall be taken to see that they are rigid and safe.8.6 Outdoor Lamps . 2. all ceiling roses.9 Attachment of Fittings and Accessories 2.All lamps unless otherwise required and suitably protected. In verandahs and similar exposed situations where pendants are used. In all cases fan clamps shall be fabricated from new metal of suitable sizes and they shall be as close fitting as possible.2 Exhaust Fans . Other fan clamps shall be made to suit the position. care being taken that the blades rotate in the proper direction.shade carriers. Where centrecontact Edison screw lampholders are used. Brass screws shall only be used for attaching fittings and accessories to their base blocks.All fan clamps shall be so fabricated that fans revolve steadily.4 m. the earthed conductor of the circuit. The suspension rod shall be s. shall be hung at a height of not less than 2.1 Ceiling Fans-Wiring for ceiling fans shall conform to the following requirements: a) Control of a ceiling fan shall be through its own regulator as well as a switch in series. 2.9. adequate strength to withstand the dead and impact forces imposed on it. respectively.8 Fans. f) Unless otherwise specified. 4 Portable lamps shall be wired with flexible cord. Hand lamps shall be equipped with a substantial guard attached to the lamp holder or handle. Flexible cord and cord grip lampholders shall not be used where exposed to weather. Fan clamps for wood beams shall be of suitable flat iron fixed on two sides of the beam and according to the size and section of the beam one or two mild steel bolts passing through the beam shall hold both flat irons together.9. a circular hole shall be provided in the wall to suit the size of the frame which shall be fixed b y means of &-bolts embedded in the wall. the neutral.For fixing of an exhaust fan. pendants and accessories attached to walls or ceilings shall be mounted on substantial wooden blocks twice varnished after all fixing holes are made in them. NOTE . The hole shall be neatly plastered with cement and brought to the original finish of the wall. the outer or screw contacts shall be connected to the ‘middle wire’.2 Where teak or hardwood boards are used for mounting switches. ceiling on which these clamps are to be fitted. The size of such boards shall NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE . provided where flexible cord enters the base or stem of portable lamp. Fan clamps for steel joint shall be fabricated from flat iron to fit rigidly to the bottom flange of the beam. b) All ceiling fans shall be wired with normal wiring to ceiling roses or to special connector boxes to which fan rod wires shall be connected and suspended from hooks or shackels with insulators between hooks and suspension rods. c) Ali wiring shall be free from short-circuits and shall be tested for these defects prior to being connected to the circuit.8. they shall be of fixed rod type. The exhaust fan shall be connected to exhaust fan point which shall be wired as near to the hole as possible by means of a flexible cord.Lamps fitted outdoor shall have weather-proof fittings so as to effectively prevent the ingress of moisture and dust. regulators. Hand lamps shall be equipped with a handle of moulded composition or other material approved for the purpose.

plugs. the outer casing shall be weatherproof and shall 3.1. in dry situations and in ventilated rooms and they shall not be placed in the vicinity of storage batteries or exposed to chemical fumes. shall bc provided at the back for attachment of incoming and outgoing cables.5 cm between the teak wood board and the cover. 1956 shall apply.1. such as bakclite.1. Alternatively. to drip or to abnormal moist atmosphere.4 R e c e s s i n g q/ hoards-. Where t. vapour or gas is likely to be present.1. the switchboards shah be recessed in the wall.5 mm in thickness. A teak wood board. or with unbreakable glass doors in teak 17 PART I GENERAL AND COMMON ASPECTS .1 Reception and Distribution of Main Supply 3. hinged-type metal boards shall be made of sheet covering mounted on channel or angle iron frame. 4 In a damp situation or where flammable or explosive dust. where. There shall be a clear distance of not less than 2.W h e r e S O specified.depend on the number of accessories that could conveniently and neatly be arranged. The joints shall be welded. N OTE . or wooden Gutties and shall he provided with a locking arrangement and an earthing stud.2. These shall be of seasoned teak or other suitable quality timber with all joints dovetailed. 3. the insulation of the cables is not subjected to damage and no short length of cables is subjected to excessive twisting or bending in any case. 3. All wires passing through the metal board shall be bushed. an indication of a permanent nature shall be provided to identity the earthed neutral conductor.enable the board to swing open for examination ‘of the wiring at the back. g) Adequate illumination shall be provided for all working spaces about the switchboards when installed indoors.1.1 There shall be ctrcuit-breakei or a linked switch with fuse on each live conductor of the supply mains at the point of entry. f-l In case of switchboards unavoidably fixed in places likely to be exposed to weather.hete is danger of attack by termite. b) Main switchboards shall be installed in rooms or cupboards having provisions for locking arrangement so as to safeguard against operation by unauthorized personnel.1 All main switches shall be either of metal-clad enclosed pattern or of any insulated enclosed pattern which shall be fixed at close proximity to the point of entry of supply.1 Control at the Point of Commencement of SUPPlY be provided with glands or bushings or adopted tb receive screwed conduit. on the underside instead of pure shellac. according to the manner in which the cabks are run.1. The board shall be securely fixed to the wall by means of rag bolts.Such type of boards are parlicularly suitable for small switchboards for mounting metal-clad switchgear connected to supply at low voltages. the boards shall be painted with suitable.3 On the main switchgear. The front shall be fitted with a hinged panel of teak wood or other suitable material. b) cl Open type switchboards shall be placed only Fixed-type metal boards . CONSTRUCTION 3. antitermite paint. 3.2 M a i n Sn’itches and S~citc~hhoards 3. woode? hoards may be used as main-boards or sub-boards. stoves or sinks. thoroughly protected both inside and outside with insulating varnish and of not less than 6. or within 2.These shall consist of an angle or channel iron frame fixed on the wall.2 The main switchgear shall be easily accessible and shall he situated as near as practicable to the termination of service line.5 m of any washing unit in the washing rooms.1.1.1. the switchboard shall be totally enclosed or made flameproof as may be necessitated by the particular circumstances.1. If there are any attachments of bare connections at the back of the switchboard. N O T E-Such type of boards are particularly suitable for large switchboards for mountmg large number of switchgears or higher capacity metal-clad switchgear or both. or on the floor and supported on the wall at the top if necessary. cl e) Switchboards shall not be erected above gas Wooden boards . Rule 5 I(t)(c) of Indian Electricity Rules.These shall consist of a box made of sheet metal not less than 2 mm thick and shall be provided with a hinged cover to. The wiring throughout the installation shall be such that there is no break in the neutral wire in the form of the switch or fuse unit.1.2 Location The location of the main board should be such that it is easily accessible for fireman and other personnel to quickly disconnect the supply in case of emergencies.1.23 Metal-clad switchgear shall preferably be mounted on any of the following types of boards: a) Hinged-type metal ‘boards . There shall be a clear distance of I m in front of the switchboard. 3. 3.2. 3.For small installations connected to a single-phase 240 volts supply. the conductors include an earthed conductor of a two-wire system or an earthed neutral conductor of a multi-wire system or a conductor which is to be connected thereto. the distance being increased for larger boards in order that on closing of the cover.2. 3.

the outer surface of the doors being flush with the walls. each such switch shall be marked to indicate which section of the installation it controls. At least one spare circuit of the same capacity shall be provided on each branch distribution board. various live parts. No fuse body shall be mounted within 2. non-flammable insulating material. before proceeding with the actual construction of the boards. of the panel. fitted on the same pole.Iltritt trtiil Brutli~h I~i.3.5 cm of any edge of the panel and no hole other than the holes by means of which the panel is fixed shall be drilled closer than 1. including the disposition of the . circuits for socket outlets may bc kept separate from fans and lights. b) No apparatus shall project beyond any edge b) Lights and fans may be wired on a common cl The.5 In large installations of medium voltage. shall be so spaced that an arc cannot maintain between such parts and earth.2 Main distribution board shall be provided with a circuit-breaker on each circuit. the number of P in ans the circuit shall not exceed ten.rmanent. Ample room shall be provided at the back for c o n n e c t i o n a n d a t t h e *front b e t w e e n t h e switchgear mountings. In case of new installation. Looping by cable connections at incoming and outgoing of these devices should be avoided. which shall be symmetrically and neatly arranged for arriving at the overall dimensions.1.1. all circuits and sub-circuits shall be designed by making a provision of 20 percent increase in load due to any future modification. The load on any low voltage sub-circuit shall not exceed 3 000 watts.wood frame with locking arrangement. on the live conductor of each sub-circuit and the earthed n.2. if need is felt separate circuits may be provided for the I W O.3 . control for switching operation. fans and 5-A . The switches shall always be linked. b) These shall be fixed on suitable stanchion or wall and shall be accessible for replacement of fuses. that they shall be readily accessible and their connections to all instruments and apparatus shall also be easily identifiable.1. and shall not bc more than 2 m from floor level. c) All markings shall be clear and pe.1. they shall be of the weatherproof type. Normally. If a se arate fan circuit is provided. 3.3. Power sub-circuits shall be designed according to the load but in no case shall there be more than four outlets on each sub-circuit.4 Installation on distribution boards 3. shall be prepared and incorporated in the building drawing. N A T I O N A L EI.\lrihirriort Hourcl\ 411 a) The distribution fuse-boards shall be located as near as possible to the centre of the load they are intended to control.3. fans and lights may be wired on a common circuit.3 Branch distribution hoards a) Branch distribution boards shall be provided 4 Equipment which is on the front of a switchboard shall be so arranged that inadvertent personal contact with live parts is unlikely during the manipulation of switches. each such switch shall be marked to indicate which section of the installation it controls. Such sub-circuit shall not have more than a total of ten points of lights. changing of fuses like operation.mountings. Power subcircuits shall be designed according to the load but in no case shall there be more than two 15-A outlets on each sub-circuit. c) These shall be of either metal-clad type. circuit.3 cm from any edge of the panel. unless they are effectively screened by substantial barriers of non-hygroscopic. or co\cred with \uit:thlc plastic compound.7 Identification and marking a) Marking shall be done as given in Table I of Set 41 Part I of the Code. a proper drawing showing the detailed dimensions and design. But.2. however. they shall be trcatcd with anti-corrosivc prcservativc.1.1.C:(‘TWI<‘AI. 3. The main switch shall be marked as such and where there is more than one main switch in the building. 3.3. <‘ODE . The load of such circuit shall be restricted to 800 watts.2. b) Where a board has more than one switch.ocket outlets. 3.1. 3. 3.2.6 Arrangemetlr o/’ apparatus 3. In corrosive atmospheres.1. or a switch with a fuse on the phase or live conductor and link on the neutral or earthed conductor of each circuit.1.eutraI conductor shall be connected to a common link and be capable of being disconnected individually for testing purposes. or all-insulated type. with a fuse or a miniature circuit-breaker or both of adequate rating/setting. c) In installations requiring the use of group 4 The arrangement of the gear shall be such e) In every case in which switches and fuses are 0 No fuses other than fuses in instrument circuit shall be fixed on the back of or behind a switchboard panel or frame.3. these fuses shall be so arranged that the fuses are not live when their respective switches are in off position. if exposed to weather or damp situations.1 Main and branch distribution boards shall be of any type mentioned under 3.

1. The minimum cross-sectional area of conductors of flexible cord shall be 0.list giving details of each circuit which it controls and the current rating of the circuit and size offusedlement. Cables in each circuit shall be bunched together. avoiding unnecessary crossings. b) The current rating of a fuse shall not exceed the current rating of the smallest cable in the circuit protected by the fuse. Care shall be taken to see that wires pass very 49 PAR1 . an indelible indication of its appropriate current rating for the protection of the circuit which it controls. 3. 3. lugs or ferrules unless the terminal is of such a form that it is possible to securely clamp them without the cutting away of cable strands. NOTE-The wiring of such low voltage distribution boards shall be segregated from each other and not run in the same condvk a) A fuse carrier shall not be fitted with a fuseelement of higher rating than that for which the carrier is designed (see Set 18. e) If required.1.4. Part I c?f the Code). these distribution boards shall be: The cables between these points shall be of such length as to allow.1.down. 4. The cross-sectional areas of conductors for power wiring shall be not less than 2.3.4 Selection of Size qf Conductor (see Set I8 Part I of the Code). following the arrangements of the apparatus mourited thereon. In each circuit or sub-circuit the fuse shall be selected to match the cable rating to ensure the desired protection. one. 4 All bare conductors shall be rigidly fixed in such a manner that a clearance of at least 2.5 Wiring qf tlivrrihurion boards: c) Every fuse shall have in its own case or cover.of the following methods shall be employed. .50 mm? aluminium. 3. be fixed at the corresponding points on the switchboard panel. 3 ) i n s t a l l e d in a room or enclosure accessible to only authorited persons. as far as possible evenly between the number of ways of the board. as the case may be.2 If the . earth or earthed neutral conductor of the circuit. All connections between pieces of apparatus or between apparatus and terminals on a board shall be neatly arranged in a definite sequence.6.4. copper.d) Where two or more distribution fuse-boards feeding low voltage circuits are fed from a I) fixed not less than 2 m supply of medium voltage. or 2) arranged so that it is not possible to o n the two at the same time. 3. all branch switches shall be placed in the outer or live conductor of the circuit and no single-phase switch or fuse shall be inserted in the middle wire.00 mm2 copper and 1. I GENERAL ANS) COMMON ASPECTS 3.3.43 All conductors shall be of copper or aluminium.1.1. and the metal case is marked ‘Danger 415 volts’ and identified with proper phase marking and danger marks.1 Where cond:uctors pass through walls. 1) In a hinged type board. b) c) Cables shall be connected to a terminal only by soldered or welded or crimped lugs using suitable sleeve. 3.1.Where the supply is derived from a three-wire or four-wire source. Each shall be provided with a circuit . Single-pole switches (other than for multiple control) carrying current of not more than I5 A may be of tumbler tybe or flush type which shall be ‘on’ when the handle or knob is . total load of the consuming devices shall be divided.and shall also. a pilot lamp shall be fixed and connected through an independent singlepole switch and fuse to the bus-bars of the board.cable size is increased to avoid voltage drop in the circuit. the incoming and outgoing cables shall be fixed at one or more points according to the number of cables on the back of the board leaving suitable space in between cables.1. the rating of the cable shall be the current which the circuit is designed to carry.5 cm is maintained between conductors of opposite polarity or phase and between the conductors and any material other than insulating material. namely.5 Branch Switches .5 mm?.1. conductors are carrying the maximum current under the normal conditions of service. leaving the spare circuit for future extension. Conductor for final sub-circuit for fan and light wiring shall have a nominal crosssectional area not less than 1.50 mm? copper. t % ey are interlocked. d All distribution boards shall be marked Lighting’ or ‘Power’. 3.6 Fuses apart.00 mm? aluminium. and also marked with the voltage and number of phases of the supply. or in an adjacent conspicuous position. the switchboard panel to swing through an angle of not less than 900 3.1 The sizes d conductors of circuits shall be so selected that the drop in voltage from consumer’s terminals in a public supply (or from the bus-bars of the main switchboard controlling the various circuits in a private generation plant) to any point on the installation does not exceed 3 percent of the voltage at the consumer’s terminals (or at two bus-bars as the case may be) when the a) In wiring a branch distributioh board. and distribution is done on the two-wire system.6 Passing Through Walls and Floors 3.1. if possible.

Cleats shall be fixed at distances not greater than 60 cm apart and at regular intervals.1. wood. 3. batten. a base piece and a cap. 3. floors shall be protected from mechanical injury by means of rigid steel conduit to a tieight not less than I.2 To achieve neatness.5 cm apart centre-tocentre and in the case of sub-mains not less than 4 cm apart centre-to-centre.Plugs for ordinary wails or ceilings shall be of well-seasoned teak or other suitable hardwood not less than 5 cm long and 2. Care shall also be taken that graoves of porcelaicl cleats do not compress the insluation nor be too wide to give a very loose fit. if necessary. provided that this rule shall not apply. a) In ordinary cases.6 Fixing qf Cleats a) A teak wood box extending through the whole thickness of the wall shall be buried in the wall and casings or conductors shall be carried so as to allow 1. in which cases they shall be adequately protected.4 Cleats . 4.1 Where owing to irregular coursing or other reasons the plugging of the walls or ceiling with wood plugs presents difficulties.2 Where a wall tube passes outside a building so as to be exposed to weather.3 cm air space on three sides.1. METHODS OF INTERNAL WIRING 4. A special pattern of cleat may be used.7. on either ends of such holes: be liable to mechanical injury and where they are less than I. 4. 4.All cleated wiring shall be run. wrought all over and varnished with two coats of varnish or painted as may be required.1 General.5 cm wider than the cleat used.1.freely through protective pipe or box and that the wires pass through in a straight line without any twist or cross in wires. and the difference in size shall be reasonable.1.5 Where cleated wiring is laid along iron joists or any metal. 4.1. b) The conductor shall be carried either in a rigid steel conduit or a rigid non-metallic conduit or in a porcelain tube of such a size which permits easy drawing-in. In the case of new buildings.1 Cleated Wiring System 4. of the casing or conductor. b) Where practicable the same method shall be 4.3 Class q/ Cables . Under no circumstances two wires shall be placed in one groove of porcelain cleats. conductors shall not be less than 2. a wood batten shall be provided and fixed with not less than one plug per 1.Vulcanized rubber inslulated cables. and properly bushed on the open end.7. metallic or a fibre fixing plug. cleats shall be attached to plugs arranged in the manner specified under 4. The end of conduit shall be neatly bushed with porcelain. as far as pra&icable.7 Distance Between Wires .7 Fixing to Walls and Ceilings .1. adopted in the cases of stone walls. the wood casing.5 cm above the floors and flush with the ceiling below. Care shall be taken in selecting size of cleats particularly for branch distribution wiring where two-way and three-way porcelain cleats are essential. so that there may be no risk of the conductors touching the wall owing to sagging or stretching.6.5 m above the floor. it shall be chamfered on the edges. 4. teak wood plugs shall be fixed in the walls before they are plastered 3.25 m run. plastic (PVC and polyethylene) insulated cables.1.lJ Crossing yf’ Conductors a) Where cleated conductors cross each other they shall be separated by an insulating biidging piece.1.5 cm of the surface.All cleats shall be of apprqved design and shall consist of two parts. spacing between such metal and porcelain cleats shall be inserted either with varnished wood fillet or varnished wood clamp securely fixed so as to prevent conductors coming in contact with such metal along which they are passing. The batten shall be of seasoned teak or other suitable seasoned hardwood 2 cm thick and 2. braided or unbraided. if the cable used in twin-core. wood or other suitable material.For circuit voltages up to 250 volts. the remainder being finished according to the nature of the surface with plaster or lime punning. shall be used without any further protection. metal conduit or cleat (as the case may) shall be attached to the wall or ceiling in a suitable manner that would conform to the requirements given in the Code. 4.1.7. but when owing to irregular coursing or other reasons it is impracticable to fix the cleats in a regular and workman like manner. which will rigidly maintain a distance of at :least 1.1.3 cm between the NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 4. c) Insulated conductors while passing through 3. wherever possible. where conductors pass round corners.1. the outer end shall be bell-mouthed-and turned downwards. cleats shall be of such dimensions that in the case of branch loads. in such a manner so as to be visible except in positions where they would 50 .1. plugging of walls or ceilings may be done by a suitable type of asbestos.This system shall not be employed for wiring on damp walls or ceilings unless suitable precautions in an approved manner are adopted to effectively prevent dampness from affecting the insulation of conductors.2 Accessihi/ir\* . This steel conduit shall be earthed and securely bushed.5 cm square on the inner end and 2 cm square on the outer end They shall be cemented into walls to within 6.

conductors except when the cabk used is twincore. Wood casing wiring system shall not be used in damp places or in illventilated places.5 A t t a c h m e n t qf Casing to Wall and Ceihng . and shall not be buried in walls or ceilings under plaster.2. etc. Where crossing of wire\ is unavoidable and a junction box is not used. c) At the time of laying and drawing of conductors. nor fixed in proximity to gas.1. two screws shall be inserted on the two dividing walls in a workmanlike manner).6 At/acVwwnl of Capping . d) All wooden fittings.s Where conductors pass through floors.7 Join/s in Casing and Capping .5 mm thick.2. and spaced with disc insulators. NOIV Care shall bc taken in llxing screws on cupping\ w that they do nol picrcr through Ihe walls casing and damage the insulation. and such pipe work shall be earthed and properly bushed on all open ends to prevent abrasion of cables.1 General. free from knots.All casing shall be fixed by means of suitable countersunk head wood screws to plugs at an interval not exceeding 90 cm for sizes up to 64 mm casing and not exceeding 60 cm for sizes above 64 mm casing.All casing shall be of seasoned teak wood or any other suitable hardwood. .5 m.9 Prorecrion Near Floor bunched in one groove in wood casing. shakes. a) No cleated wiring shall be left unprotected up to I. They shall be secured at joints with two or more screws as would be necessary. they shall he carried in an approved heavy gauge conduit properly bushed at both ends. Casing shall be used only on dry walls and ceilings avoiding outside walls.fuse cut-outs shall not be inserted for any purpose.2. partitions. Screw heads shall be countersunk within the dividing wall of the grooves (in the case of three-grooved casing. or other defects. but where joints are required for connecting or bifurcating the wires.Conductors of opposite polarity or different phases shall not be PART I GENERAL AND COMMON ASPECTS 4.2. joint cut-outs or. that is.d by hoopiron or by of wood clamps.All capping shall be attached to the casing (after all insulated wires are laid inside grooves) by round-head screws (rust resisting) fixed on edges and screwed to outer wails of the casing at an interval not exceeding 15 cm crosswise (that is.This system of wiring is suitable for low voltage installation where vulcanized rubber insulated cables. care shall be taken to keep’the wires straight.The sizes of casing and capping for various sizes of 250 volts grade insulated cables in a groove shall be in accordance with those specified in Table 2 of Set 18! Part I of the Code. separate base and top. all sides plaqed with smooth finish and all sides well varnish’ed. 4.2. of 4. All casing shall be spaced from the wall or ceiling by means of porcelain disc insulators not less than 6.2. 30 cm between two successive screws on each side) for all sizes up to 64 mm casing and capping. The wooden boards shall be well varnished on all sides (both inside and outside) and may be mounted with suitable porcelain Insulators behind the boards. unless suitable precautions are taken. 4 .ay~Llt of wood casing wiring shall he such as to avoid corners as far as possible and avoid crossing of conductors inside the casing.t\ that of capping shall be used with grooves at the bottom for conductors. 4. When brought through the floor it shall be enclosed in cOnduit in the manner specified’ in 4. 2 Mureriol atltl Buftcrtl 91’ C a s i n g ~. All joints shall be scarfed or cut diagonally ‘in longitudinal section and shall be smoothed down by fitting to make joints a very close fit as far as possible. and free joints. tight and rigid without any twist.9. (both inside and outside) with pure shellac varnish.2. in such case conductors shall be carried through steel conduit with all screwed accessories.5 cm and 01 same width as that of casing with same tini%h . 4 . no open type of wiring shall run within floors. Joints in capping shall not overlap those in the casing.3 Dimensions qf Casing . walls. plastic insulated cables or other suitable insulated cables are used in the wiring work and carried within wood casing enclosure. b) As far as possible. NOTE--Lengths of conductors of the same polarity or phase. may be bunched. 2 .4 Bunching q/ Circuits . junction boxes of wooden or other insulating material with porcelain connectors inside shalf be used. 4. teak wood solid corner pieces of a radius not less than 7. For sizes above 64 mm similar additional round-head screws shall be fixed on the centre-wall (or alternative walls in cases of 3 grooves) at an interval of 45 cm.above floor level.Casing and capping shall be run in lengths as long as possible. such as boards. Where conductors have to cross corners. The conduit shall 51 . steam or water pipes or immediately below the latter Casing under steel joists shall be securt. keeping mechanical continuity throughout the entire layout. 4. 4. 2 . 4. blocks. as far as possible. if so desired.I bridge piece of casing shall be fixed on the top of casing with neat finish and shall pass conductor\ avoiding crossing. ceilings. saps.2 Wood C&g Wiring System 4. shall be of well-seasoned teak wood or of suitable insulating material and shall be of double type. b) In open type wiring.8 Ly~wur c?/’ Wood Cuing Wiring I.. roof spaces or other concealed spaces in which they are not normally open to view.2. The casing shall have grooved~ body with beaded or plain moulded cover as desired. 9 P a s s i n g Thsou~h Fioor.

or any structural steel work shall he run on well-seasoned aqd varnished. the base of which is made flush with the plaster or brickwork. or plaster walls and ceilings. which shall.3 Tough Rubber-Sheathed or PVC-Sheathed Wiring System 4. The conduit shall be securely earthed.If so required.3. For the wiring and runs of mains exposed to heat and rain.2.The wiring shall not in any circumstances be bent so as to form a right angle but shall be rounded off at the corners to a radius not less than six times the .All casing and capping shall be given before erection.3.4.1 In cases where there are chances of any damage to the wiring such wiring shall be covend with sheet metal protective covering.down in 3. In the latter case there shall be one or more conduits of adequate size to carry the cables.5 m below ceiling level and neatly entered into the hasing.4. be painted with one coat of oil-free paint or distemper of suitable colour over a coat of oil-free primer. the tough rubber sheathed wiring shall. care shall be taken that the stiarp edge of the cutting instrument does not touch the rubber or PVC sheathed insulation of conductors.6. stone. steel joists.3.0 Genera/.1 Passing Through Walls . and this protective covering shall be maintained up to the close proximity of connecting terminals as far as practicable. clips specially made for dutdoor use from a durable metal. 4. Care shall be taken to avoid hammering on link clips with any metal instruments.9 Stripping of Outer Covering . 4. 4. where so specified.4 Metal-Sheathed Wiring System 4. l 4. 4. antitermite treatment shall be given.from Mechanical Damage 52 .5 mm?.10 C a s i n g R o u n d Mouldings or Decora/ions -. installations.2.3. they may be taken in teak wood channelling of ample capacity or cement chases or conduit buried in the wall.overall diameter of the cable.8 B u r i e d C a b l e s .ith one coat of varnish or suitable paint matching with the surroundings. wood or other approved material. the flat-head wood screws shall be countersunk within wood batten and smoothed down with file. This system of wiring is suitable in situations where acids and alkalis are likely to be present. The ends of all conduits or pipes shall be neatly bushed with porcelain. be suitably protected at the floor level.6 Passing Through Floors . or by means of any other approved type of metallic covering. after the cables are laid.This shall be considered as special decoration work and carried out in consultation with the architect or the engineer-in-charge of construction work and with this approval. 43.5 m from the floor.11 Painting and Varnishing . as the case may be.2 Such protective covering shall in all cases be fitted or all downdrops within 1.1. and shall not be used in situations where acids and alkalis are likely to be present..4 Protection of TRS or PVC-Sheathed Wiring . resistant to weather and atmospheric corrosion. The clips shall be fixed on varnished wood battens with any rustresisting pins or screws and spaced at intervals of IO cm in the case of horizontal runs and I5 cm in the case of vertical runs. 4.5 Bends in Wiring -.5 m above floor level and 2. Where attack from termite is’prevalent.3 Link Clips -.3.Wiring with tough rubbersheathed cables is suitable for low voltage installations. Metalsheathed wiring may be used in places exposed to sun and rain NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 4. above which a single clip shall hold a single twin-core cable. wires are sheathed in protective covering against atmosphere and well protected to withstand dampness. Prior to’erection. after erection.3.Metal-sheathed wiring system is suitable for low voltage. or the wiring shall be drawn through a conduit complying with all requirements of conduit wiring system. 4.3.4. straight teak wood battens of not less than IO mm finished thickness and the width of which is such as to suit total width of cables laid on the batten.All cables taken through floors shall be enclosed in an insulated heavy gauge steel conduit extending I.3. if so required. Where junction boxes are provided. The conduits shall be neatly arranged so that the cables enter them straight without b_ending. 4. 4. and shall not be used in places exposed to sun and rain nor in damp places. 4. In addition all casing together with capping after erection shall be painted or varnished to the 4 desired finish. and the PVC-sheathed wiring shall be painted with a synthetic enamel paint of quick drying type. 4.5 m above the floor and flush with the ceiling below.Link clips shall be so arranged that one single clip shall not ho&more than two twin-core TRS or PVC-sheathed cables up to I.3. 4. they sh‘8il be made moisture-proof 1 with suitable plastic compound.10 Painting .3. Wiring with PVC-sheathed cables is suitable for medium voltage’installation and may be installed directly under exposed conditions of sun and rain or damp places. internally and on the back. 4.0 carried 1. shall be used.While cutting and stripping of the outer covering of the cables. The protective outer covering of the cables shall be stripped off near connecting terminals.T h e t o u g h r u b b e r sheathed cables shall not be buried directly in plaster.The method to be adopted shall be that laid. These battens shall be secured to the walls and ceilings by countersunk head wood screws to coed plugs or other plugs at an interval pot exceeding 75 cm. two coats of varnish. these shall be painted \.3.1 All sheathed cables on brick walls.

the wood screws shall be counter sunk within wood batten and smoothed down with file.provided no joint of any description is exposed.Where joint-box system is specified.9 Buried Cables Metal-sheathed cables shall in no case be buried directly in the plaster or under any masonry work.onspicuously as possible. Alternatively. clips specially made for the outdoor use from a durable metal. 53 . While connecting conductors to the connecting terminals of accessories. The ends of all conduits or pipes shall be neatly bushed with porcelain.6. 4. The earthing shall extend to all main switches. cables up to 1.The electrical resistance of the metal sheathing together with the resistance of the earthing lead.4.4. and the insulation between the metal sheath and the conductors shall be of rubber or PVC sheath only. Bonding connections shall be so arranged as not to come in contact with plaster. together with all joint-boxes and other similar receptacles are efficiently earthed in accordance with the requirements laid down under 5. or across these boxes.5 mm2 above which a single clip shall hold a single twincore cable. 4. 4. 4. Where paper-insulated metalsheathed cable is used. as the case may be. a batten shall first be laid on the joists and clipped to it as in.1.4.All cables taken through floors shall be enclosed in an insulated steel conduit extending 1. insulated with porcelain. The conduit(s) shall be neatly arranged so that the cables enter them straight without bending. Prior to erection these shall be painted with one coat of varnish or suitable paint of colour to match with the surroundings.4. stone walls or plastered walls and ceilings.6 Stripping of Insulation and Outer Covering 4.These shall be so arranged that one single clip shall not hold more than two twin-core metal-sheathed. The cotton tape covering shall always remain inside lead covering of cables.4.4.4. with earth continuity conductors (each bonded cables) especially manufactured for the purpose. 4. as.4.3 Wiring on Rolled Steel Joists . resistant to weather and atmospheric corrosion. 4. 4. distribution boards. 4.4 ProtecGon of Wiring from Mechanical Damage 4.4.All metal-sheathed cables on brick walls.4. such wiring shall be covered with sheet metal protective covering. 4. 1956. joints shall be made by means of connectors. all openings in the same shall be sealed.6. All tape shall be.4.8 Passing Through Walls -The method to be adopted shall be that laid down in 3.the sharp edge of cutting instrument does not touch the rubber or PVC insulation of conductors. 4. the base of which is made flush with the plaster or brickwork. or the wiring shall be drawn through a steel conduit pipe by complying with all requirements of conduit system of wiring. These battens shall be secured to the wills and ceilings by counter sunk head wood screws to wood plugs or other approved plugs a.4. 4. not cut.5 Join/s . in comph&nce with Indian Electricity Rules. or protected by means of any other approved type of metallic covering.4. 4. etc.Where wiring is to be carried along the tace of rolled steel joists. care shall be taken that . which have been well varnished on four sides. shall be used. or other approved material and enclosed in joint-boxes. steel joists or any structural steel work shall be run on well-seasoned and perfectly straight teak wood battens of not less than IO mm finished thickness. The width of teak wood battens shall be such as to suit the total width of cables -laid on the batten.3 and made electrically continuous throughout their lengths by means of soldered joints or approved suitable clamps or alternatively. The wiring shall be fixed to the batten in the ordinary way. In the latter case there shall be one or more conduits of adequate size to carry the cables.4.4. care shall be taken to remove cotton !ape covering from the top of rubber insulation of cable. the metal sheathing shall be nicked only.4.2 Arrachment to Walls and Ceilings . measured from the connection with the earth electrode to any other position in the completed installation shall not exceed IfI.1 Link Clips .2 While cutting and stripping of the outer covering of the cables. 4. The joint-boxes shall be so constructed as to prevent insects from entering them and to allow the white-washing of the walls without water having access to the connectors.5 m above the floor and flush with the ceiling below.10 Earthing ~ Precautions shall be taken to ensure that all metal sheathing including portable appliance with exposed metal parts. For the wiring and runs of mains exposed to heat and rain. this system may be installed in damp places with protection against ingress of dampness provided at the open ends of the cables.11 Testing .4.icrogap mainswitches or similar fittings. The clips shall be fixed on varnished wood battens with brass pins or brass screws and placed at intervals of IO cm in the case of horizontal runs and 15 cm in the case of vertical runs.t an interval not exceeding 75 cm.1 When rubber or PVC insulation has to be stripped for joints. All cables shall PART t tiENERAL AND COMMON ASPECTS be bonded through. well as manufacturers design and inst+uctions in connection with earthing of all insulated m. metal-sheathed cables can be run on metallic saddles.7 Passing Through Floors . stripped off. wood or other suitabk material.6.2 The protective covering shall in all cases be carried right through the entire length of such doubtful positions.1 In cases where there are chances of any damage to the wiring.

wo’rkman like manner for a perfect continuity between each wire and conduit. etc.9 Conductors .Conduit pipes shall be fixed by heavy gauge saddles. The entire system of conduit after erection shall be tested for mechanical and electrical continuity throughout and permanently connected to earth by means of suitable earthing clamp. all metalsheathed wiring or its protective covering when such is fitted.5.‘secured to suitable wood plugs or other plugs with screws in an approved manner at an interval of not more than I m.1. chases shall be provided in the wall. Cut ends df conduit pipes shall have no sharp edges nor any burrs left to avoid damage to the insulation of conductors while pulling them’ through such conduits.4. Fixing of standaid bends or elbows shall be avoided as far as practicable and all curves maintained by bending the aonduit pipe itself with a long radius which will permit easy drawing-in of conductors. a) Making of chase-The chase in the wall shall be neatly made and be of ample dimensions to p.6 Fixing of conduit .-srem with Rigid Steel Conduits . 4.5.2 Recessed Conduit Wiring S.shall be used. Threads on conduit pipes in all cases shall be between I I mm to 27 mm long sufficient to accommodate pipes to full threaded portion of couplers or accessories.All necessary bends in the system including diversion shall be done by bending pipes.All conductors used in conduit wiring shall preferably be stranded.5.1. shall be boxes of suitable meta. ceiling.1.5.Recessed conduit wiring system shall comply with’all the requirements for surface conduit wiring system specified in 4.Unless otherwise specified.All conduit pipes shall be finished with stove enamelled surface. but on either side of couplers or bends or similar fitting. etc. elbows or similar fittings. All conduit accessories shall be of threaded type and under no circumstances pin grip type or clamp type .5. or any other approved outlet boxes for either surface mounting or flush mounting system.1. bends. The number of insulated conductors that can be drawn into rigid steel conduit are given in Table 3 of set 18/Part I of the Code. No steel conduit less than 16 mm in diameter. shall be neatly painted after erection with two coats of any suitable paint. tees.accessories be used. 4.8 Ourlets .All outlets .5.5 Conduit Wiring System 4.1 to 4.1. elbows and tees shall be so installed that they remain accessible for such purposes as withdrawal of existing cable< or installation of additional cables. All threaded joints of rigid steel conduit shall be treated with some. forming part of the conduit system shall be adequately protected against rust particularly when such system is exposed to weather. No length of conduit shall have more than the equivalent of four quarter-bends from outlet to outlet.approved preseivative compound to secure protection against rust. In long distance straight runs of conduit.1.1 7)pe and size of conduit .5 Prortction of conduit against rust The outer surface of ‘the conduit pipes. or by inserting suitable 54 4. No single-core cable of nominal cross-sectional area greater than 130 mm* enclosed alone in a conduit and used for alternating current.7 Bends in conduit . where necessary.1. 4. unions.5. no bare threaded portion of conduit pipe shall be allowed unless such bare threaded portion is treated with anti-corrosive preservative or covered with suitable plastic compound. at the time of their construction and shall be filled up neatly after erection of conduit and brought to . inspection type couplers at reasonable intervals Shall be provided or running threadi with couplers and jam-nuts shall be provided. For lighting and small power outlet circuits phase segregation in separate conduits is recommended.4 Prorection against dampness .5.ermit the conduit to be fixed in the manner desired.5.5.In order to minimize condensation or sweating inside the conduit all outlets of conduit system shall be properly drained and ventilated.5 cm.11 and in tidditional.5.1.2 Bunching of cables .11 Inspection type conduit fittings such as inspection boxes. including all bends. the bends at the outlets not being counted. but in such a manner as to prevent the entry of insects as far as possible.5.Where required. Radius of such bends in conduits shall be not less than 7.1. etc.1. f&r fittings.lO Erecrion and earthing of con&t The conduit of each circuit or section shall be completed before conductors are drawn-in. saddles shall be fixed at a distance of 30 cm from the centre of such fitting.the original finish of the wall. 4. 4. junction boxes.C o n d u i t shall be joined by means of screwed couplers and screwed accessoeries only. In alI cases.1 . draw boxes. solid type ‘fittings shall be used. Conduit fittings shall be avoided as far as possible on conduit system exposed to weather. solid or inspection type normal bends.12 Puinring . In the case of buildings under construction. they shall be a‘dequately protected.5.5. insulated conductors of ac supply and dc supply shall be bunched in separate conduits.13 C o n d u i r j o i n t s . NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE b) . If conduits are liable to mechanical damage. conform to the rbquirements specified below. or fixing cast-iron inspection boxes whichever is more suitable.1 Surfacp Conduit Wiririg System with Rigid Steel Conduits 4. switches. 4. 4. Fixing qf conduir in chase -The conduit shall be fixed by means of staples or by means of saddles not more than 60 cm apart. 4. efficiently fastened to conduit in a . 4. 4.

If surface mounting type. 4.All flush mounting outlets shall be of cast-iron or mild steel boxes with a cover of insulating material or shall be a box made of a suitable insulating material. For !ighting and small power outlet circuits phase segregation in separate circuits is recommended. 4. The number of insulated cables that may be drawn into the conduits are given in Table 4 of Set 18/Part I of the Code. inspection bends.4 Fixing of Conduits .3. all outlets of conduit systems shall be properly drained and ventilated. ii) Surface mounting type .5.3. they shall be secured at intervals not exceeding I. For use underground.5. 4. Suitable ventilating holes shall be provided in the inspection box covers.9 Heat may be used to soften the conduit for bending and forming joints in case of plain conduit. The minimum sizes of inspection boxes shall be 75 X 15 mm. Cautton should be exercised in the use of this conduit in locations where the ambient temperature is 5oOC or above. 4.5. As the material softens ‘when heated. the material shall be acceptably resistant to moisture and corrosive agents. shall be boxes of substantial constru&ion. Certain types of ri id PVC conduits and their associated fittings are unsuitibe for use where the g ambient temperature is likely to fall below -5°C. 4.4 Conduit Wiring Systems wiih Flexibk Non-metallic Conduits . the conduit sections -across the joint may be through flexible conduits of the same size as the rigid conduit. 9 Flush mounting type . recessed and conceakd conduit wiring.g For use with recessed conduit wiring system the provisions of 4.3 Conduit Wiring System with Rigid Nonmetallic Conduits .Where flexible nonmetallic conduits are unavoidabk.All outlets.3.5.5. b) resistant to moisture and chemical atmospheres.1. 4. as far as possible.3. 4.5 m and within 300 mm ‘on each side of every outkt box or fittmg. PART I GENERAL AND COMMON ASPECTS . if necessary.1 Qpe and sire-The conduit may be either threaded type or plain type and shall be used with the corresponding accessories.10 Non-metallic conduit systems shall be used only where it is ensured that they -are: a) suitable for extremes of ambient temperature to which they are likely to be subjected in service.Rigid non-metallic conduits are used for surface. as far as possibk. but in such a manner as to prevent the entry of insects.2(a) to (d) shall apply. The metal box shall be effciently earthed with conduit by.9) or by employing normal bends. The switches and other outlets shall be mounted on such boxes.The provision of 4. switches etc. 45. In order to minimize condensation or sweating inside the conduit. inspection type couplers shall be provided at intervals.a suitable means of earth attachment. 4. e) When -crossing through expansion joints in buildings.532 Btinching of cables .Rigid PVC conduits are not. These shall be mounted flush with the wall.Conduits shall be joined by means of screwed or plain couplers depending on whether the conduits are screwed or plain. etc.3.3.suitable for use where the normal w&king te. 4.Wherever 4. NOTE .outlet box is specified.6 shall apply except that the spacing between saddles or supports is recommended to be 60 cm for rigid non-metallic conduits.5. and cl resistant to low temperature and sunlight effects.5.npcrature of the conduits and fittings may exceed WC.Suitable inspection boxes shall be provided to permit periodical inspection and to facilitate removal of wires.Inspection boxes . positioning of conduit in close proximity to hot surfaces should be avoided. may be either of flush mounting type or of surface mounting type.5.5.5 B e n d s i n necessary. elbows or similar fittings.1 Outlets -all the outlets for fittings. cl conduit .536 Conduit fittings shall be avoided. Where there are long runs of straight conduit.53. such al switches and sockets. inspection boxes.33 Conduit joints . on outdoor systems.53. it shall be of any suitable insulating material. 4. bends or diversions may be achieved by bending the conduits (see 45. However thts provision is not applicabk where flexible conduit 1s fished and for lengths of not over 900 mm at terminals where flexibility is necessary.Conductors of ac supply and dc supply shall be bunched in separate conduits. d) Types of accessories to be used .

earth bus and earth wires and methods of measurements.3 Additional rules applying to earth leakage circuit-breaker systems are covered in Appendix B. 67.FOREWORD 0.1 Earthing provides safety of persons and apparatus against earth faults.2 This Section of the Code summarises the essential requirements associated with earthing in electrical installations. 2.rarely serves as a art of the return circuit but is being used mainly Por fixing the voltage of system neutrals.3 Earthing associated with current-carrying conductor is normally essential to the security of the system and is generally known as system earthing. These relate to general conditions of soil resistivity.This section shall be read in conjunction with the provisions of IS : 3043-1966. if they are poorly made or inadequate for the purpose for which they are initnded.0. It is recommended that the value of any earth system resistance shall not be more than 5 n. 69.4 Earthing shall generally be carried out in accordance with the requirements of Indian Electricity Rules. NOTE . 5 1.0. shall be at earth potential.9 Each earth system shall be so devised that the testing of individual earth ekctrode is possible. ynless otherwise specified. 61.4 The contents of this Section are based on following: IS : 732 (Part 2)-1982 Code of practice for electrical wiring installations. other than live parts. Specific requirements for earthing in individual installations are covered in respective Parts of the Code. Any system is characterised by the type of distribution system.0. 0. 2. relaxation may be obtained from the competent authority. 2. design parameters of earth electrode. If necessary. 2. 1956 as amended frdm time to time.SECTION 12 EARTHING O. the neutral may be earthed through a suitable impedance. NATIONAL ELEflRICAL CODE I. 2.7 As far as possible all earth terminals shall be visible. Part 2 Design and construction IS : 3043-1966 Code of practice for earthing.2 The object of an earthing system is to provide as nearly as possible a surface under and 51 . As a matter of fact. SCOPE around a station which shall be at a uniform potential and as near1 zero or absolute earth potential as possibk.0.potential in a short distance big enough to shock or injure an attendant when short-circuits or other abnormal occurrences take place. 1. the earth now . while earthing of noncurrent carrying metal work and conductor is essential to the safety of human life.0. of animals and of property and is generally known as equipment earthing.0. The following Indian Electricity Rules are particularly applicable: 32.rthed by not less tgh an two separate and distinct conriections with earth each having its own electrode at the generating station or substation and may be earthed at any other point provided no interference is caused by such earthing. GENERAL REMARKS 2. The terms earth and earthing have been used in this Code.5.0. The choice of one system or the other would de nd on several considerations as each offer di tl” ferent degree of performance/ safety.01 All connections shall be canfully made. The different types of earthing s stems are listed in Appendix A to Set I/Part r of the Code. loss of life or serious personal injury may result. as neatly as possible. there can exist no difference of . Also by providing such an earth surface of uniform potential under and surrounding the station. as well as to ensure that operators and attendants shall be at earth potential at all times.1 This Section of the Code covers general requirements associated with earthing in electrical installations. and the relevant regulations of the electricity supply authority concerned. irrespective of reliance being placed on the earth itself. 0.5 All medium voltage equipment shall be earthed by two separate and distinct connections with earth through an earth electrode. xe purpose of this is to ensure thqt in general811 parts of apparatus. 2. 2. Particular requirements for earthing depending on the type of installation are covered in respective Sections of the Code. to denote a low impedance return path of the fault current. 0. In the case of high and extra high volta es the neutral points shall be ea. 2.6 Earth electrodes shall be provided at generating stations. The earth connection improves service continuity and avoids damage to equipment and danger to human lives.1 The subject of earthing covers the problems relating to the conductidn of electricity through earth. high frequency and mains frequency corekss induction furnaces). substations and consumer premises in accordance with the requirements. 62. which include types of systems of live conductors and types of system earthing. 2.0 General 2.0. 2.1 In cases where direct earthing may prove harmful rather than provide safety (for example.0. 88 (2) and 90.

The object of equipment earthing is to ensure effective operation of the protective gear in the event of leakage through such metal work. therefore.content of the soil and its chemical composition and concentration of salts dissolved in the contained water. This problem may be serious in small stations where the grid may cover only a 57 2. etc.0. does not include the case of a switch for use in controlling a generator or a transformer or a link for test purposes. the .33 The soil temperature also has some effect on soil resistivity but is important only near and below freezing point. 2. used in earthing shall. to secure optimum t%tivit< Reference is drawn to 1s : 3043-1966. the potential of which with respect to neighbouring objects may PART I GENERAL AND COMMON ASPECTS . 2. especially in case of large electrical installations. fittings.2 The type of soil largely determines its resistivity and representative values for s’oils generally found in India are given in Appendix A. ate capable of carrying the new value of earth fault current which may be obtained by this addition. 2. N OTE -Earthing may not ive protection against faults which are not csrntially earth f auks.1.1. use can be made of purely local conditions in choosing suitable electrode sites and of methods of oreoaring the site sekcted. In most cases such operation involves isolation of the faulty main or plant by circuit-breaker or fuses. the effective resistivity depends not only on the surface layers but also on the underlying geological formation. 2.1 The ngulations that every medium.1. which will increase the maximum available earth fault current or’its duration until it has been ascertained that the existing arrangement of earth electrodes.0. In the case of materials for which lndian Standard specifications do not exist. attain a value which would cause danger to life or risk of fire.1. the protective gear will operate to make the faulty portions of plant harmless. 2. Grain sire and distribution and closeness of packing ate also contributory factors since they control the manner in which the moisture is held in soil.11 No addition to the current-carrying system either temporary or permanent.1 System %Irrhing 2. the values given in Appendix A should be taken only as a general guide. in or around the premises shall not have large dangerous potential differences impressed across his body in case of a fault within or outside the premises. Such dan er may arise if steep potential gradients exist witffin the premises or between boundary of the premises and an accessible point outside. Within an earthing grid. -and the‘ part remote from the SUDD~Y falls to the nround.1.1. 2. if a phase conductor of an overhead spur litic*brcaks.12 No cut-out. as owing to the disposition of earth current. Many of these factors vary locally and some seasonally and. but in the case of overhead line s stem protected only by fuses there may be Jifficulty in so arranging the value of the earth resistance that a conductor falling and making good contact with earth shall cause the fuses in the supply to operate. shall be made. Local values should be verified by actual measurement and this is specially important whete the soil is stratified. it is unlikelv that any protective gcar’iziying on carth%tg wili operate sin& ihe major fault is the open-circuit against which urthing gives no protection. This however.1.2. The situation is more difficult in the zone immediately outside the periphery where the problems may exist even for the theoretical case of a singk plate covering the substation area.1 Design Considerations 2. For this the step potential and touch potential should be Investigated and kept withm safe limits.0.It is necessary LO ensure.3.2 The earth system resistance should be such that when any fault occurs against which earthing is designed to give” protection.2 Equipment Earthing . It follows.1 The resistance to earth of an electrode of givep dimensions is dependent on the ekctrical resistivny of the soil in which it is installed. t h a t a n o v e r r i d i n g consideration in deciding which of the alternative method of protection is to be adopted for a particular system or location is the soil resistivity in the area concerned. 2. therefore. the material shall be approved by the competent authority.4 While the fundamental nature and properties of a soil in a given area cannot be changed.4 Potential Gradients . that a person walking on the ground or touching an earthed objects.3.13 All materials.0. high and extra high voltage equipment shall be earthed by not less than two separate and distinct connections with earth is designed primarily to preserve the security of the system by ensuring that the voltage on each live conductor is restricted to such a value with respect to the potential of the general mass of the earth as is consistent with the levels of insulation applied. 2. however. necessitating the installation of earth electrode at depths to which frost ~111 not penetrate.1. earth bus-bar. Earth conductivity is.1. For example. link or switch other than a linked switch arranged to operate simultaneously on the earthed or earthed neutral conductor and the live conductors shall be inserted on any supply system. conform to Indian Standard specifications wherever these exist.13 Soil Resistivity 2X3.1. essentially electrolytic in natun and is affected therefore by moisture . etc. 2.10 It is recommended that a drawing showin the main earth connection and earth electro!es be prepared for each installation.step and touch potentials may be lowered to any value by reducing the mesh interval of the grid. 2. In the case of underground system there may be no difficulty.

3. care should be taken to select a material which is resistant to corrosion in the type of soil in which it will be used 3. due to electrolytic action which causes serious corrosion.2 Current Loading area. whether it is earthed directly below or remotely should be kept in view in order.~ At consumer’s premises where the apparatus is protected by fuses. EARTH ELECTRODES 3. when the limitations on step potential become less exacting. Attempts shot& be made to design a substation so as to eliminate the possibility of touch contact beyond the earth-system periphery. energy in the earth path at the point at which-it is installed under any condition of operation of the system. 3.1. 3. that is.STATIDN ELECTRODE OF EQUAL RESISTANCE AN0 2 OHMS IMPEDANCE IN REMAINDER OF CIRCUIT) (2) IN BOTH CASES A SUPPLY VOLTAGE OF 24OV HAS BEEN ASSUMED f 30 d z! 20 a 10 2 4 6 8 13 12 11 16 IMPEDANCE OR RESISTANCE IN OHMS FIG. Failure IS fundamentally due to excessive rise of temperature at the surface of the electrode and is thus a function of current density and duration as well as electrical and thermal properties of soil.1.1 Although electrode material does not affect initial earth resistance.TOTAL EARTH CIRCUIT WPEDANICE m L ii 5o 40 z L 0 (2) CURVE R-RESISTANCE OF CONSUMER’S EARTH ELECTRODE (ASSUMING SUG. use of copper.electrode shall be kept free from paint. the total earth circuit impedance shall not be more than that obtained by graphs given in Fig. 3.2.1 Material 3. I RECOMMENDED EARTH CIRCUIT IMPEDANCE OR R ESISTANCE FOR D IFFERENT V ALUES OF F USE R ATING NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE .1 An earth electrode should be designed to have a loading capacity adequate for the system in which it forms a part. 2. potential equaliser grillages of closer mesh securely bonded to the structure and the operating handle’ should be buried below the surface where the operator may stand when operting the switch. 3. iron or mild steel electrodes is reco:umended. it IS recommended to use either copper electrode or copper clad ekctrode or zinc coated (galvanized) iron electrodes. to consider the possibility of occurrence of large potential differences. I. it is recommended to use only copper ekctrodes. Special attention should be paid to the points near the operating handles of apparatus.6 It is recommended to use similar material for earth electrodes and earth conductors or otherwise precautions should be taken to avoid corrosion. 1) CURVE A . While assessing the touch potential. enamel and grease.3 In cases where soil conditions point to excessive corrosion of the electrode and the 60 ( connections. and b) Short time overloading as under fault conditions in directly earthed system.1.5 The .1.4 In direct current system. and.2 Under ordinary conditions of soil. if necessary. for exampk. 3.1. namely: a) Long duration overloading as with normal system opertion. the method of earthing of the object touched. however.2 Two conditions of operation require consideration.1.1. it should be capable of dissipating without failure. 32.

5 mm? L=if@. the formula is loo P R = 2 log. 2. *Steel or galvanized iron..30 mm? 3.5 m) - I5 m I. reference shall be made to IS : 3W3-I966* 3. loo P R=_ 27rc a) For rod or pipe ekctrodes. y ohms 72 where I = length of rod or pipe in cm. If the’ metal fence is unavoidable. they shall be separated by not less than 8. 212 p loo P R =‘G log y ohms <’ MEASCIREMEI~ TABLE I DESIGN DATA ON EARTH QLECTRODES . N OTE 2 .0 m. Ideal area is 3. 3. b) For strip or round conductor ekctrodes.pL. or alternatively giving rise to danger within the resistance area of the electrode Chich can be reduced only by introducing a good connection with the general mass of the karth. If two or more plates are used in parallel. The relationship is given by: R=- Elecrro& Shape on 3. 33. it should be earthed. and ’ C = capacitance of the electrode and its image in free space. This results in the existence of voltages in the soil around the electrode which may be injurious to telephone and pilot cables whose cores are substantially at earth potential owing to the voltage to which the sheaths of such cables are raised.2 Earth electrodes should not be installed in proximity to a metal fence to avoid the possibility of the fence becoming live.5 m (4) Round Conductor (5) Plate (WC NOTE 2 ) (6) Diameter 16 m m * (not less than) 12. and d) Cable sheaths. In practical case.5 Design Data on Earth Electrodes 3.5 m 3 to 3.5 m - 25 X 1.60 mmt 25X4 m m * - 6 mm’* - 3. c) Plate electrodes. and thus dangerous at points remote from the substation. and d = diameter of rod or pipe in cm.A typical illustration of pipe earth electrode is given in Fig.5.The resistance of any electrode 100 P 4nC where R = resistance in an infinite medium. *Code of practice for earthing.5 m 0.0 mm*7 60X60 cm Thickness - - 6.4 Types of Earth Electrodes-The following types of earth electrodes are considered standard: a) Rod and pipe electrodes.1 Under fault conditions the earth electrode is raised to a potential with respect to the general mass of the earth. the capacitance is divided into two by the plane of earths surface so that.5.A typical illustration of plate ekctrode is given in Fig.50 m*. For details regarding their design. The voltage gradient at the surface of the earth may also constitute danger to life.“‘” (not less than) Size (Ideal 2.33 Voltage Gradient 33.1 The design data on the various types of earth electrodes is given in Table I.TYPE Rod Pipe (Wc N$TE 1) OF E LECTRODES Strip - (1) (2) 38 m m * IO0 mm: 2. b) Strip or conductor electrodes. 3.15 mm+ N OTE I . tCoppcr.2 E f f e c t o f Resistance . :Cast iron.(soil) in ohm- metre. P = resistivity of the medium . PART 1 GENERAL AND COMMON ASPECTS 59 . buried in the earth is in fact related to the capacitance of that electrode and its image in free space.

’ f . FIG. 3 A TYPICAL ILLUSTRATION OF PIPE EARTH ELECTRODE A TYPICAL ILLUSTRATION ELECTRODE OF PLATE EARTH .7 GI PIPE SdlO 01 PIPC 0 1500 (min.:: .0 12-t ~6OOx600x6*3 GI PLATE bR 6OOx6OOx3~15 COPPER YLAIE SECltbN X X All dimensions in miilimctres.- s C E MEN1 C O N C R E T E (WI))\ I a.3 rCI C O V E R H I N G E D TO Cl FRAME I_ ~~- t JygOafcME . 2 NOTE -Three and four buckets 6f water to be poured into sump every few days to keep the soil surrounding the earth plate permanently moist.7 GI PIPE I 75 8 i 150 1 II. It 200&300#-4 ‘-0 12.1 2J I a t F!iKoAL ENLARGED DE LA i _.I -@- -ALTERNATE LAYER OF CHARCOAL OR COKE AND SALT HOLE. N OTE -Three or four buckets of water to be poured into sump every few days to keep the soil surrounding the earth pipe permanently moist..’ ‘4 us ROD7 f Cl COVER HINGED TO Cl FRAME /MIRE MESH rCEMENt CONCRETE r912. All dimensions in millimetres. FIG.

6 If the metal sheath and armour have been used as an earth continuity conductor the armour shall be bonded to the metal sheath and the connection between the earth wire and earthing electrode shall be made to the metal sheath.5 The path of the earth wire shall. as far as possible. galvanized iron.where I = length of the strip in cm. bolted and clamped joints are permissible.0. indented. NOTE .7 If a clamp has been used to provide connection between the earth wire and the metal sheath and armour. EARTH BUS AND EARTH WIRES 4.0.1 The mimmum allowable size of earth wire is determined principally by mechanical consideration for they are more liable to mechanical injury and should therefore be strong 4. enough to resist any strain that is likely to be put upon them.3 They shall be either stranded or solid bars or flat rectangular strips and may be bare provided due care is taken to avoid corrosion and mechanical damage to it. 4). riveted or bolted connectors) are permissible. Bolted connectors and their screws shall be protected against any possible corrosion. w = depth of burial in cm. sleeve connectors (for example.0. c) For plate electrodes. Where required.0.3 Effect of Depth of Burial . be out of reach of any person. 4 R E S I S T A N C E OF EL E C T R O D E S A T D E P T H S A N D S O I L RESISTIVITIES P A R T 1 GEKI:RAL A N D C O M M O N A S P E C T S VARIOGS 61 . 4. a number of rods or pipes shall be connected together in parallel (see Fig. and t = width (strip) or twice the diameter (conductors) in cm. The resistance in this case is practically prdortional to the reciprocal of the number of electfydes used so along as each is situated outside the resistance area of the other.Aluminium shall not bc used underground. For stranded conductors.Welded.0.4 Interconnections of earth-continuity conductors and main and branch earth wires shall be made in such a way that reliable and good electrical connections are permanently ensured. it shall be so designed and 6 16 18 INDIVIDUAL RESISTANCE IN OHMS F I G. - R =4 where a ohms A = area of both sides of plate in m2. or steel or aluminium.0 G e n e r a l 4.0. 35.To reduce the depth of burial without increasing the resistance. NOTE . 4.0. they shall be run inside metallic conduits. 4. 4. The distance between two electrodes in such a case shall preferably be not less than twice the length of the electrode. 4.2 All earth wires and earthcontinuity conductors shall be of copper. 4.

a current corresponding to not less than threeand-a-half iimes the rating of the fuse or one-anda-half times the setting of the overload earth leakage circuit-breaker will flow except where voltage operated earth leakage circuit-breakers are used and make the faulty circuit dead. they may prodlice serious errors in the measured value.In this method two auxiliary earth electrodes.2. 5. 4.2 Alternative Method 5. V=F reading of the voltmeter in volts. MEASUREMENT OF EARTH ELECTRODE RESISTANCE 5. The current lead is taken in the other direction and the current electrode located at the same distance as the potential electrode. A measured current is passed between the electrode ‘A’ to be tested and an auxiliary current electrode ‘C’ and the potential difference between the electrode ‘A’ and the auxiliary potential electrode ‘B’ is measured.0.6 Unless three consecutive readings ot test electrode resistance with different spacings of electrodes agree. A reading is taken under this condition. the resistance of the voltmeter should be high compared to that of the auxiliary potential electrode ‘B’ and in no case should be less than 20 000 ohms. If the test electrode is in the form of rod. 50 Hz. EARTHING OF INSTALLATIONS IN BUILDINGS 6._ CURRENT ELECTROOE OF 3 METHOD O F M E A S U R E M E N T E LECTRODE R ESISTANCE E A R T H 5. the to/q!.2. 5. this elimination becomes very I? ~cult and it a dl betrer lo use an earth tester incorporating a handdrIven generalor. Where fuses are used to disconnect the faulty section of an installation in the event of an earth fault. 5. at least 90 degrees apart. The potential Lead is laid in one direction and an electrode is’placed 250 to 300 metres from the fence. decrease of generator handle speed will cause thi? lo disappear. wheri possibk. the test electrode shall be separated from the earthing system. the following method may.This applies particularly while measuring the combined resistance of large installations. tire placed at suitable distances from the test electrode (see Fig. The current electrode is then left in the last foregoing position and the potential electrode is moved out in 30-m steps until three consecutive readings are obtained without a change in value.5 Ail the test electrodes and the current electrodes shall be so placed that they are independent of the resistance area of each other. 6. the test shall be repeated by increasing the distance between electrodes ‘A’ and ‘C’ up to 50 m and each time placing the electrode ‘B’ midway between them. 8” POTENTIAL ELECTRODE X+lm CVJ. permissjble impedance of the earth fault path may bc computed from the following NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE a 62 . 5.4 The auxiliary electrodes usually consist of 12.1. pipe or plate.2 The source of current shall be isolated from the supply by a double wound transformer. NOTE . The resistance of the test electrode ‘A’ is then given by: 5.1.1.lnstaikd as to provide reliable connection without damage to the cable. I hese earth testers usually generare direct current and have rotary current-reverser and synchronous rectifier mounted on rhc generator shaft so that alternating current is supplied 10 the lest circuit and the resulting potentials are rectified for measurement by a direct-reading moving-coil ohm meter.3 At the time of test. that is.1 may not give sat. 5). . .1. but an increase 0. besides the test electrode.8 The neutral conductor shall not be used as earth wire. and I = reading of the ammeter in amperes. 5.1.1 The method described in 5.1 The eaithing arrangements of the consumer’s installation shall be such that on occurre.1. 4.isfactory results if the test electrode is of very low impedance (I ohm or less). 5. The current electrode is then moved out in 30-m steps untik the same reading is obtained fdr three consecutive locations.5 mm diameter mild steel rod driven up to I m into the ground. In these cases.1.1 Two suitable directions.0.In most cases there will be stray currents flowing in the soil and unless some steps are taken to eliminate their cffecc.1 Fall of Potential Method . the auxiliary current electrode ‘C’ shall be placed at least 30 m away from it and the auxiliary potential electrode ‘B’ shall be placed midway between them.1 If the test is made at power frequency.lf Ihe testing current is of the same I* uency as the stray current. AMMETER - A\+ TEST ELECTRODE F I G. arr: first selected. The last readings then correspond to the true value of earth resistance. The uresence ot strav currents in the soil is indicated bv wtndcring of the instrument pointer. 5. be adopted.nce of a fault of negligible impedance from a phase or non-earthed conductor to adjacent exposed metal. p$ where R = resistance of the test electrode in ohms.9 The minimum sizes of earth-continuity conductors an4 earth wires shall be as given in the relevant part of the Code.

so that considerably less than this might be allowable for the earth-continuity system. planning an installation to consult the supply authority or an electrical contractor having knowledge of local conditions. z = Phase-toearth voltage of system Minimum Factor fusing current X of of fuse safety where 2 = permissible impedance in ohms. NOII .5.6 Pipes and Structural Steel Work . Conductors and Earth Wires Contained in the Cables . the &es of earth-continuity conductors should not be less than half of the PART 1 GENERAL AND COMMON ASPECTS 7.Metal conduit pipe should generally not be used as an earthcontinuity conductor but where used a very high standard of workmanship in installation is essential.~~ The factor of safety in calculating the permissible Impedance should be left to the discretion of the de‘signer. or members of structural steel work shall not be used as earthcontinuity conductor.5 mm? for copper and 2. increase of resistance due to drying out of the earth electrodes in dry weather. 6. 6. This includes the line conductor.For flexible cables.4 Cable Sheaths Used as Earth-Continuitjx Conduc/ors -~ Where the metal sheaths of cables are used as earth-continuity conductors.should also be used.2 Earth-Conrinuit. As regards the sizes of galvanized iron and steel earth-continuity conductors.Pipes.2 ‘It is desirable when. Slackness in joints may result ih deterioration a n d e v e n c o m p l e t e l o s s o f continuity. such as water pipe. flexible cableY or flexible cord. the metal sheath of the cables or the earth-contin ity conductor contained in a cable. increase in length of the circuit conductors and the earth-continuity conductors.1 The current which will flow under earth fault conditions and will thus be available to operate the overload protection depends upon the impedance of the earth return loop. largest current carrying conductors. such as a metal strip having a resistance not greater than that of the sheath of the largest cable entering the box. PVC and tough rubber sheathed cables the sizes of the earth-continuity conductors shall be in accordance with relevant Indian Standards. they may be equal to size of current-carrying conductors with which they are used. In fact. 6. every joint in such sheaths shall be so made that its current-carrying capacity is not less than that of the sheath itself. Where necessary. the size of the earth-continuity conductors should be equal to the size of the current-carrying -conductors and for metal sheathed.formula (for a normal three-phase system with earthed neutral). gas pipe. The size of earth-continuity conductors to be used along with aluminium current-carrying conductors should be calculated on the basis of equivalent size of the copper current-carrying conductors.5.5.5 mm? .5 Earth-Continuity Conductors 6.5. Joints shall be so made that their current-carrying capacity is not less than that of the conduit itself.3 Earth-Conlinuit!. earth electrodes at consumer’s premises and substations and any 63 .1. means shall be provided to maintain the continuity. earth-continuity conductor and earthing-lead. 6.3 It is recommended .\a Conductors and Earth Wires not Contained in the Cables ~. that is. 6. such as the grading of fuse ratings. Where non-metallic joint boxes are used.2 It will be observed that this requirement determines the overall impedance and does not contain a specific reference to any part of the circuit such as the conduit or other earthcontinuity conductor together with the earthing lead. lock nuts . the use of fuses or overload circuit-breakers.that t h e m a x i m u m sustained v o l t a g e d e v e l o p e d u n d e r f a u l t conditions between exposed metal required to be earthed and the consumer’s earth terminal shall not exceed 32 volts rms.5 Metal Conduit Pipe Used as on EarrhContinuity Conducror . inevitable extensions to installations involving. for protection against earth-leakage currents is likely to prove satisfactory. they shall be protected against corrosion.5.1 Connection to earth of those parts of an installation which require to be earthed shall be made by means of an earth-continuity conductor which may be a separate earth conductor. 7.1. namely. MEASUREMENT OF IMPEDANCE EARTH LOOP 6. 6. 6. 6. in large installations the overall impedance permissible may be less than I ohm.4 Only pipe or rod earth electrodes are r e c o m m e n d e d and they shall satisfy the requirements of 3. Plain slip or pin-grtp sockets are insufficient to ensure satisfactory electrical continuity of joints.5.for aluminium and need not be greater than 70 mm* for copper and 120 mm? for aluminium. fault. etc. 65. 6.1 The factor of safety in the above formula ensures that in most cases the fuse will blow in a time which is sufficiently short to avoid danger and allowing for a number of circumstances. provided the minimum size of earth-continuity conductors is not less than 1. In the case of screwed conduit.The size of the earth-continuity conductors should be correlated with the sire of the current carrying conductors. in order to ascertain which of the two.

Karnataka 7.3. L-+-J A = ammeter B = neon indicator C = main switch D = test switch E = consumer’s earth electrode F = supply fuses P = polarity switch s = substation earth electrode V = voltmeter At FF.5-9 . Bombay 6. shale and limestones. Delhi a) Najafgarh Agricultural Alluvium a) Black cotton soil b) Moorm Alluvium (highly clayey) a) Alluvium b) Alluvium a) Alluvium (dry sandy soil) b) Loamy to clayey soil c) Alluvium (saline) 3-6 6-40 2-10 I O-50 2 3-5 9-2 I 75-l 70 38-50 1. E ARTH L OOP I MPEDANCE T E S T E R APPENDIX (Clause 2. The neutral is used in place of the phase conductor for the purpose of the test. To test the overall earthing for any installation depending for protection on the operation of dvercurrent devices.parallel metallic return to the transformer neutral as tiell. Kartee 9.2) A REPRESENTATIVE VALUES OF SOIL RESISTIVITY IN VARIOUS PARTS OF INDIA. trap or gneisses do do do (Conrinued) NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 1. Dhond. Kakarapar. Garimenapenta. 6 C IRCUIT D IAGRAM OF N OTE 2 -Supply system is shown dotted. F I G. Purna Valley (Deogaon) 5. N OTE I -Arrows show current flow in neutral/earth loop. as the transformer winding.1. jacks are provided for insertion of plugs for connection to external neutral and/or earth conductors. if desired. The opencircuit voltage of the loop tester should not exceed 32 volts. fus& it is necessary to measure the impedance of this loop under practical fault conditions. SL No. 6. Gujarat 2. LOCALITY T YPE OF S OIL ORDER OF REHSJIVITY ohm-metre 6-23 6-24 4-i I REMARKS Underlying bedrockDeccan trap do Underlying bedrock-sandstones. Distt Surat. Taptee Valley 3 Narmada Valley Clayey black soil Alluvium Alluvium 4. Deccan trap and gneisses Underlying bedrock-Deccan trap do do do Underlying be&ckgneisses Underlying bedrock-sandstone. After the supply has been connected this shall be done by the use of an earth loop impedance tester as shown in Fig. Distt Nellore Andhra Pradesh 8 . for example. Bijapur Distt.

2 Selective operation of earth leakage circuit-breaker is required.If B-3. sand-stones or gneisses Underlying bedrocklaterite.l . Nort. charnockite or granites 6-14 60-150 45-185 50. Kutch-Kandla (Amjar Area) bvrmx) 9-14 24-46 Underlying bedrock-traps. and to a separate earth electrode. Andhra Pradesh 18. the earth resistance shall be as low as possible. Kerala (Trivandrum Distt.) 14. the circuit-breaker. ADDITIONAL RULES APPLYING TO T H E E A R T H L E A K A G E CIRCUITBREAKER SYSTEM B-3. 19. selective Protection . Satara Distt. Banaskantha Gujarat 22. Mysore 16. Bharatpur 15. Wajrakarur. kalyadi. B-2.1 This system shall be used only where the neutral and earth is low enough to preclude the possibility of a. electrodes and earthing conductors shall be installed in one of the follbwing ways: 65 . Madras 21. The value of earth resistance is under consideration. shale or trap do Underlying bedrockgranite Underlying bedrockgranites and gneisses Underlying bedrock-sandstones and gneisses do Sandy loam (Saline) Alluvium Sandy surface Alluvium Lateritic a) Alluvium b) Alluvium (sandy) ’ (clayey) 20. Koiar G o l d F i e l d s 17. 7) . Calcutta 12.SL No. General ( see Fig. M P I I. PART I GENERAL AND COMMON ASPECTS B-3. 1 Where a’ driven or buried elstrode is used.I50 800-l 200 (dry) 4-50 60-200 II 170 2-5 ia:prox) Underlying bedrockgneisses do do Underlying bedrock-sandlaterite or trap Underlying bedrock-sandstone. Ambaji.1 Installation of the Earth Leakage CircuitBreaker System. ADDITlONAL RULES APPLYING TO THE DIRECT EARTHING SYSTEM B .3) B ADDITIONAL RULES FOR EARTHINGS B-l. Koyna. K o r b a . Bihar 13. LOCALITY T Y P E O F SO I L O RDER O F R EMARKS RESISTIVITY ohm-metre Dry soil a) Moist clay b) Alluvium soil Alluvium a) Alluvium b) Top soil Lateritic clay 36-109 2-3 I O-20 > 2 5 Underlying bedrockquartzites Underlying bedrock-sandstone or shale b) Chhatarpur IO.dangerous rise of potential in the neutral. Cossipur. Villupuram. Bhagalpur.All parts required to be earthed shall be connected to an earth electrode through the coil of an earth leakage circuit-breaker which controls the supply to all those parts of the installation which are to be protected. ADDITIONAL RULES APPLYING TO THE MULTIPLE EARTH NEUTRAL SYSTEM B-2. Ramanathapuram Distt Madras Clayey sands Alluvium a) Alluvium b) Lateritic soil NOTF ~~ The soil resistivities are subject to wide seasonal variation as they depend very much on the moisture content APPENDIX (Clause 0.

All metal frames.a) Arrangement Giving Complete SelectivitJ3 (see Fig. Ali the separately protected portions of the installations may be connected to one electrode to the earth leakage circuitbreaker. F’ INSULATED CONDUCTOR E ARTH. Each part to be protected ‘as a unit shall be connected to an earth electrode through the coil of an earth leakage circuit-breaker. where there are no conduits to be earthed FOR F I G. earthing conductors. condutts. 7 CONNECTION OF E A R T H L E A K A G E CIRCIJIT-BREAKER SI M P L E I N S T A L L A T I O N INSULATE0 CdNOLtClOR \INSULAlED CONDUCTOR REINFORCEME ELECTRODE 4 EARTH ELECTRODE 8A By complete separation of the exposed metal of one installation from that of othger installations 88 By use of a double-insulated wiring system. 8 ‘ CO N N E C T I O N S 66 OF E A R T H L E A K A G E CIRWIT. 8) .ING CONDUCTORS MAY BE BARE PLUG OUT L E ARfH E L E C T R O D E S F I G. which are to be protected as a unit shall be electrically separated from all other such parts and from any other earthed metal. etc.BREAKERS C O M P L E T E SELE~TIVIT\ NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE .

need to be earthed. but no Selectivity M’ith Respect to Falls in Wiring in Conduit) (see Fig..CONDUCTOR MAY BE 0ARE MAIN E. 9 CONNEC‘TIONS OF EQUIPMENT E A R T H L E A K A G E CIIKIJIT-BREAKERS FOR P ARTIAL S ELECTIVITY PART I GENERAL AND COMMON ASPECTS 67 .b) Arrangement Giving Partial Se1ectivir. Each part to be protected as a unit shall be connected to an earth electrode through the coil of a separate earth leakage circuitbreaker which controls all the active conductors supplying that portion of the installation only.A double-Insulated wiring system is used. tough rubber-sheathed cables. but this electrode shall be separated from the electrode to w h i c h t h e c o n d u i t s a r e connected. INSULATED f. 9) All the conduits and associated fittings shall be bonded together and connected to an earth electrode.B. all shall also be connected to another earth electrode through an earth leakage circuit-breaker which controls all the active conductors supplying the whole or portions of the installations concerned. Any conduit used does not then NOTE 2 ~ The earthing conductor is insulated from the conduit. NOTL I -. All these portions may be connected to one electrode.g. ARTHING CONDUMAY BE BARE CONDUCTOR PLUG-SOCKET OUTLETS ELECTRODES f+pF I G.C.v (Complete Selectivit)’ MYth Respect to Faults in Apparatus.L. e.

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From the point of view of conservation of energy and safety in its use. b) Electric call-bell systems.1983. 4 Correlating lighting throughout the building to prevent excessive differences between adjacent areas and so as to reduce the risk of accidents. whose proper functioning is important.2 Apart from the three major power consuming services in a buildin there are other functional/safety services ta at are basically light current installations. 0. For reasons of restricting the volume of the text. Realization ot these aims involves: 4 Careful planning of the brightness and colour patterns within the working area and the surroundings so that attention is drawn naturally to the important areas. GENERAL GUIDELINES 2. safety and amenity and surroundings. b) Form and texture in the task area and surroundings. 2. *Recommendations for orientation of building: Part I Non-industrial buildings. ASPECTS OF LIGHTING SERVICES 3. the following climatic factors influence the optimum orientation af t h e buildings: a) Solar* radiation and temperature. 71 .2.1 The chief aim of orientation of buildings is to provide physically and psychologically comfortable living inside the buildings by creating conditions which suitably and successfully ward off the undesirable effects of severe weather to a considerable extent by judicious use of the recommendations and _ knowledge of climatic factors.3 This Section of the Code draws attention to the requirements to be complied with in the design and construction of building services. 2. for which reference shall be made to the relevant part of SP : 7-1983 ‘ National Building Code of India ‘. 1. These shall be referred to from the point of view of ensuring good design of building services and early coordination amongst all concerned.where b) Using appropriate.1 Principles of Good Lighting 3. broadly. and Installing emergency lighting systems where necessary. a pleasing environment conducive to interest and a sense of well-being.1.FOREWORD 0. PART I GENERAL AND COMMON ASPECTS 2.2. directional lighting. c) Relative humidity.occupancy in SP : 7 (Part 8). 3. 4 Controlling direct and reflected glare from light sources to eliminate visual discomfort. b) Clouds.1 Extensive guidelines on building design aspects have been covered from the point of view of ensuring economic services in an . to assist preception of task detail and to give good modelling.2 Orientation of Building 2. are: a) Lighting and ventilation. b) Air-conditioning. and d) Prevailing winds. 4 In artificial lighting installations. this Section is restricted to only the electrical aspects of building services. the second is to promoie the safety of people using the building. and the third is to create.1. Non-electrical design aspects are not covered in the Code.1 Good lighting is necessary for all buildings and has three primary aims. 0. Reference shall be made to IS : 7662 (Part I)1974* on orientation of buildings. minimizmg flicker from certain types of lamp and paying attention to the cdlour rendering properties of the light.1 This Section of the Code covers requirements for installation work relating to building services that use electric *power. SECTION 14A LIGHTING 3.1 Most of the modern day services in buildings depend on electrical energy. SCOPE 1. and c) Lifts and escalators. These services. detail is seen quickly and accurately and the room is free frog any sense of gloom or monotony. These are: a) Electrical audio-systems. . and d) Fire-alarm systems. it is found essential SO draw attention to essential design principles for building services.SECTION 14 ELECTRICAL ASPECTS OF BUILDING SERVICES O.2 Good lighting design shall take into account the following: a) Planning the brightness pattern from the point of view of visual performance. c) Electric clock systems. in conjunction with the structure and decoration.2 From the point of view of lighting and ventilation. The first is to promote the work and other activities carried on within the buildings.

0. 72 . In the case of buildings to be air-conditioned.0 General 4. c) External and internal load patterns.C) Cornrolling glare. iGuide for daylighting of buildings (secund revision). 1 The design of the system and its\ associated controls should take into account the following: a) The nature of the application. 4.2 Designing for Daylight . b) Adequacy for realizing maximum visual c) Adequacy for the performance of visual tasks at satisfactory high levels of efficiency.Reference should be made to IS : 3103-1975* and IS : 3362-19777 which cover methods of mechanical ventilation. cl Recommended schedule of values of air 4 The limits of comfort and heat tolerance of 4. 3.2. b) The type of construction. 3. ASPECTS OF AIR-CONDITIONING AND HEATING SERVICES 5. the’ maintenance of heat balance oaf the body in order to prevent discomfort and injury to health of the occupants. stroboscopic effect and flicker.1 Ventilation of buildings is required to supply fresh air for respiration of occupants. fl Provision for emergency.1. *Code of practice for industrial ventilation firs/ revision). This may be achieved in one of the following ways: a) Natural supply and natural exhaust of air. changes for various occupancies. provisions for.2 Mechanical Ventilation .1 Design Considerations 4 Adequacy for preventing both strain in seeing and liability to accidents caused by poor visibility.The level of illumination for a particular occupation depends on the following criteria: a) Supply of fresh air for respiration.Reference shall be made to IS : 2440-19752.1 Where desired temperatures and humidities cannot be obtainted by ventilation.2 Design Aspects 3. 5.General ventilat’on involves providing a building with relatively laIge quantities of outside air in order to improve general environment of building. electrical requirements for the system shall be made at the planning stage itself. Principles tCode of practice for interior illumination: Part 2 Schedule for values of illumination and glare index. b) Removal of combustion products or other contaminants and to prevent vitiation by body odours.2 The considerations: following govern design g) Maintenance factors in lighting installation.1 Illumination Levels -. SECTION 14C AIR-CONDITIONING AND HEATING 5. b) Natural supply and mechanical exhaust of air. 4 Colour rendering.3 Guidelines on principles of good lighting design can be had from IS : 3646 (Part I)-1966*. and the occupants. 4. e) Lighting for movement. For specific occupancies covered in the Code see relevant Part/Section. c) Mechanical supply and natural exhaust of air. airconditioning is resorted to. 1 .0. ASPECTS OF VENTILATION 4. 3.1 Methods of Ventilation . to dilute inside air to prevent vitiation by body odours and to remove any products of combustion or other contaminants in air and to provide such thermal environments as will assist I 5 . d) Desired space conditions.2.2.3 Lighting Problems and Economics Reference is drawn to Appendices C and D of IS : 3646 (Part I)-1966* SECTION 14B VENTILATION 4. tCode of practice for natural ventilation of residential buildings lfirsr revision). and Maximum energy effectiveness of the lighting system used consistent with the specific needs of visual tasks performed. capacity.0 General 5.0. and d) Mechanical supply and mechanical exhaust of air. The schedule of recommended values of illumination and limiting values of glare index are given in IS : 3646 (Part 2)-1966t. NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE *Code of practice for interior illumination: Part of good lighting and aspects of design. and 4 Adequacy for pleasantness or amenity. 3.

unless a higher temperature is required for an industrial process carried on in the air-conditioned enclosure. 5.0. d) At night. g) Details of wiring and apparatus required. d) Provisions for machine. 73 . Such system shall also be provided with automatic controls to stop fans in case of fire. size capacity and b) Nu’mber of floors served by the lift.2. ventilating 5. e) Provisions for ventilation and lighting. large departmental stores or hotels with over 100 rooms in a single block shall be provided with effective means for preventing circulation of smoke through the system in the case of a fire in air filters or from other sources drawn into the system even though there is insufficient heat to actuate heat sensitive devices controlling fans or dampers. where applicable.plant should be limited. The same method applies equally to other types of wiring. lifts.Where conduits are used for carrying insulated electrical conductors and.2 The operation of the system in the following circumstances should be considered when assessing the complete design: a) In summer. f) Under frost conditions. and h) Economic factors (including probable future cost and availability of power). a safety device PART 1 GENERAL AND COMMON ASPECTS shall be incorporated in the instailation to cut off the supply of electricity to the heating device whenever there is failure of the air current in which the heater is required to operate. f) Electric supply required. g) If electricity supply failure occurs and when the supply is restored.4 Air-conditioning and systems circulating air to. Such means shall consist of suitable photo-electric or other effective smoke sensititve controls. and the conduit should be sealed round the conductors to prevent air being carried from one area into the other through the conduit and thereby giving rise not only to leakage and inefficiency but also to the risk of condensation of moisture inside the conduits. or just outside. 5. the total system should be separated into smaller increments having similar load requirements so that each area can be separately controlled to maintain optimum operating conditions.2 In case of air-conditioning plants where re-heating is used. as soon as the temperature of the room reaches a predetermined high level not exceeding 44”C.2.2. a junction box shall be installed or other means shall be adopted to break the continuity of such conduit at the point of entry. a safety device shall be i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t h e instal~lation to cut off automatically the source of heating.3 In case of air-conditioning plants where heating by means of an electric heater designed to operate in an air current is used. Similarly. 6.more tnan one floor or tire area shall be provided with dampers designed to close automatically in case of fire and thereby prevent spread of fire or smoke. Serious harm to the plant and sometimes fires may be caused by negligence in this respect.2 Electrical Requirements 5. unless arranged to remove smoke from a fire. or may be manually operated controls. 5.5 Air-cdnditioning system serving large places of assembly (over I 000 persons). c) Height between floor levels. and h) If extended low voltage conditions persist. g) Opportunities for heat recovery.. e) At weekends. h) Quantity/quality of b) In winter. The surface temperature of all electric heaters used in an air-conditioned . c) In intermediate seasons. in which case these shall be designed to remain in operation. when measured in still air.2 The following aspects shall be taken into account to decide the electrical requirements for lifts: a) N u m b e r o f position.1 Conduits . ELECTRICAL ASPECTS OF LIFTS AND ESCALATOR SERVICES 6. . 51.2. the lift/escalator manufacturer should advise the architect/engineer of the building of his electrical requirements.1 For the information of the electrical engineer. SECTION 14D LIFTS AND ESCALATORS 6. preferably to 400°C and in any case it shall not exceed 538OC. f) Control methods for minimizing use of primary energy.1.when such conduits pass from a non-air-condmoned area into an air-conditioned area or into a fan chamber of duct.e) Permissible control limits.0 General 6. load conditions.2. like wood sheathing or ducts which allow air to pass through around the conductors 5. such as steam or electricity by means of a theremostat or some other device. 5. This should be available early in the planning stage to ensure proper electrical provisions to be made for the service.3 Consideration should be given to changes in building load and the system designed so that maximum operatianal efficiency_ is maintained under part.0.

2. and n) Operation and maintenance. m) Control system. worked and maintained that there may be no danger to persons therefrom.1 Design and Operation. use of single travelling cable for lighting and control circuits is permitted.52 m/s or more) are employed. 6.2 Electrical Wiring and Apparatus 6 . particulars of full load current. the lift maker should fit the cabinet in the car and provide wiring from the car to a terminal box adjacent to the lift well. b) For banks of interconnected lifts.2.3 No bare conductor shall be used in any lift car as may cause danger to persons. each car is fitted with. ‘When a telephone is to be provided in the lift car. should be fixed in an agreed position and wired to the lift well. The supply may be from a battery (or transformer) fixed in the machine room or. The lift maker should specify.1 General . All conductors should be insulated for the maximum voltage found in the cable. k) Car speed. on a schedule. suitable for lamps or tools. 6.The requirements for main switches and wiring with reference to relevant regulations are given in IS : 4666-19807. starting current.Machine rooms and all other rooms containing lift equipment should be provided with adequate illumination and with a switch fixed adjacent to.5 Suitable caution notice shall be affixed near every motor or other apparatus operating at a voltage exceeding 250 volts. size of switches and other details to suit requirements. At least one socket outlet. from the building fire alarm supply. No form of ‘ N O ’ VCJLT’ trip relay should be included anywhere in the power supply of the lift. Pits should be provided with a light. It is important that the switches at the intake and in the machine room which are provided by the electrical contractor are of correct size. N A T I O N A L E L E C T R I C A L CuDE 4 Pmver Supp(v Mums .2.2. When an alarm bell is to be provided.2. maximum permissible voltage drop. either on the controller or by a. should be provided in each room. This alarm bell.2. but the following are not included in the contract.2. maker should provide overcurrent protection for power and controi circuits. and controlled by a switch in the machine room. tn the case of building more than 30 metres in height or where high speed lifts (I . for which should be in the lift well. For multiple lifts a diversity factor may be used to determine the cable size and should be stated by the lift manufacturer.7 A trailing cable which incorporates conductors for’ the control circuits shall be separate and distinct from that which incorporates lighting and signalling circuits in the case of buildings less than 30 metres in height. 6. so that correctLy rated fuses can be fitted.It is recommended that lift car be proylded either with an emergency signal that is operattve from the lift car and audible outside the lift well or with a telephone. the switch *Code of practice for installation. in order that any car may be shut down without isolating the supervisory control of the remainder. The car lighting supply should be independent of the power supply mains. 6. 6.2 All metal casings or metallic coverings containing or protecting any electric supply lines of apparatus shall be efficiently earthed.2. When the alarm system is connected to a transformer or trickle-charger. The supply to the car light should be from a separate circuit. 74 . a separate sub-circuit is required for the common supervisory system. 6.Reference is drawn to IS : 1860-1980* and IS : 4666-1980t 6. 6. For multiple lifts with a common machine room a separate supply should be provided for each car.4 All cables and other wiring in connection with the lift installation shall be of suitable grade for the voltage at which these are intended to be worked and if metallic covering is used it shall be efficiently earthed. and accessible from the lower terminal floo’r entrance. when available.2. TSpecification for electric passenger and goods lifts (/S-.The lift sub-circuit from the intake room should be separate from other building service. to be supplied by the lift maker (with indicator for more than one lift).j) Occupant load factors.2 Electrical Installation Requirements 6.2. 2 . protected. 2 .the entrance. 6. This means of isolation should be lockable.8 Emergency signal or telephone .2.2.6 Circuits which supply current to the motor shall not be included in any twin or multicore trailing cable used in connection with the control and safety devices.2. the supply should be taken from the machine room lighting.2.circuit-breaker. 4 Lightiqg. The lift. Each lift should be capable of being isolated from the mains supply. 1 All electrical’ supply lines and apparatus in connection with the lift installation shall be so constructed and shall be so installed.$I revision). 6.2. an alarm push which is wired to a terminal box in the lift well at the ground floor by the lift maker. operation and maintenance of electric passenger and goods lifts (second rwision).2.

door contacts.The terminal for the earthing of the frame of the motor.0.An enclosed.An electric motor shall not drive more than one escalator. the fitting and such length of flexible conduit shall be effectively earthed. the frame of the control panel. containing or protecting any electric supply line or apparatus shall be efficiently connected with earth.on the driving machine. 6.3 Specific requirements if any. 6 .3.3. *Code of practice for earthing. With dc power supplies the main disconnecting switch and any circuit-breaker shall be so arranged and connected that the circuit -of brake magnet coil is opened at the same time that the main circuit is opened. SECTION 14E AUDIO SYSTEMS 7. for individual occupancies are covered in individual Sections of the Code. other operating and similar devices. and between such contacts and earthed parts.6 All electrical supply.3. used for leading into_ a fitting. the winding machine. on the driving machine or on the main drive shaft. call and control buttons. worked and maintained that there is no danger to persons from them.Each escalator shall be provided with an electrically released. junction boxes and similar electrical fittings which normally carry only the control current shall be. All metal casings or metallic coverings. protected. Where screwed conduit screws into electric fittings carrying control current and making the case and cover electrically continuous with the conduit.4 No bare conductor shall be used in any escalator as may cause danger to persons. It is not required that this brake be of the electrically released type if an electrically released brake is provided . 7. One side of the secondary winding of bell transformers and their cases shall be earthed. This brake shall be located either.Suitable ‘CAUTION’ notice shall be affixed near every motor or other apparatus operating at a voltage exceeding 250 volts. the earthing of the conduit may be considered to earth the fitting. a coupling. 6.3. car switches. 6.0 General 7.A l l electric safety switches and controllers shall be enclosed to protect against accidental contact.9 Caution Notice .0. a brake shall be provided on this shaft.3.2 This applies to sound distribution systems and public address systems but does not cover installations in conference halls where both microphones and loudspeakers are distributed amongst the audience. the cases and covers of the tappet switch and similar electric appliances which normally carry the main current shall be at least equivalent to a 10 mm diameter bolt. The earthing conductor shall be secured to earthing terminal i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e recommendations made in IS : 3043-1966* and also in conformity with the provisions of Indian Electricity Rules. stop buttons.6 .7 Disconnect SLititch . conduit is. 3 . 6.8 E n c l o s u r e qf Electrical Parts -. 1 0 Jnsulation . stud or screw. 6. 2 . at least equivalent to a 5 mm brass screw.3.1 Connection Between Driving Machine and Main Drive Shqft . fused switch or a circuit-breaker shall be mstalled and shall be connected into the power supply line to the driving machine motor. Where a chain is used to connect the driving machine to the main drive shaft.2 Driving Motor.3 Additional Requirements for Escalators 6. 6.3. 75 I GENERAL AND COMMON ASPECTS . The switch shall be so placed that it is close to and visible from the escalator machine to which the supply is contrdlled.3 Brake . mechanically applied brake capable of stopping the up or down travelling escalator with any load up to rated load.5 Electrical conductors shall be encased in rigid conduits. 6. ELECTRICAL ASPECTS OF AUDIO SYSTEM SERVICES 7.3.0. limit switches. 6. The terminal for the earthing of the metallic cases and covers of doors interlocks. subject to a maximum voltage of 2 000 V when the test voltage is applied between contacts or similar parts in the open position. lines and apparatus in the ezcalator shall be of suitable construction and shall be so installed.2 of Part 1 /Set 12 of the Code. 9 E a r t h i n g . PART 7. or a chain.1 This Section covers essential installation design -aspects of electrical audio systems for indoor and outdoor use both for temporary and permanent installations. 6. such terminal being specially provided for this purpose. The cross-sectional area of copper earthing conductor shall be not s’maller than those specified in 5.2.The electrical parts of starting and stopping devices. e l e c t r i c a l tubings or wireways which shall be securely fastened to the supporting structure.The driving machine shall be connected to the main drive shaft by toothed gearing. 2 .3. Disconnecting switches or circuit-breakers shall be of the manually closed multi-pole type. Where flexible. controllers and similar other parts shall be efficiently insulated and the insulation shall be capable of withstanding for a period of one minute the continuous application of a ac test voltage equal to ten times the voltage at which these electrical parts are energised.

*Code of systems. in Table I of IS : 1882-1961* 7.1. The choice of equipment such as these for input signals.5 m. All controls shall be mechanically and electrically noiseless.4 For guidance on selection of equipment and their installation and maintenance. 7.1. A voltage regulating device shall be provided if the regulation is poorer than * 5 percent. be laid overhead at a height not less than 3.8 Microphone and gramophone cables shall preferably use twisted pairs of conductors with sufficient insulation screened continuously with a close mesh of tinned-copper braid. Microphone cables shall be laid without sharp bends.8 m’shall be protected by a conduit. and the acoustic power requirements therein. Any wiring required to be run along corridors or outside walls below 1.5 For outdoor installations.2. Joints in the cables shall be avoided. 7.9 The loudspeaker cables shall be so chosen that the line losses do not exceed the values given. Indoor cables can be laid on the floor along the walls or under the carpet.7.2 Design Requirements 7.1 The initial and ultimate requirements of the installations should be ascertained as accurately as possible by prior consultations. tape-recorder or radio receiver or from a sound film is amplified and presented through a system of loudspeakers installed at chosen locations.Proper equipment shall be made in ar:?rdance with good practice. the quality of reproduction is as desired.2.2.13 In case the number of the equipment is large.1. 7.0 The output from the microphone.3 Earrhing . 2 . the stand-by equipment shall be readily available. 2 .1 Wiring for Audio System 7. 7.6 In large open grounds such as an outdoor stadium.2. tCode of practice for outdoor installation of public address systems.1.2. The design of this installation shall .4 In determining the positioning of the microphones and loudspeakers in the installation.1.1.1 Exchange of Information 7. In the absence of ac mains supply the system shall be suitable for operating from a storage battery.2. 7.The completed installation shall be inspected and tested by the engineer to ensure that the work has been carried out in the manner specified. 7. Reference is drawn to 5. a m p l i f y i n g e q u i p m e n t / s y s t e m a n d loudspeakers shall be governed by the considerations enumerated in IS : 1881-1961* and IS : 1882-1961 t.3 Inspection and Testing . loudspeaker and telephone cables. 7.7 The plugs and sockets used in e l e c t r i c a l a u d i o s y s t e m s shall n o t b e interchangeable with those meant for power currents. 7. reference shall be made to IS : 1881-196t* and IS : 188219611.1‘0 All e q u i p m e n t s h a l l b e s e c u r e l y installed in rooms gatirded against unauthorized access. e a r t h i n g o f the 7. 7. single phase 50 Hz ac mains supply. of IS : 18811961* and IS : 1882-19617 o n t h e q u a l i t y o f reproduction suitable for different purposes. advice of an acoustical expert shall be sought for best accuracy and reproducibility. 7.2 The supply mains shall be controlled by a switch-fuse of adequate capacity. The patch cords shall be neatly .be such that. NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE practice for outdoor installation of public address *Code of practice for the’ installation of indoor amplifying and sound distribution syskems. the linematching transformers shall be mounted in weather-proof junction boxes.2. -Precautions shall be taken ‘to keep dust away. b) the accommodation and location of the central amplifier equipment.Where necessary.1. 7. When laid in the open.sound heard from different loudspeakers do not have any noticeable time lag. These shall be isolated from power. in such a manner that the controls are within easy reach.2. gramophone. 7.2. The copper braiding should be sheathed with an insulating covering. 76 .2.4 Miscellaneous Provisions .1‘ All present controls should be mounted behind cover plates and designed for adjustment only with the help of tools.2. 7. 1 The equipment should normally operate from 240 V. Plans shall show: a) details of the installation proposed.2 PoMjer Supplies 7 .2.0. they shall be mounted on racks of suitable dimensions of metal or wood. care shall be taken to ensure that the . and c) the ducts are overhead lines required for wiring.2 The positioning of equipment shall be such that the lengths of the interconnecting cable’s is kept to the minimum. depending on the nature of occupancy.2. clipped securely to a bearer wire. or inside an iron-pipe at that depth if heavy mechanical movement is expected above. This may also. that is in installations where the breakdown of the sound distribution systems should be restored instantaneously or within a limited time.arranged. they shall be either buried in the ground at a depth not less than 20 cm.

1 This Section is intended to cover the electrical aspects of the installation of fire alarm/protection systems in buildings.6 The origin of the calls may be indicated by the use of lamp indicators. 8.SECTION 14F FIRE ALARM SYSTEMS ASPECTS 8. b) PV. including non-electrical aspects such as choice and disposition of fire-fighting equipment.2.C insulated cables.8 The indicating device associated with the various call points and sections shall be grouped together on the main indicator board. reference shall be made to Part 4 of SP : 7-1983* and the relevant Indian Standards. Alarms should not sound on the failure of the indicator.2 For guidance on their choice and siting in the installation. 8. NOTF ~~~ These may be of fixed temperature detector or rate of rise detector. 8. stair cases and other flue-like opening.2. 8.2 Wiring for Fire Alarm Systems 8.2.1 The following types of fire detectors are a) two lamps connected in parallel associated available for installation in buildings: a) Heat detectors (IS : 217519771): i) ‘Point’ or ‘spot’ type detector ii) Line type detector. Operation of silencing switches shall not prevent sounding of alarm from any other zone simultaneously.2.2 This Section is applicable in genera1 to all types of occupancies. and shall be spaced at least 5 cm away from each other and other wiring. PART I GKNERAI. 8.0.2. These shall be supplemented by sector indicators for the various sectors at a central control point. d) PVC or rubber insulated armoured cables. cables of the following types shall be used: a) Mineral insulated aluminium sheathed cables. Part 4 of SP : 7-1983* 8. OF FIRE drops or lamp indicators shall be grouped together on the main indicator board or control panel. The wiring of the fire alarm systems shall be in metallic conduits. a number of main indicator boards may be used covering different sectors.2. while specific requirements if any or individual situations are covered in the respective sections of the Code. 8. c) Flame detectors.3 For large or intricate premises. iii) Chemically sensitive detector.1 Fire Detectors 8. The various *National Building Code. autonx~l~ fire alarm AND COMMON ASPECTS .2. or b) one lamp glowing during normal operation of the system for each section and the alarm indicated by the extinguishing of the lamp for the section where the call originates.2 Alarm sounders shall be of the same kind in a particular installation. The laying of the cables shall be done in accordance with Part I Set I of the Code. 8. so arranged that failure of either of the lamps -is readily apparent. etc.1.1 The equipment and wiring of the fire alarm system shall be independent of any other equipment or wiring. 77 8.2.UK I” systems.3 For total requirements for fire protection of buildings. For this. c) Rubber insulated braided cables. and e) Hard metal sheathed cables.4 At the control point the main indicator board or the Tone and section indicating boards a n d a l l c o m m o n control a p p a r a t u s a n d supervisory equipment shall be located. depending on the nature of occupancy installation and maintenance aspects.10 For fire alarm systems. The wiring shall be kept away from lift shafts. ELECTRICAL ALARM SYSTEMS 8.0. see Appendix B. When the premises are extensive.9 The silencing switches/push buttons in their off position shall give an indication of this fact on the main control panel. Each indicator shall include: 8. 8. All call points in a section shall be connected to the same indicator. or cancel the other indications of the alarm or fault. 8. 8. ii) loniration chamber detector. tHeat WISIIIV~ lire-dctcctors for. For every installation a control point shall be provided. The main control centre shall be located on the ground floor and should be segregated from the rest of the building by fire-break wall. If necessary remote indicating panel. with each indication.5 No section shall have more than 200 fire -detectors connected together.2. the premises shall be divided into sections’Tones.7 The arrangement of the circuits and the electrical connections shall be such that a call or fault in any circuit does not prevent the receipt of calls on any other circuit.2. b) Smoke detectors: i) Optical detectors.0. it is necessary that the origin of a call be indicated.1.0 General 8. 8. where it can be under constant observation. with audible alarms in the night quarters of the caretaker of the building should be provided.

1. 9. 9.2 Choice of Call-Bell System-The following guidelines are recommended: a) Simple Call Bell S~~stcrn --. They shall not incorporate no-volt trips.for Pumps in H_vdrant and Sprinkler S.4 Bell push switches shall be of robust construction.4. drip-proof with air inlets and outlets protected with meshed wire panels where required motors shall have a suitable fixed warming resistance to maintain them in dry condition.Factories.for Electrical Drives .2 Bells and buzzers which have a make or break contact shall be provided with means of adjustir.0 General 9. and c) For maintaining a call indication until an indication is reset.1.!stem ~~ Hotels. c) Pendulum type .0. hospitals or similar large buildings where call. ducts and condliits required for wiiing. An indicator lamp shall continuously glow in a prominent position to indicate this. NATIONAL ELECTPICAL CODE .3 Equipment for outdoor use shall be suitably protected against the environmental conditions.1.2 Sufficient power shall be made available for the purpose and the power source shall be entirely independent of all other equipment in the premises and shall not be interrupted at any time by the main switch controlling supply to the premises. locatIon and distribution points.1. C) Time Bell Sjtstem . The capacity of battery shall ‘be such that it is capable of maintaining the maximum alarm load on the system at an adequate voltage for at least I hour plus the standing load or losses for at least 48 hours.1. mills. *National Building Code.1 If wooden bases are used for bells and buzzers. but overload and novolt protection shall not be provided in the switch. in the substation and in the fire-pump room.1. Terminals shall be of adequate size and should be so arranged that the loosening of a terminal screw does not disturb the contact assembly.3. 8.8. 9.1. 78 9. Suitable overload protective devices shall be provided to prevent discharging of the batteries through the charging equipment.11 The source of supply for the alarm system shall be a secondary battery continuously trickle/float charged from ac mains.1 Requirements . arid shall work satisfactorily at varying load. aspects shall be ascertained in collaboration with the parties concerned: for control required a) Accommodation apparatus.3 Pumping sets shall be direct coupled type.3. 2).1 Pela s may following sltua Y Ions: be required for the a) Where mains operated device is to be controlled by a circuit operating at a voltage not exceeding 24 V.3. schools.2 On the basis of information collected on the extent of installation of electric bells and buzzers.5 The indications shall be one of the following types: a) L a m p t!‘pe . b) Flag t. points are numerous (see Fig. 8. b) For repeating a call indication at a distant point or points. +Code of practice for the installation of electric bells and call systems.wems 8. 9.2. and b) Details of chases. ELECTRICAL CALL BELL SER%‘lCES Equipment and Materials 9. 1). so that they are unaffected by any warping. Any flexible’chordslattached to them should be covered with hard wearing braid. 8. 9. the component parts shall be rigidly held together independently of the base.5 1 he starting equipment of the set shall incorporate an immeter and clearly marked to show full load current. or indicator call system in the building.0 The choice of fire fighting equipment and their installation details shall be governed by the requirements specified in Part IV of SP : 7-1983* 8. 9.1. the following. 8.where sound of bell is undesirable.0.6 The electric circuit for fire fighting system shall be provided at its origin with a suitable switch for isolation.for small installations having up to 20 call points.3 Fire Fighting Equipment 8.l’pe ~~ where positive indication is required which remain in position until restored. etc. SECTION 14G MISCELLANEOCJS SERVICES 9.3.4 All motors and electrical equipment shall be continuously rated.3. with facilities for automatic recharging in 8 hours sufficiently to supply the maximum alarm load at an adequate voltage for at least 2 hours.1 Guidance on installation of electric bells and call systems are covered in IS : 8884-1978t.1.1.For dwellings and small offices (see Fig.3. for example in hospitals or in noisy locations such as forges. 9. b) Multiple Call Be/l S. 8.1 Full details of the electric supply shall be furnished together with details of generator plant to the appropriate authorities.g the contact gap and pressure and means for locking the arrangement.3. 8.

30 m 4.3 To ensure necessary continuity of supply.2. 10. 3. 10. 10.3 Power Supply . The following is adequate: Dia BELL P U S H SWllcHES INDIC ATOR qf Clock Height .70 m 3. L SUPPLY F I G.3 Wiring.45 m 0.1 Design Considerations 10.1 Reference’is drawn to 5.1 Where the supply is ac. direct connection of the system to the supply mains is not recommended.30 m 0. means being provided for charging at a higher rate when necessary.2 Where the supply is dc. 10.2 The enclosure of the clocks shall have no openings giving access to live parts or functional insulated parts or functional insulation other than the openings necessary for the use and working of the clocks.60 m 2. Where such openings are necessary.1. two batteries should be provided with changeover switch.The wiring shall be done in accordance with Part I /Set I I of the Code Special conductor shall be provided. Batteries should always be provided.~ MU L T I P L E C A L L B ELL S Y S T E M PART I GENERAL AND C O M M O N ASPECTS 79 .1. 10.1. single battery on ‘constant trickle charge is recommended.9. accordance with Part l/Set I I of the Code.3. 10. though it is preferable for the control circuit to be operated at a\ voltage not exceeding 24 V 9. The capacity of the battery shall be at least sufficient to supply the installation for 48 hours.7 m of height is acceptable. *Code of practice for the installation and maintenance of impulse and electronic master and slave clock systems.50 m /llooloR CENTRAL SWlTCbtUOOY WITN 10.3.2 Location of Clocks 10.30 m diameter of dial to every 2. but from the point of view of readability.4 X 3.The wiring shall be done in.1 of IS : 89691978*.4 Wiring. I SI M P L E E L E C T R I C C A L L B ELL S Y S T E M 10. or the conduit may be colour coded for distinction from other circuits.1 The master clock shall be placed in a room not smaller than 2.1.. FIG.2 The location and size of slave clocks may frequently depend upon aesthetic requirements. a ration of 0.1. CLOCK SYSTEMS RESET KNO8 10. sufficient protection against accidental contact with live parts shall be provided. not less than IO Ah. A schematic is shown in Fig.from Floor 0.The system may be operated at the normal mains voltage.2.6 m.


pipe or other conductor or an array of conductors electrically connected to the general mass of the earth.4 Earth Terminations or Earth Terminations Network ~~ Those part of the lightning protective system which are intended lo distribute the lightning discharges into the general mass of the PART I GENERAL AND COMMON ASPECTS . 2.14 Zone of Protection The space within which the lightning cotiductor is expected to provide protection against a direct lightning stroke. EXCHANGE OF INFORMATION 311 The architect should exchange information with the engineer concerned when the building plans are hejng prepared. these include those portions of the earth terminations that make direct electrical contact with the earth. The primary object of such an exchange is to obtain information regarding the architectural features of the structure so that due provision may be made to retain the aesthetic features of the building while planning the location of the lightning conductors and down conductors of the’ lightning protective system.1 Air Termination (Lightning Conductor) or Air Termination Network --Those parts of a lightning protective system that are intended to collect the lightning discharges from the atmosphere.SECTION 15 LIGHTNING PROTECTION O. 2. 1.6 Fasteners Devices used to fasten the conductors to the structures. Electrical connection between the 2. gas and water pipes as well as climatic and soil conditions 81 guide of general nature on the principles and practices in the protection of structures against lightning.The whole system of interconnected’ conductors used to protect a structure from the effects of lightning. 1.1 For the purposes of the National Electrical Code.10 Metal-Clad Building -~ A building with sides mtide of or covered with sheet metal. SCOPE 1.12 Side Flash -. t o p o g r a p h y o f t h e r e g i o n . however.A building with roof made of or covered with sheet metal.11 Metal-Roofed Building -. 2. 0.8 Joints . such as electrical installation. for specific occupancies from the point of lightning protection are covered in respective sections of the Code. 0.4 The contents of this Section are based on IS : 2309-1969 ‘Code of practice for the protection of buildings and allied -structures against lightning’. the following definitions shall apply. etc. intended to serve qnly as a earth.The mechanical and electrical junctions between two or more portions of the lightning protective system or other metal bbnded to the system or both. and account has to be taken of several other local conditions such as variati’ons in the architecture. 2. 2. atmospheric conditions. the fixed installation for lightning protection is considered part of the electrical installation design and constitutes a major area where the installation design enginegr has to ensure proper coordination. It is.A spark occurring between nearby metallic objects or between such objects and the lightning protective system or to earth. 2. Ali parts below the testing point in a down conductor are included in this term. 2.2 Bonds lightning protective system and other metal work. Information may also be obtained at an early stage regarding other services.9 Lightning Protective System .2 Additional guidelines if any. 0.1 This Section of the Code covers guidelines on the basic electrical aspects of lightning protective systems for buildings and the electrical installation forming part of the system. 2. 2.It is the number of days in a year on which the thunder is heard in the particular region averaged over. 2. TERMINOLOGY 2. 2.3 Lightning protection of industrial installations which are categorized as hazardous. so designed and situated as to enable resistance measurements to be made.0 For the purposes of this section. T h e s e a r e summarised in Part 7 of the Code.5 Earth Electrodes -.7 Isoceraunic Level . a number of years.3 Down Conductors connect the air terminations with the earth terminations.FOREWORD 0.13 Testing Points ~~ Joints in down conductors or in bonds or in earth conductors connecting earth electrodes. require s p e c i a l consideratians. and between various portions of the latter. 3. 2. which Conductors 2. 2.i This Section covers the essential design and construction details of lightning protective systems.A metal plate.

c) Contents or consequential effects. In addition. however. b) Type of construction. a) Usage of structure. NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE The thermal effect of 4. 4. 4. A complete lightning discharge may thus last a second or even longer.The principal eletrical effects of a lightning discharge are two-fold. all the metal component parts of the lightning protective system should be indicated on them. the space between the thunder cloud and the lightning conductor.1 The lightning current which is discharged to earth through the resistance of the lightning conductor and earth electrode provided for a lightning protective system. The examples of such structures are: a) b) c) d) e) r) those in or near which large number of people congregate. 4. d) Degree of isolation. produces a resistive voltage drop whtch momentarily raises the potential of the protective system with respect lo the absolute earth potential to a very high value. f-l Height of structure. therefore. these are subjected to large mechanical forces The a ground plan should show all the tall objects.In practice the cross-sectional area of a lightning conductor is determined primarily by mechanical considerations. around the earth electrode. area.2 With many structures. those concerned with ‘the maintenance of essential public services. structures of historic or cultural importance. those in areas where lightning strokes are prevalent. . a high voltage gradient which may be dangerous to persons and animals. its duration IS so short that the thermal effect on a lightning protective system is usually negligible. and structures containing explosives and highly flammable materials. Many lightning discharges consist of a single stroke but some others involve a sequence of strokes which follow the same path and which discharge separate currents of amplitude and duration as mentioned above.2.1. The rate of rise of current in conjunction with the inductance of the discharge path produces an inductive voltage drop which would be added. etc. of IO kA. such effect. transmission lowers. Certain values called ‘index figures’. 5. size and position of.4 Me&a&al Effects . and g) Lightning prevalance. The lightning current also produces. to the resistive (ohmic) voltage drop across the earthing system.In determining how fai to go in providing lightning protection for specific cases or whether or not it is needed at all. It is not possible to provide protection against such .2 Scale drawings showing plans and elevations of the structure shduld be obtained.2 The lightning current rises steeply lo its crest value (approximately at the rate. This ignores the fusing or welding effects which occur locally consequent upon the rupture of a conductor which was previousiy damaged or was of inadequate cross-sectional 82 . within the zone of protection. 5. it is necessary to take into account the following factors: structure are electrical. 4. thermal and mechanical.1 The principal effects of lightning discharge to lightning conductors should. masts. These currents are unidirectional and may vary in amplitude from a _ few hundred amperes to about 200 kA.1 Risk Index . 4.When a high ekctric current is discharged through parallel conductors which are in close proximity to each other. with due regard to the time relationship. is suddenly raised lo a very high temperature. D E T E R M I N A T I O N O F T H E N E E D F O R PROTECTION 5..2 Electrical Effects -. 4. buildings. 5.1 A different mechanical effect exerted by a lightning discharge is due lo the fact that the air channel. have been assigned lo these factors which help in arriving at an overall ‘risk index’ to seye as an aid to judging whether lightning protectlon is necessary or not. very tall or isolated structures. along which the discharge is propagated. and the nature.2. e) Type of terrain.1 Appendix C of IS : 2309-1969 gives the details of various factors that affect the risk of the structure being struck and the consequential effects of a stroke.4.strong air pressure wave which is responsible for damages to buildings and other structures. tall trees.3 Thermal Effects lightning discharge results in rise in temperature of the conductor throligh which the lightning current is discharged to the earth. Although the amplitude of the lightning current may be verb high. This results in a. The current in any lightning discharge rises steeply to its crest value in a few microseconds and decays to zero in a few milliseconds. These effects are determined by the current which is discharged into the structure. that is.3. there will be little doubt as to the need for lightning protectibn. ps) and as a first approximation may be regarded as equivalent to high f r e q u e n c y discharge. C H A R A C T E R I S T I C S O F L I G H T N I N G DISCHARGES 4. ‘be provided with adequate mechanical fixings. A vertical conductor of the dimensions generally used in a lightning protective system has an inductance of about 16 X IO-‘H/ 100 m.

6. ZONE OF PROTECTION 6.1 The zone of protection of a lightnmg conductor denotes the .space within which a . . . . . hghtnmg conductor provides protection against a direct lightning stroke by diverting the stroke to itself. Examples of the protection of different types and shapes of buildings along with zone of protection provided by their lightning protective systems are given in Appendix A of IS : 23091969. 7. MATERIALS AND DIMENSIONS 7.1 Materials - The materials of lightning conductors, down conductors, earth termination
network, etc, of the protective system shall be reliably resistant to corrosion or be adequately protected against corrosion. The following materials are recommended:


(Clause 7.2)

2. :: 5. 7?




Round copper wire or copper-clad steel wire Stranded copper wire Copper strip Round galvanized iron wire CWvanized iron strip Round aluminium wire
Aluminium strip

6 mm diameta $0 mm.* (or 7/3.(10 m m

20X3 mm
8 mm diameter

20X3 mm
9 mm diameter 25 X.3.15 mm

2 r). M





Copper - When solid or stranded copper wire or flat copper strips are used, they shall be of grade ordinarily required f o r comniercial electrical work, generally designated as being of 98 percent conductivity when annealed: They shall conform to relevant Indian Standard specifications.

Round copper wire or copper-clad steel wire 2. Copper strip 3. Round galvanized iron wire 4. Galvanized iron strip

8 mm diameter 32X6 mm IO mm diameter 32X6 mm

b) Copper-clad SW/ - Where copper-clad steel

is used. t h e c o p p e r coverlng shall be permanently and effectively welded to the steel core. The proportion of copper and steel shall be such that the conductance of the material is not less than 30 percent of the conductance of solid copper of the same total cross-sectional a’rea.

due to corrosion 7.3 Corrosion - Where atmospheric, chemical, electrolytic or other causes is likely to impair any part of the lightning protective system, suitable precautions should be taken to prevent its occurrence. of dissimilar metals is likely to initiate and accelerate corrosion unless the contact surfaces are kept completely dry and protected against the ingress of moisture. 7.3.1 Dissimilar metal contacts can exist where a conductor is held by fixing devices or against external metal surfaces. Corrosion can arise also where water passing over one metal comes into contact with another. Run-off water from copper, copper alloys and lead can attack altiminium alloys and zinc. The metal of the lightning protective system should be compatible with the metal ‘or metals used externally on the structure over which the system passes or with which it may make contact. 8. DESIGN

c) Gal\qnizd Steel- Where steel is used it
shall be thoroug,hly p r o t e c t e d a g a i n s t corrosion by a 71nc c o a t i n g w h i c h w i l l satisfactorily withstand the test specified in Appendix D of IS : 2309-1969. Copper is preferred to galvanized iron where corrosive gaich. industrial p o l l u t i o n or saltladen atmospheric condition\ ;trc ,cncountcrcd.

d) .Illrt~~irlilrt~r

Aluminlum ~irc :I& strips arc increasingly linding fa\our for u\e a s lightning conductor\ in \ic.\\ of the fact that aluminium has ;I conduct~\~t!~ almost double that of copper mahs for no\\. When used, it shall be at least 09 perccnr pul-e. (:f sufficient m e c h a n i c a l s t r e n g t h :Ind eflccti\ely protected against corrosion.

8.0 General

e) A1lo.1~~ -- Where a l l o y s o f m e t a l s a r e used they shall .be substantially as rchistant t o c o r r o s i o n a s c o p p e r u n d e r similar conditions. The recommended shape 7.2 Shapes and Sizes and minimum sizes--o& conductors for USC above ground and below ground are given in Table I and Table 2 rc\pcctl\cly.

l.ightning protective systems should be installed with a view to offering least impedance to the passage of lightning current between air-t_erminalh and earth. There shall be at icast two parts. and more if practicable. This is d:lne bv connecting the conductors to form a cage cnc!osing t h e building. T h e b a s i c d e s i g n considerations for lightning protective systems are given in 9.2 of IS : 2309-1969. The principal component of a lightning protective system are: a) air terminations, b) down conductors,

c) joints and bends, d) testing points, e) earth terminations, f) earth electrodes, and g) fasteners. 8.1 Air Terminations - For the purpose of lightning protection, the vertical and horizontal conductors are considered equivalent and the use of pointed air terminations or vertical finials is, therefore, not regarded as essential except when dictated by practical considerations. An air termination may consist of a vertical conductor as for a spire, a single horizontal and vertical conductors for the protection of bigger buildings. 8.1.1 A vertical air termina’tion need not have more than one point and shall project at least 30 cm above the object, salient point or network on which it is fixed, 8.1.2 Horizontal air terminations should be so interconnected that no part of the roof is more than 9 m away from the nearest horizontal conductor except that an additional 30 cm may be allowed for each 30 cm by which the part to be protected is below the nearest protective conductor. For a flat roof, horizontal air terminations along the outer perimeter of the roof are used. For a roof of building with larger horizontal dimensions a network of parallel horizontal conductors should be installed as shown in IS : 2309-1969.
NOTC Salient points even if less than 9 m apart should each be provided with an air termination.
8.1.3 Horizontal air terminations should be coursed along contours, such as ridges, parapets and edges of flat roofs, and where necessary over flat surfaces in such a way as to join each air termination to the rest and should themselves form a closed network.

The method and nature of the fixings should be simple, solid and permanent, due attention being given to climatic conditions and possible corrosion. 8.2 Down number and Conductors - The spacing of down conductors shall largely depend upon the size and shape of the building and upon aesthetic considerations. The minimum number of down conductors may, however, be decided on the following considerations:

4 A structure having a base area not exceeding

100 m* may have one down conductor only if the height of the air termination provides sufficient protection. However, it is advisable to have at least two down cond.uctors except .for very small buildings. For structures having a base area exceeding 100 m*, the number of down conductors required should be worked out as follows: i) One for the first 100 m* plus one more for every additional 300 m* or part thereof, or


ii) One for every 30 m of perimeter. The smaller of the two shall apply.

C) For a structure exceeding 30 m in height
additional consideration IS : 2309-1969 shall apply. as given in

8.2.1 Down conductors should be distributed round the outside walls of the structure. They shall preferably be run along the corners and other projections, due consideration being given to the location of air terminations and earth terminations. Lift shafts shall not be used for fixing down conductors. 8.2.2 It is very important that the down conductors shall follow the most direct path possible between the air termination and the earth termination. avoiding sharp bends, upturns and kinks. Joints shall as far as possible be avo&d in down conductors. Adequate protection may be provided to the conductors against machanical damage. Metal pipes should not be used as protection for the conductors. 8.2.3 Metal pipes leading rainwater from the roof to the ground may be connected to the down conductors but cannot replace them. Such connections shall have disconnecting joints for testing purposes. 8.2.4 Where the provision of suitable external routes for down conductors is impracticable or inadvisable, as in buildings of cantilever construction, from the first floor upwards, down conductors may be used in an air space provided by a non-metallic non-combustible internal duct. Any covered recess not smaller than 75 X I5 mm or any vertical service duct running the full height of the building may be used for this purpose, provided it does not contain an unarmoured or non-metal-sheathed cable.

8.1.4 The layout of the network may be designed to suit the shape of the roof and architectural features of the buildings. 8.1.5 The air termination network should cover all salient points of the structure. 8.1.6 All metallic finials, chimneys. ducts. vent pipes, railings, gutters and the like. on or above the main surface of the roof of the structure shall be bonded to, and form part of, the air termination network. If portions of a structure vary considerably in height, any necessary air termination or air termination network of the lower portions should, in addition to their own conductors, be bonded to the down conductors of the taller portions. 8.1.7 All air terminals shall be effectively secured against overturning either by attachment to the object to be protected or by means of substantial braces and fixings. which shall be permanently and rigidly attached to the building.

8.2.5 Any extended metal running vertically through the structure should be bonded to the lightning conductor at the top and the bottom unless the clearances are in accordance with

IS : 2309-1969 for tall structures. 8.26 A structure on bare rock, should be provided with at least two down conductors equally spaced. 8.2.7 In deciding on the routing of the down conductor, its accessibility for inspection, testing and maintenance should be taken into account. 8.3 Joints and Bonds 8.3.1 Joinrs - The lightning protective system shall have as few joints in it as necessary. In the down conductors below ground level these shall be mechanically and electrically effective and shall be so made as to exclude moisture completely. The joints may be clamped. screwed, bolted, crimped, riverted or welded. With overlapping joints the length of the overlap should not be less than 20 mm for all types of conductors. Contact surfaces should first be cleaned and then inhibited from oxidation with a suitable non-corrosive compound. Joints of dissimilar metal should be suitably protected against bimetallic action and corrosion. In general, joints for strips shall be tinned, soldered, welded or brazed and at least double-riveted. Clamped or bolted joints shall only be used on test points or on bonds ,to existing metal, but joints shall only be of the clamped or screwed type. 8.3.2 Bonds - External metal on or forming part of a structure may have to discharge the full lightning current. Therefore. the bond to the lightning protective system shall have a crosssectional area not less than that employed for the main conductors. On the other hand, internal metal is not so vulnerable and its associated bonds are, at most, only likely to carry a portion of the total lightning current, apart from their function of equalizing potential. These latter bonds may, therefore, be smaller in crosssectional area than those used for the main conductors. All the bonds should be suitably protected against corrosion. Bonds shall be as short as possible. 8.4 Testing Points- Each down conductor shall be provided with a testing point in a position convenient for testing but inaccessible for interference. No connection, other than one direct to an earth electrode, shall be made below a testing point. Testing points shall be phosphorbronze. gunmetal, copper or any other suitable material. 8.5 Earth Terminations - Each down conductor shall have an independent earth termination. It should be capable of isolation for testing purposes. Suitable location for the earth termination shall be selected after testing and

assessing the specific resistivity of the soil and with due regard to reliability of the sub-soil water to ensure minimum soil moistness. 8.5.1 Water pipe system should not be bonded to the earth termination system. However, if adequate. clearance between the two cannot be obtained, they may be effectively bonded and the bonds should be capable of isolation and testing. The gas pipes, however, should in no case be bonded to the earth termination system. 8.5.2 It is recommended that all earth terminations should be interconnected. Common earthing, besides equalizing the voltage at various earth terminations also minimizes any risk to it of mechanical damage. The condition for limiting earthing resistance given in 11 does nobapply and in such a case no provision need be made for isolation in earth. e 8.5.3 A structure standing on bare rock should be equipped with a conductor encircling and fixed to the structure at ground level and following reasonably closely the contour of the ground. This conductor should be installed so as to minimize any risk to it of mechanical damage.’ The condition for limiting earthing resistance given in 11 does not apply and in such a case no provision need be made for isolation in earth termination for testing. Where there is a risk to persons or to valuable equipment. expen advice should be sought. 8.6 Earth Electrodes - Earth electrodes shall be constructed and installed in accordance with Part I /Set I2 of the Code. 8.6.1 Earth electrodes shall consist of rods, strips or plates. Metal sheaths of cables shall not be used as earth electrodes. 8.6.2 When rods or pipes are used they should be driven into the ground as close as practicable but qutside the circumference of the structure. Long lengths in sections coupled’ by screwed connectors or socket joints can be built up where necessary to penetrate the substrate of low resistivity. Where ground conditions are more favourable for the use of shorter lengths of rods in parallel, the distance between the rods should preferably be not less than twice the length of the rods. The arrangement of earth electrodes are given in Fig. 6 of IS.: 2309-1969.
8.6.3 When strips are used, these should be buried in trenches or beneath the structure at a suitable depth, but not less than 0.5 m deep to

avoid damage by building or agricultural operations. The strips should preferably be Laid radially in two or more directions from the point of connection to a down conductor. But if this is
not possible they may extend in one direction only. However, if the space restriction requires the strips to be laid in parallel or in grid formation the distance between two strips should not be less than 2 m. 8.6.4

When plate electrodes are-used they shall


oc ourled mto the ground so that the top edge of the plate is at a depth not less than 1.5 m from the surface of the ground. If two plate electrodes are to be used in parallel the distance between the two shall not be less than 8 m. 8.6.5 In the neighbourhood of structure where high temperatures are likely to be the encountered in the sub-soil, for example brick kilns, the earth electrodes may have to be installed at such a distance from the structure where the ground is not likely to be dried out. 8.7 Fasteners - Conductors shall be securely attached to the building or other object to be protected by fasteners which shall be-Substantial m construction. not subject to bi’eakage. and shall be made of galvanized steel or other suitable material. If fasteners are made of steel, they should be galvanilcd to protect them against corrosion. If they are made of any other material suitable precautions shou!, be taken to avoid corrosion. Some samples of fasteners are shown in IS : 2309-1969. 8.8 Earth Resistance - Each earth termination should have a resistance in ohms to earth not exceeding numerically the product of IO and the number of earth terminations to be provided. The whole qf the lightning protective system should have a combined resistance to earth not exceeding IO ohms before any bonding has been effected to metal in or on the structure or to surface below ground. 9. ISOLATION AND BONDING

total clearance required is the sum of the two distances and may be expressed by the following simple equation : D=0.3Ri where K l5n

D = required clearance in metres, R= the combined earthing resistance of the H = structure height in metres, and n= number of down conductors connected to a
earth termination

in ohms,

common air termination.

9.1.2 The above clearance may be halved if a . ^ . - . slight risk ot occurence ot a side Hash c a n b e accepted. 9.1.3 The drawback of isolation lies in obtaining and maintaining the necessary safe clearances and in ensuring that isolated metal has no connection via the water pipes or other services with the earth. In general, isolation can be practised only in small buildings. 9.2 Bonding - In structures which contain electrically continuous metal. for example, a roof. wall. floor or covering, this metal, suitably bonded, may be used as part of the lightning protective system. provided the amount and arrangement of the metal render it suitable for use in accordance with 8. 9.2.1 If a structure is simply a continuous metal frame without external coverings it mrfy not require any air termination or down conductors provided it can be ensured that the conducting path is electrically continuous and the base of the structure is adequately earthed. 9.2.2 -A reinforced concrete structure or a reinforced concrete frame structure may have sufficiently low inherent resistance to earth to provide protection against lightning and if connections are brought out from the reinforcement at the highest points derring construction. a test may be made to varify this at the compktion of the structure. 9.2.3 If the resistance to earth of the steel frame of a structure or the reinforcement of a reinforced concrete structure is found to be satisfactory, a suitable air termination’should be installed at the top of the structure and bonded to the steel frame or to the reinforcement. Where regular inspection is not possible. it is recommended that a corrosion resistant material be used for bonding to t%e steel or to the reinforcement and this should be brought out for connection to the air termination. Down conductor and earth terminations will, ot course. be required if the inherent resistance of the structure is fdund to be unsatisfactory when tested. 9.2.4 Where metal exists in a structure as reinforcement which cannot be bonded into a continuous conducting network, and which is not or cannot be equipped with external earthing NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE

9.0 When a.lightning protective system is struck
with a lightning discharge. its electrical potential with respect to earth is raised. and unless suitable precautions are taken. the discharge may seek alternative paths to earth by-side flashing to other metal in the structure. Side flashing may be avoided by the following two methods :

a) Isolation. and
b) Bonding. 9.1 Isolation - Isolation requires large clearances between the lightning protective system and other metal parts in the structure. To find out the approximate clearances. the following two factors should be taken into account :

a) The resistive voltage drop in the earth
termination. and b) The inductive voltage drop in the down conductors. 9.1.1 The resistive voltage drop require> a clearance of ‘0.3 m,‘ohm of earthing resistance while the inductive _,voltage drop requires a clearance of I m for each I5 m of structure height. For two or more down conductors with a common air termination this distance should be divided by the number of down conductors. The 86

connections, its presence should be disgarded. The danger inseparable from the presence of such metal can. lx mipimized by keeping it entirely isolated from the lightning protective system. 9.2.5 Where the roof structure is wholly or partly covered by metal, care should be taken that such metal is provided with a continuous conducting path to earth. 9.2.6 In any structure. metal which is attached to-the outer surface or projects through a wall or a roof and has insufficient clearance from the lightning protective system, and is unsuitable for use as pa0 of it, should preferably be bonded as directly as possible to the lightning protectives system. If the metal has considerable length (for example, cables, pipes, gutters, rain-water pipes, stair-ways, etc) and runs approximately parallel to a down conductor or bond, it should be bonded at each and but not below the test point. If the metal is in discontinuous lengths, each portion should be bonded to the lightning protective system; alternatively, where the clearance permits, the presenee of the metal may be disregarded. 9.2.7 Bonding of metal entering or leaving a structure in the form of sheathing or armouring of cable, electric conduit, telephone, steam, compressed air or other services with earth termination system, should be avoided. However, if they are .required to be bonded. the bond& should be done as directly as possible to the earth termination at the point of entry or exist outside the structure on the supply side of the service. The gas pipes should in no case be bonded with other metal parts. However. water pipes may be bonded to other metal parts, if isolation and adequate clearance cannot be obtained. In this operation all the statutory rules or regulations which may be in force should be followed and the competent authority should be consulted for providing lightning protection in such cases. 9.2.8 Masses of metal in a building, such as bell-frame in a t6wer. should be bonded to the nearest down conductor by the most direct route available.
9.2.9 Metal clading or curtain walling having a continuous conducting path in all directions may be used as part of a lightning protective system. 9.2.10 In bonding adjacent metalwork to the lightning protective system careful consideration should be given lo the possible effects such bonding would have upon metalwork which may be cathodically protected.. 10. PROTECTION OF SPECIAL STRUCTURES 10.1 For guidance on design of lightning protection systems for special structures, reference shall be made to IS : 2309-1969. Guidance for the appropriate authorities shall also be obtained.

systems shall be exammed by a coinpetent engineer after completion, alteration or extensions, in order to verify that they are in accordance with the recommendations of the Code. A routine inspection shall be made at least once a year.
11.2 Teathg 11.2.1 On completion of the installation or of any modification, the resistance of each earth termination or section thereof, shall. if possible, be measured and’the continuity of all conductors and the efficiency of all bonds and joints shall be verified. 11.23 Normally annual measurement of earth resistance shall be carried out but Local circumstances in the light of experience may justify increase or decrease in this interval but it should not be less than once in two years. In the case of structures housing explosives or flammable materials, the ‘interval shall be six months. 11.23 Earth resistance shall be measured in accordance with Part I/Set I2 of the Code. 11.2.4 The actual procedure adopted for the test shall be recorded in detail so that future tests may be carried out under similar conditions. The highest value of resistance measured shall be noted as the resistance of the soil and details of salting or other soil treatment, should be recorded. 11.2.5 The record shall also contain particulars of the engineer. contrzictor or owner responsible for ‘the installation or upkeep or both of the lightning protective system. Details bf additions or alterations to the system, and dates of testing together with the test results and reports, shall be carefully recorded.

11.3 Deterioration - If the resistance to earth of a lightning protective system or any section of it exceeds the lowest value obtained at the first installation by more thah 100 percent, appropriate steps shall be taken to ascertain the causes and to remedy defects, if any.
1.1.4 Testing Continuity and Efficacy of Conductors and Joints 11.4.1 The ohmic resistance of the lightning protective system complete with air termination, but without the earth’ connection should be measured and this should be a fraction of an ohm. If it exceeds I ohm, then there shall be some fault either electrical or mechanical, which shall be inspected and the defect rectified. 11.4,2_For this system .is best hivided into convement sectlons at testmg oints by suitable joints. A continuous curre.nt oPabout IO A shall be passed through the portion of the system under test and the resistance verified) against its-calculated or recorded value. Suitable portable precision testing sets for this purposes should be used.

11. INSPECTION AND TESTING II.1 Inspection - All lightning protective

2. 3. duly logged.on i s i n t e n d e d t o c o v e r recommendatiops on safety procedures and practices in electrical work.1 All work on major electrical installations shall be carried out under permit-to-work system which is now well soon as possible.2 It is essential that safety should be preached and practiced at all times in the installation. and also of others who may be directly or indirectly connected with the work.Unless a person is authorized to work on live imains and apparatus all mains and apparatus to be worked upon shall N-ATIONAL E L E C T R I C A L C O D E aa . No page should be detached or used for any other except bonafide work. safety insturctions and safety practices.SECTION 16 SAFETY IN ELECTRICAL WORK O.1. but also to the staff of other departments.7 Permit books should be treated as important records. 0.1 Work on Dead LOHI and Medium Voltage Mains and Apparatus . it may become necessary to start the work without being able to obtain the necessary permit-to-work. after taking necessary precautions. a dated and initialled statement shall then and there be recorded in the book by the person responsible for it. the original shall be returned to the issuing officer duly discharged for cancellation. PERMIT-TO-WORK SYSTEM 2. a permit-to-work should be issued to the person-in-charge of each department.The words permit-to-work’ and ‘permit’ are Bynonymous for the purpose of this Section. ‘23 On completion of the work for which the permit-to-work is issued. in such cases. If any sheet is detached. 2. Part I 1982 General Part 2 1982 Life saving techniques IS : 2!5 I-1982 Specification for danger notice plates IS : 8923-1978 Warning symbol for dangerous voltages 2. SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS 3. 2. tokens may be issued to the workers authorizing them individually to carry out the prcscribcd work. It covers basic approaches to-electrical work from the point of view of ensuring safety which include inbuilt safety in procedures such as permit-to-work system. 1 T h i s Sect. 03 This Section of the Code shall be read in conjunction with the following standards : IS : 5 2 1 6 R e c o m m e n d a t i o n s o n s a f e t y procedures and practices in electrical work. such as for the purpose of saving life or tjme in the event of an emergency. contractors. who might be required to work adjacent to live electrical mains or apparatus.1 Safety Instructions for Working on Mains and Apparatus up to and including 650 V 3.1 This Section of the Code covers guidelines on safety procedures and practices in electrical work. i. If more than one department is working on the same apparatus. N OTE I -~ The permit is to be prepared in duplicate by the person-inxharge of operation on the basis of message. N OTE 2 The original permit will be issued to the personin-charge of work and the duplicate will be retained in the permit book.action taken shall be reported to the person-in-charg: _. In extenuating circumstance. For further allocation of work by the permit receiving officer. by specially trained and experienced persons who are aware of the danger that exists when working on or near live mains or apparatus. 2. 2.2 No work shall be commenced on live mains unless it is specifically intended to be so done by specially trained staff. The permit-to-work certlflcate from the person-incharge of operation to the person-in-charge of the men selected to carry out any particular work ensure that the portion of the installation where the work is to be carried out is rendered dead and safe for working. 1.FOREWORD 0 . All sheets in the permit books and the books themselves should be seriaily numbered. All work shall be carried out under the personal supervision of a competent person.5 The ermits shall be issued not only to the staff of t Re supply under takings. from the person-in-charge of the work.8 Permit books shall be kept only by the person-in-charge of operation who shall maintain a record of the receipts and issues made by him. In such cases all possible precautions shall be taken to ensure the safety of the staff engaged for such work. unless standing instructions are issued by the competent authority to follow other procedures. the. engineers. N O T E. the issue and return of permits shal! bc recorded in a special register provided for that purpose. N OTE 3 On completion of the work.6 A model form of permit-to-work certificate is given in IS : 5216 (Part I)-1982 ‘Recommendations on safety procedures and practices in electrical work : Part I General’. The real benefit to be derived from the guidelines covered in this Sec!‘!on will be realized only when the safety instructions it contains are regarded as normal routine duty and not as involving extra and laborious operations. SCOPE 1. Such work shall only be carried out with proper equipment provided for _the purpose and. operation and maintenance work.4 In all cases. the person-in-charge of the maintenanqe staff should return the permit duly discharged to the issuing authority. etc.

b) The operations of proving dead. The cardoning off shall be done in such a way that it does not hinder the movement of the maintenance personel. Exposed live equipment in the viscinity shall be cordoned off so that persons working on the released equipment in service. Each rod is fitted with an indicating neon tube or other means which glows when the contact end of the rod comes in contact with exposed live parts.4 Connecting Dead Mains to Live Mains When dead mains are connected to live mains. or in any way interfere with.23 Isolation of Mains .2. on the ‘site of work. 3. 3.2 Work on Live Mains and Apparatus Only competent. only recognized methods should be used. the inadvertent energizing of the mains and apparatus. 3. For earthing and short-circuiting. Measures shall be taken against. etc.2.4 . Each rod is clearly marked for the maximum voltage . be used on higher voltapes.1 High voltage neon lamp contact indicato& rods are often used for proving exposed mains and apparatus dead. If any part which will thus become alive is exposed. Warning boards shall be attached on or adjacent to the live apparatus and at the limits of the zone in which work may be carried out.All mains and apparatus shall be regarded as live and a source of danger and treated accordingly. c) While working on mains.2 Contact indicator and phasing rods are provided-for phasing and proving exposed mains and apparatus dead.1.1 General . any mains or conduits or through containing a live mains except under the persotutl instructions and supervision. Devices . shall be thoroughly examined to see whether they are in sound condition. experienced and authorized persons shall work on live mains and apparatus. ‘3. each phase shall first be connected through a test switch fuse. of competent person. the person-incharge of the test shall take due precautions to ensure that the exposed live portion does not constitute danger to any person.4. after receiving a permitto-work. It does not apply to operations carried out on mains and apparatus which are so constructed as to permit safe operation within these distances.3 Testing of Mains and Apparatus-No person shall apply test voltage to any mains unless he has received a permit-to-work and has warned all persons working on the mains of the proposed application of test voltage. and 3) The earths and short-circuits.2.4. 3. and in all cases the phase sequence should be checked to ensure that only like phases are connected together. proved dead. 3. specified on the permit-to-work shall not be removed or interfered with except by authority from the person-in-charge of the work. and such persons should take all safety measures as may be required. 3. such a device shall be used. except for the purpose of connecting the testing apparatus. that no other permit-to-work has been issued for working on this mains.2 Safety Instructions for Working on Mains and Apparatus at Voltages Above 650V 3. isolating links.2. platforms or other accessories and safety devices.set consists of two rods a9 a) No person shall work on. The minimum working distance depends upon the actual voltages. A . Under no circumstances shall be person work with unsound gauntlets.2. a safety sergent could be posted. unbolting connections or switches which are racked out Where possible. mats. ah connections to the live parts shall be made last. _ . the following precautions shall be taken : 1) No person. Before inserting fuses or links in a feeder or distribution pillar controlling the cable on which a fault has been cleared. 2) When any live mains is to be earthed. under any circumstances.No __ . and b) Where the means of isolation are provided with a device to prevent their reclosure by unauthorized persons.1. test or earth mains or apparatus unless covered by a permitto-work and after proving the mains dead. Immediately before starting work. if used.2. If necessary. 3. the isolation should be visibly checked. carried out only by an authorized person under the instructions of the person-in-charge of isolated from all sources of supply before starting the work.for Proving Mains and Apparatus Bead 3. stools.1.Isolation of mains shall be effected by the following methods : 4 The electrical circuits shall be broken only by authorized persons by disconnecting switches.2 _Minimum Working Distance . It should also be ensured before the application of test voltage.4 shall be scrupulously followed. earthed and short-circuited. unless it is positively known to be dead and earthed. earthing and short-circuiting of any mains shall be PAW t GENERA L AND COMMON ASPECTS . rubber gauntlets. which is specially designed for connecting to the live parts. person shall work within the minimum working distance from the exposed live mains and appartus. No live part should be within’unsafe distang of a person working on live low at&medium voltage mains so that he does not come in contact with it unless he is properly protected. the procedure prescribed in 3.on which it may be safely used and shall not. shall work on.

d 4 N OTE I -All the above iperations shall be carried out at rhe same place and at the same time. 3. the indicating tube shall glow. etc. When the contact tip of one rod .3 the circuit may be broken by two circuit opening devices.6). If the rod is in order the indicating tube will glow each time the plug sparks.2. appearing in the indicating tube.connected in series by a length of insulated cables.7 Removing the eorth conntictions . be used on higher voltages.4.8 Sqfety precautions . 90 c) Verify that the circuit is dead by means of discharging rod or potential indicator. removal of the earthing and short-circuiting devices shall be carried out in the reverse order to that adopted for placing them (see 3. the end of the earthing device attached to the conductors of the earthed mains or apparatus shall be removed first and the other and connected lo earths shall be removed last.A cable shall be identified as that having been proved dead prior to cutting or carrying out atiy operation which may involve work on or movement of the cable. if any.which it may be used and shall not. d After testing the cable with dc NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE .The precautions mentioned below should be adopted to the extent applicable and possible : a) Examine earthing devices periodically and always prior lo their use.2. Therefore. Each set of rods is normally marked for the maximum voltage on .3 Use of Conrocr Indicator and Phasing Rods . d All the three phases should he effectively 3. Both rods are fitted with contact tips and indicating tubes. induction testing set or spiking device may be used for proving the cable dead. the glow will to intermittent.2A. The indicator itself should first be tested on a live circuit before and after the verification. agam the indicating tubes shall glow. but the Indicating tube should glow on this test or tlFa. b) Use only earthing switches or any.4 Testing ond morking of devices -.While using the high voltage contact indicator and phasing rods for proving the mains or apparatus dead. Apply the rod to’each phase required lo be proved dead.4. Check the rod by applying it to known live parts of the correct voltage.6 Earthing and short-circuiting mains a) High voltage mains shall not be worked u on unless they are discharged to earth aPter making them dead and are earthed and short-circuited with earthing and shortcircuiting equipment is adequate to carry possible short-circuit currents and specially meant for the purpose. other special apparatus where provided for earthing. Be very careful lo be in a position to see the glow. All earthing switches wherever installed should be locked up. one on each side of the work zone. The conductor shall not be touched after the earthing device has been removed from it. 4 a) W cl Ensure that the rod is clean and dry.Where the electrical.4.4. owing to dielectric absorption which is particularly prominent in the dc voltage testing of high voltage cables.2. 3.useleu as a means of proving the mains or apparatus L N OTE 2-The rod should be tested both before and after the use.for earthing . if no live parts are available on the site.4. the earthing and short-circuiting devices shall remain connected for the duration of the work.4.On completion of work. that is. the indicating tubes should glow. The other end of the device shall then be connected to the conductors lo he earthed.‘open’ or ‘closed’. under any circumstances. and Again check the rod by applying it to live parts as in (2) above. A non-contact indicating rod. d) Earthing should be done in such a manner that the persons doing the job are protected by earth connections on both sides of their working zone. The cable shall be dischaiged for a sufficiently long period to prevent rebuilding up of voltage. the cable shall be discharged through a 2 megohms resistance and not directly. 3.2. following precautions should be taken : b) If a cable is required to be cut. 3.5 Idcnt~ficotion of cables to be worked upon .circuit cannot be broken visibly as set out in 3. The earthing device when used shall be first connected lo an effective earth.9 W o r k i n g o n mains H*hew visible isolation connot be carried out . phasing.2. Except for the purpose of ‘testing.It shill be ensured that all devices for proving high voltage mains and apparatus dead are marked clearly with the maximum voltage for which they are intended and should be tested periodically. the indicating tube shall not glow. rods up to II kV may be tested by applying them to the top of the spark plug in a running motor car applied to ixposed live parts and that of the other to earth or other exposed live parts provided there is sufficient voltage difference between the.2.2. 3. 3. a steel wedge shall be carefully driven through it at the point where it is to be cut or preferably by means of a spiking gun of approved design. where duplicate feed is available and by one circuit opening device where duplicate feed is not available provided the following conditions are fulfilled : a) The position of the contacts of the circuit oF~ning device(s) -.od is. and earthed and short-circuited though work may be proceeding on one phase only.2. two.

AND COMMON ASPECTS 91 . are adequately earthed and short-circuited between the circuit opening device and the position of the work. all supports or high and extra high voltage etc.10 W o r k o n tttains wilh mw or more secrions .4.3 and 3.2.2 It is also recognized as good practice to indicate by means of the symbol recommended in IS : 8923-1978 ‘Warning symbol for dangerous voltages’ on electrical equipment where the halards arising out of dangerous voltage exist. 5. SAFETY POSTERS W The circuit opening device(s) can be locked’ mechanically in the open position.clearly indicated by the position of the operating handle or by signal lights or by other means.2. available. The danger notice plate shall conform to IS : 2551-1982 ‘Specification for danger notice pla te. generator. the circuit opening device is between the mains to be worked on and any source of supply. Devices and Appliances General guidelines regarding the same as given in l’S : 5216 (Part 1)~1.982.9 shall be observed with regard to each section. 5.4. transformer. 6.(see IS : 5216 (Part 2)1982. in a conspicuous positi0.n a danger notice in Hindi or English and the local language of the district on every motor.When the mains to be worked upon are to be divided into two or more sections. any short-circuiting and earthing removed and’ the permit-to-work form duly returned and cancclled.s (first revision)‘. The locking devices shall be removed only by a compete_nt person and not until the work has been completed. both the circuit opening devices are in series between the mains and apparatus to be worked on and any source of supply.1 The owner of every medium. 5.1 In all electrical works. FART I CENERAI. The details of such practices are given m Appendix C of IS: 5216 (Part I)-1982. it is very necessary that certain elementary safety practices are observed. SAFETY PRACTICES 4. ACCIDENTS AND TREATMENT FOR ELECTRIC SHOCK . 4. cl The mains and apparatus to be worked on 4 In cases where duplicate feed is available. It has been fc.above shall be locked in the open position before the work on the mains and apparatus is commenced. high and extra high voltage installation is required to fix permanently. Recommendation on safety procedures and practices in electrical work: Part 2 Life saving that quite a large number of accidents occur due to the neglect of these practices.2. the provisions of 3. d In cases where duplicate feed is not The circuit opening devices mentioned .2 Equipment.4.6 and 3. 3. 4.2.

A power factor of unity (100 percent) deiotes 100 percent utilisation of the total current for useful work whereas a power factor of 0. transmissioti lines. for individual 1.2 The various advantages of maintaining a high power factor of a system reflects on the national economy of a country. 3.4.4 Effect of Power Factor to Consumer 3. POWER FACTOR 3. and b) the quadrature component of the current (also called ‘idle’ or ‘reactive’ current) and used for creating magnetic field in the machinery or apparatus.1 The following electrical equipment and apparatus have a lower factor : a) Induction motors of all types particularly when they are underloaded. The available resources are utilized to its fullest possible extent.2 Specific guidelines. 1.1 The majority of ac electrical machines and equipment draw from the supply an apparent power (kVA) which exceeds the required useful power (kW). rebate for lowi high power factor. Induction furnaces and heating coils. signs.1 This Section of the Code covers causes for l o w p o w e r f a c t o r a n d guIdelines for use of capacitors to improve the same in consumers installations. The choice of these components to bring up fhe power factor depends on economics. 3.1 When the tariffs of Electricity Boards and the licensees are based on kVA demand or kW demand with suitable penalty.1.3. The ratio of usefol power (kW) to apprarent power (kVA) is termed the power factor of the load. neon.3 1 he guidelines provided in this Section are basically intended for installation operating at voltages below 650 V.SECTION 17 GUIDELINES FOR POWER-FACTOR IMPROVEMENT &FOREWORD 0. System components have fixed parameters of inductance. SCOPE 1.3. namely : medium vbltage for improvement of power factor at the installation in their premises.2 The principal cause of a low power factor is due to the reactive power flowing in the circuit.70 shows that only 70 percent of the current is performing useful work.3 Principal Causes of Lower Power Factor 3. The reactive power is indispensable and constitutes an additional demand on the system. the life of individual apparatus is considerably increased and the energy losses reduced. NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE . 0. Choke coils and magnetic systems. cables.85 and consumer is obliged to improve and maintain the power factor of his installation to. More useful a) the in-phase component of the current (active or useful current) which is utilized for doing work or producing heat. 3. Moreover. conform to these conditions. 3. capacitance and resistance.1 Conditions of supply of electricity boards or licensees stipulate the lower limit of power factor which is generally 0.1 This Section has been prepared with a view to providing guidance to the consumers of electrical energy who take supply of low and 23 In case of ac supply. if an installation on improvement 0 r*power factor are covered in the respective sections of the Code. is made up of two parts. improvetient. This is due to the reactive power (LVAR) necessary for alternating magnetic field. etc. in the power factor would effect savings in the energy bills. etc. GENERAL 2. Arc welders.lce and capacitance of the apparatus.2 Power factor is dependent largely on consumers apparatus and partly on system components such as transformers.2 The power factor indicates the portion of the current in the system performing useful work. This component is power is available for transmission and utilization without any extra cost. 92 not convertible mto useful output. The reactive power depends on the inducta. 2. For higher voltage installations. b) cl 4 e) f-l Power transformers and voltage regulators.4 The contents of this Section are based on “Guide I)-1975 for t tic I S : 7752 (Part improvement of power factor in consumers’ installations: Part I Low and medium suppI voltages”. 0. additional or more specific rules apply. 3. the total c_urrent taken by almost every item of electrical equipment. 2. 2. 0.1 The disadvantages of low power factor are as follows : a) OvtJoading of cables and transformer. except that of incandescent lighting and most forms of resistance heating. Fluorescent and discharge lamps.

the load growth. in general. the value of economic improved power factor (Cos & ) may be obtained as foliows : Let th: tariff be Rs A per kVA of maximum demand per annum plus Rs P per kWh PART I GENERAL AND COMMOh ASPECTS 4. switchgears. and Reduction in voitagc dips caused by welding and slmiiar ‘equipment.In industries where a large number of small motors or other appliances and machines are installed and whose operation is periodical it is economical to dispense with individual installation of capacitors.1 Static caGacitors. the consumer shall install capacitors where the natural power factor of this installation is low.2 The average values of the power factor for different types of 3 phase electrical installations as measured by one of major utilities in the country are given in respective Sections of the Code. Wherever 4. etc.5.5. etc. 3. it is most important to remember that any power factor improving equipment will. at the incoming supply or service position. provide necessary Capacitive reactive power. and d) Penal power rates. The economic power factor Cos & is obtained from the expression 4 Reduction in the current. _ 3.5 Group Compensation . regulation and reduces amperes loading and energy losses in the supply apparatus and lines. cables. that is. This ensures the control to be automatic through the same switching devices of the apparatus of applianct.b) Decreased line voltage at point of appiicatioll. that is. In order to overcome problems of drawing leading currents on light loads. 4.2 The advailtages of high power factor are as follows : cos is the improved power factor after installing the capacitors qbl Cos $Q is the imttal power factor. where B is the total cost per kVAR per year of capacitor installation ihclusive of interest.3 When considering the economics connected with power factor correction. relieve distribution system before the point of its installation from carrying the inductive reactive power to that extent. switchgear. transformers. b) Reduction in power cost.1 In order to improve the power factor. The successful operation of power factor i m p r o v e m e n t d e p e n d s v e r y largel-y on the positioning of the capacitor on the system. e) Increased capability of the ‘power system (additional load can be met without additional equipment). U S E O F C A P A C I T O R S 4.4 The minimum permissible . Ideal conditions are achieved when the highest power factor is maintained under all load conditions.4. 4. low losses and the advantage of extension’ by addition of requisite units to meet. generating plant. The automatic control is preferred as it eliminates human errors. Automaiic operation may be arranged by means of suitable relays in which a 93 . cables. d e t e r m i n e t h e kVAR c a p a c i t y o f t h e capacitors to be installed. also called static condensers. installation of capacitors also improve the voltage. 3. 3. Improvement in voltage conditions and apparatus performance.4 I n d i v i d u a l C o m p e n s a t i o n possible the capacitor should be connected directly across the terminals of the low power factor appliance or equipment.The explanation for the derivation of the formula for economic power factor Cos $17 is given in Appendix A of IS : 7752 (Part I)-1975 ‘Guide for improvement of powerfactor in consumers’ installation: Part I Low and medtum supply voltages.Capacitors may also be installed at a central point. 3. these capacitors may be operate! manually or automatically as required. 43 Capacitors for power factor improvement may be arranged as described in IS : 7752 (Part I)-1975.5 In case of two port tariff with kVA demand charged. 4. etc. A bank of capacitors may be installed to connect them to the distribution centre of main bus-bars of the group of machines.5 Economics of Power Factor Improvement 3. c) inefficient operation of plant. ease of installation loss maintenance.power factor prescribed in the conditions of supply of Electricity Boards or Licensees and the reduction in charges offered in supply tariffs fortfurther improvement of power factor shall. cables. compensate for losses and lower the loadings on supply equipment. depreciation and maintenance. along with orher considerations such as reduction of losses.6 Central Compensation . when installed at or near the point of‘ consumption.2 The use of the static capacitors is an economical way of improving power factor on account of their comparatively-low cost. N OTE . c) Reduced losses in the transformers and d) Lower loading of transformers.

CONTACTOR.1 For calculating the siqe of the capacitor for power factor improvement ref&cacc rhould be made to Table 5 of Part 1 /Sac 18 of the Code. 5. POWER FACTtlR 1MPROYEMENT:AND CAPACITOR RATING 5.7 The methods of connecting power factQr capacitors to supply line and motors is given in Fig. I M E T H O D S OF P OWER F ACTOR C ONNECTING C APACITORS TO FOR MOTORS IMPROVEMENT OF CIRCUIT BREAKER.contactor controls the capacitors bank ana maintains the correct amount of.OR FUSE SWITCH. kVAR in the circuit. AS RECOMMENDED tSUIlABLE FOR GROUP OPERATION1 F I G. TO STAR DELTA STARTER F I G. 1 and 2. 4. 2 M ETHODS OF C O N N E C T I N G C APACITORS FOR I MPROVEMENT of P O W E R F ACTOR TO S UPPLY L I N E 94 NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE .

4)-1968 PVC insulated light duty 38 2 6 12 7 16 6 44 2 6 12 51 2 9 I3 64 2 13 18 76 2 16 24 89 102 2 16 35 2 19 38 IO IO IO IO 16 6 19 IO 19 IO 25 Ill I I 32 13 1: 32 13 6 6 6 IO IO 10 I3 2.009 0.029 6 3 0. tFor aluminium conductors only PART I GENERAL AND COMMON ASPECTS !n .004 0. TABLE 1 DIAMETER AND MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE RESISTANCE OF FUSE-WIRES.5 2.084 0 8 0.35 0. when made available in the form of ready reference tables facilitates the work.089 0.564 4 0. m NI’MRER D R OF 0.85* I/2.40 7/ 1.0 1.015 O.2 The recommended current rating of cables are covered in the form of tables in the following Indian Standards.12* l/l.006 4 5 0. mm Thickness of the back under the groove.50 7/3.011 _t t 0.020 (4) Dim 0.1 In electrical engineering work.037 0. This Section of Part I gives in one place such of those tables which basically provide fundamental data not necessarily required for the understanding of the Code that they should appear along with relevant text. which.24 712.a.Oi8 f 0. 0.056 6 0. mm Thickness of casing. FOREWORD TAPLE 2 SIZE OF WOOD CASING AND CAPPINb.008 0.40 lil. AND NUMBER OF CABLES THAT MAY BE DRAWN IN ONE GROOVE OF THE CASING Width of casing of capping. this Section merely draw a reference to IS : 3961 (series). but are required to be referred to in designing the installation.60’ I/2.006 t t 0.525 0 0.003 + ? 0.50 0.014 3 0.005 3 25 35 50 - - 6 t: 20 :: 40 :: 100 0.031 0.0 C ARLES THAT E SIZE O F CAHLE A W N IN ON M A GROOVE Y H E In view of ihe fact that this data is voluminous and are themselves being extensively reviewed for possible up-dating by the concerned expert group. mm Length. frequent need arises to make reference to certain data.j5t 711.006 9 9 0.70 712.80 2. mm No.20 0.75 0. mm Width of dividing fillet.040 0 I 0. mm’ of Wires I.85 I .00 I I I I *For copper conductors only.053 5 0.009 0.009 t 0.SECTION 18 TABLES 0. TINNED COPPER RATC~ CLlRREhT O F Fr:trWlRF (A) Nominal Number and Diameter Cross(in mm) Sectional Area.:.80 71 I .005 f 0.OOt 191 1.013 6 0. IS 3961 Recommended current ratings for cables (Part I)-1967 Paper insulated lead sheathed cables (Part 2).173 0.25 1 I so .5 4 6 IO l/1.80 2 2 3 2 2 2 9 8 5 5 4 I2 12 IO 8 6 I2 12 IO 9 6 I I - I I - I i - N OMINAL D IAMETER T O L ERANCE PERMISSIRLE RESlSrANcE AT 20°C Max Min : 16 mm (2) (3) mm t 0. mm Thickness of outer wall.183 4 8 0.63 0.24 71 I .06 I / 3. of grooves Width of grooves. mm Thickness of capping.005 6 (5) flim 0. The data when finalized will form part of the Code.1967 PVC insulated and PVC sheathed heavy duty cables (Part 3)-1968 Polyethylene insulated cables (.80 31 I .5 to 3.

5 IO 20 I4 5 13 1. - - 2 - 50 2 2 *For .55t 711. I6 20 25 N UMRER OF 32 C A B L E S.24 7/0.TABLE 3 MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE NUMBER OF 1. w.0 I.3 4 6 10 I6 25 35 50 l/l.5 2.80 7/3.5 2. m m 40 Max / Nominal CrossSectional Area mm* I.06* l/2.25 m between drawin-boxes. tFor aluminium conductors only.oot 19/1. . TABLE 4 MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE NUMBER OF 1. ?For.70 712.oot - : - : 3 2 - s 7 5 4 2 : 6 4 3 8 7 5 6 5 4 9 8 9 NOTE .85* r/2. m m 50 S (13) B‘ (14) 63 \ -Nominal N u m b e r and.50 19/1.40 l/l.:. of .\.80 5 4 3 2 7 6 5 3 2 I3 IO IO 6 5 4 20 I4 I4 IO 9 7 4 2 I4 II 9 5 2 2 I2 6 5 : . rluminium conductors only.40.12..40 l/l.80 71 I.060 I(224 7/0.400 I /3.5 4 6 IO 16 25 35 Number and Diameter (inwm.1 kV GRADE CABLES THAT CAN BE DRAWN INTO RIGID STEEL CONDUITS SIZE OF CABLE SnE OF CO N D U I T .copper conductors only.80 3/1.85* 4 3 3 2 3 2 2’ _7 0 4 3 5’ 5 3 2 I2 IO 7 6 5 4 2 IO 8 0 5 4 3 20 I8 I2 IO 14 I2 IO 8 - - 1.6” . The columns headed B apply to runs of conduit which deflect from the straight by an angle of more than ISo *For copper conductors only.24 712.129 111.50 7/3. 711.80 31 I. 50 .wgr 711. w NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE . and which do not deflect from the straight by an angle of more than IS”. The table applies to I: I kV grade cabks. .24 712.The table shows the maximum capacity of conduits for the simulataneous drawing of cables. The columns headed S apply to runs ot conduit which have distance not exceedlnp 4. S B S Area of Wires B S B‘ S B B‘ S mm2 (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (9) (10) (11) (12) (8) 4 7 t.1 kV GRADE SINGLE-CORE CABLES THAT MAY BE DRAWN INTO RIGID NON-METALLIC CONDUITS SIZE OF CABLE S IZE OF C O N D U I T. l/l. ’ 16 io 32 40 25 CrossDiameter NUMBER OF CABLES. MUX Sectional (in mm) -+.0 I/ 1.70 712.

89 0.329 0.623 1.42 0.905 0.533 I.159 0.90 0.95 0.399 0.054 0.369 I::.052 0.71 0.113 1.904 0.447 0.604 0.996 0.887 0.: 0.584 0.90 (4) 0.624 I.552 1.157 I.209 0.512 0.41 0.849 0.567 I.677 1.552 0.107 2.578 0.417 0.454 :z .112 0.453 0.301 0.961 I.826 1.160 I.078 0.183 0.680 .126 0.489 I.620 0.149 0.242 0.724 0.532 1.837 0.600 1.70 0.647 1.507 0.614 .487 0.512 0.140 0.754 0.98 0.226 I.442 1.079 0.847 0.613 0.899 8:E 0.027 0.144 I.: 0.725 1.228 I.024 0.317 0.131 1.291 0.992 0.998 1.299 0.79 0.774 0. 1.419 0.720 0.191 0.515 0.130 0.75 0.51 0.167 0.742 I.53 0.936 0.315 I.850 0.014 0.374 0.618 0.840 0.502 .530 0.620 0.645 0.485 1.172 0.700 0.176 0.452 0.183 0.758 1.575 I.425 0.349 1.160 0.727 0.837 1.684 0.686 1.99 1.303 0.107 0.81 0.85 (3) 0.215 .663 0.686 0.005 0.713 0.246 0.58 0.92 @?6) 0.395 0.388 0.607 0.861 I.369 0.117 I.421 0.876 0.650 0.903 1.973 I.778 I.121 0.878 0.937 0.398 0.740 0.958 0.192 0.108 1.363 0.138 I.116 1.77 0.251 0.546 0.870 0.395 0.798 0.281 0.698 0.225 2.534 1.544 I.785 0.060 2.405 I.659 I.I71 .905 0.740 0.742 1.636 1.776 0.434 0.83 0.188 I.400 0.553 0.515 0.022 1.788 0.488 0.400 0.058 1.709 0.136 0.223 0.481 1.878 0.353 1.65 0.I.591 0.216 0.031 - I.634 0.252 0.3669 0.196 I.209 0.413 0.316 1.997 0.50 0.677 1.69 0.417 1.695 1.502 I .283 0.573 0.164 2.786 1.345 0.041 1.832 1.485 0.357 I.381 0.836 0.66 0.556 0.395 0.500 0.192 0.974 0.257 0.982 0.289 0.682 0.909 0.190 I.347 0.654 0.151 I.114 0.970 0.424 0.356 I.463 0.936 0.949 0.580 0.335 0.316 0.99 (13) 1.373 0.043 1.484 0.679 0.204 0.z I:160 I.921 0.631 0.976 0.483 I.781 0.361 0.97 0.68 0.395 0.904 0.846 1.804 0.234 0.530 I.80 0.188 0.685 0.117 0.78 0.164 I.355 0.568 0.229 I.288 0.478 0.413 I.049 1.54 0.809 0.165 I.963 0.87 0.268 0.896 1.61 0.059 0.358 0.257 .86 0.585 1.713 0.250 0.738 1.300 1.634 0.124 1.403 1.426 0.453 I.124 0.079 0.677 1.156 0.290 1.270 0.341 0.881 1.939 0.198 0.973 0.239 1.855 0.692 0.860 1.629 0.386 1.151 I.564 0.372 0.939 0.902 0.74 0.597 0.777 0.63 0.329 0.593 0.076 1.079 1.248 1.561 .593 0.:: 11297 I.629 1.508 0.085 .390 ::E 0.741 0.276 1.262 0.815 0.263 1.959 1.343 0.288 2.326 1.368 1.008 0.681 1.042 - (12) 2.559 I.026 - It! I.558 I.67 0.321 0.103 0.464 1.980 0.460 0.136 I.: 1.329 0.058 0.421 0.750 0.652 0.071 0.578 1.655 0.268 1.60 0.440 0.079 1.269 0.TOR (1) ING 5 CAPACITOR SIZES FOR POWER FACTOR IMPROVEMENT I MPROVED POWER FA C T O R 0.203 0.395 1.369 0. POWER FA(..949 0.320 0.053 0.712 0.480 1.988 1.645 0.105 0.381 0.936 0.034 1.237 I.020 0._ __ _.489 0.751 1.The consumer a advised to make proper allowance for lower supply voltages where these exist during th working hours and may choose slightly higher kVAR than recommended in the table for such cases.266 8:.499 0.117 1.874 I.013 0.334 1.319 0.809 0.964 I.654 0.230 I.894 0.00 (14) - (11) 2.843 0.870 0.907 0.441 1.083 0.355 0.744 0.855 1.027 0.037 1.370 1.027 - I:771 I.929 I.618 0.829 0.828 0.294 0.88 0.624 0.343 0.95 (9) 0.46 0.130 1.085 2.784 1.794 0.155 0.775 0.113 0.745 0. PART I GENERAL AND COMMON ASPECTS 97 .758 0.836 1.732 1.56 0.652 0.544 1.870 0.104 0.082 2.536 0.62 0.039 1.275 0.458 I.806 0.%6 0.024 0.716 0.309 0.112 1. _ - NOTE .497 1.924 I.563 0.658 0.097 0.441 1.109 0.292 0.421 1:g 1.913 1.625 0.600 1.062 1.620 0.966 0.713 1.52 0.942 0.2% :::rl: 0.233 1.840 0.283 0.519 0.085 0.047 I.435 1.096 1.021 I.72 0.538 0.672 0.473 I.295 0.453 0.480 0.816 I.447 0.672 0.356 1.338 1.090 0.549 0.48 0.588 1.608 0.538 0.899 1.230 I.123 I.479 0.191 I.857 0.146 2.217 0.091 1.82 0.186 0.343 0.179 I.262 0.712 1.541 0.063 1.492 0.743 a.189 I.518 0.525 0.567 0.798 1.066 1.805 0.935 I.186 0.803 0.162 0.691 0.582 0.534 0.592 1.408 0.042 1.684 1.644 1.175 0.93 0.96 0.687 0.487 I.93 (7) MULTIPLI~NG 0. 0.453 0.623 0.213 0.429 0.265 1.519 I.657 0.466 0.541 0.149 0.192 I.918 0.190 0.809 0.76 0.268 1.329 0.94 0.309 0.785 0.709 I.200 I.225 0.437 0.164 0.134 0.220 0.075 1.94 (a) 0.425 1.317 0.73 0.600 0.564 0.567 0.480 0.030 0.483 01450 0.169 1.64 0.103 1.91 (5) 0.594 0.838 0.433 0.397 1.771 0.028 1.089 0.714 0.130 I :!? I.235 0.679 0.97 0.426 0.549 0.309 1.878 0.750 0.086 0.537 1.871 0.474 I.238 0.010 0.037 2.271 1.459 0.347 0.387 I.202 I.716 0.407 0.114 1.939 0.161 0.782 1.673 0.501 I.446 1.769 0.769 1.377 1.98 0.430 1.308 1.580 0.800 1.459 0.935 0.230 I.49 0.769 0.450 0.277 0.57 0.971 0.154 I.685 0.264 0.80 (2) 0.030 0.729 0.590 1.701 0.84 085 0.426 0.202 I.43 8.145 0.519 1.143 0.737 1.748 0.565 0.032 __ _.648 0.TABLE EXIST -.083 1.243 0.884 0.626 1.473 0.077 1.639.474 0.779 0.393 1.299 1.141 0.395 0.47 0.909 0.91 0.713 0.850 0.089 t-z .066 0.371 0.076 I.811 0.507 0.026 - I.661 0.651 1.730 0.420 1.805 1.230 0.310 0.817 0.821 0.59 0.96 (10) 0.230 0.996 0.912 0.337 KB I:205 I.595 0.132 0.536 0.303 I .790 1.92 0.936 0.058 0.529 1.5Og 0.591 0.005 0.55 0.047 - FKTOR I.035 0.526 0.048 I.277 1.2 2 0.063 0.514 0.749 0.982 0.986 0.242 0.882 0.40 0.

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3 Specific requirements. It is generally not feasible to draw very strict guidelines for the design and layout for such installations owing to the complexity of the needs of building installations and hence only the essential safety considerations are listed out for compliance. 0. 0.PART 2. note has been taken of the requirements stipulated in installation codes of individual equipment as well. for generating and switching substations for individual buildings that might vary depending on the nature of the occupancy or the size of the building are enumerated in the respective Sections of the Code. This Part does not include the switching stations and other large generating plants coming solely under the pet-view of the electric supply authority of a metropolis. installation and maintenance of switchgear : Part 3 installations . U.FOREWORD 0.1 This part of the National Electrica! Code is primarily intend+_ to cover the requirements relating to standby generating stations and capttve substations intended for serving an individual the fire-safety codes for generating stations and substations.ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN ST iNDBY GENERATING STATIONS AND CAPTI\ E SUBSTATIONS O. it was felt essential to cover them in a separate part preceeding the other parts which cover the requirements for specific installations.2 Generating stations covered by this Part are the standby or emergency supply and captive substations normally housed in or around the building in question.5 Specific requirements pertaining to standby generating stations and captive substations for multistoreyed/high-rise buildings are covered in Appendix to Part III of the Code. 0. 0. even though to some extent the requirements stipulated herein could also be applicable to them. As the general provisions relating to such installations are common and are themselves elaborate in revision) IS : 3043-1966 Code of practice for earthing IS : 10028 (Part 2)-I981 Code of practice for selection. It is essential to take recourse to the assistance of local authorities for further details. if any.4 In the preparation of this Part. installation and maintenance of transformers : Part 2 Installations IS : IO1 I8 (Part 3)-l 982 Code of practice for selection.6 This Part shall be read in conjunction with the following publications : IS : 1641-1960 Code of practice for fire-safety of buildings (general) : General principles and fire grading IS : 1646-1982 Code of practice for fire-safety of buildings (general) : Electrical installations IS : 2309-1969 Code of practice for the protection of buildings and allied structures against lightning IS : 3034-1981 Code of practice for fire-safety of industrial buildings : Electrical generating and distributing stations (/i’r.

nt shall be determihed based on the guidelines provided in Part 1’/Sec 8 of the Code. Construction of such buildings shall conform to IS : ‘l&6-1982$. During the planning of the building. In the case of industries having continuous p r o c e s s e s . Smaller sets are driven by petrol. interconnecting doors should be of fireproof construction. An assessment shall also be made of the civil construction needs of the station equipment keeping in view a possible expansion in future. etc.b r e a k e r a n d transformers (except outdoor types) shall be housed preferably in detached single storey buildings of Type 1 construction. Icold storage in laboratories. 102 of spread of possible fire exists. intensive care units. 4. 7.of power failure. : 2.the C o d e c o v e r s e s s e n t i a l requirements for electrical standby generating stations and captive substations intended to serve a building or group of buildings.ricted areas not metint f o r u n a u t h o r i s e d p e r s o n s .1 The constructional features of all buildings housing the sta_tion installations shall comply with IS : 164l-1960* and IS : 3034-1981t. Electrical generating and distributing stations f&r revision). 4. 5. N OTE . Locating of substation in basements is generally not recommended. multistoreyed construction may also be adopted.of characteristics of the buildings based on its occupancy shall be taken note of as specified in individual Parts/Sections of the C&je. oil pumps. LAYOUT TRUCTION ASPECTS CONS- 5.3 Construction of fire separation walls shall cunform with the requirements of relevant Indian Standards. which are adequately advised or supervised by skilled persons to avoid dangers that may arise owing to the use of electricity. GENERATING SETS 7. *Code of practice for fire-safety of buildings (general)‘: General principles and fire grading. TERMINOLOO\Y 2. SELECTION OF EQUIPMENT and the transport ways shall be agreed to between the architect and electrical contractor. foundation details for heavy equipment. the definition given in Part I/Set 2 of the Code shall apply. o i l c i r c u i t .2 This part is not intended to cover ‘captive generator sets’ of very large capacities which-are main or supporting mode of power supply.4 The foundation of the standby generating sets shall preferably be isolated from that of the other structures of the building so that vmrations are not carried over. 6. as well as their installation shall be governed by the same. EXCHAF*I.1 For the purposks of this Part.Noise level limitation for generator sets are under study.2 The capacity of the standby set for an installation should be such that in an event. GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF STATION INSTALLATIONS 3. buildings (general): Electrical installations. 7. a n d s u c h electrical operating areas fall under the category of BA4 utilisation for instructed Frsonnel (see Part I /Set 8). 3. lifting beams. etc.E OF INFORMATION 4.1 In determining the general characteristics of standby generating plants and building substations in a building. 5. the essential loads can be supplied power.2 Depending on the exact location of the station in the building premises. 3.2 Switchgears.1. This Part also does not apply to stations BUILDING AND 5. information shall be exchanged. SCOPE I. For instance in case of hospitals such loads comprise operation theatres and their supporting auxiliaries. Similarly the substatlons up to the capacities of 5 MVA and 33 _kV ‘are covered.0 Stationary generating sets of about. ventilating arrangement.1 Information shall be exchanged amongst the personnel involved regarding the size and nature of substation and supply station requirements to be provided for an occupancy So that the type of equipment and their choice. cable trenches. emergency lifts.2 Before ordering the equipment.1 In case of large capacity sets which generate appreciable heat. 3. the degree of external influence of the environme.3 It is generally presumed that generating stations and substations are rest. This Part covers only the standby generating sets up to the capacity & I MW. 5 kVA and above are normally driven by diesel engine as this drive is most economical.1 This Part of .1 The selection of equipment shall be done in accordance with the guidelines provided in Part I /Set 9 of the Code. Doorway openings in seperating walls of transformer or switchgear rooms shall be provided with sills not less than 15 -cm in height. tlie rooms shall be well ventilated and provided with air exhaust equipment. I. regarding the installation and location conditions. and depending on whether the equipment are installed indoor or outdoor. the dimensioni of the power plant . 5. tCode for fire-safety of. 7. NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE . the assessment . tCode of practice for fire-safety of industrial buildings. Reference is drawn to IS : 3034-1981t where risks coming under the jurisdiction of the electric supply authority in a city or metropolis. including such building features as access doors. In the case of built up areas in cities.

1 Batteries 11. fuel oil pumps. 11. 7. 8.1. a few lifts and circulation area lights and fire-fighting equipment have to be kept working by supply from standby sets. Care shall be taken to ensure that direct sunlight does not fall on the batteries. 8.4 The batteries shall be so arranged on the bench that a potential difference exceeding 12 V shall not exist between adjoining cells.0 m measured vertically above. Where a motor generator is employed.1. overload and performance. Oil drainage facilities and partition walls between transformers and between transformer and other equipment such as oil circuit-breakers is necessary to reduce the risk of spread of fire.4 The fuel oil storage requirements. 11.2.4 As a transformer station normally has a high voltage and a low voltage switchgear. or within 2. The enclosure shall be free from dust and well ventilated.6 All equipment of prime mover shall conform to relevant Indian Standard for construction. battery to prevent the accumulation of an explosive mixture. 11.3 Transformer housed in cabins will require adequate ventilation to take away as much heat as possible.3 The charging control panels shall be of durable. porcelain or glazed earthenware. LOW VOL?AGE SWITCHING STATIONS AND DISTRIBUTION PANELS 10. the motor shall be provided with double or triple pole switches and fuses and an automatic battery and cut-out shall be placed in the generator circuit. 10. batteries for short time emergency lighting. all such equipment should be adequately separated. non-absorbent. tCode ot practice for selection. installation and maintenance of transformers: Part 2 Installation. Such sets can either be manually started and switched on to essential loads with the use of changeover switches or they could be auto-start on mains failure and loads autochanged over to generator supply.2 Batteries shall be installed in a separate enclosure away from any other auxilliary equipment or switchgear. such as glass.2. and fire-fighting equipment. The batteries not exceeding 20 V shall not be bunched or arranged in circular formation. are usually of outdoor type. In commercial premises and high-rise buildings. shall conform to 73 of IS :3034-1981*. 11. 8. 7. 8. non-absorbent and nonconducting material..1 Reference is drawn to’ the requirements stipulated in IS : 10118 (Part 3)-1982:.Provision shall be made for sufficient diffusion and ventilation of gases from the. transformers and supports for resistance of lamps. HIGH VOLTAGE SWITCHING STATIONS 9.5 All combustible materials within a distance of 60 cm measured horizontally from.I Reference is drawn to the requirements stipulated in IS : 101 18 (Part 3)-1982:.3 In case of large electrical installation in which essential loads are widely scattered it becomes necessary to run the generating set supply cables to these essential loads and in the event of mains failure. 11.1 Motor generator sets and converters or rectifiers together with necessary switch and control gear shall be mounted separately and away from the batteries. either manually or through auto-ctiangeover contactors. changeover to generator supply. If constructed of wood it shall be slatted and treated with anti-sulphuric enamel. 11.1. because of their size. I03 PART 2 GENERATING STATIONS AND CAPTIVE SUBSTATIONS .3 The’ batteries shall stand directly on durable. any battery shall be protected with hard asbestos sheets. non-flammable material.2 Transformer of capacity up to 1 MVA may be housed indoor or outdoor. 11.1 Batteries shall have containers of glass or any other non-corrosive.1. non-ignitable. *Code of practice for fire-safety in industrial buildings: Electrical generating and distrihuting stations CjTrsr revision). battery charging equipment. These materials shall rest on a bench which shall be kept dry and insulated from earth. 7. The larger ones.0 Station auxiliaries could consist of: W b) cl 4 e) 0 batteries for standing diesel sets.2.5 The requirements for oil and gas fired installations shall conform to IS : 3034-1981*. 9.2 Battery Charging Equipment 11. nonconducting material and together with rectifiers. non-ignitable. STATION AUXILIARIES 11. temperature risk. 7. :Code of practice for selection.1 Reference is drawn to the requirements in IS : 10028 (Part 2)-19817. 11. installation and maintenance of switchgear and controlgear: Part 3 installation. Similar is the case of essential loads in large hotels. ventilating euipment. N OTE .2 The charging circuit shall be provided with double or triple pole switches and fuses. Any subcircuit shall be provided with a fuse in each live conductor. TRANSFORMER INSTALLATIONS 8.such loads are required to be supplied with power all the time.1. 11.

In the case of diesel. I I.1 The guidelines provided in Part I /Set 10 of the Code shall apply. TESTING AND INSPECTION 17. outdoor switchgear 2s I9 ix - 300 I50 1.3. BUILDING SERVICES 14.2 The battery room shall be fitted with exhaust fans. 14. FIRE-SAFETY REQUIREMENTS 15. electrical generating and distribution stations uir.1 Fuel oil pump shall be installed close to the engine room or inside the engine room. *Code of practice for fire-safety of industrial buildings.rr m+. are regularly checked run up and the mechanical and electrical system tested to ensure that the set isjn operable condition all the time. The exhaust gases shall be let off to atmosphere where no other equipment is installed. 11. WIRING IN STATION PREMISES 12. battery room. 15.sion).4.3 Fuel Oil Pump 11.1 The engine room shall be fitted with hot-air extractors.2 All wiring for automatic fire-fighting installation shall be of fire-resistant outer sheath. *Code of practice for fue-safety of industrial buildings. it is necessary that such sets.2 The electric cable provided to run the pump motor shall be protected with oil-resistant outer sheath.4 l. 17.4. 13. 11. For the purposes of station installations the values of illumination and limiting ‘value of glare index shall be as given in Table I. 11. If constructed of wood.4 Ventilating Equipment 11.1. EARTHING 13. TABLE 1 RECOMMENDED VAtUEs OF ILLUMINATION AND GLARE INDEX bCATION ILL.rr wvision). 11.2. LIGHTNING PROTECTION 16. switchgear and transfdrmer chambers c) Basements d) Control rooms : i) Vertical conlrol panels ii) Control desks _ iii) Rear of control panel Our&or Locations a) Fuel oil storage area b) Transformers. such resistance or lamps unless enclosed in metallic enclosure. it shall be slatted and treated with anti-sulphuric enamel.1 The provision of 17 of IS : 3043-1981* shall apply (see also Part 1 I Set 12). 16. 104 NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE . 12. 14.3.UMINATION (1) indoor Locations (2) lux 200 100 70 200-300 LIMINTING GLARE INDEX (3) a) Standby generator hall b) Auxilliary equipment. Electrical generating and distributing stations yirsr revision).1 The provisions of 138 of IS : 230%19697 shall apply.1 The provisions of IS : 3034-I 98 I* shall apply for station installations. blowers.shall be on a bench which shall be kept dry and insulated from earth. t&de of practice for the protection of building and allied structures against lightning @r.1 The general principles of good lighting for any occupancy shall be as given in Part I/ Set 14 of the Code.f batteries are charged through resistance or lamps. sets which come into operation only in emergency as standby sets. 15. shall be at least 60 cm away from the nearest battery.1 Lighting 14.2 The luminaires used shall be of dust-proof construction.1 All cabling and electrical wiring inside generating’ or substation premises shall be done in accordance with the practice recommended in Part I /Set I I of the Code.


this Page is Intentionally Left Blank .As in the Original Standard.

It is felt that a large number of occupancies would fall in one of the categories.PART 3 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN NON-INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS 0 FOREWORD 0.2 With the current trend in power utilization. residential quarters and support services which are housed or fall in the category of non-industrial buildings.1 For the purposes of the Code. it would also be extremely difficult to classify electrical installations based on power requirement or the voltage of supply as large buildings of non-industrial use consume sufficient power to consider them at par with the consumption of light industrial establishments. 0. While a majority of installations could be categorically classified as non-industrial.4 The various Sections of Part 3 cover requirements applicable to buildings which are of nominal heights less than 15 m. which are better defined than the earlier terminology used for classifying installations. therefore covers requirements for major types of nonindustrial occupancies. 0.3 Part 3 of the Code. recourse shall be made to the general guideliines stipulated in Part 1. an industrial complex would necessarily incorporate sub-units such as offices. and for typical buildings which do not strictly fall into any of these. These are summarised in Appendix to Part 3. It is recognized that from the point of view fire-safety of buildings more than 15 m height require specific considerations. . electrical installations in buildings have been broadly classified as those in non-industrial and industrial buildings. The requirement stipulated in Part 3 and Part 4 of the Code would therefore require judicious application. 0. It is therefore necessary to consider for initial assessment of the installation the guidelines given in Part l/Set 8 of the Code.

It may.SECTION 1 DOMESTIC DWELLINGS 0. these requirements form part of Section I.4 Specific requirements for installations in rooms containing a bath tub or shower ‘basin.3 Domestic installations are characterized mainly by a circuit voltage of 250 V to earth except in thecase of large power consumers where three-phase supply is given. Besides these. TERMINOLOGY 2. 0. The optimum benefits from the use of electricity can be obtained onl if the installation is of suffkient capacity and axords enough fkxibility.1 Environment . For example apartment houses.1 This Section of the Code covers requirements for electrical installations in domestic dwellings.0 General guidelines on the assessment of characteristics of installations in buildings are given in Part I /Set 8 of the Code. the definitions given in Part I/Set 2 of the Code shall apply. A brief description of the type of installations covered in this Section is given m 3.1 The electrical installations covered in this Section.Household and tion of low similar conditions severity Depends on the location of the building Mechanical stresses Siesmic effect and lighting 4. 4. 0. living independently of each other and with independent cooking facilities. For the purposes of installations falling under the scope of this Section. 2. be noted that lodging and ro. are those in buildings intended for the following purposes: Domestic Dwellings/ Residential Buildings - 20 pqsons. 3.2 Utilization -The following aspects of utiliration shall apply: Ulilizarion f-1) Capablity of persons Characrerisrics (2) Uninstructed persons Remarks (3) Applies to ail domestic installations These shall include any buildings in which sleeping accommodation is provided for normal residential (domestic) purposes with cooking and dining facilities. namely. b) Apartment Houses (Flats) . however.(dormitorics) and the provistons of Part 3/See 5 sgall apply. Use of ekctrical appliances.oming houses. 10. convenience and provisions for future expansion are also valid.The following environmental factors shall apply to electrical installations in domestic dwellings: Environmennr Characrerrsrics Remarks (1) (2) (3) Presence of water Probability of presence of water is negligible Presence of foreign The quantity or solid bodies nature of dust or foreign solid bodies is not signiticant Presence of corrosive or polluting substances The quantity and Applicable for most nature of of the locations corrosive or except for dwellpolluting subsings situated by tancer is not sea or in industrial significant zone in which case categorization AF2 applies (see Part I /SW 8) Impact and vibra.If accommodation is provided for more than 0. These requirements also apply to similar locations in other occupancies. bathrooms are separately covered in Appendix A to this Section. For convenience.2 ‘The primary considerations in planning the electrical layout in domestic dwellings are economy and safety. the characteristics defined below specifically apply. NOTE .1 Electrical installations in domestic dwellings and in buildings providing living accommodation for people are by far the simplest form of installation. both portable and fixed has now become very common and popular even in slngk family dwejlings. such buildings are considered lodging or rootntng hottscs. Such buildings shall be further classified as follows: a) One or Two Family Private Dwelling -These II Contact of persons Persons in normally conducting situations NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE ..1 For the purposes of this section. though uti)ized as living accommodation for short periods of time (by different occupants) are covered under the scope of Part 3/Set 5 of the Code. other considerations such as efficiency and reliability. CLASSIFICATION 3. such as hotels. 1. 4.These shall include any building or structure in which living quarters are provided for three or more families. SCOPE 1. FOREWORD shall include any private dwelling which is occupied by members of a single family and has a total sleeping accommodation for not more than 20 persons. mansions and chawls.’ GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF INSTALLATIONS 4.

etc. work should begin before final finishing work like white washing.The extent and form of electrical installation i n domestic dwellings is basically designed to cater to light and fan loads and for electrical appliances ‘and gadgets. however. for the householder may otherwise be tempted to carry out extension i of the installation himself or to rely upon use of multiplug adaptors and long flexible cords.I I I N~TE-T~~ tigures in table against SI No. these shall be calculated based on the following recommended ratings: Irem Retwmmended Raring (in Watts) Incandescent lamps 60 60 loo 25 .or low height used for one or two ditions of emergency. loo0 5.5.1 Branch Circuits Conditions of Low dcmity occu. sufficient coordination shall be ensured amongst the coqcerned parties. 3.Building of normal evacuation during ption.0 Exchange of Information electrical installation are enumerated in Part I/Set 7 of the Code. has begun. evacuation. family dwellings Low dcnsit occu. types of a paratus that ma be connected under each tarif P requirement o? space for mstallmg ? meters.0. current to be carried by any branch circuit unless the actual values are known._.0. TABLE 2 RECOMMENDED SCHEDULE OF SOCKET-OUTLETS D ESCRIPTION ’ N UMBER 5A OF SOCKETO UTLETS *I (1) Bedroom Living room Kitchen Dining room Garage For refrigerator For air-conditioner Varandah Bathroom (2) 2 to 3 2 to 3 : I ISA (3) : 2 ’ I per IU m2 I i 1 (for each) f PART 3 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN NON-INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS .4 Electrical installation in a new building should normally begin immediately on the completion of the main structural building work. the following points shall be noted particularly in respect of domestic dwellings. T A BL E I NUMBER OF POINTS D ESCRIPTION FOR DWELLING UNITS SL No. 5. easy con. no installation work should start until the building is reasonably weatherproof.hIcult rise flats conditions of evacuation Nature of processcd or stored material No significant risks 5. general purpose socket+utlet. painting. etc. and for total load requirement of lights. Usually. (1) I. For conduit wiring system. However. 2.: . both of which are not recommended. 5. kitchen. fans and power.1. planning an 5.. the work should start before finishing woik like plaster. information should be exchanged between the owner of the building or architect or electrical contractor and the locdl supply authority in respect of tariffs applicable. switches. 5. the necessary conduits and ducts should be positioned after the shuttering is in place and before the concrete is poured.3 Number of Socket Outlets-The recommended schedule of socket-outlets for the various sub-units of a domestic dwelling are-given in Table 2. provision being made lo protect conduits from damage.Apartment houses including highpstion.2 Number of Points in Branch Circuits The recommended yardstick for dwelling units for determining the number of points is given in Table I.0. A fundamentally safe installation may be rendered dangerous. if extended in this way. Exumple . (2) 35 45 55 85 140 (3) (4) (5) (6) t7) * A REA OF THE M A I N D W E L L I N G U N I T (ml) . etc. It is essential that adequate provision should be made for all the services which may be rEqutred immediately and during the intended useful life of the building. servicelines. dl.1 . For this purpose.. 4. . installation. 4 points with 3 fans are reco?mended. Ceiling fans (see Nom below) 5A Socket outlets 2 3 4 5 7 ISA Socket outlets ._.0.l fitimation of Load Requirements . heating.2 Before starting wiring and installation of fittings and. SUPPLY CHARACTERISTICS AND PARAMETERS 5. For surface wiring system. .I 2 3 $ Call-bell (buzzer) . accessories.3 While consideration should be given to the anticipated increase in the use of electricity for lighting.1. In estimating the. 2 indicate the rccommcnded number of points and the number of fans.For main dwelling unit of 55 m2.1 General aspects to be taken note of before tubes: ’ 600mm I2OOmm I5OOmm Power socket outlcc (I5A) Fl~ore&ent Length 5. but where electric wiring is to be concealed withirl the structures. designing the 5. Light points 2-i 3_.

NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE . 5.7 It is recommended to provide at least two lighting sub-circuits in each house. etc.1.8 Where so required. their outer casing shall be weatherproof and shall be provided with glands or bushings or adopted to receive screwed conduit according to the manner in which cables are run. if unavoidably fixed in places likely to be exposed to weather. 6. recesged conduit wiring system may be adopted. unless they are effectively screened by insulating material shall be so spaced that an arc cannot be maintained between such parts and earth. 6. The surface wiring when run along the walls should be as near the ceiling as possible. it is recommended that all socket-outlets in a room are connected to one phase.1. 1 . The arrangement of the gear shall be such that’ t h e y s h a l l b e r e a d i l y a c c e s s i b l e a n d their connections to all instruments and apparatus shall also be traceable.6 Switch boards.8 Wherever the load to be fed is more than I kW.f which the panel is fixed shall be drilled closer than 1. the covers or access doors shall be clearly marked to indicate the voltage present. if aesthetics is the main consideration.1. The depth of recess provided at the back for connection and the space at the front between the switchgear mountings shall be adequate.1.7 A switch board shall not be installed so that its bottom is within I.1. The wiring for 15 A plug outlets (power Gircuits) shall invariably be carried out either in surface/ recessed conduit wiring system where genera1 wiring is on wood batten.5 m of any washing unit in the washing room. 4 Selection of Size of ConductorsProvisions of 3. It is also recommended that a separate lighting circuit be u t i l i z e d ’ fFr all external lighting of steps. 6.5 ‘Power’ sub-circuits shall be kept separate and distinct from ‘lighting-and-fan’ sub-circuit. In each case. 5. All types of wiring. walkways. 5.2 Selection of Wiring .4 inflanimable or explosive dust. 6. 6. with a master double-pole switch for the subcircuit in addition to the individual switches. whether recessed or surface should be capable of easy inspection.1 The various live parts. unless the front of the switch board is completely enclosed by a door. terrace. it shall be controlled by an isolator switch or miniature circuit-breaker. 6. the switch boards shall be recessed in the wall. driveways.2 Open type switch boards shall be placed only in dry situation and in well ventilated rooms.1. b) PVC insulated wiring in steel/non-metallic surface conduits. porch.25 m alone the.1. Part I of the Code). If the points between which a voltage exceeding 250 volts is present are 2 m or more apart.1. However. carpark. 6.4 of Part I /Set I I of the Code shall apply. or to abnormal moist atmosphere. The conductors shall be so enclosed in e a r t h e d m e t a l o r i n c o m b u s t i b l e insu$ting material that it is not possible to have ready access to them.Any one of the following types of wiring may be used in a residential building (see Set I I. damp s i t u a t i o n o r where In a 6.1. 5.6 Balancing of circuits in three-wire or polyphase installation shall be planned beforehand. the swi!ch boards shall be totally enclosed or made flame-proof as may be necessitated by the particular circumstances.1.3 cm from aPy edge of the panel. and c) PVC insdlated wiring in steel/non-metallic recessed conduits. 6.1. PVC and double flanged bushes shall be fitted in the holes of the switches for entry and exit of wires.10 No mounting shall be mounted within 2.5 cm of any edge of the panel and no hole other than the holes by beans ~. Wiring for staircase lights and garage lights may be done in recessed conduit wiring systems. They shall not be placed in the vicinity of storage batteries and exposed to chemical fumes.5 .1. vapour or gas is likely to be present.2 General Requirements of Switchboards 6. SWITCHGEAR FOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION 6. 6. changing of fuses or similar operations. 5.1. floor.1. or the switch board is located in a position to which only authorized persons have access.1 All main switches or miniature circuit110 breakers shall be either of metal-clad enclosed pattern or of any insulated enclosed pattern which shall be fixed at close proximity to the point of entry of supply.5 Switch boards shall not be erected above gas stoves or sinks or within 2.2.1 Location 6.9 Equipments which are pn the front of a switchboard shall be so arranged that inadvertant personei contact with live parts is unlikely during the manipulation of switchgears.1. All wiring shall be done on the distribution system with main and branch distribution boards located at convenient physical and electrical load centres. to drip.3 Main switch boards shall be installed in rooms or cupboards having provision for locking so a s t o s a f e g u a r d a g a i n s t o p e r a t i o n b y unauthorized persons. a) Tough rubber sheathed or PVC insulated PVC sheathed wiring on wood batten. In all types of wirings due consideration shall be given for neatness and good appearance and safety. 6.

each switchboard shall be marked to indicate the section of the installation and building it controls.3 Types of Switchboards (see also Part I Set ll) 6 . 8.4 All metal switchgears and switchboards shall be painted prior to erection.5 All switchboards connected to medium voltage and above. These shall be of seasoned and durable wood with solid back impregnated with varnish with joints dove-tailed. METERING 8.3 Means for isolating the supply to the building shall be provided immediately after the energymeter. provisions of IS : 8061-1976 ‘Code of practice for design. F i x e d t.1 Plugs and Sockets . it should preferably not be installed at a height less than I m from the ground. SERVICE LINES 7. 3 .2.2. 8.2 In every case in which switches and fuses are fitted on the same pole. Wooden hoards --~~ For small installations connected to a single phase 240 volts supply.6 The distribution boards tor light and power circuits shall be different. each such switchgear shall be marked to indicate the section of the installation it controls.All plugs and sockets shall be of three-pin type.5 All distribution boards shall be marked ‘Lighting’ or ‘Power’ as the case may be and also with the voltage and number of phases of the supply.1 Distribution boards shall preferably’ be of metal clad type. these fuses shall be so arranged that the fuses are not alive when their respective switches are in the ‘off’ position.Such boards b) shall be suitable for large switchboards for mounting large number of switchgears and: or higher capacity switchgear. 1 In d w e l l i n g u n i t s . 6.\‘pe metal board. t h e m e t a l c l a d switchgears shall preferably be mounted on any of the following types of boards: earthed neutral conductor shall be connected to a common link and be capable of being disconnected individually for testing purposes.4 of Part 1 /Set 11 of the Code.y .7 The neutral shall also distinctly marked. 6. 6. 6. 6. except the glass window through which the readings are noted 01 should be mounted inside a completely enclosed panel provided with a hinged or sliding doors with arrangement for locking it.3 Branch distribution boards shall be controlled by a linked switchfuse or circuitbreaker.4. they shall be of HRC fuse type only.2 Lighting Fittings If the bracket type lamp holders are of metallic construction. The PART 3 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN NON-INDL'STRIAL Bl'ILDINGS . III a) Hinged-t)pe metal boards ~ Such boards shall be suitable for mounting of metal clad switchgear consisting of not more than one switchgear and ICDB 4 way or 6 way. The main switchgear shall be ma’rked as such. these boards may be used as main board or sub-boards. Where use of triple pole distribution boards is inevitable.4. The energymeters should either be provided with a protective covering. installation and maintenance of service lines up to and including 650 V’ shall apply. enclosing it completely. 6.0 Means shall be provided for proper earthing of all apparatus and abpliances in accordance with Part I lSec 12 of the Code. cl Where a board has more than one switchgear.3 No fuse other than fuses in instrument circuit shall be fixed on the back of or behind a switchboard panel or frame.4. it is recommended that they should be earthed.4.4 Distribution Boards 6..2. 9. 9.3. 7.1. Each outgoing circuit shall be provided with a fuse or on the phase or live conductor.2 Energymeters shall be installed at such a place which is readily accessible to both the owner of the building and the authorized representatives of the supply authority. Each outgoing circuit shall be provided with a fuse on the phase or live conductor.2.1 The relevant.2. one of the pins being connected to earth.4.2. 6. Where there is more than one main switchboard in the building.2. All pedestal lamp fittings of metallic construction shall be earthed. 6. 6.4. These should be installed at a height where it is convenient to note the meter reading. EARTHING IN DOMESTIC INSTALLATIONS 9.2 Main distribution boards shall be controlled by a linked switchfuse or circuitbreaker. 6. shall be installed in accordance with 3.4 Triple pole distribution boards shall not generally be used for final circuit distribution.6 The wiring throughout the installation shall be such that there is no break in the neutral wire in the form of a switch or fuse unit. At least one spare circuit of the same capacity shall be provided on each branch distribution board. one for lights and fans and the other for high wattage (power) appliances particularly when the tariff is different for light and power. I5 A per way.6. 6. 9. 8. 6. 6.8 The main switch shall be easily accessible.1 It is recommended to have two distinct circuits.

1. electric radiators.3.3 Fans and Regulators . gas equipment. and c) Room airconditioners. layout and design of electrical installation shall take into account the number and type of such equipment. the occupant load (the number of persons within any floor area) expressed in gross area in mZ/person shall not be less than 12. b) Packaged air-conditioners.75-I . of floors served 6. However. the design of lifts shall take into account the following recommendations. air-conditioners and coolers. hallways L. The refrigerators. the passenger handling capacity for residential’ buildings shall be 5 percent. The choice of lamps. the inlet end of the gas supply shall be either fitted with a strong insulating bush. 9.~mg room Dming room Bedroom : General Dressing tables. then a separate earth wire shall be used for earthing these appliances. by and large. shall be earthed by the use of three-pin plugs.5 ml s. as in cases of direct-coupled motordriven 4as boosters and motorized gas valves. The covers of the regulators. the following types of aircooling equipment are used: a) Evaporative cooler>. etc. and b) Large flats (No. for example. exhaust fans.ts the estimated population that has to be handled m the buildings in the S-minute peak period.5 m/s. designed to operate at low values of fault current. if fixed wiring has been done. the metal work of the electrical equipment.2 Ak-Conditioning 10. metal pipes. three or four flats per floor. for example.From the point of view of good reception it is recommended that radio sets should be earthed through an electrode different from that of the main earth system for other electrical appliances. 9. 103.1 Lighting. of three-pin plugs. All non-electrical metal work including the bath fub.1 Occupant load . In such cases the addition to the motor control gear of a differential or currentbalance type of circuit-breaker. However.4 Domestic Electric Appliances . etc. Apparatus .6 Radio Sets .2 Where a lift is arranged to serve two.Bodies of hot-plates. gas-heated electricity-driven washing machines. 10. bed heads Games or recreation room Table games Kitchen Kitchen sink Laundry Bathroom Bathroom mirror Sewing Workshop Stairs Garage Study 10.12) 0. if fixed wiring has been used. 9. the general rules laid down in Part 1 /Set 14 of the code shall apply. For domestic dwellings. would afford a desirable safeguard against fault current transfer specially where the rating of the plant is of a size and capacity which entails correspondingly high ratings for the normal overload protective devices.2 Passenger handling capacity (H) Expressed . substantial enough to stand a flash test of 3 500 V and so designed as to be difficult to detach.Bodies of all table fans. if it is not possible to have separate earth electrode.9. Where separation is not easily achieved.3 Lifts 10. if of metallic construction shall be earthed by means of a separate earth wire. However. BUILDING SERVICES TABLE 3 RECOMMENDED LEVELS OF ILLUMINATION FOR DIFFERENT PARTS OF DOMESTIC DWELLINGS LCWZAT~ON ILLUMINATION LEVEL IUX :: 150 300 200 100 E 300 200 :Ez :: 100 70 300 Entrances. where it is desirable or necessary that metal work in proximity to electrical apparatus be bonded to ihe earthed metal work of the latter. 112 . ‘10. 10. toasters.Where appli9. pedestal fans. electric irons. as for example. 10. shall be bonded to the metal or pipework of. heaters.7 Miscellaneous ances utilizing gas and electricity are in use.2.2. shall all be earthed by the use.For residential (domestic) dwellings.5. the gas supply shall be introduced through a non-conducting plastic pipe from a point not in proximity to earthed metal work. 10.3. or. ovens and water boilers shall all be earthed by the use of three-pin plugs.13 Car speed-Car speed for passenger lifts shall be as follows: a) In low and medium class flats 0.1 Whenever lifts are required to be installed in residential buildings.1. radio sets may be earthed through the main earth system.The general rules laid down in Part l/‘&c 14 of the-Code shall apply..3. sinks and tanks shall be bonded together and earthed. kettles. in kitchens. lighting fittings shall be based on the recommended values of illumination given in Table 3. 103. the lift may be placed NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 10.5 Bath Room -The body of automatic electric water heaters shall be earthed by the use of a three-pin plug or by a separate earth wire.2 The power requirements.1 The general rules laid down in Part l/Set 14 of the Code shall apply.

NO.1 The provisions of Part I /Set IO of the Code shall apply. Maximum (4) (W) 5 000 2 000.5 to 0.7 0.E 4 POWER FACTOR FOR SINGLE PHASE ELECTRICAL APPLIANCES AND EQUIPMENT (Clau. AVERAGE N A T U R A L P O W E R FAC. 10. 30 cm X I5 cm riser shall be provided for telephone wiring cables.5 to 0.75 0. shall be earthed effectively. 13. with the lift entrances serving direct on to the landings.\r 13. see Table 2. ii) 3 sroreys and ahove I) Floor area less than 300 m? ~ N o t required. g) The metallic body of the fan regulator if any. (1) APPLIANCL EQUIPMENT 0) . TESTING OF THE INSTALLATION 12.1 The following protection systems are recommended: a) One or Two Family Private Dwellings detection: extinguishing systems required.8 0. Fire not 13. b) Apurtment Houses/ Flats i) C/p to 2 storeys N o t r e q u i r e d . N e o n s. 5.4 m.62 to 0. For guidance on ‘natural power factor available for single phase. h) It is preferable to provide earth leakage circuit-breaker at the intake of power supply at the consumer’s premises (see Part I Set I2 of the Code). b) All the single pole switches shall be on phase cl The electrical outlets for apphances in the bathrooms shall be away from the shower or sink (see Appendix A).7 0.1 Tele hone Wiring ~~ Facilities for telephone wiring sR all be provided in all residential buildings where telephones are likely to be installed. f-l The clearance between the bottom most point of the ceiling fan and the floor shall be not less than 2.6 to 0. 12. appliances and equipment used in domestic dwellings. d) Wiring for power outlets in the kitchen shall be preferably done in metallic conduit wiring. 2) F l o o r a r e a m o r e t h a n 3 0 0 m2 -Manually operated electric fire alarm. Where the lift is to serve a considerable number of flats having access to balconies or corridors.8 0. FIRE PROTECTION 11.8 3. II. 8. (Conrim&) *Start dropping when compressor motor not in circuit.85 0. 9. 13.65 0.6 0. 6.7 to 0. third socket being connected to the earth.General guidelines on principal causes of low power factor and methods of compensation are given in Part I: Set I7 of the Code.82 0. e) The electrical outlets shall not be located above the gas stove. 4. Hair dryers Liquidiser Mixer Coffee grinder Refrigerator Free7er Shaver Table fan Ceiling fan I50 2000 450 350 400 x00 I 000 250 I20 100 I 50 I50 200 200 600 x0 25 60 I I.5 0.TOR (5) 0. MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS 13.65 0.3 Guidelines on Power Factor Improvement in Domestio Dwellings .adjoining the staircase. or live conductor only. it may be conveniently placed in a *well ventilated tower adjoining the building. In high rise residential buildings.75 to 0. Minimum (3) (W) 500 750 POWFK OUTPllT h . 7.2 S a f e t y R e q u i r e m e n t s --~ Some of the important safety requirements in electrical installations in domestic dwellings are summarized below: a) All outlets for domestic electrical appliantes shall be of three-pin socket type.3) Sl.55 I .68 to 0. PART 3 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN NON-INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS II3 . Wmdow type air-conditioners 0. TAB1.

Zone 3 -.25 m above the floor. 14. 1 The particular requirements of t h i s Appendix apply to bath tubs.9 to 0.25 m above the floor.5 0.uum Clock Tube light APPENDIX A [Clauses 0. (1) APPLIANCE/EQUIPMENT (2) P OWER O U T P U T ’ Minimum (3) (W) 75 I50 80 300 25 IO 200 40 5 cleaner Maximum ’ (4) (W) 100 350 120 450 100 I5 450 100 IO A V E R A G E NATURAI POWER FA C T O R (5) 0.7 12.2. CLASSIFICATION OF ZONES A-2. 17. and b) by the floor and the horizontal plane 2.1 Electrical equipment shall have at least the following degrees of protection: ZoneO: IPX7 Zone I: IPX5 Zone21 IPX4 IP X 5 in public the interior of the bath tub or N OTE -The d i m e n s i o n s are measured taking account of walls and fixed partition. and b) by the floor and the horizontal plane 2.60 m external to Zone I. whatever the nominal voltage. and b) by the floor and the horizontal plane. I and 2. Z o n e 0 .4 and 13. NATIONAI. C O D E .7 0. Zone I -.6 0.TABLE 4 POWER FACTOR FOR SINGLE PHASE ELECTRICAL APPLIANCES’ AND EQUIPMENT .is limited: a) by Zone 2 and the paraltel vertical plane 2. PROTECTION FOR SAFETY A-3.6 0. wiring systems shall be limited to those necessary to the supply of appliances situated in those zones. A-4. shower basins and the surrounding zones where susceptibility of persons to electric shock is likely to be increased by a reduction in body resistance and contact with earth potential.3 In Zones 0. > A-4.5 0. in this Appendix are based on the dimensions of four zones as described in Fig. 13.40 m external to Zone 2.I . A-2. A-3. Zone 2 .1 The requirements given. A-4. 16. I and 2 no switchgear and accessories shall be installed.1 Where safety extra low voltage is used.Conrd (C/uuse I 3. or for a shower without basin.2(c)] PARTICULAR REQUIREMENTS FOR LOCATIONS CONTAINING A BATH TUB OR SHOWER BASIN A-l. protection against direct contact shall be provided by: a) barriers or enclosures affording at least the degree of protection IP2X.7 to 0.8 0. Z o n e 3 : 1PX I shower basin. or b) insulation capable of withstanding a test voltage of 500 V for I minute.8 to 0.2 A local supplementary equipotential bounding shall connect all extraneous conductive parts in Zones limited: a) by the vertical plane circumscribring the bath tub or shower basin. Junction boxes are not permitted in Zones 0. ELECTRICAl. by the vertical plane 0.2 In Zones 0. I and 2. 18. Cabin fan Exhaust fan Sewing machine Washing machine Radio Night lamp Vac. 19.3) SL No. SCOPE A . 20.6 to 0. I and 2. IS. SELECTION OF EQUIPMENT A-4. they are permitted if the necessary degree of protection is limited: a) by Zone I and the vertical parallel plane 0. A-3.7 0.6 0.6 m from the shower head.25 m above the floor. In Zone 3. 2 and 3 with protective conductors of all exposed conductive parts situated in these zones.

In Zone 2 only water heaters and Class I1 luminaires may be installed.A-4.A46 In Zone 0.60 m from door of the shower cabinet.5 Any switches and socket outlets shall be at Bath Tub ZONE 3 ZONE 1 Shower Basin 2. or c) protected by a residual current protective device. a) supplied individually by an isolating transformer. or b) supplied by safety extra-low voltage. 1 ZONE DIMENSIONS (Elevation) PkRT 3 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN NON-INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS .4 In Zone 3. .40 m ZONE 2 ZONE 3 [ZONE 1 i Shower without Basin but with Fixed Partition LFIXED PARTITION WALL FIG. only electrical appliances specially intended for use in the bath tub are permitted. A-4. socket-outlets are permitted only if they are either: a distance of at least 0. In Zone 1 only water heaters may be installed.

ffffffff f ZONEI Z O N E 3 2 I I I I I 2.a) Bath Tub b) Bath Tuh with Fixed Partition ?f.LOn / 1’ I Z O N E 1 ZONE 3 _/ -_-c) Shower Basin d) Shower Basin with Fixed Partition e) Shower without Basin f) Shower without Basin but with. Fixed Partition f SHOWER HEAD HEAD \ ZONE 3 \ YO 9 F I G. 116 2 Z ONE D IMENSIONS (Plan) NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE .

Should any special provisions apply to them. GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF INSTALLATIONS 4. laboratories in schools and colleges) will be categorired as AF3. High-rise buildings housing office complexes are common. an attempt has been made to identify the nature of the occupancy. (for example.The following environmental factors shall apply to office buildings.~ (2) Presence of water Probability of presence of water is negligible The quantity or nature of dust or foreign solid bodies IS not significant Remarks (3) Presence of foreign solid bodies Presence of corrosive or polluting substances The quantity and Locations where nature of corrosome chemical sive or nollutine oroducts are substances is not handled in small significant quantities. departmental stores. supply is normally at medium voltage and the distribution of power is less complex. the categorication A F 2 applies (WP Part 3 See 8).0 General guidelines on the assessment of charactuistics of installations in buildings are given in Part I /Set 8 of the Code. for the keeping of accounts and records and similar purposes.1 For the purpose of this Section.1 This Section of the Code covers requirements for electrical installations in office buildings. etc. research establishments data processing installations. wholesale or retail.. FOREWORD 0.s ~~ These include buildings used as shops. b) Shopping/ Comtnercial Centresj Mercantile 6uiltling. Impact and vlbration of IOU Lererlt! Depends on the location ol the building Mechanical >t rc5\e\ Sekmlc effect and lightning PART 3 EI. stores. 1.These include buildings used for schools. professional establishments. 4. Some of such buildings has to incorporate a standby/emergency power plant for essential service needs.possible to define strictly the type of buildings covered in this Section except in broad terms. 3.1 The electrical installations covered in this section. banks. However. however. shopping and commercial centres and educational and similar institutional buildings. 0.C:CTRICAI.3 For editorial convenience. 2. For the purpose of installations falling under the scope of this Section the characteristics defined b e l o w generally apply. shopping and commercial centres and educational/institutional fluildings: C‘horacrerrsrrc. NOTE L a r g e r a s s e m b l y b u i l d i n g s r e c r e a t i o n a l occupancies are covered in Part 3 Set 3 of the Code. etc. 4. cl Educational Buildings . shopping and commercial centres can be of various types depending on the size of the civil structure or the extent of activity involved in the building. in the case of multistoreyed office-cum-commercial complex. S C O P E I.1 Environment . CLASSIFICATiON 3. and keeping in view the similarity with the type of buildings covered in this section. 0. are those in buildings intended for the following purposes: a) Qffice Buildings] Business Buildings These include buildings for the transaction of business. TERMINOLOGY 2. producing serious pollution. colleges and daycare purposes for more than 8 hours per week involving assembly of people for instruction and education (including incidental recreation). SHOPPING AND COMMERCIAL’ CENTRES AND INSTITUTIONS 0.1 Office buildings.4 It is not . be made to 3 wherein a description is provided for the various types of installations covered in this Section.2 In small buildings with comparatively moderate loads.SECTION 2 OFFICE BUILDINGS. For office and other buildings covered by this Section situated b) the se. etc. they are identified at the relevant clauses. calling for a coordinated planning while designing the electrical services therein.S II7 . offices. market. INSTALLATIONS IN NON-INDUSTRIA’L BUILOIN(. or in industrial Tones. educational and other institutional buildings are also covered here. where the large number of amenities is to be provided calls for a more complex distribution system. 0. for display and sale of merchandise. Reference may. the definitions given in Part I Il Set 2 of the Code shall apply.

public address system for fire fighting. socket-outlets shall preferably be of metal clad weatherproof type with covers. the recommendations of the manufacturer shall apply. In special occupancies such as school or college laboratories. Wires shall not be covered by carpets. easy conditions of evacuation High density occupation. etc) 5.1. C O D E High rise office commercial centres. However.Small offices and shops pation. . building contractor and the electrical engineer on the various aspects of installation design. However.4. telephones. underground shopping arcades. zonal indicators. to avoid trailing of wires and use of multiple outlets from one socket. calculators. fire-alarm system and wiring for data-processing equipment. e) Division of the installation.1.3 In offices and showrooms. 8) Maintainability of the installation. 5. From the point of view of the design of the various installations. exhaust fans. SUPPLY CHARACTERISTICS A N D PARAMETERS 5. bells. the interior decoration normally include false ceiling.d installation facility where appliP) Metering system for different loads. mains and sub-mains. for special cases such as for communication networks. 5. n) zb.2 The branch circuit calculations shall be done according to the general provisions laid down in Part 3/Set I of the Code. A complete drawing of layout of the electrical . location of sectionalized control switches..5 Areas where corrosive or polluting substances a r e p r e s e n t i n t e r m i t t e n t l y o r continuously. The wiring diagram shall include outlets for lights. I ) Lighting. b) Type of distribution system. sockets. call-bells. lighting.4 Adequate number of socket-outlets shall be provided for electrically operated office machines such as electric typewriter.1. distribution boards.1. 118 . frequency. persons Children Persons adequately advised or supervised by skilled persons Uninstructed of occupants Applies to schools Applies lo areas A major percentage such as building substations and for operating and maintenance staff k) Telephone circuits including extensions and intercom.0 Exchange of Information 5.0. pumps for fire fighting.The following aspects of utilization shall apply: Urilizorion (1) Capability of persons Chorocrerisrics (2) Remarks (3) j) Other details as relevant such as. facilities. Cl Nature of supply (current. and 3) Lifts.Efl R I C A . 5. They shall be run at skirting level and encased for mechanical protection. cable runs and their segregation from the other cable system. etc.1 Proper coordination shall be ensured between the architect.pu. Contact of persons Conditions of evacuation during emergency Persons in nonconducting situations Low density occu. Any wiring laid above the false ceiling should be adequately protected such as by drawing the wires in metallic conduits and not run in open.6 Lighting circuits shall preferably be combined in switched groups so that lighting can N A T I O N A L EI. central conrrol console. f-l Nature of the external influences (see 4).1. 5. the specific demands of the lighting. the following shall be considered: a) Maximum demand and diversity. h) Nature and details of building services. office buildings. etc N OTE -. installation shall be prepared together with associated floor plans indicating the details mentioned in (a) to (p) above. 2) Air-conditioning. etc Nature of proces. furniture shops.No significant risk Small shops sed or stored In view of large Existance of fire material volume of paper risk and furniture (for example. difficult conditions of evacuation High density occupation. etc. fire-alarm systems.1. 5.1 The general design of wiring of branch circuits shall conform to those laid down in Part l/Set II of the Code. clock systems. 5.2 Utilization . appliance and motor loads as well as special loads encourtpred in the types of buildings covered in this Section shall be taken into account. ceiling fans. difficult conditions of evacuation Departmental stores m) CCTV for information display and security. such as school laboratories and other buildings located in high industrial pollution zones. carpets and curtains. nominal voltages).1 Branch Circuits 5.Five protection system shall include such details such as locations of detectors. 4 Prospective short-circuit current at the supply intake point. the dc circuits be identifiable in the layout diagram.

I Educational buildings (Group B) Educational buildings above 2-storeys having an area of more than 500 ml per floor shall have besides fire-fighting equipment.1.4 E m e r g e n c y Supply . They can also be effectively used in place of fuses in a distribution board.1 In office buildings.2 The transformer power rating for the supply of the building shall be sufficient to cater to the highest simultaneous power requirements of the building. Such pipes shall be properly sealed at both ends to reduce the possibility of rain water flowing through the pipes and flooding the trenches.0 General. Shall be of weatherproof onstruction or 1 or cabin. manually operated electrical fire alarm and automatic fire alarm systems.3.5. ‘dust. a well ventilabed cabin segregated from the utility’s supply shall be provided.o 0. 5. and commercial centres occupy various areas.0 5. Other loads are taken to local distribution boards.. etc.The designer of power supply for office buildings and commercial centres shall take into account the great concentration of power demand of the electrical loads. Only authorized persons be allowed to enter the substation for operations/maintenance of any kind. 5. installation and maintenance of service lines up to and including 650 V PART 3 ELECTRIC-AI. For the purposes of office limited to desks which are occupied.3. 5. Group E (business buildings) and Group F (mercantile buildings) from the point of view of fire safety classification (see SP : 7-1983). heating (air-conditioning) Power plant (drives) Lighting Lifts I .3. 5.4.5. These are governed by the rules and regulations of the respective authorities. essential lighting and lifts. Essential services include amongst others. functions. Boards . 5. Reference is also drawn to SP : 7-1983 on guidelines for fire protection of buildings.2 Service Lines -The general provisions laid down in IS : 8061-1976* shall apply.Wherever emergency supply is considered necessary. it can be in the form of separate and independent feeder from the undertaking terminated in equipment isolated from the regular supply line. All switches shall bear labels indicating their.1 . 5. professional establishments. etc. elevators. In case of standby supply from diesel generator sets. 5. 5. 5.5. this Section fell under Group B (educattonal buildings).6 Selection of equipment shall be made according to the guidelines laid down in Part I/ Set 9 of the Code. such occupancies have to be provided with their own substation with vertical and horizontal forms of power distribution.1 If the load demand is high. waterpressure pumps. Electrical load for each of them would have to be metered separately.for general rules 5.3. certain safety and essential services shall be supplied even in the case *Code of practice for design. banks.3 Building Substations 5.4 Meterin . be decided accordingly. The substation room shall be well ventilated and inaccessible to birds and reasonably reptile-. accommodation for substation equipment will be #required. 5.In multistoreyed buildiggs. Main switch room will serve feeders to various lpad centres such as air-conditioning plant.3.f k i o s Switchboards shall be of open type or cubicle type.3.0 Genera/ .2 Business buildings (tiroup E) Besides fire-fighting equipment.5 System Protection . Switchboards shall be located away from areas (likely to be crowded by the public. The electrical needs for the appropriate type of installation shall.3 The location and layout of building substation shall conform to the general rules laid down in Part 2 of the Code. Airconditioning in office buildings absorbs an especially high proportion of the total power used.65 0. The general rules given below shall apply.5.95 I. The power requirement of these essential loads is generally about 25 percent of the total power requirement of the building. where the buildings are more than 2 storeys with floor area above 500 rn? per floor. INSTALLATIONS IN NON-INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS .and insect-proof.’ Cables leading from the substation to the main-building shall preferably be carried underground through ducts or pipes of adequate dimensions. 5. h o u s e d i n weatherpro0. and for laboratories with II9 Ventilation.1 The type of buildings covered in. Typical fire fighting installation requirements are also covered therein.5 Switchboard9 and Panel.All current carrying equipment ishall he totally enclosed. therefore. water pumps.3. shopping and commerctal centres. Consequently. ventilation installations. rodent. 5.The protection for safety laid down in Part I/Set 7 of the Code shall apply. 5.3. a number of o Brices. miniature circuit-breakers of adequate capacity shall be preferred to switchfuse units. requiring supply at high voltage. Typical proportions of power usage are given below: Purl of Elerrrrc~al in ~rallaritin Parr qf the Toral Power Requirement Percent 45 5 :: Diversirj Factor of mains failure. automatic fire alarm systems are recommended for offices.and vermin-proof and if mounted outdoor. Cubicle type boards shall be with hinged doors interlocked with switch-operating mechanisms. the-meterroom normally is situated in the ground floor.

executive offices c) General offices d) Business machine operation e) Drawing offices f) Corridors and lift cars g) Stairs h) Lift landings j) Telephone exchanges: i). magazines) c) Readirig tables d) Bodk repair and binding e) Catalogging.Manual exchange rooms (on desk) ii) Main distributton frame room 4.6.5. Shops and Storest a) General areas b) Stock rooms 19 22 22 I9 19 I9 I9 16 -- 200 I50 :: I50 :zz 300 200 to 300 I6 It I6 :: lo 16 (see SI No. NATIONAL ElJX-TRICAl. a fairly high level of glare free lighting on working planes and s u b d u e d l i g h t i n g i n circulation areas are necessary.1‘2 In commercial premises. sorting. Libraries : a) Shelves b) Reading rooms (newspaper. Banks : a) Counters. 5. and their layout. INIWX (4) No. 2 above) (see appropriate trades in 1:&3&G? (Part 2)-19y9*) 150 1. transport booking agencies. Colour temperature characteristics of the light source shall also be taken into account in the case of showroom lighting. CODE . tDoes not cover display (showroom lighting). Underground shopping centres shall be provided with atitomatic sprinklers. warehouses. premises and shopping lines with central corridors open to sky.f lighting in the vertical and horizontal planes. lighting fittings and general lighting design together with power requirement shall be planned based on the recommended values of il!umination .lnd l i m i t i n g values of plarc i n d e x given in Table I. etc.1~UMINATlON SL BUILI)ING A N D G L A R E INDKX ILLUMINATION (3) IUX ~.1 -The general rules laid dotin in Part TABLE I RECOMMENDED VALUES OF l1.1 Lighting 5. Schools and collenes : a) Assembly hallsi) General ii) When used for exams iii) Platforms b) ClaSs and lecture rooms : i) Desks ii) Black board Emb&idery and sewing rooms Art rooms Libraries Manual training Offices Staff rooms. stock rooms 3. common rooms Corridors Stairs 5. For other I/Set I4 of the Code shall apply. The choice of lamps.IMl?lNG GI ARt. automatic fire-alarm systems shall be installed.1.3 Mercantile buildings (Group n’ ~ Besides fire-fighting eyuipment.6.6 Building Services 5. typing accounting book areas b) Public areas 70 150 300 300 I50 300 IS0 to to lo lo to I50 300 300 450 450 70 IFl 150 300 700 700 300 I9 I9 2.1. I9 -- : I50 to 300 200 :: *Code of practice for interior illumination: Part 2 Schedule for value of illumination and glare index.delicate instruments as well as computer installations. Asthetics and interior decoration also play a part.6. as well as for shopping areas inside buildings with area more than 500 rn? on each floor. (1) (2) I.ighting d e s i g n i n s h o w r o o m s includes high level c. L. automatic sprinklers and automatic fire alarm systems are recommended for wholesale establishments. Offices : a) Entrance halls and reception area b) Conference rooms. depending on the merchandise exhibited. 5. 5.

3. multiple call system shall be preferred. passageways. These shall be as follows: 0tTice bullding 4-5 6.3.6. the design of lifts shall take into account the following recommendations. Each of which is connected to a pair of contact on a relay which is operated from the contacts of master clock.4. 121 PROVISIONS 5.6.1 The general rules laid down in Part IiSec 14.75 0.1. In order to ensure proper coordination with design of the building for daylight use of devices such as photoelectric switches shall be encouraged for controlling lighting groups near windows.3.6. it is advisable to have at least two lifts side by side at the main entrance and one lift each at different sections of the building for inter-communication.1 The general guidelines contained in Part l/Set I4 shall apply regarding installation and maintenance of master and slave clock systems.1 The various tests on the installation shall be carried out as laid down in Part I See IO of the Code.4 II IO-15 percent 15-25 pcrccnt Car speed -. 7. regarding installation of electric bells and call system shall be referred to. the impulse clocks may be arranged in number of series circuits. A simple call bell system is suitable for small offices whereb. entirely under the control of the user. shall take into account the requirements stipulated in the following clauses. All machines and switchgear may be housed in one machine room.5 2-2.’ it is desirable to have at least a battery of 2 lifts at two or more convenient points. 5.These shall be as follows: a) Educational b) Business c) Mercantile : i) Ground floor and sales ii) Upper sale floor 4 IO 5. it is necessary to preplan the coordination of external and intercom systems.6. In a more complex installation like multistoreyed office buildings with large number of slave clocks.2 In case of large air-conditioning installations (So0 tonnes and ahove) it is advisable to have a separate isolated equipment room together with electrical controls. of the Code shall apply.3 Passenger handling capacit.2 Telephones/Intercoms 7. impulse clocks designed to operate at the same current may be connected in one series circuit.1 Group Control 7. 7. However. When call points are too numerous on a single indicator panel. The design of the air-conditioning system.I 2 13-20 Shops and departmental atorea 0. Depending on the final requirements of the type of occupancy. 7.5 above I. TESTING OF INSTALLATION 6. MISCEI.4.LANEOUS 7.1 Adequate coordination shall be ensured right from the planning stages with the telephone authorities to determine the needs for the telephone system catering to the various units in office buildings.3.5 5.2 Air-Conditioning 5.4 Clock Systems 7. 5.75-1. Time bell systems shall be installed in schools to give Start-work and Stop-work signals. the machine room shall be suitably planned.2 Occupant load. The switching points may be combined centrally at the entrance. A visiblecum-audible indicator/bell panel shall be used.2 In simple installations. 7. If this is not possible.2.6. PART 3 ELECTRICAl INSTALLATIONS IN NON-INDIISTRIAL Bl:II.3.DINGS . For private intercom systems. such as in large offices.2. 6. ( H) -These are expressed in terms of percent of the estimated population that has to be handled in the building in the 5 minute peak period as follows: Ouupanc~t a) Diversified (mixed) ol’f~ce occupancy b) Single purpose office occupancy 5. with a battery having sufficient voltage to ensure satisfactory operation. All equipment rooms shall have provision for mechanical ventilation. 7.2.‘Sec 14 of the Code shall apply.y service staff may be called to a particular position by the caller.5-0.5 For office buildings.1 The lighting circuits shall preferably be combined in switched groups as well as coordinated to functional groups of desks in an open plan office.6.1 The general guidelines laid down in Part I/ Set 14.3 Lifts and Escalators 5. The layout in such a case would be determined by the size of building and staff.\.3 Electric Call Bell System 7.6. wiring and other details shall be agreed to. the type of equipment to be used. 7. When two lifts are installed side by side.1 The general rules laid down in Part l.

Educational/institutional buildings may use CCTV as a teaching aid for pre-recorded educational programmes.5 Closed Circuit T V 7.5.1 Commercial buildings may require the installation of CCTVs for one or more of the following purposes: a) Security.7. readily accessible for maintenance at all times.4. and b) Information display.3 Master clock shall be placed in a dust free location. 7. 122 NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE . Reference shall be made to good practice for installation of such facilities.

I. T E R M I N O L O G Y 2. such as those meant for recreational and assembly purposes. exhibition halls. are covered separately under Part 3’ Sec. auditoria. GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF INSTALLATIONS 4. which are also basically assembly buildings. In view of the nature of use of such occupancies.2 This Section does not cover sports buildings. difficult condltions o f evacuation Nature of processed or stored material Existence of fire risk aspects of Remarks (3) Majority of the 0ccupant. religious.SECTION 3 RECREATIONAL. museums.The following environmental factors shall apply to recreational an’d assembly buildings: &n~Vro. assembly halls.2 The lighting design of such buildings are generally sophisticated. in view of their unique nature. are those in buildings intended for the following purposes: Assetnhl!~/ Recreational Buildings ~~ These shall include any building where groups of people congregate or gather for amusement.0 General guidelines on the assessment of characteristics of installations in buildings are given in Section 8. educational or officecommercial-curzl-cinema c o m p l e x s h a l l a l s o comply with this Section. theatres. On the physical aspects of lighting and sound systems i n r e c r e a t i o n a l b u i l d i n g s . 0.3 Sports buildings.1 This Section of the Code covers requirements for electrical installation in buildings. 3.The utilization shall apply: Uriliiarion (1) Capacity o f persons Characteri. clubs.stics (2) Uninstructed persons Persons adequately advised or supervised by skilled persons Condition\ of evacuation during emergency High density occupation. auditoria and the like. theatres.1 Environment . t h e definitions given in Part I ‘Set 2 of the Code shall apply. motion-picture (cinema) houses. For t h e purpose of installations falling under the scope of this section the characteristics defined below generally apply. the primary feature being a congregation of people of all age groups for a short period of ‘time during a day or a group of days. ASSEMBLY BUILDING!5 & F O R E W O R D A variety of buildings are being used for public a s s e m b l y f o r p u r p o s e s t h a t a r e recreational. say. social.1meJ. recreation. certain specific safety and reliability considerations become necessary for the electrical installation. easy conditions of evacuation High density. 0. 4. amusement. it is recominended that assistance should be derived from specialists as such details are beyond the scope of this Code. 6 of the Code. cultural and theatrical buildings In view of large quantum of furniture and drapings P A R T 3 E L E C T R I C A L I N S T A L L A T I O N S I N NON-INDI:STRIAL BUILDINGS 123 . dance halls. SCOPE 1.1 For the purposes of this S e c t i o n . places of worship. Presence of foreign solid bodies Presence of corrosive o r polluting substances Mechanical stresses Seismic effect and lighting following 4.s Electrical operating areas Small thcatres and cinemas Multiple cinema halls.1 NOTE -. 2. patriotic. The type of buildings covered in this Section are enumerated in 3. for example. required to be properly coordinated with the electro-acoustic demands. temporary or travclling depending on the nature or construction of the premises. etc.Theatres .r (1) Presence of water Characrerbrics (2) Probability of presence of water negligible The quantity or nature of dust or foreign solid bodies is not significant The quantity and nature of coirosive or polluting substances is not significant Impact and vibration of low severity Depends on the location of the building Remarks (3) 0. Buildings such as those catering to display of regular programmes demands a continuous power supply. Temporary installations shall also conform lo the additional provisions laid down in Part S/SK 2 of the Code. restaurants. These include cinema halls.1 The electrical installations covered in this Section. social or religious. 4. 1.2 Utilization . Part 1 of the Code. CLASSIFICATION 3. civil and similar purposes. It shall also be noted that assembly buildings forming part of other building complex.are also classified further as permanent (air-conditioned and non-airconditioned).

the advice of the appropriate specialists shall be obtained. workshops and storehouses.CHARACTERISTICS 5.2 of Part I I Set 7 of the Code). PVC conduits may be used in the auditorium and other places. corridors and stairs.1 Proper coordination shall be ensured between the architect. 5 .0 The branch circuits shall-in general cater to the following individual load groups: a) Power installation: i) Stage machinery.1. 5. and c) General auditorium lighting and other special service needs. 5. Nothing shall impede access to any part of the equipment or its controls. in assembly buildings.12 Suitable socket outlets shall be provided on the side walls for tapping supply to screen focussing lights.Y(Y 2.25 m.1.0. 5. rewinding room. control gears. stairways. Ends of conduits shall enter and be mechanically secured to the switch.1. passage ways. building contractor and the electrical engineer on the various aspects of the installation design in a building intended for recreational or assembly purposes. Within the enclosure. exit and parts of the building open to the public. foyer. etc. 5.1. in particular on the following aspects: a) Audio-visual systems.1. c) Emergency supply. 5. water-tight fittings shall be used and fittings may be so mounted without spoiling the aesthetic view of the recreation buildings. with controls near the stage motor. passage ways. 5.4 Wiring shall be of the conduit type.1 Branch Circuits 5. ii) Ventilation installation.1. Ends of conduits shall be provided with screwed bushes.8 Branch and main distribution boards shall be mcunted at suitable height not higher than 2 m from the floor level. 5.1 shall be remote from each other. 5. and iv) Additional power connections.1. the wiring for the ‘open yard lighting shall be done with weather-:proof cables threaded through porcelain reel insulators suspended by earthed bearer wire at a height of not less than 5 m from ground level.1.1.13 In the queue sheds. exit and parts of the building open to the public.18 When a tapping is taken from the open yard wiring.1. 5. For large projecis. 5. iii) Lifts. b) Lighting: i) In front of the theatre.11 The single pole switches for the individual lights and fans shall be mounted on sheet steel boards suitably earthed. work place dressing rooms. stairways.0.1. SUPPLY PARAMETERS 5. 5.5 Temporary wiring shall not be allowed in cabin.2 The control of the circuits in respect of the two halves of the auditorium referred to in 5.3 The cabin shall be provided with two separate circuits. 5. 5.1. and ii) In the rear of the theatre for stage. queue sheds and similar places. b) For one half of the auditorium.1.7 Linked tumbler switches shall not be used for the control of circuits. The reel insulators shall be spaced 0. all cables shall be enclosed in screwed metal conduits adequately earthed.17 In case of travelling cinemas.16 The plug points shall be provided at a height of about 1.1. 5.5 metres from each other.1. and auditorium.1. it should be taken only at a point of NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE .1.2 The installation work shall conform to the provisions of Indian Electricity Rules as well as other Rules applicable for assembly buildings formulated by the State Authorities. 1 .1. such as general lighting of outdoor. Exchange of Information AND equipments and the other lights and fans.14 For outdoor lighting.1. bulk head fittings shall be used.6 The cabin equipment shall be accessible at all times. 5. b) Stage lighting and control. 5.10 All the lighting fittings shall be at a height of not less than 2. 5. A front clearance of I m ‘should alsd be provided.9 Wood work shall not be used ‘for t‘he mounting of or construction of the framework for iron-clad switch and distribution boards and controlgear. 1 The electrical lighting of the main building shall have atleast three separate and distinct main circuits as follows: a) For the enclosures (cabin) and hence through a dimmer regulator to the central lighting of the auditoriurp. stage and portable 5.5 m from the floor.15 The installation in a travelling cinema should generally c o n f o r m t o t h e a b o v e requirements a n d t h e b u i l d i n g s h o u l d b e sufficiently away from the near? conductor of power lines (. equipment terminal boxes. 5.0. and c) For the remaining half of the auditorium. audio systems lights. o n e f e e d i n g t h e c a b i n 124 and air-conditioning 5.

auditoria b) Platforms c) Corridors d) Stairs 2.5. alarm system canteen and storage b) Buildings without a stage but no permanent seating arrangement c) All other structures designed for assembly 5.2 Feeders 5.0 The electrical power demand of an assembly building can vary from 30 kVA to more than I 000 kVA according to the. fixed to the supporting pole. 5.1 The following aspects shall be taken . Building substations shall conform to the general requirements specified in Part 2 of the Code. 5. 125 PART 3 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN NON-INDlJSTRIAL BUILDINGS . 5.1 Feeder circuits shall generally conform to the requirements laid down in Part I /Set I1 of the Code. supply at voltages above I kV is given for large theatres and auditoria. lifts and the lighting and fan circuits.The general rules laid down in Part I /Set 14 of the Code shall apply. The choice of lamps. inside temperature shall be 25.4. 5.5 System Protection 5. Art Galleries: a) General b) Paintings 5.2 In air-conditioned assembly buildings.2.2.note of while deciding the location of substation: i) Stage Automatic sprinkler Automatic fireii) Auditoria.2.6.Service lines shall conform to the provisions laid down in IS : 8061-1976* 5. The general rules given below shall apply. lighting fittings and /Igeneral lighting design together with power r&$nrement shall be planned based on the recommended values of illumination and glare index given in Table I.6.6 Building Services 5. green rooms. 5.LARE INDEX a) A s t h e r e w i l l b e c o n c e n t r a t i o n a n d movement of people. 5.3 Provisions shall be made to record the temperature inside the auditorium. The following shall be provided besides fire-fighting equipment: a) Buildings having a theatrical stage and fixed seats *Code of practice for design installation and maintenance of service lines~ up to and including 650 V +National Building Code.The above is meant for general guidelines apd does not include special lighting effects.6.4 In the event of a breakdown of the airconditioning plant.5 k 2. Such occupancies can’ be further classified into groups depending on the capacity of the theatre/auditorium to hold the congregation (see SP : 7-1983*). I6 I6 :i I50 :: 100 IO IO - N OTE .6.0 The rules for protection for safety laid down in Part !/Set 7 of the Code shall apply.1 Tile type of occupancies covered in this Section fall under Group D (assembly buildings) from the point of view of fire safety classification. Usually.1 The general rules laid down in Part I/ Set I4 of the Code shall apply. P A R T OF BU I L D I N G ILLUMINATION Automatic fire alarm system Manualy operated electrical fire-alarm system L IMITING VALUE OF G. I. preferably at the rear of the building. Typical fire-fighting installation requirements are also covered therein. Cinemas: a) Foyers b) Auditoria c) Corridors d) Stairs 3. 5.4. 5. Museums: a) General b) Display Service Lines . alternate arrangements should be available for ventilation and air circulation. size of the building.6. TABLE 1 RECOMMENDED VALUES OF ILLUMINATION AND GLARE lNDEX SL NO.2.1 Lighting .75”C.2. 5.2. Assembly and concert: a) Foyers.4 Building Substation 5. the substation should be located away from the area where people and vehicles move about. Reference may also be made to SP : 7-19837 on guidelines for fire protection of buildings. Theatres: a) Foyers b) Auditoria c) Corridors d) Stairs 100-150 450 70 I00 I50 :: I00 I50 Special Lighting - c) It is desirable that the transformer which contains a large quantity of oil is not located in the basement as there is risk of fire. corridor. 5. (1) (2) lux (3) (4) b) The substation should not be in the way of people and fire-fighting vehicles and personnel where they are -likely to attend to an through-porcelain connectors housed in a junction box.2 Air-Conditioning 5.2 Separate feeders shall be taken to airconditioning units.

dimmer-control equipment may be required.1. The various possibilities of switching each fittings shall be kept in view while designing the lighting circuits. Therefore.3 Lifts and Escalators -The general rules laid down in Part I /Set 14 of the Code shall apply.1 Emergency Supply .1. TESTING OF INSTALLATION 6. In the special case of stage lighting control.As given in Part 3/Set 2. are required for illumination. Gross Area in m2/ Person 0. the control-room shall be situated in a convenient position. 6.3 G r o u p C o n t r o l --The lighting in the auditorium shall be suitably combined into control groups to facilitate group switching. 7. MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS 7. The changeover of supply arrangements should be reliable and easy to operate. etc.Installation 7. projectors.2 Depending on the total capacity required for-standby supply for the occupancy. a great number of spotlights. 7. 7. 14 of the Code. System . Assembly halls with fixed or loose seats and dance floors Without seating facilities including dining rooms 1.5 b) Passenger handling capacity and car speed . sufficient number of emergency lights fed from independent source or the guidelines contained in Part I. with the provision for automatic switching-on in case of 126 NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE . border lights.This shall be as follows: Occupancy. the design of the lifts shall take into account the following recommendations: a) Occupant load. The location of the standby supply shall preferably be on the ground level away from the auditorium so that noise from the generator reaching the audience could be minimised. However. Occupant Load.1 In all recreational and assembly buildings.1 The various tests on the installation shall be carried out as laid down in Part l/Set IO of the Code. the lighting operator shall have a good view of the stage in order to be able to follow the performance. suitable standby generator set shall be installed.5. including portable light sources. For same lighting schemes.2 Stage Lighting -On the stage of a theatre.6 failure of main’ supply shall be provided.See also Part 2 of the Code. 7./ Set . 7.4 Audio-Visual of amplifying and sound distribution systems shall conform.6.

3 The basic aspects of the safety philosophy for installations in hospitals have been standardized at the IEC Level. which is normally an important protection against harmful electric currents is bypassed in certain examinations or treatments. 2 .A central monitoring room is considered to be part of a Room Group. electrotherapy in water*. by signal transmission lines) between the rooms of such a group exists. where flammable atmosphere exists. in which medical equipment and utensils are sterilized. if necessary. 1. etc. 9 H. clay. 2.Anaesthetic room comprises for instance the actual operating theatre. methods are E x a m p l e s o f endoscopic cystoscopic. several units functioning simultaneously with a variety of support services to cater to the needs of doctors and patients. NOTE .Room intended for application of endoscopic methods for the examination of organs through natural or artificial orifices. rooms ‘With o r wIthout addfitl\cr c) Medical electrical equipment may often be used to support or substitute vital body functions.2 A n g i o g r a p h i c E x a m i n a t i o n R o o m Room intended for displaying arteries or veins. 7 H e a r t Catheterizarion Rooter -~.2 Safety requirements for electrical equipmen! used in medical practice are covered in IS : 8607 (in Parts)*.ATlONS IN NON-INDI’STRIAI.\drorherap. 2. Room in . brine with gases.1. in water* Swimming pools for general use and normal bath-rooms are not considered as hydrotherap!.0 In addition to the definitions contained in Part I/Set 2 of the Code the following shall apply. SCOPE 1. 0. 2.d in medical practice (Parts I to 3).1.SECTION 4 MEDICAL ESTABLISHMENTS 0. operating plaster room and surgeries. This Section is based on the following considerations: The patient may not be in a condition’ to react normally to the effects of hazardous events. gastroscopic and similar methods. stored or computed. b) The electrical resistance of the skin. drawing of blood samples.1. *General and safety requirements for electrical equipn nt .Room in which the actual birth takes place. The latter type will have 2. 1 . 2. performed under anaesthesia.3 Central Monitoring Room . bronchoscopic. steam. T E R M I N O L O G Y 2. slime. if a conductive connectlon (for example. 2 .1 Anaesthetic Room . laryngoscopic. Examples o f a p p l i e d procedures are measurement o f a c t i o n p o t e n t i a l s o f t h e haemodynamics of the heart. inhalation therapy.1.1 This Section of the Code applies to’ the electrical installations.5 Deliver.1. 2 . operating preparation room. 2. 1 . PART 3 ELECTRICAL INSTAI.6 Endoscopic Room .Room.* Room .I. FOREWORD 2.a medical establishment intended to connect patients to medical electrical equipment in order to detoxicate their blood. multidisciplinary hospital in big cities.Medically used room in which general inhalation anaesthetics are intended to be administered. not spatially connected to a medically used room. 1 .1 Rooms 0. Additional safety provisions in the electrical installations of medically used rooms and medical establishments are covered in this Section of the Code.R o o m intended for the examination or treatment of the heart using catheters. and d) Specific locations in medical establishments d Electric and magnetic interference may disturb certain medical examinations or treatments.1. Bl’ILDlNGS 127 . brine.4 Central Sterilization Room .Koom in n hich patients are treated by hydrotherapeutlc mcthodh. the breakdown of which may cause a dangerous situation. mud.1 Hospitals in the country vary in size from simple premises used for medical purposes in villages to a wekquip’ped. i n j e c t i o n o f c o n t r a s t a g e n t s o r application of pacemakers. Examples of such methods are therapeutic treatments with water. 0. In the preparation of this Section considerable assistance has also been derived from IEC 62A (Secretariat) 55 ‘Requirements for electrical installations in medical practice’ issued by the International Electrotechnical Commission. These are enumerated in 4. 2. massage thermotherapy and thermothcrap!.v Roonr -. This Section is also applicable to rooms for veterinary medicine and dental practice. in medical establishments. call for special treatment.Room in which the output signals of several patient monitors are displayed. water with gases. 8 Hemoclial~~sis R o o m ---. sand. NOTE . with contrast media.

1 .12 Intett.19 Operating Recover. by administering anaesthetics. Where the leakage occurs into another enclosure which is not sufficiently (naturally or forcedly) ventilated and enrichment of the leaking mixture may occur. 2. or in any other medical establishment.l. for example. NOT k Such a room IS usually very close room group but not necessarily part of it. 2.parlally connected IO i t .20 Operating Sterilization Room .18 Operating Preparation Room . 2. 2.1.1..1.subject to a high rate of deterioration.nt enclosure where ieakage may occur because such parts are: . 2. NOI1 Such a room helong~ IO the operating a n d I\ u~uall! \patiall) connected to I I room group 2. 2.2.1. respiration) may be stimulated. R o o m . but not for the purpose of several simultaneously to treatment. electromedicai measuring or monitoring devices.R o o m i n which plaster of Paris or similar dressings are applied while anaesthesia is maintained. 2. using electromedical equipment. treatment or monitoring of persons or animals.24 Radiological Diagnostic Room .27 Urolog.Room in which surgical operations are performed.Room in which patients are prepared for an operation. 128 .1 I Intensi~~e E.28 Ward .R o o m i n w h i c h patients are prepared (waiting) for delivery. to the operaring room group NoIt a n d I\ .23 Ph.1.26 R o o m G r o u p used rooms linked with each other in their function.1.unprotected and liable to be broken. 2.1 OFlantntahle Anaesthetic A t m o s p h e r e Mixture of a flammable anaesthetic vapour and or a vapour of a flammable disinfection or cleaning agent with air in such a concentrStion that ignition may occur under specified conditions.liable to inadvertent disconnection. 2. Body actions (for example. transport. 2 . .1.R o o m i n w h i c h diagnostic or therapeutic procedures are performed on the urogenital tract using electromedical equipment.I5 Medicall. such an enclosure \ and possibly the surroundings of it (subject to possible leakage) up to a distance of 5 cm from said enclosure or part of it is regarded as a Zone G.Room in which patients are treated by physiotherapeutic methods.Room in which bed patients are monitored independently of an operation by means of electromedical equipment.10 Intcwsi\v Care Room . Group of medically 2.1. etc) of human beings or animals. gamma radiation or corpuscular radiation or by the use of radio-active isotopes.1113 Lahour R o o m .1.25 Radiologkal Therapy R o o m .2.Room in which the patient under observation recovers from the influence of anaesthesia.Room in which medical staff at an operation can wash for disinfection purposes.2 Zones of Risk --(see also Appendix A). 2.1. Room .Volume in a medically used room in which continuously or temporarily small quantities of flammable anaesthetic mixtures may be produced. Room . 2. or .1. 2. means of radiography or fluoroscopy or by the use of radio-active isotopes or for other diagnostic purposes.\. guided or used including the surroundings of a completely or partly enclosed equipment or equipment part up to a distance of 5 cm from parts of the equipme.22 Operating Wash Room .3 Zone G . treatment. if necessary using anaesthetics or analgesics. dental or veterinary examination. endoscopic equipment and highfrequency surgery equipment.. monitoring.I4 Medical Estahlishmenr -. Such a room belong. such as X-ray equipment. heart circulation. IO the operating 2. Body actions may be stimulated if required. 2..21 Operating Thearre .1.Establishment for medical care (examination. nursing.1. Room .vsiotherapj.Room 2. 2. Used intended to be used for medical.16 Minor Surgical Thearre .1.ramination R o o m . by their designated medical purpose or by intcrconnectcd medical electrical equipment. 2.2. Nort Such a room belongs 10 the operating room group and is spatially connected IO It.Room in which minor operations are performed on ambulant or non-ambulant patients. if required.1.1.Room in which utensils required for an operation are sterilized.R o o m intended for the use of ionizing radiation to obtain therapeutic effects on the surface of the body or in internal organs by means of Xradiation. 2.Medically used room or room group in which patients are accommodated’for the duration of their stay in a hospital.2. Nork Such a room belongs 10 the operating room group and is spatially connected to it.4 Zone M -~ Volume in a medically used room in which small quantities of flammable anaesthetic atmospheres of flammable N A T I O N A L E L E C T R I C A L COL)E 2.17 Operating Plaster Room -.1 . 2 .rture Mixture of a flammble anaesthetic vapour with oxygen or with nitrous oxide in such a concentration that ignitign may occur under specified\y Monitoring Room R o o m i n which operated patients are monitored.Room intended for the use of ionizing radiation for display of internal structures of the body by.R o o m in which patients are connected for the purpose of intensive examination. 2 F l a m m a b l e Anaeslheric Mi. 2.

which is used for housing treating persons s u f f e r i n g from physical limitations because of health.A n y a r e a up t o I. Bl:ILDINGS I29 .Total current for a giveh set of connections in an isolated power system that would flow through a low impedance if it were connected between either.I n s t r u m e n t m e a s u r i n g t h e o h m i c resistance between the monitored isolated circuit and earth providing an alarm when the value of this resistance becomes less than a given limit. F o r t h e purpose of installations falling under the scope of this section.A device measuring the ac impedance at mains frequency from either of the conductors of an isolated circuit to earth and predicting the hazard current that will flow when an earth fault occurs and providing an alarm when a preset value of that current is exceeded. injury or disease. Where a Zone M is caused by leakage. CLAGSIFICATION 3. Moniror hazard current . of the C o d e .3. 2. . 2 . connected. 8 M e d i c a l I s o l a t i n g Tran.1 The electrical installations covered in this section are those in buildings inten. 2. convalescents and the aged. This also includes infirmeries. 4. it comprises the space srrounding the leakage area of a Zone G up to a distance of 25 cm from the leakage point 2. 3.3 Generalor Se.Electrical connection intended to bring exposed conductive parts or extraneous col’ductive parts to the same or approximately the hame potential.Hazard current of the line isolation monitor. connected. 2.4 H a z a r d Currenr .vpira1. 2.3.5 m distance from the intended location of the paticnl in which intentional or unintehtional contact between patient and equipment or some other person touching the equipment can occur (sre Appendix H). 2.3.5 Insularion I m p e d a n c e M o n i t o r i n g Device . including the line isolation monitor. 7 I n s u l a t i o n . 2. home for the a g e d a n d i n f i r m .Voltage not exceeding a nominal value of 25 V ac or up to and including 60 V dc or peak valee at rated supply voltage on the transformer or convertor between conductors is an earth-free circuit isolated from the supply mains by a medical safety extra-low voltage transformer or by a convertor with separate windings.3. NOTE Provisions f o r s u p p l y o f such arcuat wparatcl! f r o m t h e r e m a i n d e r o f t h e electrical lnbtallation arc prcwnr likelihood of discontinuity of supply in case of a failure tb earth in the isolated power source or in equipment connected to it. 2 .LoHv V o l t a g e (Mselv) . NOTE ~ T h i s c u r r e n t i s e x p r e s s e d in milliampere\.s~i~utions .6 I n s u l a t i o n M o n i t o r i n g D e v i c e Instrument indicating the occurrence of an insulation fault from a live part of an isolated electrical supply system to the protective conductor of the installation concerned. orphanages.yfijrmer -Electrical equipment used in medical practice intended to supply isolated power to medical electrical equip.Value of a residual current causing a protective device to operate under specified conditions.2 Essenrial Circuir ~.Hazard current of an isolated system with all supplied equipment. convalescent homes.3. 2.9 M e d i c a l Safe07 Extra. G E N E R A L C H A R A C T E R I S T I C S O F MEDICAL ESTABLISHMENTS of buildings which is used for the custody and care of persons. for example. Voltage appearing. except the line isolation monitor.ded for the following purposes: 2.3. mental hospitals. the characteristics given below apply. such as children -(excluding schools).v a n d Sonaloria This includes any building or group of buildings.3.ment in order to minimize the a) Ho. 3 .11 Patient Environmen! . between simultaneously accessible parts.3.anaestneucs with air may occur.3 Special Terms 2. engine driven generator). A Zone M may be caused by leakage of a flammable anaesthetic mixture from a Zone G or by the application of flammable disinfection or cleaning agents.isolated conductor and earth. 3 .1 Equipotenrial Bonding . Resislance Moniroring Dellice .This includes any building or.Circuit for supply of equipment which is kept in operation during power failure.Hazard current of an isolated system with all supplied equipment.Self-contained energy convertor including all essential components to Supply electrical power (for example. age. Fauh hazard curren! .0 General guidelines on the assessment of characteristics of installations in buildings are g i v e n i n Part I/Set X.3. 4.10 Operaring Residual Current .3.1 Environment ~~~ The following environmental factors shall apply to hospitals: PART 3 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN NON-INDIbTRIAI. sanatoria and nursing homes. 2. etc. Cusrodial In.12 Touch Volrage during an insulation fault. The following hazard currents are recognized: Tolal hazard current .

where the occupants are not in command of all their physical and intellectual abihties Applies to areas such as building substations.0. that could lead to excessive currents through the patient. Restriction of voltage differences by supplementary equipotential bonding. Presence of corrosive or polluting substances Locations where some chemical products are handled (for example. In its completed lorm the equipotential sAl-Ios. must be avoided. casualit) mcdtcine store. Ail accessible extraneous conductive parts in the zone shall be connected to this potential equalization bar. connection 01 lhc Iarious p o t e n t i a l equalization ccnIrc\ to ‘a central potential equali/nrion hu4har. the fault current may cause a considerable voltage drop over the protective earth conductor of the relevant circuit.0.such a system is that in the case of an insulation fault in circuits directly connected to supply mains.0 General 5. orphanages. E L E C T R I C A L CODE I30 . In addition the following provisions may be required. etc Applies to hospitals in general.Environmen: (1) Presence of fcci~.~tcrn 01 the po\\er s u p p l y f o r t h e gl\cn . spcctfic locations like. etc. operations and matntenance staff Persons adequately advised or supervised by skilled persons Contact of persons with earth potential Persons do not in usual condttions make contact with extraneom conductive part\ or stand on conductmg surfaces b) Conditions of evacuation during emergency Nature of process or stored materials Difficult condttionr Apphes in general to of evacuation ho\pual\ and stmtlar buildings. protective conductors and protective devices to restrict continuous voltage differences.0. nursing homes. where potential differences.\i.t. operation thcatre. available solutions are the reduction of the duration of fault currents to earth by special devices or the application of a power supply which is isolated from earth. depending upon the nature of the examinations or treatments performed: a) A d d i t i o n a l requirements concerninp. w h i c h s h o u l d prcferahl! he connected to the protective earth >!. Since a reduction of such a voltage drop by the application of increased cross-sectional areas of protective conductors is usually impractical.The following aspects of utilization shall apply: Utili:arion (1) Capabthty o f persons Characrerrtrtrs (2) Children in locations intended for their occupation Handicapped Remarks (3) Applies to child-care homes. some parts of the installation may be present in the patient’s environment. A disadvantage of. X-Ray block fall under BE 2 and BE 3 (.wc~ P a r t 1 St2 X ol the Code) cl Restriction of the potential equalization d) If more than one patlent is present in an‘ a r e a . solid Characteristics (2) The quantity or nature of dust or foreign solid bodies is not significant The quantity and nature of corrosive or polluting substances is not significant Remarks (3) - 5. Seismic effect and lightning - Depends on the location of the building 4.2 Generally a power supply system including a separated protective conductor is required (TN-S-system). SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS 5.tctic:tll! around one operation table or around one bed in an intensive care room.1 As such. at least a potential equalized zone around the patient shall be provided with a patient centre bonding bar to which the protective and functional earth conductors of the equipment are connected. zone to the /one around one patient. 5. meaning pi-. sanatoria. During the application of equipment with direct contact to the patient.2 Utilization .irc. For this purpose a combination of earthing of equipment and potential equalization in the installation seems to provide the best solution. 5. irrebpectivc of denbtty of occupation Fire or risk M a n y locarton\ rn hospnal butldtngs tn gcncral uould fall under category B E I of no stgnificant fire or explosion risk. laboratories in hospitals) will be categorized as in Part l/Set 8 Mechanical stress Impact and vibration of low severity.0 In the context of this Section ‘installation’ means any combination of interconnected electrical equipment within a given space or location intended to supply power to electrical equipment used in medical practice.

doctor’s examining room (office. where medical electrical equipment is not used.1. j) Safety supply system for major parts of the hospital. T-T or IT power system.1 All buildings in the hospital area which contain medically used rooms shall have a TN-S. Other requirements of this Section.4 A typical example of an installation in a hospital is given in Appendix C. co1 3. The device may consist of rechargeable batteries possibly combined with convertors or special generating sets.3 Exposed c o n d u c t i v e p a r t s o f equipment being part of the electrical installation used in the same room shall be connected to a common protective conductor.3 Guidance on the application of the provisions are given in Table 2. equipment as life-supporting equipment and operating room lamps. Provision P. The conventional touch voltage limit (UL) is fixed at 50 V ac.1. diagnosis or treatment. 5. r) Continuity of power supply to certain equipment in the case of a first insulation fault to earth and restriction of transient voltage differences by application of isolating transformers. h) Prevention of ignitions and tire in rooms where flammable anaesthetics or flammable cleaning or disinfection agents are used by ventilation. 1 . The rooms mentioned under (a).1 The conventional touch voltage limit (LIL) is fixed at 25 V ac. 6.0 Exchange of Information 6.2. Suppression of electroma netic interference achieved by the layout o fg the building and wiring a n d p r o v i s i o n o f s c r e e n i n g arrangements.1 Provision PO : General 6. etc. 4 Restriction of the duration of transient voltage difference by the application of residual current operated protective devices (earth leakage circuit-breakers). k) Special safety supply system for critical 6.1. The necessary terminals for these bonding conne**ions should be present on equipment and in the installation. building contractor and the electrical engineer or the various aspects of installation design.1. N O T E. shall be applicable for all medically used rooms.bonding network may consist partly of fixed and permanently installed bonding and partly of a number of separate bondings which are made when the equipment is set up near the patient. 2 P r o t e c t i v e c o n d u c t o r s inside a medically used room shall be insulated: their insulation shall be coloured green-yellow (see Part I 1 Set 4 of the Code). need not be complied with if: a) a room is not intended for the use of medical electrical equipment.1. usually a diesel-powered generator. l3) Monitoring of a first insulation fault to earth in an IT-system (the secondary side of an isolating transformer) with sufficiently high impedance to earth. 5. 6 . (b) and (c) may be massage rooms.2. general wards. 6.1. 6. c) the central heating system.2. Limits for magnetic fields of mains frequency are necessary tor a number of sensitive measurements. data processing equipment. consulting room). 2 . The necessary special features of installations shall be ascertained beforehand with reference to Table 2.The use of TN-C-S system (in which the PEnconductor may carry current in normal condition) can cause safety hazards for the patients and interfere with the function of medical electrical equipment. anti-static precautions and careful layout of the installation. 6.1.1 Safety Provisinw $1.0.1 Proper coordination shall be ensured between the architect.1. signal transmission lines.) 6. The power supply is taken over by these devices in a short time.1.2 Provision PI : Medical TN-S system 6. Recommendations for essential cirouits to be connected to it. or c) only medical electrical equipment is used which is internally powered or of protection Class II. SUPPLY CHARACTERISTICS AND PARAMETERS 6. or b) patients do not come intentionally in contact with medical electrical equipment during 4 lightning-conductor.1 S a f e t y measureS a r e d i v i d e d i n t o a number of provisions as given in Table I.2 Provision PC..1. Connections shall be made to the -following parts by bonding conductors : 5. ‘b) earthing systems of the electric power distribution system. d) the conductive water supply line. BUILDINGS 131 PART 3 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN NON-INDUSTRjAL . 5.4 A main equipotential bonding with a main earthing bar shall be provided near the main service entrance. shall be applicable to all buildings containing medically used r o o m s .1 Circuit Installation Measures for Safety Provisions -(See Table I.

TABLE I SAFETY PROVISIONS (Cbusr 5.1.1) PllovlsloNs (1) PO PI S P RINCIPAL R~QUIRHUIENT~ (2) Dupm~f touch voltages ratricted to 8 As I?0 but 8dditiorully : touch volt8ga in p8tient environment restricted to 8 s8fe limit As PI but 8dditiotully : Resist8nce between extmn&us conductive parts md the protective conductor bus b8r of the room not exceeding 0.1 fl INSTALLATION Msluurn (9 TN-S, m or IT system Addition81 to p0 : Supply system with additional requirements for protective cuthing. etc Additiorul to PI : Suppkmentrry quipotenti8l bonding


As P, or Pz : Meuurement neccas8ry. A s PI or Pz but 8ddition8Uy : Potenti difference between expo&d conductive p8rts, rtion possibly neccssuy exttmneous aDnductiw p8rts md the protective conductor bus brr not exceeding t0 mV in normal condition (WC Note b&w)


p1 A P6

As PI or A. Addition81 protection ryinst ckctric shock by ,limit8tion of dironnccting time Continuity of the timins su ply m8intllined in cue of 8 rurt insuktion P rult to earth and currents to euth restricted Reduction of f8ult currents 8nd touch volt8ges in case of 8 f8ult in ths b8sic insuktion Prevention of dangerous touch voltages in norm81 condition rnd in singk f8ult condition (WC Note below) No interruption of the power sup ly of the or essential circuits of the hospit8l P more th8n 15 seconds N? interruption of ,the power supply of \;e-ss%po$mg qurpment for more th8n No in~rruption of the power supply of the oper8tmg kmp for more thur 0.5 seconds Prevention of cxpbsions. fue and ekctrostatic c barges

Additions1 to PI or P2 : Residual current oper8ted protective device Addition81 to PI, 4, or Pa : kol8ted supply system with isol8tion monitoring Additional to P, or P2 : Medical isolating transformer supplying one individually piece of equipment Additioilal to PI or P2 : Supply with medical S8fCty. extra low voltage spfety supply system




Special safety supply system

A. I ~

Special s8fety supply system for operating lamp Measures concerning explosion and fire hazards Layout of building nnd installation, scmning

No excessive interference from ekctric and
nugnetic folds

NOW - Normal condirlon means .without any fault’ in the installation. TABLE 2 EXAMPLES OF APPLICATION OF SAFETY PROVISIONS (Clausr 5. I .3) SL Ms0ICAL.Lv USED R00M P~~TE~w~E MEASURES , P./A Pa (4) 0 X 0 x X x X X 0 P, (3) M w8sh M M M * I S AFETY SUPPLY SYSTEM h E XPLOSIONS M EASURES AND F I R E AGAWST EM FIELDS





(7) (8) 0 0 0 0 0 0

(9) xx x x x x 0





I. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Murage room Operating room w8rd general Delivery room ECG. room

(lo) (11) (12)



0 X

EEG, Q4G M room



0 (Conrinued)




p.1 PI

(4) 0 X 0 X



(7) 0 0


(9) 0 0 0 0





(3) M M M M


7. Examination or tratmcnt room 8. hbour room 9 . Opcmting rtixiliition room 10. Urology room (not
being an operating theotre)

(6) X X X X X


(10) X X X X X


& (12) 0



I I.

Radiological diagnostic and therapy




room, other than mentioned under SI No. 20 and 24 12. Hydrotherapy
room 13. Physiotherapy room



Xl Xl Xl X,
0 X X X X X X X X X X X X X


0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

X X X X X X X X 0 X 0 X X X X X X X X 0 X
0 0

14. Anaesthetic room 15. Operating theatre 16. Operating preparation room 17. 18. 19.
20. 21. Operating plaster room Operating recovery room Outpatient operating theatre


0 X X






Heart catheterization room Intensive care room Intensive examination room Intensive monitoring room Angiographic examination room Hemodialysis room Central monitoring room (see Note)

X 0 0 0 0 X 0


22. 23. 24. 25. 26.





N OTE - Only if such a room is part of a medical room group and therefore m\talled III the same way as an intensive monitoring room. Central momtoring room having no conductive connection 10 the medically used room (for example. by use ol isolating coupling devices for \~gnal tran\m~\von) ma) hc ln\talled ab non-mcdlcally used room (provl,lon PU only).
Explanation: M = X= X, = 0 = Mandatory measure. Recommended measure As X, but only lor equlpmenr de\crlhed III 6 . 1 . 6 . 7 . AdditIonal measure. ma! he con\ldered desirable.

e) the conductive parts of the waste water Ilne: f, the conductive parts of the gas supply; and g) t h e s t r u c t u r a l m e t a l f r a m e w o r k o f t h e building, if applicable.

Main euuipotential bonding conductors shall

have cross:se&tional areas not-less than half the c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l a r e a of the largest p r o t e c t i v e
c o n d u c t o r o f t h e i n s t a l l a t i o n , -subjict to a

minimum of 6 mm?. The cross-sectional area need


not, however, exceed 25 mm* if the bonding conductor is of copper or a cro~s-s&ctional area affording equivalent current-carrying capacity in other metals. Each medically used room or room group shall have its own protective conductor bus bar. which should have adequate .mechanical and electciCal properties and resistance against corrosion. This bus bar may be located in the relevant power distribution box. The leads connected to terminals of such a protective conductor bar shall be identified and shall be similarly designated on . drawings of the installation system. The impedance (Z) between the protective conductor bar and each connected protective conductor contact in wall sockets or terminals should not exceed 0.2 n. if the rated current of the overcurrent protective device is 16 A or less. In case of a rated current exceeding I6 A the impedance should be calculated using the formula: Z+ fl, in all cases Z shall not exceed.0.2 0.

- 2.5 mm2 if mechanical protection is provided, and - 4 mm2 i.f mechanical protection is n o t
provided. 6.1.28 It may be necessary to run the protective conductor separate from the phase conductors. in order lo avoid measuring probkms when recording bioelectric potentials. P2 : Supplemenrary 6.1 .3 Provision Equiporenrial Bonding In order to minimize the touch voltage, all extraneous conductive parts shall be connected lo the system of protective conductors. An equipotential conductor bar shall be prqvided. It should be located near the protective conductor bar (see aho A combined protective conductor and equipotential bonding bar may be used, if all conductors are clearly marked according to and 6.133 (e). Connections shall be provided from the- equitiotential bonding bar to extraneous conductive parts, such as pipes for fresh water. heating. gases. vacuum and other parts with a &onductive surface area larger than 0.02 rn? or a linear dimension exceeding 20 cm. or smaller parts that may be grasped by hand. Additionally the foilowing requirements supply:

. I

where I, = rated current of overcurrent protective device in amperes.
The measurement of the protective conductor impedance should be performed with an ac current not less than IO A and not exceeding 25 A from a’source of current with a no-load voltage not exceeding 6 V. for a period of at least 5 seconds.
Non --

a) Such connections need not be made to:
I) Extraneous conductive parts inside o f walls (for example structural metal frame work of buildings) having no direct connection to any accessible conductive part inside the room. and 2) conductive parts in a non-conductive enclosure.

a r e a o f the The cross-sectional protective conductor shall be not less than the appropriate value shown in Table 3.

b) In locations where the position of the
patient can be predetermined this provision may be restricted to extraneous conductive parts within the patient environment (see Appendix B)

Sd 16

c) In operating theatres. intensive care rooms,
heart catheterization rooms and rooms intended for the recording of bioelectrical actiol potentials all parts should be connected to the equipotential bonding bar via direct and separate conductors. 6.1.33 The following requirements shall be fulfilled:

16 < S G 35 s > 35

; -r

N O T E - If the application of this table produces norm standard si7es. conductors having the nearest standard crosssectional area are to be used.

The values in Table 3 are valid only if the protective conductor is made of the same metal as the phase conductors. If this is not so. the crosssectional area of the protective conductor is to be determined in a manner which produces a conductance equivalent to that which results from the application of Table 3. The cross-sectional area of every protective conductor which does not form part of the supply cable or cable enclosure shall be, in any case, not less than: 134


T h e i m p e d a n c e betwe’en e x t r a n e o u s conductive parts and the equipotential bonding bar shall not exceed 0.1 fI.


N OTE - The measurement of this impedance should be performed with a current not less thin IO A and not exceeding 25 A during not less than 5 seconds from a current source with a no-load potential not,exceeding 6 V ac.


All equipotential bonding conductors shall be insulated. the insulation being coloured green/ yellow.

NorI. lnbulation of the equipotential bonding cqnduclor4 IS necessary. lo avoid loops by contact and 10 avoid picking up of stray currents.

b) d

insulated so that it is not possible to touch them unintentionally, and provided with isolating joints at those places where they enter and leave the room.

cl Equipotcntial

conductors between permanently installed extraneous conductive parts and the equipotential bonding bar shall have a cross-sectional area of not less than -4 mm’ copper or copper equivalent.

Exposed conductive parts of permanently installed equipment may be isolated from the conductive building construction. 6.1.5 Provision PJ : Application tif ResidualCurrent Prohrive Devices The use of a residual-current protective device is not r&ognized as a sole means of protection and does not obviate the need to apply the provisions P I and Pz. Each room or each room group shall be provided with at least one residual-current protective device. A residual-current protective device shall have a standard rated operating residualcurrent I A N < 30 mA. A medical isolating transfbrmer and the circuits supplied,from it shall not be protected by a residual-current -protective device. Electrical equipment such as general lighting luminaries. installed more than 2.5 m above floor level need not bc protected by a residual-current protective device. Fixed and permanently installed electromedical e q u i p m e n t .wit h a p o w e r consumption requiring an overcurrent protective device of more than 63 A rated value may be connected to the supply mains by use of a residual-current protective device with I A N d 300 mA’. 6 . 1 . 6 Pro\isiou P5 : Metlicul IT-S,wem The use of a medical IT-system for the supply, of medically used rooms for example operatmg theatres. may be desirable for different reasons :

4 The equipotential bonding bar. if any,
should have adequate mechanical and electrical properties. and resistance against corrosion.

e) T h e c o n d u c t o r s c o n n e c t e d t o t h e
equipotential bonding bar shall be marked and shall be similarly designated on drawings of the installation system. A separate protective conductor bar and an equipotential bonding bar in a medically used room or in a room group shall be interconnected with a conductor having a cross-sectional area of not less than 16 mm? copper or its equivalent (see also An adequate number of equipotential bonding terminals other than these for protective conductor contacts or pins of socket outlets should be provided iq each room for the connection of an additional protect& conductor of equipment or for reasons of functional earthing of equipment. 6 . 1 . 4 Pro\si.siorl PJ : R e s t r i c t i o n of Touch Voltage irr Roon~ Equipped ,fiw Direct Cardiac Application The continuous current through a resistance of I 000 R connected between the equipotential bonding bar and any exposed conductive part as well as any extraneous conductive part in the patient environment shall not exceed IO PA in normal condition for frequencies from dc to I kH7. For a description of patient environment. see Appendix B. Where the measuring device has an impedance and a frequency characteristics as given in Appendix D, the current may also be indicated as a continuous voltage with a limit of IO mV between the parts mentioned above. - During the test it is assumed that fixed and permanently installed medical electrical equipment is operating. -- ‘Normal conbitions* means ‘without airy fault in the installation and in the medical electrical equipment’.
N OTE -- To comply with this requirement it pay be
necessary lo apply one or more of the following methods:

a) A medical IT-system increases the reliability
of power supply in areas where an interruption of power supply may cause a halard to patient or user;

b) A medical IT-system reduces an earth fault
current to a low value and thus also reduces the touch voltage across a protective conductor through which this earth fault current may flow;

cl A medical IT-system reduces leakage
currents of equipment to a low value. where the medical IT-system i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y symmetrical to earth. It is necessary to keep the impedance to earth of the medical IT-system as high as possible. This may be achieved by: I) restriction of the physical dimensions of t\he medical isolating transformer. 135

Extraneous* conductive parts may be: a) connected to the equipotential bonding bar by a conductor of a large cross-sectional area in order to reduce the voltage drop accross sueh a conductor.



restriction of the system supplied by this transformer,

checking the response of the monitor to a fault condition as described in

3) restriction of the number of medical electrical equipment connected to such a system, and 4) high internal impedance to ‘earth of the iinsulation monitoring device connected to such a circuit. If the primary reason for the use of medical ITsystem is the reliability of the power supply, it is not possible to define for such a system a hazard current and an insulation resistance monitoring device should be used. If,on the other hand the restriction of leakage current of equipment is the main reason for the use of the medical IT-system. an insulation impedance monitoring device should be used. For each room or each room group at least one fixed and permanently installed medical isolating transformer shall be provided. A medical isolating transformer shall be protected against short circuit and overload. In case of a short circuit or a double earth fault in parts of opposite polarity of the medical ITsystem the defective system shall be disconnected by the relevant overcurrent protective device. If more than one item of equipment can be connected to the same secondary winding of the transformer. at least two separately protected circuits should be provided for reasons of continuity of supply. 6.1.63 Overcurrent protective devices shall be easily accessible and shall be marked to indicate the protected circuit. An insulation monitoring device shall be provided to indicate a fault of the insulation to earth of a live part of the medical IT-system. Fixed and permanently installed equipment with a rated power input of more than 5 kVA and all X-ray equipment (even with a rated ower input of less than 5 LVA) shall be protected 1 y provision Pd. Electrical equipment such as general lighting, more than 2.5 m above floor level. may be connected directly to the sup’ply mains. General requiremenrs ./or insulorion mohiroring devices - A separate insulation resistance or impedance monitoring device shall be provided for each secondary system. It shall comply with the requirements given below: a) It shall not be possible to render such a device inoperative by a switch. It shall indicate visibly and audibly if the resistance or impedance of the insulation falls below the value given Gn and The arrangement may be provided with a stopbutton for the audible indication only.

cl The visible indication mentioned in (a) of
the insulation monitoring device shall be visible in the monitored room or room group.


The insulation monitoring device should be connected symmetrically to the secondary circuit of the transformer.

6. I .6.7 lnsulorion resi.wonc*e monitoring device-The ac resistance of ,an insulation resistance monitoring device shall be at least 100 kR The measuring voltage of the monitoring device shall be dc exceeding 25 V. and the measuring current (in case of a short circuit of an cxtcrnal conductor to earth) shall not exceed I mA. The alarm shall operate if the resistance bctwccn the monitored isolated circuit and earth is 50 kfI or less. setting to a higher value is recommended. impedance m o n i t o r i n g 6. I .6.8 lnsulolion device - An insulation impedance monitoring device shall give readings calibrated in total hazard current with the value of 2 mA near the centre of the meter scale. The device shall not fail to alarm for total hazard currents in excess of 2 mA. In no case. however. shall the alarm be activated until the fault hazard current exceeds 0.7 mA.
N O T E - T h e v a l u e s o f 2 mA or 0.7 mA a r e b a s e d o n practical experience with I10 IO I20 V power supplies. For a 220-240 V power supply it may be necessary IO in’crease these values to 4 mA and 1.4 mA because of the higher leakage current of equipment.

During the checking of the response of the monitor to a fault condition the impedance between the medical IT-system and earth shall not decrease. 6. I .7 Pro vision Pf. : Medical Elecrricol Seporor ion lndividuol Individual electrical separation of a circuit is intended to prevent shock currents through contact with exposed conductive parts Which muy be energized by a fault in the basic insulation. The source of supply. shall be a medical isolating transformer. Only one item of equipment shall be connected to one source of supply. 6.1.73 The voltage of the secondary circuit shall not exceed 250 V. Live parts of the separated circuit shall not be connected at any point to any other circuit or to earth. 6.1.75 To avoid the risk of a fault to earth, particular attention shall be paid to the insulation of such circuits from earth. especially for flexible cables and cords.

b) A test button shall be provided to enable 136

Where locked cabinets are provided.8. one of the following arrangements is required: a) Medical safety extra-low voltage circuit conductors shall be enclosed in a nonmetallic sheath additional to their basic insulation.7. etc.1.Sec I I of the Code shall apply. All panel boards and switchboards shall preferably be of dead front type.8 Pt-m*isiorl P.oltagc. 6.2.8. b) Conductors of circuits at different voltages shall he separated by an earthed metallic screen or an earthed metallic sheath.8.5 Separate circuits shall be provided for Xray. electrocardiograph. conductors. Advjce of equipment manufacturers shall also be sought in their installation. 6. PART 3 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN NON-INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS 137 .1.8. 6.1.1. 6.1.of interruption of power supply. 6. installation and maintenance of service lines up IO and including 650 V.3 Circuit-breakers are preferred to switchfuse units in power and lighting feeders.1.8. All conductors shall be physically separated from those of other circuits.1.7 Special convenience outlets in corridors spaced about I2 m apart are desirable for portable treatment equipment and cleaning machines.4 Inside the wards only silent type waH mounted switches should be used to reduce noise.7 Medical safety extra-low voltage circuit conductors.8. 6. 6.1 The general design of wiring shall conform to Part I /Set I I of the Code. individually or collectively. a) earth.1.2. auxiliary switches and any part of a circuit with . 6. 6. for the highest voltage present. Arrangements shall ensure electrical separation not less than required between the input and output of a medical safety extra-low voltage transformer. medical safety extra-low voltage circuits shall be insulated. 6.4. *Code of practice for design.1.1 The general provisions laid down in IS : 806l-1976* shall apply.1. : Medical Sqfkts Errra-Low Vu/rage ( M S E L V ) 6.4 Live parts at medical safety extra-low voltage shall not be connected to live parts or protective conductors forming part of other circuits or to earth. 6.5 Exposed conductive parts shall not intentionally be connected to: NOTI+.I higher \.1 Medical safety extra-low voltage shall not exceed 25 V ac or 60 V dc peak value. shall either be physically separated from those of any other circuit or where this is impracticable. 6.6.4 Service Lines 6.83 A source of medical safety extra-low voltage other than . c) extraneous conductive parts except that.2. 6.a transformer shall have at least the same separation and insulation to other circuits and earth as required for the transformer under 6.8. and b) Socket-outlets shall not have a protective conductor contact.4. or where electrical equipment is inherently required to be connected to extraneous conductive parts. electrical separation not less than that provided between the input and output windings of a medical safety extra-low voltage transformer shall be provided between the live parts of electrical equipment such as relays.7.3 Feeders-The general provisions laid down in Part I .2.6 In corridors and spaces accessible to public provisions shall be made for lighted signs.2. 6. 6. diathermy.8.8 Plugs and socket-outlets shall comply with the following requirements: a) Supply systems ot different voltages or different kinds or nature shall not have interchangeable plugs and sockets. electrotherapy.6 Live parts of circuits at medical safety extra-low voltage shall be electrically separated from other circuits. 6. conductors shall preferably be brought into the building underground to reduce the possibility .1. cannot attain a voltage exceeding medtcal safety extra-low voltage.In he above arranBcments. In particular. 6.2.6 Flexible cables and cords shall be visible throughout any part of their length where they are liable to mechanical damage. all locks should be keyed alike. or b) protective conductors or exposed conductive parts of another system.2 Wiring 6. d Where circuits at different voltages a r e contained in a multi-conductor cable or other grouping of conductors.7. Switchboard and panel boards shall be installed in non-hazardous locations. it is ensured that those parts. 6.2 The main supply. 6. basr-insulation of any conducto-r should comply only with the requimments for the voltage of the circuit of which :t is a part. The lighting points shall be so grouped so that minimum lighting may be switched on during night time.2 A supply transformer for medical safety extra-low voltage shall comply with relevant Indian Standards. enclosed in metal cabinet.

The general rules for protection for safety laid down in Part I of the Code shall apply.~XI. -6.t i g h t s e p a r a t i o n s. Emergency and standby -power-supply needs of hospital buildings shall also be taken into account in designing the building substation. the anaesthetists working-place and the operating table.6.2 The location and layout of building substation shall conform to the general rules laid down in Part 2 of the Code.3 For guidelines on selection of fire Sufficient care shall be taken to ensure that the supply to such motors is maintained properly. The gas-flow shall not be directed towards such electrical components. REQUIREMENTS 7.1 Provision A : Explosion and Fire Protection 7.haII be electrically conducting and shall be connected to the protective earth busbar.0 General.Where electrical equipment contains pipes or tubes of combustion supporting gases.6. such as oxygen or nitrous oxide if in the relevant circuit the p.6 System Protection 6.A~7~:’ Power R EQUIREMENT (2) Pcrcclit 5 (1) Lgtrting. such as oxygen or nitrous oxide. TARLE 4 POWER REQUIREMENT PART OF EL~C:CTRICAL INSTALLATION from other wiring. Electrical wiring shall only be allowed to be run in a .OGeneral. besides fire-fighting equipment manually operated electrical fire alarm system and automatic firealarm system shall be provided. These measures include mainly the use of antistatic flooring. Effective ventilation and the application . the following additional requirements apply: 4 Gas outlets shall be located at least 20 cm away from electrical components which. fulfilled gas-tight separation shall be provided between the electrical wiring and the tubes for gases. 6. b) cl P~. 6. could generate sparks. The effectiveness of a ventilation:system may be subjected to National Regulations. the diversity factor for different electrical appliances and installations shall be considered. the fire-fighting pump motors are generally large and they draw heavy current.7 Fire-Protection .1. 6. NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE b) . T h e g a s .1 While calculatin the power requirement.dtttoning Sterilizer kKdv Ekctromcdical installations and other loads (3) 4 6. Reference should be made to SP : 7-1983* for guidelines for fire-protection of buildings.1 The type of buildings covered in this section fall under Group Cl (hospitals and sanatoria).We. If the load demand is high voltaT high 2 * * sugPlY at aceommrr X:.6. 6.2 In hospitals and similar buildings.common enclosure.5 Euilding Substation 65. . a shortcircuit of these leads or a short-circuit of one lead with a metal duct or pipeline shall not result in a temperature which may cause ignition. with tubes for combustion supporting gases. &. The wiring for fire-fighting systems shall be segregated *National Building Code. in normal use or in case of a fault.The design of power supply for hospital and similar buildings shall take into account the concentration of power demand for the various electrical reduce risk of damage to them in the case of fire..1 Explosion Protection : General a) When the administration of flammable anaesthetic atmospheres or flammable anaesthetics or flammable cleaning and/or disinfection agents with air or oxygen and nitrous oxide is intended. for example in a common conduit for channel.6. For guidance. special measures to avoid ignitions and fire are reference values of power requirement and drversity factor for the different parts in a hospital\h~ospitals. see Appendix B of SP : 7-1983*. The main supply point shall be located in the main building of the hospital. 6.roduct of the no-load voltage in volts and the short-circuit current in ahtperes does not exceed IO. If the requirements in (c) cannot be. Restricted paging system arrangement with sound alarm/ indicators in the duty rooms/nurses rooms shall be made.of a suction system on anaesthesia equipment assists in reducing llammable concentrations of flammable anaesthetic mixtures in the patient environment.5. C2 (custodial institution) and C3 (panel institutions .Bof su station eauipment will e required. FOR HAZARDOUS LOCATIONS IN HOSPlTALS ADDITIONAL 7. Table 4 giv. For high-rise buildings. I3g e) Where electrical leads are close to a pipeline guiding ignitable gases or oxygen. and similar buildings) fire-safety classification point of view. The additional rules given below shall apply.6.~N D.5.

No. d) Laboratories e) Radiology department 1) Casualty and outpatient department g) Stairs. I. pressing. qf Floors Car Speed Served mfsec 13-20 I(ft 4-5 - Above I. 5.’ hospitals lifts shall conform to those laid down in Table 3 of IS : 3534-l976* 8.2.3. Hospitals ILLUMINATION LIMITING GLARE INDEX (4) 4 Requirements on construction.The fact that during the lifetime of the floor the resistance may change should be taken into qf Lift . The resistance of teraz7o floors increases. . shall be 15. e) Mains plug connections. are given in TARLE S R E C O M M E N D E D VALUES OF ILLU- MINATION AND LIMITING GLARE INDEX (Clouw 8. the design of lifts in hospitals and similar buildings shall be made taking into account the criteria given below *General and safety requirements for electrical equipmenl used in medical practice: Part I General. sorting.3. Hospital passenger No. 7.3 If floors of low resistance (< 50 kR) are used.d Limits of zones of risk Appendix A.3. (2) a) Receptioo and waiting !i? I50 loo IS0 I6 13.2 Antistatic Floor 7. rooms b) Wards i) General ii) Beds c) Operating thcatrcs/ Dental surgeries i) General ii) Tables/chairs 7. Where antistatic floors are used in cotijunction with non-antistatic floors marking should be provided. Provisions Ps and/or Ps shall be used to ‘effectively limit the effects of fault currents. for electric lifts (firsr rivision).3 O c c u p a n t L o a d . bulk machine work c) Ironing. drying b) Dry-cleaning. Kirchens ( Sgial lighting) 300 I: :: I50 70 450 200 200 300 25 25 25 7. Guide for contrdl of undesirable static electricity.4 Car Speed . The choice of lamps. 8. lighting fittings and the general lighting design together with the power requirement shall be planned based on the recommended values of illumination and glare index given in Table 5. to zones of risk in operating theatres or other anaesthetic rooms. PART 3 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN NON-INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS I39 .0. mending. I) SL BUlLDtNCS Zones of risk exist only when flammable anaesthetics or flammable cleaning and/or disinfection agents are used.IS gross area in m* per person. 8.5 to 0. 8.1 The general rules laid down in Part I /Set -14 of the Code shall apply.2. a r e under consideration. Allocation of equipment of the categories AP or APG. N O T E .The outline dimensions of . washing. despatch 4. spotting.2 Di&nsions .’ BUILDING SERVICES (SQQ Part 3iSec 2 of the Code) 2oot 25 *Care shall be taken to screen all bright light and areas from view of patients in bed. which may cause ignition shall be kept outside zones of risk. 8.The-provisions of Part I Set I4 of the Code shall apply.2.For the types o f ‘Gldings covered in this Section. the occupant load expressed .1 The general rules laid down in Part I/Set I4 of the Code shall apply.5 .2 Air-Conditioning .3 Lifts 8. while that of PVC floors decreases with time. which should be described in the application code. 8.2 The resistance of an antistatic floor shall not exceed 25 MR at any time during the lifetime of the floor when measured according to IS : 7689-1974t. However. Provision shall be made to induct fresh air to avoid entry of explosive gases from one room ‘to another. corridors h) Dispensaries Doctors S Surgeries a) Consulting rooms b) Corridors c) Sight testing (acuity) wall charts and near vision types bundries/ Dry-Ck=aning Works a) Receiving.75 0. 8.3. marking and documentation of medical electrical equipment of category AP or APG are given in IS : 8607 (Part I)-1978*. switches. power distribution boxes and similar devices.These shall be as follows: T.1 Antistatic floors shall be used in rooms where zones of risk occur. (1) I.25 Hospital bed Ilfts Short travel lifts in small hospitals Normal Long travel lifts in general hospitals OK5 *Outline dimensions.1.1 Lighting 8. tSpecial local lighting required over kitchen equipment.

1.5 second after a failure of the power supply at the operating lamp. and 10.2. For diesel-generators the requirements of 10.1 A special safety supply system shall automatically take over the load within NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE .2 Provisions EI and EI : Special Safety Supply 10.2.d socket outlets shall be marked clearly as such. SAFETY AND SPECIAL SAFETY SUPPLY SYSTEM All medical establishments containing lifelsupporting equipment shall be provided with a safety supply system.83.9 To prevent simultaneous damage.1 Provision GE : Standby and Safety Supply System medical for systems 10.6 may be connected to it. of the special safety supply system. for exam.4 Operation of a safety supply system shall not impair the function of protective measures.1. 10. in particular breathing equipment. 10. 10. 10. 10.2. life support and basic hospital operation during the time the normal electrical service is interrupted (see also Appendix E). within I5 seconds and to maintain operation for a period of 3 hours subsequently.1.. the main feeders for the safety supply system shall be segregated from the normal system wherever possible.5 All parts of essential circuits shall be 10.2. b) Testing of the resistance of protective conductors and of the qquipotential bonding.It is convenient to position the hospital passenger lifts near the staircases.1. 10.3.2 Operation of a special safety supply system shall not impair the function of protective measures. 10. of supplying a limited amount of lighting and power service which is considered essential for safety.5 second and operartion shall be maintained tor at least 3 hours. STANDBY. TESTING OF INSTALLATION 9. Return to normal power supply should be delayed. 9.2 Operation of at least one operating lamp shall be resumed after a switchover time not exceeding 0.2. 4 Testing of the insulation resistance between live conductors and earth in each separately fused circuit.1. For diesel-generators the delay should be at least 30 minutes. Systeq carried out as laid down in Part I /Set IO of the Code.2 It shall be possible to resume operation of equipment for maintaining important body functions.1.1. Medium Break 10.1.2. 0 Testing. marked.2. 10. At least the load which require continuity of supply shall be connected to the special supply system.l* Supp!~* System.A special safety supply system shall automatically take over the load within I5 seconds after a failure of the power supply at the medical establishment containing life-supporting equipment.8 The taking-over procedure shall not start earlier than after a period of 2 seconds has 10. 10. 10.1. 9. e) Testing of the general safety supply system.3 Where the rating of the special safety supply system issufficient the circuits of a medical IT-system according to 6.23 Common Recommendations for the Provisions EI and Ez.1. 10.1. 10.1 Provision EI : Special Sqfet.7 A safety supply system shall be capable of automatically taking over the load of essential circuits in the event of a failure of the normal power supply. Short Break 10.3.6 An example of safety supply systems of a hospital is given in Appendix F 10. Hospital bed lifts shall be situated conveniently near the ward and operating theatre enterances.2.3 Essential circuits shall provide facilities for charging batteries of a special safety supply system. or equipment for resuscitation.2.2 Provision EZ : Special Sqfety Supp!~ System.8 shall apply.2 The initial testing of the installation shall-also include: a) Testing of the effectiveness of protective measures (provisions PO to P7).2. 10.4 Where not all socket outlets in a medically used room are connectled to the special safety supply system the c0nnecte. via a-battery with inverter or via a motor driven generator.ple. 4 Testing of the resistance of antistatic floors.2. There shall be sufficient space near the landing door for easy movement of stretcher/trolley. and shall be completed within 15 seconds after the starting of the taking-over procedure. 10.1 The rated power of the source of a special safety supply system shall not be less than required by the connected functions.1 Electrical establishments shall comprise essential circuits capable.5 Position .1 .1 The various tests on the installation shall be elapsed during which the system voltage has dropped below 90 V of the nominal value.

NOTE . In some cases it may be necessary to remove ballasts of a certain type from the lighting fitting and to mount them at sufficient distance.1.9 It’ shall be possible to supply .8 The charging device shall be designed so that. 10. 11. Min IO to 70 mm2 95 to I85 mm2 240 mm2 N OTE I -Cables. have a negligible external field if _the load is correctly distributed between phase or between phase and neutral but in practice faults between neutral and earth or incorrectly distributed loads between lines and neutral..2 Sufficient distance should be provided when installing units with strong stray magnetic fields such as transformers and motors. those on the ceiling of: the room immediately below the examination room are the ones most likely to cause interference. for . and kakage currents will cause alternating magnetic fields’in the vicinity of power cables. This applies also to the isolating transformer of provision Ps. ECG.3.7 Automatic means shall be provided to keep batteries optimally charged. Normally such fields exist only where short-wave diathermy or surgical diathermy 141 PART 3 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN NON-INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS . 11.2 Measures Against Interference Caused by Mains-Induced Electric Fields 11. Such rooms are: a) rooms intended for measurement of bioelectric potentials (EEG. if possible close to the relevant distribution point.2.2 Metal enclosures or parts of enclosures of fixed. etc).the charging circuit of a special safetv supply system from the safety supply system.3.3.1 cannot be applied and ECG and EEG monitoring is to be undertaken. for ECG recording.3 Where adequate measures according to 11.2. 10. it is possible to discharge continuously during 3 hours at nominal output.starting from the fully charged conditions. field strength have been found to be sufficiently low to avoid magnetic interferance: 4 X lO’T. to the equipotential bonding system. If such metal shielding is applied it should be connected to protective earth at one point only.3 Voltage deviations under normal conditions shall be less than IO percent for periods of time exceeding 5 seconds.It is recommended to provide additionally a total load indicator in each room connected to the same special safety supply system. the distances may have to be substantially larger. 11.3.4 Measures Against Interference from Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Fields 11. and permanently installed electrical equipment of Class 11 and Ill (such as of lighting fittings) should be connected. 11. 10.EEG recording. 11. either 3.3.6 Operation of the special safety supply system shall be indicated by visual means in all rooms concerned. and single phase or three phase.3 Measures Against Interference Caused by Mains-Induced Magnetic Fields 11.2. so that physical damage to the cables connecting the source to the distribution point is unlikelv. and 2 X lO’T. 10.5 The special safety supply ‘system source shall be located outside the medically used rooms.4. it is recommended to shield the room or a part of the room against electric fields by installing a room screening within the wall structure. In practice the following values of magnetic. In rooms where measurements of bioelectric potentials are performed measures against interference in the room and in the surrounding area should be effected if such interference may cause incorrect measurements. floor and ceiling of the rooms concerned should be screened by means of metal shielding of cables or by metal conduits for cables and wiring.1 The electrical wiring on both sides of or inside walls. i 1.2.3 The rooms listed in 11. and subsequently to rechange during 6 hours after which it shall be possible to discharge once more for 3 hours under the conditions mentioned above. 11. c) intensive care and monitoring rooms. b) intensive examination rooms.3.1 should not have large power cables passing through or adjacent to them.2.Ballasts incorporated in fluorescent lamp fittings generate an alternating magnetic field.10.2.4 Frequency deviations shall be less than I percent for periods of time exceeding 5 seconds.0 Powerful radio frequency fields may cause interference in sensitive electromedical equipment. MEASURES AGAINST INTERFERENCE: PROVISION I 11.. The distance should be 3 m or more. W h e n bar systems or separated single cables are used.3. N OTE 2 -The values apply only to twisted cables. Suggested minimum distances are: Conductor CrossSectional Area Distance. so that the special safety supply system batteries can be charged even during a failure of the normal power supply. 0 operating theatres. 11.4.m 6 m 29 m d) catheterization rooms. e) angiographic examination rooms.1 It is recommended to provide sufficient distance between electrical components and equipment which may. N OTE--. cause magnetic interference and the place for the examination of patients.3.2. 10. will.1 Measures Against AC Interference 11. 11.

1. Appropriate measures according to 11. It does not apply to removable appliances which may be mounted on the surface of walls. clinics on which doctors’ numbers can be sounded or the flasher type which indicates the doctors’.this may consist of loudspeakers located throughout the hospital. numbers. second for ‘i?lurse Present’. MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS 12.consists of a keyboard and flasher at the telephone switchboard.1.which the call orginated. The patient can signal for a nurse or speak to her and receive an answer. that the electric and magnetic fields will interfere with the recording of bioelectric potentials. a) Nurses call. il. *<2. These switches when operating will give an indication at the central control panel from where intimation to nurse can be sent.1.1 for the one-way signal system in addition to the intercommunicating features.Due to the construction of such heating cables it is very likety.3 should be taken.1 Call Systems 12. rejection circuits in sensitive equrpment and the use of short-wave c&!~. nurses’ station to indicate the direction from which the call came are desirable for the latter arrangement. Each indicating panel should have a number of small lamps according to the number of is used and close to transmitting aerials used for such purposes as staff location and amb(ulance communications. nurses and attendants may work more efficiently. and ’ c) In-and-out register.i. At each bed there could be 4 push buttons.. heads of departments and their assistants and engineers. NOTE .1 For emergency call of nurse by the patient when he/she is inside a bath or watercloset. When any patient presses the push button the indication is at the central control room from where intimation to nurses can be sent. The following are the important call and signal system: . It simultaneously lights a dome light over the door of the room_from_. b) Doctors’ paging.2. The simplest measure against such interference is to locate uipment’which causes it kell away from areas “xere sensitive equipment is used. should be used for each doctor so that a burnt out lamp may be located. untility room and floor pantry of the nursing unit. 12. 12.2 and 11. The number appear on annunciators located in all sections of the corridors.5. First for. For maximum benefit and service. 12.f. An attenuation of 40 dB over the frequency range I5” kHz to 30 MHz is considered to be 0 adequate. N~TE-T~~ construction of such a screened room should be entrusted to a s cialist. this system should include all the features described in 12.It is recommended that electrtcal call and signal system should be provided in all hospitals so that patients may receive prompt servia and the doctors. third for ‘Setting Combination’ and fourth for ‘Call for Doctor’.1. The loudspeaker and other audible calls should not be used as they may disturb the patients and attendants. Nois .1 Nrirses’ Cd Sysrem .rmy equipment with a low modulation ~ . Additional w measures are t* inclusion of r. message to the doctor for that particular bed.l to 12.51 Electric heating cables of any type should not be used in rooms where’ bioelectric potentials are recorded. 11. After reaching the bed site the nurse presses the ‘Nurse Present’ button which gives an indication to operator at the central control panel that the nurse is available near the particular bed. b) A central control panel should be set up preferably on the ground floor incorporating a set of indicating panels according to the number of wards. Two or more lights in the ceiling’of the corridor at the 142 .7. admintstrators. suitable pull cord switches shall be provided inside bath and water-closet. The’ telephone operator may set the board to flash as many as three doctors’ numbers automatically in rotation. These flashers may also be used for other general calls such as ‘fire’ with a red ‘F’ and buzzer. If the patient needs further help of a doctor then the nurse again presses the fourth push button and the central.0 The following requirement applies to electric heating cables embedded in or attached to surfaces in buildings.1.1 These paging systems could be used for calling interns.1. After attending the patient. ‘Calling Nurses’.5 Electric Heating Cables 11. If ‘the measures described here are not sufficiently effective it may be necessary to use sensitive equipment with a screened room.1. The signal at the nurses station may be in the form of an annunciator with a buzzer or a single light with a buzzer. 12. The flasher system.2 Nurses call system may also be of the intercommunicating type with a microphone and loudspeaker at the bed connected to the nurses’ station.control panel operator sends. Two types of systems are recommended: a) A simple one-way’signal system which connects the bed side call stations with a signal at the nurses’ station.T h e nurses c a l l system should be a wired electrical system whereby patients may signal for a nurse from the bed site.1. The same number of numerals at least three.1. The NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 12..1.0 Electrical call and signal system when provided in hospitals should comply with the requirements given in 12.2 Doctors Paging Sysrem . the nurse presses the resetting button which puts the whole equipment to the original condition.

4 Other Special Installations 12. f’AR1 3 b:l. The register consists of a board. 12.At all special and important beds. b) Television sets in wards. at one or more entrances. telepholie jacks should be installed so that a telephone may be plugged in any time.1 The list of other special circuits in installations in hospitals are given below: a) Closed-circuit television in surgery department (for teaching purposes). or called to the telephone by push-buttons in the office which operate buzzers in the rooms. and d) Luminous signs. preferably with a narrow frame. These may be connected on a d i a l s y s t e m w h i c h p e r m i t s i n t e r n a l communication through the hospital switchboard without the assistance of the operato.1 Except in very small hospitals. as well as in the operating and delivery rooms. heads of departments and doctors may congregate. dining room and boiler room. any ty. in doctors’ lounge. This flasher unit. The clocks should be of the recessed type.2 The concealed wiring and switch-socket outlets in the operation theatres shall be kept at a minimum height of 1. it is recommended to install register system with a board at two or more entrances and at the telephone switchboard. assistants. The switch controls a light at or back of the name on all boards connected in the system. The main office buzzers may be connected through a selector switch so that serial rooms or sections may be called by one button. upon entering or leaving. main lobby. and attracts the attention of doctor upon entering or leaving the building.4. on which all staff doctor. 12. 12.< TRIC’.1. to reduce the bacteria count. operating and delivering suites.3 VHF Paging System -This system consists of a low powered transmitting station from which calls are broadcast throughout the hospital to miniature receiving sets which the doctors and others may carry in their pockets. 12. record rooms and diet kitchens.2. housekeeper.4 In-and-Out Register .1.flasher call system has its shortcomings as the individual may fail to see the numbers when flashed.5 m from the floor as anaesthetic gases are heavier than air and gravitate to the floor.4. controlled at the telephone switchboard. concealed wiring should be provided to avoid risk of contamination. called for duty. offices. 12.ATIONS IN NON-INDl:STRIAL BlMJ. laundry. The room called can answer by pushing a b u t t o n w h i c h r e g i s t e r s o n a n annunciator in the office. 3 C l o c k s ~~ Electric clock system whet? provided. Clocks in operating and delivery rooms should have sweep second hands.DINCS 143 .l-. will actuate a flashing light at the doctors’ name on all register boards which indicates there is a massage for the doctors. For this reason the flasher system should be supplemented with loudspeakers at points where interns. The general guidance provided in Part I iSec I4 of the Code shall apply. telephone switchboard. ultraviolet rays or sterile ray lamps in ceilings of operating and delivery rooms around the operating light. Such a system should include a recall feature which consists of a flasher unit. nurses’ station.2. In other places.2.1. 1 2 .1 In case of operation theatre and rooms where surgical operations and dressing is done. that is.2 Telephones 12. cl Short-wave.\I. Call back systems are used for nurses’ and interns’ bedrooms: With such system the nurses and interns can be awakened. operates a switch opposite his name which indicates whether or not he is in the building. should have clocks at nurses’ stations. kitchen.The doctors’*inand-out register permits the doctor to register ‘IN’ and ‘OUT’ with the minimum of effort and of general wiring may be acceptable. staff dining room. 12. laboratory and engineers’ office and such other areas where the calls may not disturb the patients. 12. doctors’ rooms. INSTALI. having a motor driven interruptor.0 Interconnecting telephones should be provided for all heads of departments.

Parts unprotected and likely to the broken. Equipment.APPENDIX A (Clauses 2. gases (for example. . 2. Ventilation syste’m.1) ZONE OF RISK IN THE OPERATING THEATRE WHEN USING FLAMMABLE ANAESTHETIC MIXTURES OF ANAESTHETIC GASES AND CLEANING AGENTS ZONE G ZONE M Legend I. oxygen). Exhaust system for anaesthesia gases.1. I I. Operation lamp. 8.2 and 7. vacuum and exhaust ventilation system for medical electrical equipment. Operating table. 144 NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE . 4. 5. Ceiling outlet with sockets for electric power. 7. 6. 3. Additional Zone M due to use of flammable disinfection and/or cleaning agents. Foot switch. 9. Exhaust ventilation system. Anaesthesia apparatus. IO.

I’ A’ OPERATION TABLE MEDICAL ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT PART 3 ELECTRICAL INSrALLATIONS IN NON-INDUSTRIAL BUlLDINGS 145' .__ 1 0 2 0 w--w* / .1.3.1 1. I \ \ I \ \ \ l \ --.2(b) and 6.A P P E N D I X B (Clauses 2. ‘\ a. 6.4) PATIENT ENVIRONMENT / / / /-----------.3.1.

From public electric power system L2. General ward Hospital bed Heating and water pipes 8: Medical IT. Main distribution board 2 7 13.system for Operation Theatre 9.APPENDIX (Clause 5.outlet 12. Lightning protective system 20. Insulation monitoring device . L = = EC PE Phase conductors Neutral conductors = Bonding conductor = Protective conductor NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 146 . IO. Earth electrode 19. .4) C EXAMPLE OF AN ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION IN A MEDICAL ESTABLISHMENT a L e g e n d Heating popes :: Water supply Gas supply Distribution board 5. Socket .1. Joint Water meter 1? Gas meter 17: Waste water 18. Medical tsolatmg transtormer 1 I. Main earthing bar 14.

Stopbutton for buzzer 31.. 4: 5. 15.1) SCHEMATIC PRES E NT A T I O N 0~ PROTECTIVE CONDUCTORS AND EQUIPOTENTIAL BONDING IN OPERATING THEATRES. Ampere meter for special safety supply system 19. 6. 7. 10: 1':: 13.1.window-frame Metal cabinet for instruments Metal washing-basin and water supply Ceiling stand with outlets for gas supply Ceiling stand with mains socket outlets (with terminals for equipotential bonding. X-ray equipment 20. 16.-. enclosure connected to the protective conductor bar) Alarm device for the insulation monitoring device (example) Operating tabte (electrically driven) 17. EZ Special safety supply system. 98. Buzzer 30. distribution board) Distribution of the floor Operating thea!re distribution panel Safety supply system Medical isolating transformer Insulation monitoring device Special safety supply system.APPENDIX D (Clause 6.---i !P j’ Legend 1.: Operation Warning . Operating lamp 18. Equipotential conductor bar Terminals for equipotential bonding :. Green 28. Residual-current protective device 22. Lz. 14. Testbutton = Protective conductor = Equipotential bonding L.4. Feeder from the main service entrance (main :.. t: L3 PE . El Central heating Metal. Protective conductor bar 23. L3 = Phase conductors = Neutral conductor N 147 PART 3 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN NON-INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS . Red 29. Sterilizer 21..

Interruption of normal electrical service in medical establishments may cause hazardous situations. safety lighting should be provided to enable essential movement of staff and patients to be carried out in reasonable safety. Therefore. trolleys. It supplies life supporting equipment and the operating table lighting for 3 hours only.1 This appendix contains recommendations for the design of the safety supply system in medical establishme. namely: a) Grade A lighting of intensity and quality equal or nearly equal to that provided under 148 Critical working area Grade A General working areas Grade B General working areas Grade B Circulating areas Grade C Essential working areas Blood bank Transfusion laboratory Grade B Grade A Grade A Diagnostic X-ray department General working area Grade H (where portable X-ray machines may be used) Circulation areas Grade C Treatment areas Public circulatmg areas Dispensing areas Laboratory Grade A Grade C Grade B Grade B Radiotherapy department Pharmacy (Conrrnued) NATIONAL ELECTRICAL. In some medically used rooms a special safety supply system should be provided additionally. ambulance staff. it is necessary to provide for continuity of power supply for vital services at all times. Emergency lighting may be needed in areas not mentioned in the table. Even in these areas. normal supply condition& b) Grade B example. ESSENTIAL SERVICES . The safety supply system is intended to supply electrical energy for a longer period of time to essential circuits of the medical establishment if the mains supply fails by external causes.2 No general recommendations can be made for the emergency lighting arrsngements for stairs and corridors as needs will differ considerably according to the design and size of the hospital. for about half the normal standard. Safety lighting should also be provided in public waiting spaces.4) LIGHTING D EPARTMENT OR ARkA LO<‘ATION GRADt OF LIGIITING Major Operating Sires Operating theatre Critical working Operating theatre General working Anaesthetic rooms General working General working Post operative Circulating areas Intensive care room Deliver. TABLE 6 EMERGENCY ( C/OUSP E-I . etc. B and C are under consideration. GENERAL E-0. and the crItIcal working areas in the delivery room and recovery rooms. depending on the importance and nature of the work. to enable essential activities to be carried out.1 Essential lighting requirements will vary considerably in different locations. c) Grade C safety lighting of a m&h reduced standard but sufficient to allow the free movement of persons.nts.APPENDIX E (Clause JO. that is. CODE . and in corridors used by members of the public. E-l. for example. E-l. Ample socket-outlets connected to essential circuits should be available to enable portable lighting fittings to be used for any tasks outside the critical working area. Suites Delivery rooms area area area area Grade Grade Grade Grade Grade A B A A C Crltical working area Grade A Grade B Other nursing areas Circulating areas Grade C Awidenr and fher~enc~~ Deparrmmrs Operating theatres Critical working area Grade A Critical working area Grade A lntenslve care General working areas Grade B rooms Circulating areas Grade C Our-Parlmr L~epartnwnt Operating theatres Treatment rooms Consulting rooms Pathological department E-1. Levels for Grades A. for a relatively short time if the mains supply or the safety supply system fails or the switch-over time cannot be tolerated. External emergency lighting will normally be restricted to the accident and emergency entrance areas. sufficient properly reduced stanqard of lighting.4 Table 6 is intended as a general guide. etc. I) SAFETY SUPPLY SYSTEMS E-O. the degree and quality of emergency lighting should be approximately equal to that of the normal lighting.. however. As a general guide. and Priority is given to all aspects ensuring safe working conditions in medically used rooms. at entrances and exits. operating table lighting in operating suites. 1. In some instances.LIGHTING E-l. E-1.which require a higher standard of lighting.3 Three grades of emergency lighting are suggested. considerable reduction in the general lighting may be acceptable.

are connected to the Essentral Circuits provide the most convenient choice of sockets outlets at any time.7 Any mains-energized alarm and control circuits should be so arranged that they are 149 Essential working areas Grade B E-2. I) NUMBER O F SOCKET O UTLETS CONNEVTED TO E SSENT IAL Cm-rrm (see N OTE) All All AREA G RADE OF L IGHTING Grade A DEPARTMENT Wurd Areas Intensive therapy units intensive nursing area Other nursing areas Nurses’ station or duty room area area area area. where the number of beds exceeds 4. thus ensuring air supplies of approximately 50 percent of the normal rate.1 Socket-outlets should be so distributed that in each area where essential equipment will be used. including automatic controls.should be supplied from an essential circuit.5 Motors of surgical suction plant should be connected to an essential circuit. for fluoroscopy . E-2.4) D EPARTMENT L OCATION OR TABLE 7 SOCKET-OUTLETS IN ESSENTIAL CIRCUITS (Clause E-2. Nevertheless.2 Socket outlets’in operating rooms for the connection of X-ray . Grade C _~ Working area Grade C Grade B E-2.6 Safety supply systems for facilities for ventilation and air-conditioning purposes will usually apply only to plants which serve areas which are entirely dependent on mechanical ventilation and have no facilities for natural ventilation or where mechanical ventilation services are. for example.essential for clinical reasons. they shall be supplied from an essential circuit. The recommendation that all sockets. Where ventilation requirements are met by duplicate plants it will usually only be necessary for one of the plants to be supplied from the emergency source. which are essential for the safe operation of sterilizing equipment in operating theatre and the central sterile supply department should be supplied from an essential circuit. PART 3 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN NON-INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS . pro rata. E-2. and to simplify installation. Special baby care units Special. Operating suites Grade B Grade B Intensive care room and operating rooms in accident and emergency department Delivery rooms Post-anaesthetic recovery rooms Intensive therapy units Radiological diagnostic room Ward accommodation set aside for patients dependent on electrically driven equipment. E-2. E-2. following an interruption of supply. Pathology laboratories - Wards where essential equipment such as suction apparatus will be used Grade C Grade C Grade C No~t -~ It is reasonable to assume that only essential equtpment ~111 be used in these areas during periods of power failure. should be provided. to enable either of the plants to be connected to the emergency service. respirators. ( Ckruw E-I . Table 7 is intended as a general guide. Changeover switches. &by Core Units General working Nurseries Psychiatric wards General working Treatment rooms General working General working Other nursing areas Grade B Grade B Grade A Grade C (nightlighting) All All All All All Cenrrol Sterile Sup&l General working area Grade B Deperrmenr Elepphone Exhnges Essential working area Grade B Operattws Robm Li/rS Lift cars Entrance and efiit of elevators General Circulating A rea3 Public entrances and exits Corridors and staircases forming recognized means of escape Corridors and circulating spaces of deep planned designs Assemb!v Areas Assembly rooms and associated exits Public waiting space Plant rooms housing essential plant Kitchens Grade A Grade A Grade B Ail 2 2 sockets outlets for wards containing I to 4 beds and.4 Blood banks and other clinical refrigerators are usually equipped with temperature retaining facilities which will satisfactorily sefeguard against power failures of several hours’ duration.TABLE 6 EMERGENCY LIGHTING-Conrd. ESSENTIAL CIRCUITSSOCKET-OUTLETS E-2.3 Electrical services. rocking beds. however. It is desirable that the motors should be so arranged that once they are switched on they will restart automatically. artificial kidney machines. E-2. socket-outlets connected to at least two separate sub-circuits are available.

1 0 t o . all refrigerators should be supplied from an essential circuit. 150 NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE . PARTS OF ESSENTIAL CIRCUITS E-3.2 3 ° C a n d b e fitted with a temperature alarm device to give a warning when the refrigerator temperature approaches the upper safety limit. E-3. E-2. E-3. is usually energized from float charged batteries having sufficient capacity for at least 24 hours normal working. E-3. fed from essentia! circuits.5 Where lifts are provided for the movement of patients it is desirable that one lift in each separate section of the hospital should be so arranged that it is normally connected to the essential circuits of the installation having automatic changeover facilities. These lifts will be regarded as emergency or fire lifts. E-3. It may be desirable for one deep-freeze refrigerator at each hospital to be supplied from the essential circuits where this can be conveniently arranged. E-3.automatically connected to the safety supply system in the event of a power failure.7 All boiler house supplies should .3 Where electrically operated pumps are used to maintain essential water supplies (including that for fire fighting purposes) it will be nec’essary to make suitable arrangements for the pumps to be connected to the safety supply system.2 In milk kitchen. Under normal supply conditions the emergency lifts only will be connected to the essential circuit of the installation. Suitable manually-operated switching arrangements should be provided to enable the general safety supply system to be switched from the emergency lift to each of the other lifts in turn to eliminate the possibility of occupants being trapped in the lifts during power failures.4 Telephone exchange equipment. E-3.6 Communication equipment should be connected to essential circuits.8 Emergency supplies for computers should be examined in each case.1 peep-freeze refrigerators and food storage refrigerators will normally operate within a temperature range of . E-3. and should be suitably indicated by markings at each landing.8 In biochemical laboratories and in the pharmacy about 50 percent of the normal load should be supplied from essential circuits.


For the purpose of this Code. calls for an electrical installation in a h o t e l w i t h i n c r e a s e d sophistication. ki Interior lighting. P) 4) r) s) Service lifts and passenger lifts. 4. 2. sence of water Traces of water negligible appearing for short periods are dried rapidly by good ventilation rn NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE . clubs and motels. but without cooking facilities for individuals. These requirements also apply to swimming pools in other occupancies.1 This Section of the Code covers requirements for electrical installations in buildings such as hotels and lodging houses. F O R E W O R D wide variety. 1. N OTE -The above is.2 The electrical installations in hotels covered in this Section include the following services: 0. display lights and decorative illuminations. Banquet halls and conference facilities. Increasing competition in the hotel industry as such. is provided. 3. say sports buildings. Offices. GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF INSTALLATIONS 4. CLASSIFICATION 3. 4. and v) Emergency system. g) Health club. inns. For editorial convenience. restaurant? other than those forming part of a large hotel are treated as assembly buildings and are covered in Part 3/Set 3 of the Code.1 Environment 4. SCOPE 1. Mam distribution centre.SECTION 5 HOTELS 0. ranging from simple dormitory type accommodation for guests.0 General guidelines on the assessment of characteristics of installations in buildings are given in Part I /Set 8 of the Code.1 Hotels lodging or rooming houses are of a 3. Laundry. the characteristics defined below generally apply. distinct from single or two family private dwellings which are covered in Part’3/Sec I of the Code.1 The electrical installations covered in this Section are those in buildings intended for the following purposes: 4 b) cl 4 4 r) Supply intake. TERMINOLOGY 2. 0.1 The following environmental factors apply to Hotels: Environmenr (1) Characrerisrics (2) Remarks (3) a) Lodging or Rooming Houses - These include any building or group of buildings in which separate sleeping accommodation for a total of not more than 15 persons on either transient or permanent basis with or without dining facilities.2 The electrical needs of a hotel depend on the type and extent of facilities being provided and the rating of the hotel:The system design would in general be identical with that of any other large building. Cold Storage. where only a common bath is provided with no facility for dining/kitchen to the sophisticated star hotels.1 Forthe purposes of this section.1. 4 Channelized music. 03 Specific requirements for installations in swimming pool are covered in Appendix A to this section. h) Swimming pool and filtration plants. the actual power requirement expressed in terms of per-unit area or per guest room. n-4 Telephones. Presence of water Probability of pre. Ventilation and exhaust systems. u) Illuminated signs. the definitions given in Part I /Set 2 of the Code shall apply. Kitchen. these specific requirements form part of this section of the Code.Majority of locations in hotels. N O T E . Fire protection and alarm systems. coupled with the demand by guests for a variety of comforts. t) Gardens and parking lots and illumination systems therein.-who are primarily transient such as hotels. b) Hotels -These include any building or group of buildings in which sleeping accommodation is provided with or without dining facilities for hire to more than 15 persons. For the purposes of installations falling under the scope of this Section. j) Restaurants and bars.

carpets and curtains. e t c .1 Branch Circuits 5. layout of fire-fighting installation should be obtained.s (3) A major proportion of occupants in Hotels Applies lo areas. 4 Whether central air-conditioning system is intended. C.0 These should hc pro\lded in all places where plug-in service I\ I~hcl! to be required. intended. such as building substation and for operating and maintenance staff Contact of persons with earth potential Persons in nonconducting situations Low.. However. foreign solid bodies Presence of corrosive or polluting substances The. 5.1. They shall be run at skirting level and encased for mechanical protection. to reduce the need for altcr:\tlonh and extensions of wiring after the hotel building is completed.1. laundr!.2. ducting. situated b) Whether centrally controlled fire-fighting is intended.1. 5. other cateaorization applies (see Part i/Set 8 of the Cede) nature of corrosive or polluting substances not significant d) Whether centrally heated hot water system is intended. lamps and appliances. 5.Locations suctr.3 In hotel buildings.1 If provided.v/ic:r (2) Ordinary. such as by drawing the wires in metallic conduits and not run in open. These shall be connected in a circuit separate from the circuits for the guest manent and total swimming pools *covering by water Possibility of Presence of . use of a central radio receiving system wired with multi-channels piped music system to each room is recommended so t h a t t h e occupa?t m a y c h o o s e o n e o f t h e broadcasts. uninstrutted persons Persons adequately advised or supervised by skllled persons Re:nurk.4 Panel Boards and S\c.1. t h e recommenda!ion of the manufacturer shall apply. layout of the telephone installation and TV circuits should be obtained.1 The general provisions for th-c design of wiring of branch circuits shall conl‘orm to those laid down in Part l/Set I I of the Code. density occu.Applies lo lodging Condition of . layout of air handling units. If so. Any wiring laid above the false ceiling should be adequately protected. information shall be obtained on the following services : Possibility of jets Applies 10 gardens of water from any direction.I\ well as in areas s u c h a s k i t c h e n . If so. If so. 5.1 The following aspects of utilization shall apply: Utilizarion (1) Capability of persons Characreri. Mechanical stresses Seismic effect and lightning Impact and vibration of low severity.5. easy conditlons of evacuemergency ation. high-rise buildings.0. fan coil units.) Whether telephone and TV facilities are by the sea or industrial zones. special aerials and BUILDINGS 153 4. In addition to the general aspects which require coordination and PART 3 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN NON-INDUSTRIAL .. DepepJs on the location of the building. . the interior decor normally includes false ceiling.2 Utilization 4.communication -The provisions of Part I Set I I 01 the C o d e s h a l l apply.1. 5. per. 5. nouses evacuation auring parlon. High density occupation difficult conditions of evacuation Nature of processed or stored material No significant risk Contamination risks due to presence of unprotected food srulfs Applies to kitchens Large hotels.2 The branch circuit calculations shall be done as laid down in Part 3/Set I of the Code. for ‘special cases such as for .Environmenr (1) Chara. Corridors and staircases shall be provided with sufficient socket-outlets for floor cleaning appliances. in each room. appliance and motor loads. 5. false ceiling and chilled water lines should be obtained. layout of hot water pipe-line be obtained.1. quantity or nature of dust or foreign solid bodies is not significant The quantity and For hotels.1. The socketoutlets shall preferably have covers.0 Exchange of Information 5. etc.5 Socket-outlets trtltl I’llcp\ 5. as well as special loads encountered in hotel building shall be taken into account. SUPPLY CHARACTERISTICS AND PARAMETERS 5. If so. Wires shall not be laid under carpets. Duplex or other suitable outlets should be provided as required in the offices and work places for fans. The specific demands of the lighting.1 Proper coordination shall be ensured between the architect.ri>tirs Remarks (3) indentified in other sections.5. building contractor and the electrical engineer on the various aspects of installation design. For such reception. fire-alarm system.

fashion exhibition or concerts. lobby 2. Entrance halls.2 For lodging and rooming houses of 3 storeys and above.3 In bathrooms. Both manually operated and automatic fire-alarm systems shall be provided in large fiotels. loads.1. kitchen. installation and of service lines up to and including 650 V.2 The supply line should preferably be brought into the building underground to reduce the possibility of interruption of power supply.5.4. NATIONAL ELE~RICAL CODE 154 .5. 5. 7. shows. with a floor area more than 200 m~ with central corridor and rooms on either side. suitably rated with one-pin earthed. !1.1 Lighling 5. conferences.1. 14.eption is poor but in general the aerial buht in the set may be adequate.1 Genera/ — The general rules for protection “for safety laid down in Part 1/ Sec 7 of the Code shall a ply.4 Building Substation 5.6. tNational Building Code.2 Feeders — the general provisions laid down in Pan 3/See 11 of the Code shall apply. Separate feeders shall be provided ~. dances. it shall be possible to switch the general lighting not only from the entrance but also -from the bedside (see aho 7.6. 70 100 — 200 200 70 100 100 150 to 300 25 25 — — — 22 is the Goods/ passenger lifts Cloakrooms/ Bathrooms Shops/stores toilets N6TE — The lighting of some of these locations determined primarily by aesthetic considerations and ubovc viilues should be taken as a guide only. Heavy duty sockets should also be provided in pantries. 5. besides fire fighting equipment.5 System Protection 5. 5. 5. etc Writing Corridors Stairs Laundries Kitchens tablks bed 100 200 300 6.1 The general rules laid down in Part I /%c 14 of the Code shall apply.1. It shall be provided with proper ventilation and lighting arrangement.1. 13.6. The choice of lighting fittings and general lighting design shall be together with power requirements planned based on the recommended values of illumination and limiting values of glare index given in Table 1. swimming pool. to prevent access to any unauthorized ~son. TABLE 1 RECOMMENDED VALUES OF AND GLARE INDEX ILLUMINATION FOR HOTELS SL No. They should be of the 3-pin type. 5.5. 150 300 100 150 Reception and Dining Lounges rooms accounts (tables) . Sufficient number of controlled socket-outlet circu’its sha~l be combined in a switching station from which the entire hall shall be visible. Reference should ti made to SP :7-19831 1’ guidelines for fire protection or of buildings.4.2). 5.6. manually operated electric fire-alarm system shall be *Code of practice for design.related wiring are required.6 Building Services 5.1 H the load demand is high which requires supply at voltage above 650 V a separate indoor accommodation. 3. 5. the lights should be mounted at head level on both sides of the mirror. 4. — — — Bedrooms: a) General b) Dressing tables.6. laundry. 12. Adequate plug-in sockets at proper locations should be provided in banquet halls and other meeting places for flood lights and other appliances.2 In guest bedrooms.4 Lighting in banquet halls shall be given special consideration in view of its multipurpose utility such as fairs. The accommodation for substation equipment as well as for main distribution panel shall be properly enclosed so as. 5. heads. toilets and utility rooms for use of appliances. provided.4.2 Special convenience outlets in corridors at suitable locations are desirable for use o f portable equipment such as floor cleaning appliances.for major lbads like central airconditionlng. Care shall be taken to ensure that there is no gla[e. 5. Aerial outlets at rooms are reauired for ttortable radios in arqas and buildings’ where re.1. 5. as near the main load centre of fhe hotel as possible shall & provided to accommodate switchgear equipment of supply undertaking and Indoor/outdoor accommodation for the transformers. (1) BUILDING “ILLuhfb NATION (3) hlx laid (2) LIMITING GLARE INDEX (4) 1. The main distribution equipment of the hotel shall preferably be located next to the substation. 5. kitchens. 10. lighting of main building and other essential. EL 9.3 Service Lines— The general provisions down in IS :806”1-1976* shall apply. maintenance 5.

7.4 For hotel buildings. it is advisable to have at least two lifts side by side at the main entrance.5 Other Special Installations -The list of such installations is given below: 5.attending the customer. However.6 For particular requirements’ foi locations containing a bathtub or shower basin.3.The provisions of Part l/Set 14 of the Code shall apply.75 g) Restaurant and bar rooms.2 Passenger handling capacity .3 L.3. a) TV sets at main assembly areas and in guest rooms.2 Part of the kitchen.6.1 Occupant load . Fire-fighting system.3.The passenger handling capacity expressed in percent of the estimated population that has ‘to be handled in the 5 minute peak period shall be 5 percent for hotel buildings.6. and the standby power supply shall feed essential and safety installations in the hotel. 5.1. staircases and other circulation areas shall be connected to emergency supply. c) Telephone switchboard. e) Banquet halls. 5.$ts and Escalarors 5. d) Dining room.s b) A central control panel shall. b) c) d) e) Lighting in banquet halls. and 4-5 0.5 gross area in m2 per person is recommended.6. 7. it is desirable to have at least a battery of two lifts at convenient points of a building. the attendant presses the resetting button which puts the whole equipment to the original condition. 7. the design of lifts shall take into account the following recommendations. an occupant load of 12. These may be connected on a dial system which permits internal communication through the hotel switchboard without the assistance of the operator. be set up preferably on the ground floor incorporating a set of indicating panels according to the number of wings. 7.3 Clock Systems. 7.4 Emergency Supply . telephones may be required to be provided.3. Each indicating panel should have a set of small lamps according to the number of rooms. Parallel telephones may be provided in the bedrooms.This shall be as follows : Occupancy Passenger lifts for low and medium class lodging houses Hotels Floors Served Car Speed m/s 0. MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS 7. 7. and one lift at different sections of the building for intercommunication. Swimming pool (see Appendix A).The general provisions for clock systems shall conform to those laid down in Part 1 /Set 14.6.For internal communicatiofi. 5. 5.3 Car speed. The signal at the attendant station may be in the form of an annunciator with a bu77er or a light with a buzzer.4. 7. lt simultaneously lights a dome light over the door of the room from which the call is originated.(see a/so Part 2 of the Code). Emergency lighting shall be confined to essential areas. f) Kitchen.3.2 Air-condirioning --. At all the rooms.0 The general rules laid down in Part I / Set 14 of the Code shall apply.1 Call System -The general provisions for electrical bells and call system shall conform to those laid down in Part I /Set I4 of the Code.6. storage and refrigeration rooms in the hotel shall also be supplied by the emergency supply. If this is not possible. see Appendix A of Part 3/Set I of the Code. 6. Two types of systems are recommended : a) A simple one-watt signal system which connects the room side call sfatims with a s i g n a l a t t h e a t t e n d a n t s t a t i o n . TESTING OF INSTALLATION 6. telephone jacks shall be installed so that a telephone may be plugged in any time at any convenient location. 155 PART 3 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN NON-INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS .1 In the event of a failure of supply.5-0.5 In designing outdoor lighting installations.6. care shall be taken to ensure that disturbing glare does not reach the rooms of the guest’s. A part of the lighting in each room. 5. 7. cdrridor.2 Telephones .6.5. The following locations may be provided with clocks: a) Guest rooms. b) Main lobby..For hotel buildings. a large standby power supply usually a diesel driven generating set could be used to partly or entirely supply the loads in the hotel. The call system should be a wired electrical system whereby customer may signal for attendance from his room.6.1 The various tests on the installation shall be carried out as laid down in Part l/Set IO of the Code. After. and Cold storage.4.

50 m above the floor of the surface. A-2. 1 and 2. starting blocks or a chute. A-3.50 m above the floor or surface.1 Reference is drawn to Fig. A-4. SCOPE A-l. NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE . IP X 4 for outside swimming limited by the vertical plane external to Zone 1 and a parallel plane 1.1 This appendix applies to the basins of swimming pools and paddling pools and their surrounding zones where susceptibility to electric shock is likely to be increased by the reduction of body resistance and contact with earth potential.6) PARTICULAR REQUIREMENTS FOR SWIMMING POOL A-l. In Zone 2 socketoutlets are permitted only if they are either : Zone 2 . by the floor or surface expected to be occupied by persons and the horizontal plane 2. A-5.1 In zones 0 and 1 wiring systems shall be limited to those necessary to the supply of appliances situated in those zones. A-5.2 All extraneous conductive parts in Zones limited by a vertical plane 2 m from the rim of the basin by the floor or the surface expected to be occupied by persons and the horizontal plane 2.2 Junction boxes are not permitted in Zones 0 and 1. 1 and 2 shall be bonded with protective conductors of all exposed conductive parts situated in these Zones. N OTE . protection against direct contact shall be provided by barriers or enclosures affording at least a protection of IP2X. Zone I comprises the zone limited by a vertical plane situated 1.A P P E N D I X A (Clauses 0. or cl protected by a residual current protective device. and Zone 1 . spring boards and starting blocks. Electrical equipment shall have at least the following degrees of protection: Zone 0 : IP X 8 Zone 1: IPX4 Zone 0 -is the interior of the basin. spring boards. PROTECTION FOR SAFETY A-3. A-3.50. Zone 2 : IP X 2 for inside swimming pools.Where the pool contains diving boards.50 m above the highest surface expected to be occupied by the persons. A-5.1 Where safety extra-low voltage is used. and by the horizontal plane 2.3 In Zones 0 and 1 no switchgear and accessory shall be installed. whatever the nominal voltage. SELECTION OF EQUIPMENT A-4.1.3 and 7. CLASSIFICATION OF ZONES A-2. m around the diving boards. 4 supplied individually by an isolating transformer. WIRING SYSTEMS A-5. they are permitted provided they have the necessary degree of protection as given in A-4. or b) supplied by safety extra low voltage. or insulation capable or withstanding a test voltage of 500 V for I minute. In Zone 2.1.50 m from the former.

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such as -for staging special or cultural events. Assessing the need for adequate strength of a standby supply for essential services requires special considerations.1(a) to (d) above. only broad guidelines are outlined in this Section. SCOPE 1.4 It is to be noted that a sports stadia should preferably be designed for use for other purposes as well.2 Several stadia.2 The electrical installation needs in sports buildings would therefore be governed by the type of use indicated in 3. d) Based on Audience-factor i) Stadia/halls meant for exhibition purposes-where groups of people congregate. In a way the electrical power needs and the external influences in a sports building are quite identical to those for theatres and other multipurpose buildings for cultural events excepting that for international events exacting standards of services and flexibility had to be provided in a multipurpose sports stadia. b) Main -substation and satelite substations. 2. if any.1 The buildings for the purposes of conducting 3. data processing TV.r amusements as well. clubs.1 This Section of the Code covers requirements for electrical installations in sports buildings and stadia. c) Central control room/ switch rooms.1. 3. A large sports complex may include the following subunits: a) Supply intake/voltage of supply. t h e definitions given in Part I/Set 2 of the Code shall ~-. ii) Multipurpose stadia for oth&. 0. 159 f) PART 3 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN NON-INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS . e) Communication facilities (telephbne. 3.1 Reference should be made to 5. telegraph. 0. radio and press facilities). offices and other support structures. ii) Multigames hall/stadia. hospitals. Sports complexes not basically meant for exhibition purposes. this Section of the Code has been set aside to cover such of those specific requirements applicable to sports buildings from the electrical engineering point of view.2 for classification from lighting consideration. especially those of the indoor type are meant for staging a variety of games which between themselves require varying standards of lighting levels. indoor and outdoor. Fire protection services. Taking note of the f&t that the type of buildings and their needs for the purposes of sports and games would be quite differqnt between them.SECTION 6 SPORTS BUILDINGS 0. F O R E W O R D sports and games are characterized by the criteria that large number of people congregate.5. that are unique to the type of use to which it is put. 0. NOTE ~ Classification d(i) includes stadia meait for staging tournaments and events and d(ii) includes games halls in educational institutions and the like where normally no exhibition is intended. The design of illumination system in a sports building therefore requires consultations with a specialist and the guidelines provided in this Section are purely recommendatory in nature in this respect. It is recommended that assistance of experts shall be sought in the design of the installation at the early stages itself: 1.apply. shall however conform to the special requirements of this Section. c) Based on utilit_v i) Stadia meant for games only. and not likely to be utilized for other purposes.where audience may not normally be present. health.1 The design and erection of e l e c t r i c a l installation in a sports building have to take into account a multitude of factors. 4 Electrification of restaurant. TERMINOLOGY 2 . 0. telex. The type of building shall therefore be classified as follows: a) Based on Type of Building: i) Indoor stadia ii) Outdoor stadia : Stadia meant for use in daylight Stadia meant for use during night under artificial lighting b) Based on Type of Game/Sport i) Single game spprts hall/stadia. 1 F o r t h e purpdses o f t h i s S e c t i o n .3 In indoor stadia where large number of people congregate it is essential to inbuild adequate fire precautioris from the point of view of safety. CLASSIFICATION OF SPORTS BUILDINGS 3. ii) Stadia/halls meant for training and passtime -. 0. such as the staging of cultural events and this aspect shall be borne in mind while designing the electrical needs of the complex so as to ensure optimum utilization of the facilities.5 With the advent of sophisticated stadia in the country as well as keeljing in view the accent on sports.1.

etc.the electrical engineer on the various aspects of the installation design. 0 Requirements. e i g n s o l i d b o d i e s nature of dust or foreign solid bodies is not significant Presence of dust in significant quantity Presence of corro.0 Genera1 guidelines on the assessment of characteristics of installations in buildings are given in Part 1 /Set 8 of the Code. -Large multipurpose High density stadia for exhioccupation. locations.1 bar. h) Emergency electric. whether air-condi- Lightning Negligible. ation.0.Locations such as sibility of perma. supply system including uninterrupted power requirements.1 Environment 4. storm water drainage.2.0 Exchange of Information AND Presence of water Submersion. the characteristics given below shall apply. ducting.Negligible. of audio-communication NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE .1 The following environmental factors apply to sports buildings: Environment (1) Characteristics (2) Remarks (3) Conditions of evacuation in an emergency. score-boards. system envisaged. which will decide the voltage of supply. from supply arrangements exists. water supply systems. sewage disposal. ml Gas/oil arrangements for sports flame if required. 4. Indirect exposure Installations suppto lightning. distribution boards. 5. 160 c) Details of fire fighting system/fire alarm d) Details of water supply arrangements. switchgear. capacity of diesel engine generating sets for standby supply. lied by overhead where hazard lines.Training halls and pation.1. number of substations and their preferred locations. 4. and n) Miscellaneous requirements for power- socket. Nature of proces. air-handling units. pos. transformers.Due to furniture and false floor for risks. For the purposes of installations falling under the scope of this Section. SUPPLY PARAMETERS 5. etc. diffi*cult conditions of bition purposes evacuation. uninterrupted power supply requirements. Covers category d(ii) (see 3.1 Proper coordination shall be ensured between the architect building contractor and . etc.g) External electrification ot gardens and parking lots.0~ density occu.1) type of installations. etc. public address/security. switchrooms.1 The following aspects of utilization shall apply: Utilization (1) Characteristics (2) Remarks (3) _i) Audio systems. e) Locations of substations. sive of polluting substances Outdoor stadia. etc. GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SPORTS BUILDINGS 4. voltage stabilisers. 1. layout. Covers majority of cases. electrical operating areas are accessible to instructed persons only. In sports stadia the sportsmen and spectators fall under this category. route of chilled water lines. Capability of persons Uninstructed persons.swimming pools nent and total where electrical covering by equipment is perwater manently and totally covered with water under pressure greater than 0. Presence of forThe quantity or Indoor stadia. However. tioning is required and if so.the like where ditions of evacupeople do not congregate. 4. the following data shall specifically be obtained: 4 The total electric power needs of the stadium including the standby power arrangements.Existence of fire.2 Utilization 4. restaurants. lake fountains (if any). Stadia and games cbmplexes situated by the sea or industrial zones require special consideration. service routes. stored material CHARACTERISTICS 5. the covered portions like offices. In addition to the genera1 aspects which require coordination and identified in other sections. b) In case of indoor stadia. k) Dewatering arrangements. exposure of equipment is present.. Direct exposure Lighting towers in or hazard from outdoor stadia. are to be air-conditioned or not and their details as above. microphone outlets. pumps. the capacity and locations of main plants. In case of outdoor stadium. sed or playing area. easy con. sewage disposals and the pump capacities.

system for the stadium which includes public address system. single-phase or three-phase star or delta. etc. microphone outlets. j) Requirements of lighting. 5. whether primary or secondary. This .1 The general rules as laid down for other large assembly buildings (see Part 3/Set 3) and as laid down in Part I of the Code shall .4 Socket-outlets and Plugs .3 Building Sdbstation 5.of luminaires and conduit/ cable installations for various services. etc. TV. sewage and fire fighting systems.1 The electrical needs of sports stadia may vary from 30 kVA to 1 000 kVA. TV (black and white dr colour) coverage.2 The following drawings are recommended to be prepared before commencing the installations work: g) Details of score-boards -that is whether to avoid temporary wiring in electrical central control room.3 m from the floor exce t in field/arena. restaurants.will help maintenance work to be carried out without disturbing the positioning of the lighting fittings. 5. circuits to each of the luminaires after considering the economic aspects.3. 5. This shall be prepared in coordination with civil and structural engineers. The design of substation shall conform to the requirements specified in Part 2 of the Code. water supply. etc’.1 Branch Circuits 51. chilled water piping routes.3. the areas covered by the services shall be segregated into zones and the subdistribution and distribution boards shall be so arranged and marked keeping in view their accessibility in times of need. ducts/grill layout.1.2 Outdoor floodlighting installations can be made with either overhead or underground distribution feeders.2 Wiring installations for general purpose lighting and ventilation needs of the sports buildings shall conform to the requirements laid down in Part 1 /Set I of the Code.apply. and 0 Site plan ‘indicating the location of pump houses for storm water drains. it may be more economical to reduce the number of transformers by serving 161 4 Single line diagram for electrical distribution. 5. 5. 5. according to the size of the Installation. 5. etc. l&e1 of illumination required for various stages like training. b) Complete layout drawings indicating type and mounting . etc. the underground system is more desirable where large playing areas are involved. d) e) Layout of public address system envisaged.3 Some installations may justify a separate transformer on each pole of the floodlighting tower with primary wiring to each tower. car calling system. inter-stadia communication facilities. the provisions of Part 3/Set 3 of the Code shall apply. telecommunication. type of light source.3. and control rooms shall preferably be segregated from public routes for the sporting events.1. h) Special requirements of press. centralized clock system.2 Feeders 5. The need for special convenience outlets shall be considered for services enumerated in 3.3 Panel Boards and Switchboards .2(e). k) Requirements for power outlets.3 The underground system shall either be cables directly buried or cables in conduits. it is preferable to have individual branch. 5.1. with the proposed source and route of power supply. etc.1t5. voltage stability.2. etc. etc. fire service call. ml Other micellaneous items like electrification of ancillary buildings in the sports complex.2.The provision of Part I /Set 1 I of the Code shall apply.. tirealarm system.2. In smaller installations. public announcement. games federations. Usually HV supply is used for large multipurpose stadia where power demand is in excess of 500 LVA. fountain lighting system. In large stadia. It is preferable PART 3 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN NON-INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS . In Zase of air-conditioning.1 The Utility shall be consulted as to the type of service available. From the pqint of view of appearance and minimum interference.0. systems. intercom stations. car park. radio. and their power needs. manual or automatic.. etc. layout of pln. the location of lighting luminaires. 5. in playing arena and field. All electrical operating areas. Whenever floodlight luminaires of more than I 000 W are installed. 5. path way and external electrification. 5.2 The main substation for a sports building shall prefereably be located in such a place that does not interfere with the movement of people congregating. wireless paging system. Utility socket outlets shall be provided at a height of about 0. speaker outlets. gas/oil requirements for flame and their controls. Junction boxes shall be installed near the luminaires from which connection to the light source may be taken by flexible conduits. These shall be of weather-pro0 P type. computer-aided results information. c) Wiring diagrams showing &itching sequence of luminaires. ambulance call.For small stadia] halls.

overvoltage operation can be used to advantage especially as in sports installations.4 For buildings staging national or international sport events. Automatic firealarm system. arena. Same as above. 5.4 Sekction of light sources .1 Special design . ctc 5. and the loads it is intended to serve. and mostly moving in a three-dimensional space. etc. the objects of regard are not fixed.0 The general rules laid down in Part I I Set I4 of the Code shall apply. Automatic sprinkler.1.4.5. The following shall be taken Into account: characterized by long life and high luman efficiency.These are a) Observers have no fixed visual axis or field of view. 5. During the shifting of sight. However. it is recommended to divide the location *National Building Code. 5. etc.several locations from a single transformer through secondary wiring. control room. 5. indoor with or without fixed seats corridors for about I 000 persons.3.4 System Protection 5.1. in offices and automatic firealarm system in rtndia.4. Ma:rually operated firealarm systems.3 Levels of illumination .1 Lighting 5. gymnasiums.ballasts shall be considered. field houses.5 Miscellaneous considerations for lighting cl High intensity discharge lamps .features . basketball. health clubs.. occupancy Same as above. Small indoor games halls for less than 300 persons. the background brightness. but the observer’s location in the grandstand as well.5. 5. of sport play into general areas for more than one sport and areas for particular sport. tennis and part or whole) volleyball.Design of sports lighting.5.For some representative types of sport. squash. b) While the game is in play. where colour rendition is important. shall be provided as recommended below: Description dig halls for over 5 000 persons. Grandstands. especially m large stadia require considerations of not only the objects to be seen. billiards.for example tennis. stadia for outdoor gathering.1 Sports buildings are classified as ‘assembly buildings’ (Group D) from fire-safety point of view (see SP : 7-1983*).5. swimming and boxing. remote mounting of .0 The general rules for the protection of safety laid down in Part I/Set 7 of the Code shall apply.1.2 For’ the purposes of artificial lighting design.5 Building Services 5. c) It is important for observers to be able to estimate accurately the object velocity and trajectory. even the ceiling and luminaires are likely to come into the line of vision. Small halls. use of fluorescent mercury lamps is recommended. trampoline and a varietv of indoor sports. include. 5. bowling.1. F i r e Derecrion System Automatic sprinkler and alarm system. Colour recording calls for more NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 162 .For sports lighting. A horizontal illumination in excess of 300 lux is considered adequate for operation of black and white TV and film recording.1. fencing. 5.Where necessary. areas General gymanasiums. the nature of sports shall be divided as follows: a) Aerial sports (sports Badminton. For sports events. hockey. mitchinc room. Besides fire fighting equipment fire-detection and extinguishing system. b) Low level (games which are close to the ground level) Archery. it is necessary to connect lamps on alternate phases of supply to avoid flicker on rapidly moving objects. community centre halls and other multipurpose areas.Advantageous where mounting heights are low and short projection distances are acceptable . which are aerial in handball. Where a quite surroundmg is required in order to avoid ballast hum. bowling. the inherent time delay for full glow when first energized or when there is power interruption may necessitate use of incandescent lighting system to provide emergency standby illumination in spectator areas. 5.5. For the purposes of lighting design.5.5. the lighting systems are used for less than 500 h a year. Automatic firealarm system. for less than 1000 persons. the recommended values of illumination are as given in Table I. a) While selecting and installing high intensity discharge or fluorescent lamps in multipurpose stadia. b) Efforts shall be required to coordinate the lighting design for sports events with the illumination requirements for TV or film coverage. it shall be ascertained whether duplicate power supply would be required together with its capacity. the following light sources are advantageous together with the considerations indicated against each: a) Incandescent lamps (including tungsten halogen) .1. b) Fluorescent lamps .

5.1 The various tests on the installation shall be carried out as laid down in Part I /Set IO of the Code.3 Electrical/Electronic Score Board . data on the following shall be necessary: PART 3 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN NON-INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS 163 . o v e r I O . For film/TV coverage. 7. This shall be avoided in taking proper precautions in the design of electrical audio systems.delay for the sound from the loudspeakers to reach different sections of the audience would be significant.The general provisions for the installation of public address systems shall be as laid down in Part l/Set 14 of the Code. 6.Reference shall be made to the provisions in Part I iSec 14 of the Code.TABLE 1 RECOMMENDED VALUES OF ILLUMINATION (Clause 5. NOT.khihirion Underwater* Tennis (lawn) Indoor Outdoor Table tennis Volleyball 9 Camera senitivity..5. iii) Requirement of lighting for tournaments with film and TV coverage.It is generally conceded that the distance between the spectators and the play is primary consideration for football.3) SP O R T (I) Archery Target Shootinn line Badminton Basketball Billiards (on table) Boxing and wresthng Fo~(a”.2 Control Room .The power requirements for such equipment would depend on the type of equipment to be installed. These shall be considered before designing the electrical services of the same. 5.1 The requirements for air-conditioning and ventilation as laid down in Part I /Set 14 of the Code shall apply.yo6’. stringent requirements.5. Class III ~~ 5 0 0 0 . (see NOTES I and 2) :I. 2 .4 Clock System . Guidelines of the manufacturer shall be adhered to. and iii) Effective aperture.Group switching of luminaires is recommended to have maximum energy saving. In large grandstand stadia. ii) Exposure time. *Levels recommended are for incandescent lamps.“1.2 Air-conditioning 552. after considering thefollowing factors as well: i) Separate switching for lighting outside the stadia.spectators. The technical requirements for these systems concerning voltage and frequency stability are very high. requiring specific power supply.1. MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS 7. as well as the potential seating capacity of the stand. o v e r I O m m i n i m u m distance. Colour filming may also need lamps having correlated colour temperature of between 3 000 K to 7 000 K.1 5 m minimum distance.1 Electrical Audio Systems . 7.The various communication needs of a large stadia is normally met with by electronic equipment centrally controlled. For discharge lamps W/m’ would be reduced depending upon the efficiency of light source. over 30 m minimum distance. ii) Requirement. and iv) Separate switching for playing arenas.For football. The following classification is therefore described: Class 1 .3 L[fts and Escalators-The general rules laid down in Part I/Set 14 of the Code shall apply. and other installation conditions. over 15-30 m minimum distance. the effect of time . c) Grouu switching .1 0 0 0 0 s p e c t a t o r s . 7.5. TESTING OF INSTALLATION 6. 7.30 000 spectators.t of 540 320 540 220 NOTE 1 . This would call for special wiring systems with sychronizing systems. of lighting for training purpose. unifgrm illumination shall be provided at ground level as well as vertically for 15 m above ground. C l a s s I V -~ 5 000 . IV Gymnasiums Matches General exercising Hockey (field) Racing Bicycle Horse Rifle (outdoor) T a r g e t s Firing point Range Swimming a ) /r&or Exhibirion Underwater* b) Our&or E. 540 220 320 540 540 540 1 100 540 320 220 540 320 220 320 220 540 (vertical) 1 IO 54 540 100 W/m’ of surface area 220 60 . Class 11 ~~ 10 000-30 000 spectators. In order that the installed flux is not wasted the walls of the pool basin shall be given a high reflectance surface finish.

164 . power and control wiring for special equipments like lifts. 4 Internal wiring for lighting.ightning protection. h) Clock system. the electrical design engineer. SCOPE 1.6 The telephone authorities shall be consulted for the requirements of space for accommodating the distribution equipment. 1. 4. Part 1 /Sec.1 The design and construction of electrical installations in multistoreyed buildings call for special attention to details pertaining to fire-safety of the occupancy. Spaces for accommodating the distribution and metering equipment of utility should be accordingly provided for by coordinating with the architect and licensee. SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS 3. note shall also be taken of the nature of occupancy of the high-rise buildings and a judicious choice of alternative features shall be made. 4. independent spaces for the equipment for electrical services for different functions.2 It is necessary that right at the planning stages. fans and other outlets and the position for their switch controls to take care of functional utility and flexibility. TERMINOLOGY 2. t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f s p a c e f o r accommodating the distribution equipment for the various electrical services and openings required in slabs for vertical risers for such services are assessed and incorporated in drawings in due coordination with the architect and structural designer. 2 of the Code shall apply.3 In applying the provisions of this Appendix. and are specifically applicable for buildings more than 15 m in height. cl Generators for standby electric supply.APPENDIX TO PART 3 SPECIFIC REQUIREMENTS FOR ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN MULTISTOREYED BUILDINGS O. ventilation. 4 Telephone wiring. pumps. blowers. ASSESSMENT OF CHARACTERISTICS OF MULTISTOREYED BUILDINGS 5. b) Distribution of electric power.. EXCHANGE OF INFORMATION 4. such details have been stated in this Appendix where the major non-industrial occupancies have been covered. 0. and j) CCTV. the civil design aspects are more stringent for high-rise buildings than for buildings of low heights. 4.1 For the purposes of this Appendix.2 The requirements specified here are in addition to those specified in respective sections of the Code. e) Fire safety. 4. 5. etc. fl L.8 Runs of roof conductors and down conductors for lightning protection shall be coordinated with the architects of the building. Care shall be taken to provide adequate and where necessary.1 The detailed requirements of the owner shall be assessed at the planning stage. The locations of control panel and indication panel shall be decided in consultation with the owner. I. 3. 4. for the telephone services. Coordination with the architect is required in evolving suitable layout of lights. battery. call bell system. 4. 2.FOREWORD 0. 4.5 The voltage of supply and location of energy meters (especially in multistoreyed buildings meant for residential purposes) shall be agreed to between the utility and the owner of the building.2 In drafting the requirements of electrical installations in various occupancies it was felt that a separate compendium giving the specific requirements applicable to multistoreyed buildings should be brougnt out. outlets for appliances. the definitions given in Section 2. due consideration should be given for conservation of energy.1 Special considerations shall have to be given in respect of the following requirements for the electrical installations in multistoreyed buildings: g) Common antenna system.4 While designing the electrical services.3 Multistoreyed buildings are usually in framed design.1 This Appendix is intended to cover specific r e q u i r e m e n t s for electrical installations in multistoreyed buildings. For editorial convenience. 4. The requirements as laid down in Part I/Set I5 of the Code shall be complied with. While on the one hand.7 The local fire brigade authorities shall be consulted in the matter of system layout for fire detection and alarm systems to comply with local bye-laws. 0.0 The general characteristics of buildings depending on the type of occupancy are assessed NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE. etc. on his part had to ensure that the fire hazards from the use of electric power is kept to the lowest possible limit.

more than 2 000 litres of oil shall not ordinarily be located in the basemlnt where proper oil drainage arrangements cannot be provided. Adequate spare capacity should be provided for every component in the distribution system. the. security. The entrance to the room shall ‘be provided with a fire-resisting door of 2-hour fire rating. ing services. they shall necessarily be in the first basement in a separate fire-resisting room of 4-hour rating. totally segregated from other areas of the basements by 4-hour fire-resisting wall/ walls with an access directly from outside.1.4 In case the transformers are housed in the basements.2 When cables are used for distribution to different floors. b) Special loads of equipments as in laboratories. together with those given in Part I/Set 8. r) g) Electric lifts. if housed in basement. The distribution equipments shall be selected by adopting. The choice between cables and metal rising mains for distribution of power should be done depending on the load and the number of floors to be fed.0. data processing areas.2. Distribution system component should be selected to satisfy the same. 6.0. fire pumps. etc. c) Air-conditioning/evaporative cooling/ heat4 Water supply pumps. 6. Each floor shall have a changeover switch for connection to either of the two mains.2. The transformer may be exempted from such protection if their individual oil capacity i’s less than 5 000 litres. Direct access to the transformer mom shall be provided. A curb (sill) of a suitable height shall be provided at the entrance in order to prevent the flow of oil from a ruptured transformer into other _. the basement. shall be protected by an automatic high velocity water spray system. 6. standard ratings.1. 6.3 The transformer. fire alarm. it may be desirable that cables feeding adjacent floors are interconnected for use when distribution cables in either of the floors fail.2 A substation or a switch-station with apparatus having . 6.1.1 For the purposes of rnultistoreyed buildings in addition to other external influences depending o n . and Outdoor and security lighting.0. The switchgears shall be housed in a room separated from the transformer bays by a fire-resisting wall with fire resistance of not less than 4 hours.0 Capacity and number of system components and the electrical distibution layout should be decided considering the likely future requirements. 165 PART 3 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN NON-INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS .2.the t y p e o f o c c u p a n c y . 6.based on the guidelines given in relevant sections of the Code. BD4 and CB2 given in Table I of Part I /Set 8 of the Code. 6.1. 6.6 Oil-filled transformers shall not be housed on any floor above the ground floor. 6. it/they shall be cut off from the other portion of premises by fire-resisting walls of 4-hour fire resistance. a tank of RCC construction of capacity capable of accommodating entire oil of the transformers shall be provided at a lower level to collect the oil from the catch-pit in case of emergency. 6. d Fire fighting pumps. hodpitals.2 Distribution System 6. preferably from outside.1 In multisloreyed buildings where large number of people gather (for example office buildings).7 Soak pit of approved design shall be provided where the aggregate oil capacity of the apparatus does not exceed 2 000 litres. 6. The pipe connecting the catch-pit to the tank shall be of non-combustible construction and shall be provided with a flame-arrester [see LS : 10028 (Part 2)-19811.1 The electrical load shall be assessed considering the following: a) Lighting and power loads. If transformers are housed in the building below the ground level. 5. t h e e l e c t r i c a l installation engineer shall specifically take note of characteristics BD2. DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER 6. basement.5 When housed at ground floor level. The anticipated increase in lpad shali also be given due consideration.3 The fault level at the point of commencement of supply should be obtained from the licencee and fault levels at salient points in the distribution system assessed.1 The provisions contained in Part 2 of the Code shall apply.0 Load Assessment and Equipment Selection parts of ttie.3 It is essential to provide independent feeders for installations such as fire lift. etc. they may be protected by carbon dioxide or BCF ( b r o m o c h l o r o d i f l u r o m e t h a n e ) o r BTM (bromotrifluro methane) fixed installation system. 6.1 Building Substation 6. grade of service desired and economics.2.1. 6. Where the oil capacity exceeds 2 000 litres.2 Suitable demand factors and diversity factors shall be applied depending on the operational and functional shall be at least two rising mains located in separate shafts.1.1. The room shall necessarily be at the periphery of. 6. 6.

6. and Feasibility to provide distribution switchboa& in individual floors vertically one over the other.2 The vertical distribution mains should be located considering the following aspects: 4 Proximity to load centre. telephone lines. Any 230 V wiring for lighting or other services. submain wiring to the flats/apartments shall be independent for each flat/apartment.2. 6. inter-corn lines.4. if any. such as room air-conditioners.4. 6.4. areas like toilets.3. Meter rooms on upper floors shall not open into staircase enclosures and shall be ventilated directly to open air outside.6 The electric distribution cables/ wiring shall be laid in a separate duct. the utility’s cables shall be segregated from consumers’ cable by providing a partition in the duct. Low’ and medium voltage wiring running in shaft and in false ceiling shall run in separate conduits. In such cases. the conductor sizes shall be suitably designed to keep the voltage drop within limits (see Part I /Set I I of the Code).4 Wiring Installation 6.7 Water . including all fixtures used for its suspension. control circuits. etc. r) Where a separate building for substation is not possible. of switchboards.4.4. so that fire in one circuit will not affect the others. near the load centre.10 Medium and low voltage wiring runuihg in shafts. 6. non-inflammable cooling medium shall be used for substation equipment from the point of view of fire safety. Easy maintainability from common areas like lobbies. 6.4. service and alternative supply cables.1 The following aspects shall be considered in deciding the location of electric substation for mdtistoreyed buildings: 6.mains.4. etc.6.411 An independent and well-ventilated service robm shall be provided on the ground floor with direct access from outside or from the corridor for the purpose of termination of electric supply from the licensees. The doors provided for the service room shall have fire resistance of not less than 2 hours.3 Where excessively long lengths of wiring runs are inevitable to suit the building layout.4. as far as possible. gas pipes or any other service line shall not be laid in the duct for electric cables. 6. 6. water coolers. 6.4. \\ NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE a) Easy access for purpose of movement of equipment in and out of the substation including fire fighting vehicles. by horizontal runs df wiring.9 The inspection panel doors and any other opening in the shaft shall be provided with airtight fire doors having the fire resistance of not less than 1 hour. shall have 660 V grade insulation. shall be of noncombustible material. and within false ceiling shall run in metal conduit.4. 6. In the case of a complex with a number of buildings.1 The electrical wiring shall be carried out in conformity with Part I /Set I I of the Code. 6.3. etc. water coolers. 6.8 Separate circuits for water pumps. c) Avoiding crossing of expansion joint. 63 Siting OT Distribution Equipment 6. provision of substation at intermediate floors may be necessary for case of distribution. Master switches controlling essential service circuits shall be clearly labelled. 4 Avoiding proximity to water bound. The duct shall be sealed at every alternative floor with noncombustible materials having the same fire resistance as that of the duct.4 In the case of residential buildings.412 If the utility agree to provide meters on upper floors.5 All switchgear equipment used for maindistribution in multistoreyed buildings shall be metal enclosed. lifts. 4 Feasibility of provision of cable ducts (keeping in view the bending radius of the cable). 6.4 The type and capacity of control switches shall be selected to suit the loading. b) Avoiding excess lengths of wiring for final circuits and points. corridors. oil soak pits (for large transformers) and entry of utility’s cable(s).2 Normally aluminium conductor is used for wiring cables. sanitary/airconditioning shafts. staircases and corridor lighting and blowers for pressurising system shall be provided directly from the main switchgear pane1 and these circuits shall be laid in separate conduit pipes. the same should preferably be at ground floor level of the multistoreyed building itself. 6. group contol of fluorescent lights. the substation should be located. above false ceiling.5 Twin earthing leads of adequate size shall be provided along the vertical runs of rising mains. telephones. e) Transformer hum (and noise and vibration from diesel generating sets where provided as part of the substation). cl Avoidance of flooding by rain water.2. but copper conductor may be required for fire-alarm. 166 . The false ceiling. Woodwork shall not be used for the construction. and g) In the cases of certain high rise buildings. b) Ventilation. etc.

e) Construction of lift shafts. ventilation and flooring in battery rooms should be designed in accordance with the guidelines in Part 2 of the Code. the alternative source of supply may be provided by battery continuously trickle charged from the electric mains. b) Fire fighting a r r a n g e m e n t s .1 for buildings exceeding 24 m in height. from fire safety consideration% and f) Provision for pressurisation of stairwells. 6.1 Consideration in respect of the following provisions is necessary from fire safety point of view: a) Fire detectors and alarm system.4. staircases. this should be coordinated with the architect and the telephone department. any time irrespective of the position of the individual control of the light points. it shall be of an approved type. TELEPHONE WIRING SYSTEM 8. 9.3 Suitable provisions should be made for cable entry and spaces for distribution components. c) ‘Fire lift. *National Buikiing Code. apartment and office buildings between 15 m and 24. 9. smoke extraction and damper systems. Double throw switch shall be installed in the service room for terminating the standby supply. For assembly institutional buildings of height less than 24 m. 6. 8. 9. d) First-aid fire fighting appliances. e) Security lighting.13 The staircase and corridor lighting shall be on separate circuits and shall be independently connected so as it could be operated by one switch installation on the ground floor easily accessible to fire fighting staff. The mechanism of operation of the call boxes shall pceferably be without any moving parts. 6. the conduit runs for telephone wiring should be designed in consultation with telephone department. FIRE SAFETY 9. b) Fire lift.1 On the basis of assessment of demand of direct telephones and PBX lines. if any.3. 8. The . fobbies.64.1 Manually operated electrical fire alarm system shall be installed in a building with one or more call boxes located at each floor. However.16 Emergency lights shall be provided in the staircase/corridor. 167 PART 3 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN NON-INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS . f-l Obstruction light(s). where any moving part is incorporated in the design of the call box.2 Lighting. m in height may beexempted from the installation of automatic fire alarm system provided the local fire brigade is suitably equipped for dealihg with fire above I5 m height and in the opinion of the Authority.4. c) Fire fighting pump. 8. namely corridors. lobbies.l The following loads shall be fed from the standby generating set. etc. lift shafts. entrance hall.4. to enable continuity of supply in the event of failure of mains : a) Lighting in common areas. . and h) Any other functional and critical loads. substation.14 Staircase and corridor lighting shall also be connected to alternative supply as defined in 7. Where telephone wiring is intended to be taken on any other method.1 All buildings with heights of more than 15 m shall be equipped with manually operated electrical fire alarm (MOEFA) system and automatic fire alarm system. etc.3. at. 8. g) Water supply pump. cable and rising main shafts. common toilets.3 The following specific guidelines shall be kept in view.1.15 Suitable arrangements shall be made by installing double throw switches to ensure that the lighting installed in the staircase and the corridor does not get connected to two sources of supply simultaneously.5 m. However. such building does not constitute hazard to the safety of the adjacent property or the occupants of the building itself. etc.-1983* shall be applicable in respect of theabove aspects. provisions for wiring for the same may also be made. b) The call boxes shall be of the ‘break-glass’ type where the call is transmitted automatically to the control room without any other action on the part of the person operating the call box. 7. Any regulations of fire safety by 1 al municipal/fire authorities shall also be camp?c with. It should be of MCB type of switch so as to avoid replacement of fuse in case of crisis. ied 9. 9. 4 Fire alarm control panel. lift lobbies.4 Where the layout of intercom telephones is known in boxes shall conform to the following : The location of call .boxes shall be decided after taking into consideration the floor plan with a view to ensuring that one or the other call box shall be readily accessible to all occupants of the floor without having to travel more than 22. PROVISION OF STANDBY GENERATING S E T 7.2 Provisions contained in Part I/Set 14 of the Code and SP : 7.

but the application of each type is limited and has to be carefully considered in relation to the type of risk and the structural features of the. NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE . For guidelines for selection of tire detection reference may be made to relevant Indian Standard. building where they are to be installed. N OTE I . LIGHTING PROTECTION 1 0 . e) The call boxes shall be so installed that they do not obstruct the exit-ways and yet their location can eastly be noticed from either direction.2 The installation of call boxes in hostels aod such other places where these are likely to be misused. N OTE 2 -No automatic detector shall be requtred in any room or portion of building which is equipped with an approved installation of automatic that there shail be no malfunctioning of the call box. 10. the Code. shall as far as possible be avoided. The battery shall be arranged to be continuously tricklecharged from the electric mains. d) The call boxes shall be arranged to sound one or more sounders so as to ensure that all appropriate occupants of the desired floor(s) shall be warned whenever any call _ box is actuated.Several types of tire detectors are available in the market.3. The base of the call box shall be at a height of I m from the floor level. The circuit may be connected to alternative source of electric supply. 1 Provisions of lightning protection of multistoreyed buildings shall be made in conformity with Part I /Set I5 of. 9. Location of call boxes in dwelling units shall preferably be inside the building. c) All call boxes shah be wired in a closed circuit to a control panel in the control room in accordance with good practice so located that the floor number/zone where the call box is actuated is clearly indicated on the control panel. The circuit shall also include one or more batteries with a capacity of 48 hours normal working at full load.1.


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Such a classification. require special treatment in respect of design . 0. . The needs of such systems would depend on the type and nature of the industrial works. Keeping in view the tariff structures as also the economic necessity of conserving power to the maximum extent. 0.standby and emergency supply sources/networks had to be designed.5 In clause 3 of this Part. ensuring at the same time P protection to human life and loss of property by fire.FOREWORD 0. 0. ull limitations in a simple and economic manner.3 A particular feature of electrical installations in industrial buildings is the reliability of supply to essential operations for which . Part 7 of the Code). an attempt has been made to classify industrial installations depending on the specified eriteria therein.1 Electrical networks in industrial buildings serve the urpose of distributing the required power to the consuming points where it is usedP a multitude of purposes or in the. it is hoped-would help identify the specific nature of each industry and the locations therein. in Part 7 of the Code and these shall be complied with in addition to the general rules specified in this Part 4 (see also Appendix D.2 Industrial installation has to take care of load requirements and sup ly.4 Locations in industrial buildings which are by their nature hazardous. The design of electrical installation in industrial premises is therefore more complicated than those in non-industrial buildings. industry. Such special rules for hazardous areas are covered.PART 4 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS O. assisting the design engineer in the choice of equipment and methods. The network layout should also facilitate easy maintenance and fault localisation. power’ factor compensation assumes special importance.of electrical installations therein. 0.

chemical factories.1. pumping stations.2. saw mills. given in Part l/Set 2 of the Code shall apply. factories for metal extraction from ores. manufactured or processed. 2.1 Industrial buildings are classified into Group G from the fire safety point of view in SP 7 : 1983*. engine fitting. tailoring and jewellery Machinery. Industrial installations are of various types and in a single industrial site. pottery. for which requirements stipulated in the relevant sections of Part 3 of the Code apply. electrical loads of varying requirements are to be met.2 Loads within the industrial site could be divided depending on their nature and size. the. refineries. medical facilities. assembled.SP 7 : 1983. b) Subdivision G-2. handling. tube making. workshops. such as office buildings. TERMINOLOGY 3.3 This Part also does not cover locations in industrial sites that are by nature hazardous for which the provisions of Part 7 of the Code apply. For guidance. fabricated. assembly plants. 1. fumes or smoke. industries are classified based on three criteria as given in 3. aircraft.3.3 Classification Based on Pollution . rolling mills.2 Examples . steel plants. for example.0 Industrial buildings by definition include any building or part of buildjng or structure. tobacco. etc “. manufacture or processing of highly combustible or explosive materials or products are being carried out. dairies. dry cleaning plants. distilleries. workers rest rooms. *National Building Code. structural steel works.1. *Terminology based on IS : 732 (Part 2)-1982 Code of Practice for electrical wiring installations: Part 2 Design and Construction (second revision).2 Classification Based on Power Consumption 3.“:g 5a up tQ Heavy industries Above 2 000 N O T E. BUILDINGS 2. motor cars. locomotives. NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE . boilers. 3.1 to’ 3. or fire from some external source. etc. SCOPE 1. N OTE -.Buildings used for moderate hazard industries . shipbuilding and repairing. furniture.See Appendix A. For the purpose of this part. steel works. Such installations including such high hazard locations in Group G classification shall comply with the special rules of Part 7 of the Code.Includes any building in which the contents are of such low combustibility and the industrial processes or operations conducted therein are of such a nature that there are no possibilities for any self-propagating fire to occur and the only consequent danger to life and property may arise’ from panic. foundries.Average factory installations are set apart from heavy industries in that the former has no coriditions requiring specialized or exceptional treatment. 3. etc.Includes any building in which the contents or industrial processes of operations conducted therein are liable to give rise to a fire which will burn with moderate rapidity and give off a considerable volume of smoke but from which neither toxic fumes nor explosions are to be feared in the event of fire.1 Industrial buildings are also classified depending on the quantum of electric power requirements for its services as given in Table I. light pressings. C L A S S I F I C A T I O N O F I N D U S T R I A L 3.1 Far the purpose of this Part.1 This Part of the Code covers the guidelines cl Subdivision G-3-Buildings used for high hazard industries . the definitions 3.Includes any building in which the contents or industrial processes or operations conducted therein are liable to give rise to a fire which will burn with extreme rapidity or from which poisonous fumes or explosions are to be feared in the event of fire. includes Group J buildings for such locations where storage. Buildings under Group G are further subdivided as follows: a) Subdivision G-l-Buildings used for low hazard industries . chemical plants.(Under consideration). in which products or materials of all kinds and properties are stored. 172 TABLE 1 CLASSIFICATION BASED ON POWER CONSUMPTION D ESCRIPTION * (1) Light industries Average industries A VERAGE P OWER R EQUIREMENT (2) kVA up to 50 EXAMPLES (3) Hosiery.2 This Part does not cover specific areas in industrial sites. 3. 1.1. glass.2.classification given in Table 2 shall be referred to. canteen annexe. 3. for design and construction of electrical installations in industrial buildings. electrical manufacturing and textile (see N OTE below) Heavy electrical equipment.1 Classification Based on Fire Safety 3. laboratories.

2. rolling mills 0. For include possibifurther details lities of presence of foreign solid see Part I/%X 8 bodies of various of the Code sizes likely to affect electrical equipment (such as tools.Negligible pollusive tion (Conrinued) PART 4 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS . However persons (operatmg and maintenance staffl specific zones or operations involving uninstructed persons shall also be kept in view 4. workshop. etc tion to corrosive or polluting chemical substances being used or produced 2 0. insulati?g.boilers and tanks roundings and for whom the possibibility of interupting contact is limited Conditions of evacuation Low density occu.1. wires.2) Characlerisrics (2) Remarks (3) polluting substances SRotiPs T Y P E OF LOAD EXAMPLES POWER F ACTOR (4: 0.1 Environment 4.2. For the purposes of installations falling under the scope of this Part. Capability of persons lnsttatcted persons. Majority of persons adequately aduttlising the indu‘svised or supertrial installations vised by skilled are in this category.6 0. but varying loads and with peak load at different times (for example metal working industry) Loads having very high power requirement in conjunction with smaller loads of negligible size compared to the total load (for example.6 0.0 Gineral guidelines on the assessment of characteristics of installations in buildings are given in Part I of the Code. spinndistributed over ing mill. raw material industry) Tool making Press shop Machine shop Welding shop pollution arises due to abrasive. etc) Contact of persons with earth potential Persons are frequently in touch Locations with extraneous conwith extraneous ducting parts. Small and large loads fairly evenly automatic lathe.boiler rooms.1 The following environmental factors shall apply to industrial installations: Environmenr (1) Characrerisrics (2) Remarks (3) Persons with tech.Closed operating areas nical knowledge and sufficient experience (engineers and technicians) Presence of water Presence of water Depends on the location.4 0.Enviyymenr TABLE 2 LOAD GROUPS IN INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS (Clause 3.This category pation. GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS 4. easy conditions of evacuations applies to buildings of normal or low height (Continued) 173 Presence of corro.6 Atmospheric where the presence of corrosive the sea. dust. weavthe whole area ing mill and loaded constantly during the working day (precision mechantcal engineering) Loads fairly evenly distributed over the whole area. steel works. For negligible.2 Utilization 4. conductive parts either numerous or stand on con. chemical works. the characteristics given below shall apply. cement works where the I Repair shop.7 Continuous pollution Machanical stress Impact/vibration of medium severity Impact/vibration of high severity Chemical works Usual industrial conditions Industrial installations subject to severe conditions Depends on the location of the buildings 3 Heat treatment shop.or large area ducting surfaces Persons are in Metallic surroundpermanent contact ings such as with metallic sur. or further details ossibilities of Pree falling drops see Part l/Set 8 of the Code or sprays Presence of foreign solid bodies Depends on the These conditions location.9 Seismic effect and lightning - 4.1 The following aspects of utilization shall apply: Ulilizarion (1) Characrerisbcs (2) Remarks (3) 4. or conductmg ducts Intermittent or Factory laboratories accidental subjec.

such as large motors. the following advantages are gained: 4 Advantage in tariff. and the transformers are located .1.of voltage regulation and 5.factories. special means should be available for remote operation of t h e m a i n switches/circuit-Breakers i n a n emergency created by explosion/fire in the transformers.JMgtio Nature of processed or stored materials Charatgrdics Remarks (3) Existance of fire.2 All electrical apparatus shall be suitable for the voltage and frequency of supply available. 5. and also as short as possible on economic grounds.The arrangement of the electrical system in industrial plants and the selection of electrical equipment depends largely on the type of manufacturing process.1.5 In order to ensure the reliability and safety expected of industrial substations.hydrocarbon point materials stores including presence of explosive dust distribution and high voltage plant is a matter for expert judgement and individual assessment in the light of experience by a professionally qualified electrical engineer. as far as possible.just outside the building. furnaces. etc.1 . It would also be desirable to locate the LV switchgear directly above the transformer. age of low-tlash. The relative economy attainable by use of medium or high voltage 174 CODE . For an outdoor substation general guidelines as given in Part 2 of the Code shall apply.Wood-working to other consumers permitting the use of large size motors. should be considered. are preferably located outdoors while the associated switchgear is located in a room of the building ne%t to the transformers. it is desirable to have circuit-breakers as the main switching e l e m e n t s o n b o t h s i d e s o f t h e transformer. For oil-filled transformer. should be provided to house the switchgear equipment. b) More effective earth fault protection for heavy current circuits. 5. it is also possible to locate NATIONAL ELECTRICAL Compatibility .4 In very large industrial buildings where heavy electric demands occur at scattered locations. as close as possible to the main load centre. 5~0.1. and more constant supply voltage.4 Localion qf and SHitchgear . 5. it may be considered desirable to locate the transformer also inside 1 the room. the greatest possible reliability of supply and adequate reserve of electrical capacity are the most important factors to avoid interruption of supply.A s p e r convent\onal prictice. however it may often be found desirabte to avoid cable joints and connect the transformer directly to the switchgear placed on either side of the transformer.1. 5. a separate indoor accommodation. 4 Better control . the economics of electrical distribution at high voltage from the main substation to other subsidiary transformer substations or to certain items of plant.l. Though the use of high vohage s u p p l y e n t a i l s t h e provision of space ahd the capital cost of providing a suitable transformer substation on the consumer’s premises. SUPPLY CHARACTERISTICS AND PARAMETERS 5. However. 4. 5. pro. a bus-trunking arrangement may be desirable. textile mills.1. 5.6 F o r s m a l l s u b s t a t i o n s up to 1 6 0 0 kVA/ I I kV capacity. transformers being oil-filled apparatus. where load currents are less than 100 A on high voltage side and 600 A o n low voltage side. Transfbrnlers 5. be straight. etc.1 Industrial Substations 5.In industrial installations.nt or other services (SCP Part I /Set 8 of the Code).0 General 5. switches and fuses may also be used for this purpose.2 The supply conductors should preferably be brought into the building underground to reduce the possibility of interruption of power supply.3 4.1 If the load demand is high. however. etc or storcessin age o F flammable materials. For bringing the supply into the factory building. which requires supply at voltages above 650 V.3 In case of connected load of 100 kVA and above. paper risks.1. 5.0. c) Elimination of interference with . the relative advantage of high voltage three-phase supply should be considered. however. 5. For reasons of safety.1.0 The general requirements for substation installations given in Part 2 of the Code shall apply in addition to those given below. welding plant. The transformer could be connected to the switchgear by cables for small loads. These trunkings should. an assessment shall also be made of any characteristics of equipment like’ly to have harmful effects upon other equipme. where manufacture.Oil refineries. The accommodation for substation equipment as well as for main distribution panel shall be properly chosen so as to prevent access by any unauthorised person. including presence of dust Processing or stor. It shall be provided with proper ventilation and lighting.4 Maintainability .An assessment shall also be made of the frequency and quality of maintenance the installation shall be receiving (see Part I /Set 8 of the Code).0.0. a separate substation should be set up.3 In cases where the load currents are very high.

b) Fire/explosion hazards. the main circuits shall be protected by metal-clad circuit-breakers or contactors of air-break or oil-immersed type fitted with suitable instantaneous and time delay over current devices together with earth leakage and back-up protection where necessary. laid overhead/direct in the ground.4 Switchboards should.2.2. 5. without separate rooms. water during cleaning. use shall preferably be made of: 4 metal-sheathed. distance to be covered.3 Main Distribution 5.3:s Certain applications may necessitate location of the switchboards on the factory floor itself. wood dust. however. 5. Distribution is possible through one of the following: a) Wall-mounted distribution boards. Reference should be made to the same for guidance regarding isolation depending on the type of supply system. Switchgear 5. In such cases.3. or through further load centre substations as would be the case with bigger installations. preferably.3.the substation at the load centre.1 For power distribution from a substation or main switchboard to a number of separate buildings. 5.2. the switchboards shall be specifically designed and protected against hazards mentioned above.3. corrosion. 5. Where necessary the control rooms should be designed to avoid wide fluctuations in ambient temperature. the typical circuits and the recommended location ot lsolatlng switches-in such circuits are illustrated in IS : 732 (Part 2)-1982*. and b) protection against entry of factory material like cotton. and when capacitors are to be installed advice of capacitor and switchgear manufacturers shall be sought. and on other similar factors. etc. b) Floor mounted distribution boards.3.2. served with PVC. 7 I s o l a t i o n qf Switchgear . power is taken to the loads. 1 . or 4 X L P E i n s u l a t e d . H RC type fuses will normally afford adequate protection for main circuits. d) Easy identification.0 All switchgear equipment used in industrial installations shall be metal enclosed.1 lsolation and protection of out. 5. Where means for isolating main circuits’is required. c) In installations other than those referred to in (a) and (b) or where overloading of circuits may be considered unlikely to occur. b) Where large electric motors. Woodwork shall not be used for mounting off switchboards. In suchlcases.2. specific care shall be taken for: a) Human safety. and against entry of excessive dust or corrosive gases. The choice between alternative types of equipment may be influenced by the following considerations: a) In certain installations where supply is from remote transformer substations. c) Local fuse distribution boards.1 From the main receiving station. or cl PVC-insulated. etc. c) Accessibility for repair/checking.2. 5.2 Distribution of Power 5. fuse switch or switch fuse units shall be used or fuses with switches forming part of the mean switchboard shall be used: 5. be located in separate control rooms to ensure: a) adequate protection against weather elemknts like heat. bedded and armoured cable. *Code of practice for electrical wiring installations: Part 2 Design and construction (second revision). T h i s y i e l d s considerable economies in cost.2 It may be necessary to provide for connection of capacitors for power-factor correction. the transformer shall be of the non-flammable synthetic oil type (these oils need care in handling).2.3 Adequate passageways shall be allowed so that access to all switchboards for operation and maintenance is available. or fuses or switchfuse units mounted on the main switchboards. without a separate r o o m .For installations where the system voltage exceeds 650 V. Distribution is done on HV or LV depending on the quantum of load to be transferred. dust.2. 5 . in order to ensure effective earth fault protection. installed overhead/underground. furnaces or other heavy electrical equipment is installed. Sufficient additional space shall be provided for anticipated future extensions. and e) Fault localisation.3. either directly as in the case of small factories. armoured and PVC- sheathed cable installed overhead/underground. served. it may be necessary to protect main circuits with circuit-breakers operated by earth leakage trips. or b) mineral-insulated metal-sheathed cable. 175 PART 4 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS . arm’oured and PVC-sheathed cable installed overhead/ underground.2 In every layout. 5.going circuits forming main distribution system may be effected by means of circuit-breakers. and d) Overhead bus bar system with tap-off holes.

1. including the starting and accelerating current.6 Earthing in Industrial Premises 5. of the motor i_s less than 20 percent of the total rating of all the ways of the distribution boards. unless the maximum current.4.4. the motor circuit shall be clearly labelled.3. structural conditions. Where the supply is taken from such a distribution board. fluff. it may be economical and convenient to install wiring in ducts or trunking. In this case earth continuity conductor shall be bonded to each section of ducts or trunking to provide permanancy of the electrical continuity of the joints of the ducts.9 In some installations.4.4 In industrial installations.4.4. 5. 5. The wiring system available for general use are Ii&ted in Appendix B. b) protection against corrosion. keeping in view the requirements of human safety.5 Where more than one distribution system is necessary. nature of the c) occupancy of the building. and the lift manufacturer shall be consulted as to the appropriate rating of cables to be employed. corrosive elements being taken into account in conjunction with the protective coverings available. Cables at voltages above 1 000 V should be laid at the lowest level in trenches.0 The subcircuit wiring shall conform in general to the.4. the socket outlets shall be so selected as to obviate inadvertent wrong connections. socket outlets of rating 30 A and above shall be provided with interlocked type switch. 5. Cables laid unde’rground or at low working levels. 5. and d) presence of of ringcircuit system of wiring is usually advantageous from the point of view of providing an adequate member of outlets. distribution fuse boards. to which subcircuit are connected through fused plugs in tapping boxes wherever required. 5. 5.4 Subcircuits 5. for example. pilot lamps shall be arranged to indicate when the circuit is live.4. where demand presents sufficient diversity.1 In 3-phase distribution systems.3. 3-phase and neutral socket outlets shall be provided with earth terminal either of pin type or scrapping type in *Code of practice for clcctrical wiring installations: Part 2 Design and construction (zcw~rtl rrlGiotl). a neutral conductor may preferably be provided in all submain circuits even when there is no immediate requirement for the supply of single-phase circuits.3. place of a three-wire sub-main previously installed.2. The supply to small hoists and service lifts shall not be taken from a distribution board controlling final sub-circuits for lighting.8 Final subcircuits for lighting shall be so arranged that all the lighting points for a given area are fed from more than one final subcircuit. 5.4. and at the highest level on walls. starters. should either be with armouring. as a precaution against accidents. addition to the main pins required for the purpose. cables may be conveniently run or perforated metal cable trays. These shall be of metal clad type.5 Selection of Wiring Systems -The selection of a wiring system to be adopted in a factory depends upon the factors enumerated in part 1 /Set 11 of the Code. and clearly identified. In workshops and factories where alterations and additions are frequent. switchgear. The electricity regulations made under the Fa tories Act require that adequate precautions NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 176 .3 In machine shops and factories w h e r e alterations i n layout may repeatedly occur. with sufficient additional space to provide for anticipated future extensions. 5. 5. moisture and temperature conditions.6 In industrial premises. requirements in Section 2 of IS : 732 (Part 2)-1982*. Control devices are often designed for connection between one phase and neutral and considerable extra cost may be involved if a fourwire sub-main has to be installed i?. liability to mechanical damage and the possibility of corrosion.4. 5. 5.2 Cables at different voltage levels should be laid with adequate separation. keeping in view the particular circumstances of each ciiht having regard to: a) location.7 Where non-luminous heating appliance is to be used.0 In factories and workshops all metal conduits.2 Cable trenches shall be made. Selection from a group of alternative systems shall be made in accordance with Appendix B.4. cable sheaths.1 Cables shall not be laid in the same trench or alongside a water main. Alternatively.1.4. the branch distribution boards shall be totally segregated for single phase wiring. In industrial installations. motors and all other parts made of metal shall be bonded together and connected to an efficient earth sy~ Em. or should be adequately protected against mechanical damage. The marker should necessarily indicate the voltage level. the u. The cable routes where buried should be properly identified by route markers.10 Individual sub-mains shall be installed to suppl’)~ passenger and goods lifts from the main or sub-main switchgear. 5. 5.6. trunking. 5. by the use of conduits.5. 5. consideration shall be given to the replacement of local distribution boards by overhead bus-bar or cable systems.

cables. 5. they may be equal to the size of the current carrying conductors with which they are used. shall be included in the bonding. 5.6. 5.1 Earth-continuity conductors and earth wires not contained in the cables -The size of relieved of the thermal and mechanical socks associated with the ‘clearance of heavy faults. the circuits may be 5. as the generator is not connected electrically to a motor and therefore the welding circuit is electrically separate from the supply ctrcuit including the earth.4 Flexible conduits shall not be used as earth-continuity conductors. so that earth faults on smaller subsidiary circuits protected by fuses have time to clear and prevent the opening of the circuit-breaker. PVC and tough rubber sheathed cables the sizes of the earth-continuity conductors shall be in accordance with relevant Indian Standard.6.6. In addition to the advantage of sensitivity gained by such methods.3 Earthing of Portable Appliances and 5. 177 PART 4 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS .4 Earthing of Electrically! Driven Machine Tools. The strip or conductor shall be securely fastened to the bed plate by means of a. Additional security may be obtained by arranging the earth-continuity conductor in the flexible cable between the socket outlet and the portable appliance in the form of a loop through which a light circulating current provided by a small low-voltage transformer is passed when the appliance is in use. it is recommended to parallel all earth-continuity system. 5.3. and I6 mm’ if of galvanized iron or steel.6.6.Use of earth leakage protection shall be made where greater sensitivity than provided by overcurrent protection is’ necessary. the tough rubber or PVC sheathed cables may be used in which case they shall incorporate an earthcontinuity conductor.2. In larger installations.2. in certain cases.5 Earth leakage protection .3 A single pole switch shall not be connected in the earth conductor.5 mm2 for aluminium and need not be greater than 70 mm2 for copper and 120 mm2 for aluminium.5 Earthing of Electric Arc Equipment Welding 5.6. etc.6.6. may be used in industrial premises. the size of the earth-continuity conductors should be equal to the size of the currentsarrying conductors and for metal sheathed.6.6.5. A separate earth wire shallFe p’rovided either inside or outside the flexible conduits which shall be connected by means of earth clips to the earth system at one end and to the equipment at the other end.6. metal conduits cannot be used as earth-continuity conductor on account of corrosion. Any discontinuity in this loop will interrupt the circulating current and can thus be caused to operate a relay and disconnect the supply from the portable appliance. that is. The transformers and separate regulators forming multioperator sets and capacitors for power factor correction.4 No twisted or taped joints shall be used in earth wires.2. The size of earth-continuity conductors to be used along with aluminium current-carrying conductors should be calculated on the basis of equivalent size of the copper current-carrying conductors. bolt. if used.For flexible 5. IO mm? if of aluminium.3.6.1 Good electrical continuity between the body of a portable appliance and the earthcontinuity conductor shall always be maintained. 5. 5.0 Portable appliances and tools having reinforced or double insulation need not be earthed. Tools 5.2 All terminals on the output side of a motor generator set shall be insulated from the car case and control panel. With a good earth electrode.3 Conduits may be used as ‘earthcontinuity conductors provided they are permanently and securely connected to the earth system.6.1 All components of electric arc welding equipment shall be effectively bonded and connected to earth.2 It shall be ascertained that the fixed wiring at the appliance inlet terminals has been done correctly and in accordance with relevant Indian Standard. overload protective devices may be used as earth leakage protective device. However.3. controlling a larger part of the installation.6. having one or more substations. the sizes of earth-continuity conductors should not be less than half of the largest current-carrying conductor. the bed plate of the machine shall be earthed by means of a strip or conductor of cross-sectional area not less than 6. Some degree of discrimination may. be introduced with advantage by providing the delay in the operation of an earth-leakage trip.5.1 Earth Electrodes. 5. provided the minimum size of earth-continuity conductors is not less than 1. 5.shall be taken to prevent non-current-carrying metal work of the installation from becoming electrically charged. where by nature of the process.6.6. As regards the sizes of galvanized iron and steel earth-continuity conductors.3.5 mm2 for copper and 2. 5.Irrespective of’ the size or type of machine tools.6. 5.Any of the earth electrodes as mentioned in Part I of the Code except cable sheath.2.2 Earth-continuity conductors and earth wires contained in the -cables .2 Earth Continuity Conductor the earth-continuity conductors should be correlated with the size of the current carrying conductors. 5.6.3. 5.5 mm? if of copper.

7. 6 Earrhing qf Apparatus Industrial Electronic _~ the furance out of service and to re-line. In single phase sets this terminal shall be connected to one end of the secondary winding and in case of three-phase sets this shall be connected to the neutral point of the secondary winding.6.1.5 In case where direct earthing may prdve harmful rather than provide safety. The use of rewirable fuses is restricted to the circuits with short-circuit level of 4 kA.5. the earth conductor being connected to it at several points. The object is to prevent dangerous break-through of hot metal through the furnace lining. 5. 5. 7. independent source of supply for emergency service in particular installations may be provided.6.6 If necessary. These should not be directly earthed. A relay is connected by a detection circuit which itself is earthed to the coils.1 The provisions of Part 2 of the Code shall apply.6. which for welding purpose are double wound. a quarter wavelength is nearly 250 cm and an earth wire of this length or odd multiples of it is capable of being at earth potential at one end but several hundred volts at the other end. EMERGENCY/STANDBY POWER SUPPLIES 6.6. SYSTEM PROTECTION 7.shall be provided. At 30 MHz. discrimination in operation may be achieved by adjusting the protective devices of the sub-main circuit-breakers to operate at lower current settings and shorter timelag than the main circuit-breaker. the following fire detection and extinguishing systems are recommended for industrial buildings: a) Buildings for low hazard industries . This capacitor shall be securely earthed. 7. but for smaller overloads within the breaking capacity of the circuitbreakers.6.1 Protection of Circuits 7. The metal of the furnace charge is earthed by electrodes connected at the bottom Of the charge.1. 6. the oscilloscope shall be earthed by a conductor entirely separate from that used by the source of high frequency power.0 The earthing of these apparatus shall follow normal practice but attention shall be paid to the points discussed below. and the furnace coils are connected to the mains supply but are unearthed. the circuit-breakers shall operate earlier than the HRC fuse.5. the H RC fuses shall operate earlier than the circuit-breakers.3 In case of transformer sets.6. Provision shall also be made for control of general lighting and other emergency services through separate main circuits and distribution boards from the power circuits. 5. the earth detection circuit gibing a continuous review of the conditions for the furnace lining. 5. ihe earthing of the oscilloscope is not possible.1 Appropriate protection shall be provided at switchboards and distribution boards for all circuits and subcircuits against overcurrent and earth faults.4 If rcwirable type fuses are used to protect subcircuits derived form a main circuit protected by HRC type fuses. that may occur. although discrimination may be achieved in respect of overload currents.6.3 Where HRC type fuses are used for backup protection of circuit-breakers. 5 . In such a case it is recommended to mount the equipment ori a large sheet of copper or copper gauze. and the protective apparatus shall be capable of interrupting any short-circuit current. Precautions shall be taken that in such a case the oscilloscope is suitably protected from other apparatus.1.6.6. 7. without danger. in the event of short circuits exceeding the breaking capacity of the circuit: breakers.1. 6 . When leakage current attains a certain set maximum it becomes necessary to take 178 NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE . an ‘earth and work’ terminal.Not required 5. 5.3 High frequency induction heating apparatus shall be earthed by means of separate earth wire by as direct a route as possible.1. special precautions are necessary. or where HRC fuses are used for protection of main circuits and circuit-breakers for the protection of subcircuits derived therefrom. the main circuit fuSe shall normally blow in the event of a short-circuit or earth fa’ult occurring on a subcircuit.6.1 Any industrial electronic apparatus which derives its supply from two-pin plugs incorporates small capacitors connected between the supply and the metal case of the instfument to cut down interference.5.1 Besides fire fighting equipment. The ratings and settihgs of fuses and the protective devices shall be co-ordinated so as to afford selectivity in operation where necessary.2 When an oscilloscope is being used to examine the wave-form of a high frequency source. This is due to the presence o f s t a n d i n g w a v e s o n t h e e a r t h conductors which besides being dangerous can result in energy being radiated to the detriment of communication services.6. high’ frequency and mains frequency coreless induction furnaces. However.4 Dielectric loss heating equipment work at frequencies between IO MHz to 60 MHz according to its use.2 Fire-safety Requirements 7. 7. 7. when an oscilloscope is being used on a circuit where the negative is above earth potential and also connected to its metallic case. for higher level either cartridge or HRC fuses shall be used.2 Where circuit-breakers are used for protection pf a main circuit and of the subcircuits derived therefrom. for example. for example.1.

BUILDXNC SERVlCES 8.1. *Code of practice for fire safety of buildings (general): Electrical installations.3.2 Air-conditioning. tCode of practice for industrial lighting. and 0 Microwave heating. $Nationa’l Building Code. tSafety requirements in electro-heat installations.1 Lighting 8.2.2 Reference is also drawn to 1s : 16461961* regarding rules and regulations relating to electrical installations from the point of fire safety. electro-heat installations such as: 7.for goods Ilfts . T h e recommended values of illumination and limiting va!ues of glare index are given in Appendix D for guidance. b) Car-speed. heating and dielectric heating appliances. 8.3 Lifts ‘8. Appendix C covers specific requirements for fire safety for representative industries. Physical hazards exist in many manufacturing processes.3. 9.2 Safety in Electra-Heat . lighting contribute to the utmost as’ a safety factor in preventing accidents. d) Medium and high frequency induction e) Infra-red radiatum heating appliances. See Appendix E.1 Control of Static Electricity .3 Power Factor Compensation heating. c) Appliances for direct and indirect resistance heating. or where it may be ‘exposed to extreme temperatures shall be avoided. With each of the various visual task conditions. lighting should be suitable for adequate visibility. 8. The specific needs of individual locations reqliiring these services in each factory shall be ascertained in consultation with the concerned personnel before designing the electrical system.1 Equipment for Lighting -The choice of light sources and luminaries shall be governed by the guidelines given in IS : 6665-19727. Installations lndustrial process include in many instances. 8. operating conditions and economy. etc. However:. the design of lifts in industrial buildings shall1 take into account the following requirements: 4 Arc furnaces.2.b) Buildings for moderate i) Area up to 750 m* ii) Area above 750 m* hazard industries: Automatic ‘firealarm system Automatic sprinkler or automatic fire alarm system a) Occupant load-the occupant load expressed in terms of gross area in m*/person shall be 10 for industrial buildings.1. Where it is impossible to avoid extreme environmental conditions. Heating and Ventilation 8.1 The electrical installation meant for the services such as air-conditioning heating and ventilation in industrial buildings shall conform to the requirements given in Part 1 /Set 14 of the Code. 9.2 The location of lifts in factories.1 ‘The provisions of Part 1 /Set 17 of the Code ‘shall apply. 9.IS : 6665-19727. Reference should be made to the guidelines given in SP : 7-1983:. railway slidings. MISCELLANEOUS/SPECIAL PROVISIONS 9. 8 . Specific control methods are also given for some industries therein. The general considerations for design of lighting in industrial areas are enumerated in .0 Industrial lighting encompasses seeing tasks. 9.f. r.3. The selection of electrical equipment shall be such that they are suitable to meet the conditions involved. The speed of many manufacturing operations might alsd be hampered due to poor lighting.These shall be as follows: Normal load carrying lifts-2-2. For safety requirements in such ‘electro-heat installations referrence shall be made to IS : 9080 ( P a r t s 1 to IV)t. b) Induction furnaces. For specific guidance for installations covered by this part. position of loading platform. *Guide for the control of undesirable static electricity.1 The general rules laid down in Part 1 /Set 14 of the Code shall apply regarding lift installations.Reference should be made to IS : 7689-1974* r e g a r d i n g recommendations for controlling static electricity generated incidentally by processes in industries which may pose a hazard or inconvenience. therefore. The placing of a lift in a fume or dust laden atmosphere.5 m/s Lifts serving many floors -1 m/s 8. warehouses and similar buildings should be planned to suit the progressive movement of goods through the buildings having regard to the nature of processes carried out. PART 4 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS 179 .

kimam and pan NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE b) Moderate Hazard Arecanut/ betelnut factories Atta and cereal grinding premises Bakeries and/or biscuit factories Beedi factories Book binders and paper cutting premises Book sellers and stationers’ shops Boot and shoe factories and other leather 180 . The following is a representative list of industries classified according to the degree of fire hazard enumerated in 3. zarda.2) A-l. I .1 .l: a) Low Hazard tndustries Abrasive manufacturing premises Aerated water factories Agarbatti manufacturing premises Aluminium copper and zinc factories Asbestos steam packing and lagging manufacturers Battery manufacturers Bone mills Breweries Canning factories Carbon dioxide plants Cardamom factories Cement factories Cement and/or asbestos or concrete products manufacturing premises Ceramic and crockery factories Clay works Clock and watch manufacturing premises Confectionery manufacturers Electric generating houses E l e c t r i c l a m p s a n d fluorescent t u b e manufacturers Electronic goods manufacturing premises Electroplating workshops Engineering workshops Fruit products and condiment factories Gold thread factories/gilding factories Glass factories Gum and glue factories Ice candy and ice cream manufacturing premises Ice factories Ink factories (excluding printing inks) Milm pasteurising plants and dairy farms Mica products manufacturing premises Potteries/tiles and brick works Rice mills Refractoriesiworks and firebrick kilns Salt crushing factories and refineries Silicate (other than sodium silicate) factories Soap and.APPENDIX (Clause 3. detergent factories Sugar candy manufacturers Sugar factories Tanneries Tea colouring factories Umbrella factories Vermicelli factories Wire drawing works A EXAMPLES OF INDUSTRIES BASED ON FIRE-SAFETY goods factories Boat builders and ship repairing docks Button factories Candle works Canvas sheet manufacturers Cardboard box manufacturers Carbon paper manufacturing premises Carpet and durries factories Carpenter’s workshops Camphor boiling premises Cashew nut factories (using open fire) Gnmng and pressing factories Cloth processing works Coffee curing premises Coffee roasting and grinding works mixing a n d / o r b l e n d i n g Colouridyes factories Coir factories Cork factories Cork stopper and other cork products manufacturing premises Collieries Chemical manufacturers Cotton mills Dyeing and dry cleaning works Electric wire and cable manufacturing premises EnameJ. mixing and granulating only) Mattresses and pillow making premises Oxygen plants Paper mills Pencil factories Plastic goods manufacturers Printing press premises Pulverising and crushing mills (hazardous materials) Rice mills Rope factories Rubber goods manufacturers Sheliac factories Spray painting works Starch factories Synthetic fibre manufacturing premises Tea factories Thermal power stations Tobacco (chewing). factories Essential oil distillation plants Flour mills Garment makers Ghee manufacturing premises Ginning and pressing factories Grains and/or seeds disintegrating factories Grease manufacturing works Hat and topee factories Hosiery factories Incandescent gas mantle manufacturers Jute mills and jute presses Mineral oil blending and processing works Mutton tallow manufacturers Manure and/or fertilizer works (blending.

or rubber-insulated aluminium-sheathed cable.or other insulated conduit and provided with a bare copper or copper-alloy earth-continuity conductor as necessary. or PVC-insulated cable installed on cleats. 4 Rubber-insulated braided and compounded or PVC-insulated cable installed in heavygauge screwed conduit. fodder and bhoosa (chaff) pressing’ factories Match factories Oil mills Oil extraction plants Oil and leather cloth factories Paint (including nitrocellulose paints) and varnish factories Petrochemical plants Plywood factories Printing ink manufacturers Resin and lamp black manufacturers Rubber substitute. N OTE . Rubber-insulated braided and compounded or PVC-insulated cable installed in PVC.musalu making premises Tobacco grinding and crushing and snuff manufacturing premises Tobacco’ curing and redrying factories Tobacco pressmg works Upholsterers Weaving factories Wooilen mills Wool cleaning/pressing factories Yam gassing plants.Polythene-insulated PVC-sheathed cable provides an alternative having the advantage of high insulation-resistance. L Rubber-insulated lead-alloy-sheathed cables incorporating an earth continuity conductor. C) High Hazard Acetylene plants Alcohol distillers Aluminium and magnesium powder plants B i t u m i n i s h e d p a p e r / hessian cloth manufacturing premises Bobbin factories Cinematograph film production studies Calcium carbide plants Cotton waste factories Coal/coke/charcoal ball and briquettes factories Celluloid goods manufacturers Cigarette filter manufacturers Cotton seed cleaning or deliniting premises Duplicating and stencil paper manufacturers Fertilizer plants Explosive manufacturers Fireworks factories Foam plastics and foam rubber goods manufacturers Grass. braided overall or otherwise protected to withstand corrosive conditions where necessary. protected as necessary against mechanical damage and corrosion. with appropriate protection where cable passes through floors or walls. h) Rubber-insulated braided and compounded insulated NOTE. Rubber-insulated braided and compounded or PVC-insulated cable installed in metal trunking or ducts. insulated cables laid around a galvanized steel catenary wire.-.The use of galvanized conduit and PVC- 3 4 Rubber-insulated braided’ and compounded eS or PVC-insulated cable installed in lightgauge steel conduit with lug grip. k) Mineral-insulated metal-sheathed cable with or without protective shearhing with suitable watertight glands. ?ART 4 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS 181 . g) Grid suspension wiring system comprising rubber-insulated or PVC. say. cable is to be preferred where the situation may be damp or long hfe is required. hay.Incombustible insulated trunking and ducts provide an alternative and where these are used a bare copper or copper-alloy earth-continuity conductor may be required. buried in plaster or installed in concrete ducts.5) B-1. NOTE . N O T E. manufacturers Surgical cotton manufacturers Tar distilleries Tar felt manufacturing premises Tarpauplin and canvas proofing factories Timber and woodworkers’ premises Tin printers (where more than 50 percent of floor area is occupied as engineering workshop this may be taken as moderate hazard risk) Terpentino distilleries Tyre retreading and resoling factories Woodmeal manufacturers APPENDIX ( Clause 5. b) Tough rubber-sheathed or PVC-sheathed cables protected as necessary against mechanical damage.Where a lead-sheathed cable has plumbed joints a separate earth-continuity conductor may not be required. WIRING SYSTEMS FOR GENERAL B SELECTION OF WIRING SYSTEMS APPLICATIdN 4 Bare solid or tubular conductors supported on insulators in metal or incombustible structural ducts or chases (main connections).

(n).i n s u l a t e d . NOTL -. SPECIAL RESTRICTIONS B-4. and so installed as to be protected against mechanical damage. N O T E. lead-alloy sheathed or aluminium-sheathed. iv) Where wet processes are carried out. Same as in case of wiring system (d).Precautions should be taken against the drainage of oil and in certain instances cables of the non-draining type are required. ci) Armoured cables shall not be permitted. installed in underground earthenware ducts or metal pipes. The cables shall be carried through holes in the barriers. ADDITIONAL WIRING SYSTEMS PARTICULARLY SUITABLE FOR USE IN FACTORIES AND THE LIKE a) Paper-insulated.o r a l u m i n i u m - sheathed cable with steel wire or tape armour as P a p e r . lead-alloy or aluminium-sheathed cable. iv) The combined cross-sectional area of all conductors or cables shall not as far as possible exceed 40 percenl of the internal cross-sectional area of the trench. c) Paper-insulated lead or lead-alloy or alumi- d) Paper. The barriers shall be at least 50 mm in thickness and of the same height as of cable trench. l e a d . mounted on porcelain or hardwood cleats or in trenches or ducts. Itad-or aluminium- e) Tough rubber-sheathed or PVC-sheathed g) Varnished-cambric insulated. ii) Where ambient temperature is likely to be above 55°C at sometime or other durmg the year. steel tape or wire armoured. b) Paper-insulated. ii) They are exposed to corrosive vapours. and battery rooms. it is recommended that trenches of more than I 000 cm2crosssectional area be divided by incombustible barriers at intervals not exceeding 45 m. dusts and waste materials. It shall be permitted only where voltage is below 650 V and in locations where the atmosphere is unlikely to contain any flammable vapours or gases. or iv) in concealed places. ii) Top of trenches shall be covered with chequered plates or concrete slabs. which shall be made good thereof to prevent the passage of tire beyond the barriers.1 Wiring systems suitable for installations in different categories of factories are given i n Table 3. B-2) tb) and (g) If the ducts are in the form of under floor trenches then the following provisions should be observed: i) Cables shall preferably be so mounted on insulated racks or other supports as to be at least 75 mm above the bottom. B-3. iii) Where atmosphere is likely to -contain flammable gases or vapours. This system shall not be permitted in locations: i) where exposed to severe physical damage. teak battens by screws of corrosion-resisting material. lead-alloy-sheathed or aluminium-sheathed. h) Rubber-insulated.1 Even though guidance may be taken from the selection chart (Table 3) for wiring systems. steel wire armoured. iii) In concealed spaces of combustible construction. SELECTION OF WIRING SYSTEMS FOR FACTORIES B-3. Same as in case of wiring system (d).5 m above working floor level. Ordinary steel conduits shall not be permitted in areas where flammable vapour may be present. served and impregnated cable or PVC-insulated and steel tape or wire armoured and PVC-sheathed cable buried directly in the ground or used in special conditions. and shall not be permitted in locations exposed to corrosive fumes or vapour. B-4. such as Monel metal or phosphor-bronze. the following restrictions to their use apply: 182 . nium-sheathed cable or PVC-insulated and PVC-sheathed cable. and v) The cable trenches shall be kept ‘free from accumulation of water. or v) In concealed spaces. (h) and fs) These systems should only be permitted for voltage below 250 V and that too only if use of such system is essential. Varnished cambric insulated cables without metal sheath should be used only for short connections on switchboards and the like in dry situations. unless it is of type conforming with wiring system (1) and shall not be permitted in locations: i) Where wiring height is less than 2. in (m). sheathed cable or PVC-insulated and PVCsheathed cable. iv) Where atmosphere is likely to contain flammable gases or vapours. rubber-insulated. ii) where exposed to corrosive vappurs. Trunking or ducting systems for cables above (c) ground shall not be used where: i) They are exposed to physical damage. Rubber-insulated braided and compounded or PVC-insulated cable installed in galvanized solid-drawn screwed conduit with flameproof couplings and inspection fittings. unless protected against mechanical damage. tough rubber-sheathed cable. Wiring System (see Restrictions B-l. steel tape or wire armoured cable or PVC-insulated steel tape or wire armoured and PVC-sheathed cable with cleat or hook suspensions. or v) Where conductor operates at voltage above 650 V. iii) In case of long trenches. NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE B-2. cable mounted on insulating non-hygroscopic cleats affixed to treated. iii) where wet processes are carried out. following locations unless the cable is of (P) and (v) PVC-sheathed type.

. c. lap air for variable ment shall be speed motor taken flamqproof in gas breaking.ising building.TABLE 3 SELECTION CHART FOR WIRING SYSTEMS FOR INSTALLATIONS IN FACTORIES ( C l a u s e s 5. APPENDIX (Clause 7. Stop motion rooms devices provided on frames snail be dust-tight Wiring in steel conduits. ISS MOTORS O THER E Q U I P M E N T (1) J&e spinning and (2) (3) (4) F ITTINGS (5) MISCELLANEOUS (6) Sup ly shall be at < 4SO V in jute godowns IS : 3836 weavmg..2. G g C ATEGORY Heavy Industry OF FACTORY Chemical industry _ 1st Choice (8) S Light industry 1st Choice (6) 5 k r C I St Choice (4) a k qt a C f k P r :: j Factories InvolvinG?e (10) k . the ‘cooling dust-tight. Average Factory 7 2nd Choice Choice (2) (3) a k i . jute rope. contacts liable for corrosion shall be cadmium plated Textile mills using cotton.3079 Totally enclosed Dust-tight lightMetal clad and type. blow and ra.5. 183 PART 4 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS . 2nd Ye : i g V (1) Main distribution at medium or low voltage 2nd Choice (7) P V 2nd Choice (9) .. b. carpet making factories Cotton ginning cotton seed delintering and pressing factories Plants making viscose rayon yarn or staple fibre or both IS : 2726 All motors shall All equipment be totally enclosed shall be metal type and in wet clad. man made Ji bres or any grouping of these Places where paints and varnishes are stored or processed Machines for singeing yarn shall be protected lo ensure that heating elements are not switched on while yarn is stationary IS : 9109 Provisions shall be made for switching off the whole factory at more than one control point.2) T+PE O F C REQUIREMENTS FOR FIRE SAFETY IN SPECIFIC INDUSTRIES INDUSTRY R E fittings at willowing.v see B-l and B-2. I) S EC T I O N O F INSTALLATION .shall comply with are evolved Part VII of the Code IS . dust-tight locations shall be drip-proof -do- Li hting fittings s 1 all be dusttight All equipment in Vapour-proof lighting fittings the Xanthation area and finished in areas where disulphide plant corrosive gases . from outside the smgemg rooms. mixing. cotton waste regenerated cellulose. Lighting fittings of enclosed type All current carrying parts. Equip.1 a n d Bf4. waste opening. 4 r L Y Sub-main distribution lo local distribution boards a C : P V h f ff P V f S b q r k t Sub-circuit wiring C C f f V N O T E- f k V g b h j C f s k t For description of a.

Flexible connection to the stacker through rubber compound sheathed trailing cable with hard cord braiding Screwed steel cbn.’ c) Entrances.IS ture factories. wood flour. etc. practicable. General factor areas: a) Canteens b) Cloakroom.All control equipment switches. totally enclosed. fire works to be ositioned not bePow 45 cm or explosives are stored below roof. dustproof (see Part 7 of the Code) OTHER EQUIPMENT (4) All equipment of the enclosed type FITTINGS (5) Wiring in steel conduits.T YPE OF IN D U S T R Y (1) R E F. A clearanoe of not less than 75 cm to be provided from highest stacking level. switch and socket shall be watertight. enclosed All switchgear equipment metal enclosed. pulverising mills.temperature allowed Godowns. For mains operated electrical stackers. immersion type or totally enclosed low temperature type with external surface below 92°C Saw mills. powders of aluminium. insulation boards. as also equipment. INDMTRIAL RtItLotNGs AND PRO~‘ESSE. Plywood hardwood. 1% (2) IS : 4226 MOTORS (3) Motors shall be flameproof dustprotected (see Part 7 of the Code) Totally enclosed. therein for power generation cole or briquette making Tea factories IS : 3595 Lighting fittings shall be dusttight. totally enclosed type Fan motors of dryers and troughs and other control aquipment shall be dust proof type. Flexible lighting pendants or portable lamps not allowed Electrical heaters shall be metal cased. Enclosed lighting fittings h’t IsCELLANEOUS (6) -do- Factories where. coach and body build works. corridors. armoured or mineral insulated type ‘of wiring - Use of flexible cables to be kept_ to the minimum IS : 4886 Where. internal factory roads 114 - NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE . furni. duits mineral insulated.. liquids. flammable sheathed cable. copper outside godown or aluminium where fibrous goods.Q I AVERAGE ILLUMINATION lux I50 100 100 20 L IMITING G LARE IN D E X I. main entrances. warehouses.1) D RECQMMENDED VALUES OF ILLUMINATION AND LIMITING VALUES OF G&ARE INDEX-INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS SL No. nitroLighting fittings cellulose. Only conduits. wood wool. Factory outdoor areas: Stockyards. etc : 6329 Motors shall be totally enclosed or pipe ventilated All equipment shall be dust-tight and where spray painting is done shall comply with Part 7 of the Code APPENDIX (Clause 8. exit roads. magnesium and their alloys are processed or used Coal. Temperature of eqqipment IO’C ovq normal working . flameproof. outdoor storage sites formmg part of industrtal complexes or others: cold storage buildings IS : 3594 Driving motors for overhead cranes totally . car parks. stairs 2.1. upholsteries and other wood working shops.

jacquard and cutting. etc c) Control rooms: i) Vertical control panels ii) Control desks 14. vehicle body assembly c) Fine work. sub-assembly. 5. extractors. cowling welding. for example. engine assembly. :. Chocolate’ and confectionery factories: a) Mixing. setting pattern. etc b) Preparation: kettle areas. barley. feeding. a) General working areas b) Brewhouse. machined parts. instruments Bakeries: a) Mixing and make-up rooms. :: 22 2s 25 - 9. tufting. bean cleaning.Designing. evaporators. wrapping. dicing. wrapping rooms b) Decorating and icing Boiler houses (industrial): a) Coal and ash handling b) Boiler rooms: i) Boiler fronts and operating areas ii) Other areas c) Outdoor plants: i) Catwalks ii) Platforms Bookbinding: a) Pasting. blending. sheet aluminium layout and template work. for example. inspection. beaming b). finishing e) Shoe rooms Breweries and distilleries: I 000: 700 IO00 :3 100 GLARE INDEX 450 300 25 25 300 IS0 300 700 I &lo* 25 28 25 22 I9 4. inspection c) Maintenance and repairs (Hangers) Assembly shops: a) Rough work. punching and stitching. 20 to 25 w 20 50 7. gauges. mechanical crystalizing bleaching. assembly of heavy machinery b) Medium work. Canning and preserving factories: a) Inspection of beans.B the light. final assembly. :: - 6. TSupplementary local hghtlng may be requtred lor gauge lasses and instrument panels. crushing and refining. riveting. bottling and canning plants c) Bottle inspection IO. rice. cutting. stationery or gravity crystalizers. boiling tanks. mechanical driers. radio and telephone equipment. electrolytic cells b) Controls. 13. milling. fringing c) Weaving. miscellaneous machines c) Finishing. lasting and bottoming. I NDUSTRIAL B UILDINGS AND PROCFSSE~ OVERAGE LIMITING ~LIUMINATION lux Aircraft factories and mainmnance hangers: a) Stock parts productions b) Drilling. values. b) Binding and folding. blocking and in laying Boot and shoe factories: a) Sorting and grading b) Clicking and closing. frame assembly. screw fastening. mending. assembly of very small precision mechanisms. percolators. nitrators. inspection Ceramics -see pottery and clay products Chemical works: a) Hand furnaces. cream making c) Hand decorating. - IS0 w 200 to 300 300 28 - 28 :: *Opiical aids should be used’ where necessary. hemming. trimming c) Canned and bottled goods: retorts d) High speed labelling lines e) Can inspection Carpet factories: a) Winding. filtration plants. preparatory operations c) Cutting table and presses. :: 22 8. boiling b) Chocolate husking. mechanical cleaning. 25 :: - 12.I% 3. stationery driers. typewriter and office machinery-assembly d) Very fine work. oven rooms. wing sections. fat extraction. $pecial attention should be paid to the colour quality o. winnowing. packing iii Special lighting 450 :: :E 300 450 200 450 450 :: - II. PART 4 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS 185 . for example. for example. topping. sorting. stitching d) Bottom stock preparation.

feeders. soot and slag blowers d) Boiler house and turbine house e) Basements f) Conveyor houses. Electricity generating stations: Indoor locations a) Turbine halls b) Auxiliary equipment.g: 200 100 70 to loo 100 70 70 to loo 25 I9 I9 . No. boiler and turbine decks h) Transformers and outdoor switchgear 22. battery rooms. Collieries (surface buildings): a) Coal preparation plant: i) Working areas ii) Other areas. Dye works: a) Reception. tSupplementaty local lighting may be required for gauge glasses and instrument panels. pulverizers. Electricity generating stations: Outdoor locations a) Coal unloading areas b) Coal storage areas c) Conveyors d) Fuel oil delivery headers e) Oil storage tanks f) Catwalks g) Ptatforms. NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE . :: 25 200 lo :z I50 I50 I50 I50 200 _ 1000 I9 - l 186 Spectal attention should be paid to the colour quality of the light. coal conveyors. I9 :: 22 22 I9 I9 I9 I9 I9 I9 25 25 IE 750 lW 2w . conveyer gantries. galleries ii) Gas circulator days iii) Reactor charge/discharge face 2 I... I NDUSTRIAL B UILDING S AND P ROCESSES AVERAGE ILLUMINAT!~N IUX L IMITING G LARE I NDEX 15. Engraving: a) Hand b) Machine (see Die sinking) 4502 :z :z 450 1000 I 500 450 1000 I 500 I50 :: I50 lo0 I50 I50 100 2001 Special lighti. blowers auxiliary generators. preciprtators.SI. iii) Picking belts iv) Winding houses b) Lamp rooms: i) Main areas ii) Repair sections iii) Weigh cabine c) Fan houses 17. switchgear and transformer chambers c) Boiler houses (including operating floors) platforms. Clothing factories: a) Matching-up b) Cutting sewing: i) Light ii) Medium iii) Dark iv) Pressing c) Inspection: i) Light ii) Medium iii) Dark d) Hand tailoring: ~’ i) Light ii)dedium iii) Dark 16. ‘grey’ perching b) Wet processes c) Dry processes d) Dyers’ offices ‘e) Final perching 20. Dairies: a General working areas bf Bottle inspection c) Bottle filling 18. Die sinking: a) General b) Fine 19. junction towers g) Control rooms: i) Vertical control panels ii) Control desks iii) Rear of control panels iv) Switch houses h) Nuclear reactors and steam raising plants: i) Reactor areas. boilers.

liglit. dark e) Linking or running-on Inspection shops (Engineering) a) Rough work. etc b) Medium work. ‘Go’ and ‘No-go’ gauges. for example. shaking out. sizing. precision mechanisms. 28 25 *Supplementary local lighting should be used at important points. 30 to 50. silvermg) e) Brilliant cutting f) Inspection: i) General ii) Fine L Glove mating: a) Pressing. purifier. tumbling cleaning. tSupplementary local lighting and optical aids should be used where necessary :Optical aids should be used where necessary. I50 300 28 25 21. cutting out. rough checking of stock parts. forming (blowing. for example. toughening d) Finishing (bevelling.ion equipment. booster and exhaustor houses c) Open type plants: i) Catwalks ii) Platforms Gauge and tool rooms: General Glass works and processes: a) Furnace rooms. 300 300 450 I :g 700 450 I50 300 ‘700 :z$ 22 :: 22 I9 I9 I9 34. 100 :. rough moulding and rough core making b) Fine moulding and core making. and hand finishing. greasing. refining forming. etching. I50 22 iii 700 :: 22 33. radio and telecommunicat. calibrated scales. meter. instruments d) Very fine work. 23. 26. 7oot 28 28 :: I9 I9 I9 22 :: 22 31.SL No. counting. cutting b) Sowing: i) Light ii) Medium iii) Dark Hat making a) Stiffening. finishing ironing. bending. medium. coke screening and coke handling plants (indoor) b) Governor. 30. annealing lehrs b) Mixing rooms. inspection Garages: a) Parking areas (interior) b) Washing and polishing. pressing. polishing. folding and pressing b) Lock stitch and overlocking machines: i) Light ii) Medium iii) Dark c) Mending d) Examining. 1:: 300 :i 25 28. sifting and packing floors b) Wetting tables Forges: General Foundries: a) Charging floors. INDUSTRIAL B UILDINGS AND ‘PROCESSES hllTlNG G LARE INDEX Farm buildings (dairies) a) Boiler houses b) Milk rooms c) Washing and sterilizing rooms d) Stables e) Milking parlours Flour mills: a) Roller. flanging. for example. rolling) c) Cutting to size. decorating. pouring. for example. grinding. sorting. sub-assemblies c) Fine work. braiding.: 29. water gas plants. 32. \ PART 1 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS 187 . gauging and inspection of small intricate parts e) Minute work. b) Sewing: i) Light ii) Medium iii) Dark Hosiery and knitwear: a) Circular and flat knitting machines universal winders. very small instruments 150 300 I50 - u 25 25 25 28 24. 25. compressor. drawing. for example. oil gas plants. pits c) Repairs Gas works: a) Retort houses. cleaning. pouncing. general servicing. knjtfing. purifiers.

inspection d) Fine chemical manuPacture: i) Plant processing ii) Fine chemical ftnishing :: 25 I9 mt 45. staking. ordinary painting. polishing. cutting. Machine and fitting shops a) Rough bench and machine work b) Medium bench and machine work. preparation plants. finishing. 44. despatch b) Drycleaning bulk machine work c) Fine h&d ironing. firing rough spraying b) Rubbing. P automatic machines. body sub-assemblies. melting shops. mechanical plants. works a) Marshalling and outdoor stockyards b) Stairs. pressing. ironing (calendering). sorting. iiz :: 25 28 28 22 22 I9 28 25 300 I50 200 39. coating and laminating processes ii) Associated printing Pharmaceuticals and fine chemicals works: a) Raw material storage b) Control laboratories and testing c) Pharmaceuticals manufacturing: grinding. scarfing sewing c) Grading and matching 41. gan. ingot stripping soaking pits. balance rooms b) Electrical and instrument laboratories Laundries and drycleaning works a) Receiving. NA’FIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 188 . . splitting and strafing SL I NDUSTRIAL B UILDINGS AND Pttoc~~!im AVERAGE ILLUMINATION IUX LI M I T I N G G LARE I N D E X 28 150 200 300 Special lighting 28 28 _ 36. ordinary automatic machines. cap ing. cold strip mills. machine and roll shops f) Plate inspection g) Tinplate inspection Jewellery and watchmaking a) Fitte processes b) Minute processes c) Gem cutting. labelling.No. galvanizing. power blower houses e) Slab inspection andsonditioning. rolling and wtre_mills. mills motors rooms. cartoning and wrapping. cutting. fleshing and stuffing b) Finishing. inspection mending. 40. preparation of solutions and filling. .g: I Soot 300 450 I9 IO I9 I9 38. drying. Iron and steel. Paint shops and spraying booths: a) Dipping. tableting.Leather working a) Pressing and glazing b) Cutting. tanning. blast furnace working areas. body assembly d) Spray booths Paint works a) General automatic processes b) Special batch mixing c) Colour matching 450 700 1000* 700 300 450 300 450 200 450 700’ I50 300 450 22 42. . *Special attention to colour quality of light may be neassary. pump hauses d) Mould preparation. stretching. containers and paper sack manufacture. mixing and drying. tinning. spraying and finishing d) Retouching and matching Paper-works: a) Paper and board making: i) Machine houses. loading docks c) Slab yards. chassis assembly. setting Laboratories and test rooms a) General laboratories. spotting Leather dressing a) Vats. rough grinding. :: 25 ays! basement< quarries. cleaning. car assembly b) Final inspection c) Trim shops. washing. me fine buffing and polishing Motor vehicle plants a) General sub-assemblies. sheet and plate finishing. . medium buffing and olishing c) Fine bench and machine work. spraying and finishing c) Fine painting. sterilizing and washing. picking and cleaning lines. trimming ii) Inspection and sorting (over hauling) b) Paper converting processes: i) Corrugated board. 35. calendering pulp mills. cartons. granulating. 200 300 25 22 46. 200 W 28 I9 25 :: 300 % *Optical aids should be used where necessary. medium grinding.

wrapping and packing. doubling (fancy). heckling. Sheet metal works: a) Benchwork. extrusion ii) Moulding-compression. roving. folding b) Sheet inspection 53. Plating shops: a) Vat and baths. machines d) Edible products processing ‘and packing 54. granules storage and handling. glycerine evaporation and distillation. moulding. continuous indoor soap making. spinning. slashing. firing b) Enamelling. carding. Pottery and clay products: a) Grinding. Soap factories: a) Kettle houses and ancillaries. pressing. compounding calendars c) Tyre and tube making 52. fine counts dark ii) Patterned cloths. cleaning. I50 450. No. filling and packing granules: i) General areas ii) Control panels. trimming. 28 I9 :ii :ii 450 300 200 300 200 300 700* 200 I50 200 25 22 :: I9 I9 :: 25 25 I9 2 25 25 5 200 Special lighting 25 I50 200 to 300 :: :: I50 200 to 300 200 to :E! I50 u 25 I50 300 25 25 - I. -z 200 300 200 I50 Special lighting :: :: 25 25 _. Rubber processing: a) Fabric preparation creels b) Dipping. filter pressing. spinning (fine counts) Healding (drawing-in) Weaving i) Patterned cloths. soap milling. BUILDINGS AND PROCESSES AV E R A G E ILL~~~~NA~!oN IUX LIMITING GLARE INDEX 47. decorating 50. plants: i) General areas ii) Control panels b) Batch or continuous soap cooling. electroplating. dressing and dyeing. sorting b) Printing plants: i) Machine composition. washing. spreading. injection iii) Sheet fabrication: I) Shaping 2) Trimming. cutting and drying. I9 - -*Special attention should be paid to the colour quality of the light. machining. plodding: i) General areas ii) Control panels. stamping. punching shearing. routing e) Colour printing: Inspection area 5 I. routing d) Photo-engraving: i) Block-making. kiln rooms. imposing stones ii) Presses iii) Composing room . Structural steel fabrication plants: a) General b) Marking off 55. fine counts light iii) Plain ‘grey’ cloth Cloth inspection -. iv) Proof reading d Electrotyping: i) Block-making. polishing. buffing. PART 4 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS . slubbing. glazing. dressing type. polishing 3) Cementing 48. key equipment c) Soap stamping. granules making. scribing. moulding. blowing. colouring. I N D U S T R I A L . cabling Warping. Printing works: a) Type foundries: i) Matrix making. hand and machine casting ii) Front assembly. spinning (ordinary counts). Textile mills’ (cotton or linen): Bale breaking. etching. winding. Plastics works: a) Manufacture (see Chemical works) b) Processing: i) Calendering. pressing. finishing. backing ii) Moulding.St. burnishing b) Final buffing and polishing 49. masking ii) Finishing.

radio set assembly . winding. AND PROCESSES A VERAGE ILLUMINATION lux L IMITING G L A R E INDEX 56. Textile mills (jute): a) Weaving. roving.. warping. combing (coloured). Tobacco factories All processes 60. fine sanding and finishing Iii 150 I50 2”: 25 28 25 22 19 22 300 700 150 I50 :E :: *Special attention should be paid to the Solour quality of the light. Welding and soldering: a) Gas and arc welding. 2z* 200 I50 3001 300 25 25 22 22 58. Textile mills (woollen): a) Scouring. rewinding and coning. radio valves 63. rough spot welding b) Medium soldering.eaving g) Inspection 57. loading bays b) Small material. for example. furniture and vehicles 61. planning. gluing. racks c) Packing and despatch 62. spinning. cop winding b) Yarn calender 59. gilhng. crabbing and blowing b) Blending. quality slashing: i) Light thread ii) Dark thread d) Warping e) Healding (drawing-in) f) W. Warehouses and bulk stores: a) Large material. brushing. combing (white). for example. cooperage c) Fine bench and machine work. drying. flat. instruments. 198 NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE . teasing. brazing and spot welding. domestic hardware c) Fine soldering and spot welding. fugitive tinting. carding. veneering. twlstmg Healding (drawing-in) e) Weaving: i) Fine worsteds ii) Medium worsteds. carbonizing. tentering. raising. Upholstering. Textile mills (silk or synthetics): a) Soaking. for example. twisting. fine woollens iii) Heavy woollens r) Burling and mending Lx) Perching: i) Grey ii) Final 25 25 25 :: 19 I9 I50 iOO 450 700 700 450 :z 25 25 25 - dc. Woodworking shops: a) Rough sawing and bench work b) ‘Sizing. back-washing. cropping Spinning. medium machine. coliditioning or setting of twist b) Spinning c) Winding. jacquard carpet looms. rough sanding. preparing. and bench work. pressing.IN D U S T R I A L B UILDINGS l%. tSpecial attention should be paid to the colour quality of the light in all processing areas._ d) Very fine soldering and spot welding.

75 to 0.87 to 0. 28.74 to 0.5 I2 IX i3 2x 38 47 55 2.52 (2) Cold storage and fisheries Cinemas Metal pressing Confectionery Dyeing and printing (textile) Plastic moulding Film studios Newspapers Heavy engineering works Rubber extrusion and moulding Pharmaceuticals Oil and paint manufacturing Silk mills Biscuit factory Printing press Food products Laundries (1) 18. 30.5 Il.59 to 0.86 to 0. 16.80 to 0. 27.63 0. for direct connection to ac induction motor in industries are given in Table 5. 25. NOTE 3 Should a consumer desire to impBo.87 0. 19.60 0.5 :: 32 40 55 67 76 i 2.APPENDIX (C/uuse 9) The general guidelines for power factor compensation is giver in Part I /Set 17 of the Code.66 0. (2) Flour mills Gas works Textile mills Oil mill Woollen mills Potteries Cigarette manufacturing Cotton press Foundries Tiles and mosaic Structural engineermg Chemicals Municipal pumping stations Oil terminals Telephone exchange Rolling mills Irrigation pumps to 0.68 to to to to to to to 0.83 0. 20. 12. .58 0.77 0.65 0. 13. 4. 29. 5. 34.53 0.64 0.5 4 5. No. then he may install the calculated capacitor LVAR a\ a \cparate cltcult with its independent controlgear.68 to 0. POWtR FACTOR (3) 0. NOTI: 2 The capacitive current supplied bv condenser\ directl! connected acre\\ Induction motor terminal\ should not exceed the magnetising current of the induciion motors.48 0.80 0.5 9 10.5 9 Ii.65 0. TABLE 4 POWER FACTOR FOR THREE PHASE ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS SL No (1) :: 3.68 0.70 0.61 0. The recommended capacitor ratings at rated voltage.57 0.57 0.I .5 3. 22. 31. to guard ‘against c\cc\\ tramlent torque\ and o\cr\olt+!c\.70 T A B L E 5 C A P A C I T O R R A T I N G S AT RATED VOLTAGE R ATED OI’TPIT OF MOTORS (11 kW 2. 33.60 0. PART 4 E L E C T R I C A L I N S T A L L A T I O N S I N INDUSTRIAL B U I L D I N G S I91 . 23.69 to 0. 14.5 3 4 5 s II No~I.5 4 5 6 8. 32. PO W E R FACTOR (3) 0. 12.: IO.61 0.65 0.72 0.61 0.76 Or78 0. 26.ITOR I 3 000 rev min (2) I 500 rev min (3) I 2 3 4 5 6 .80 to 0.5 2.7 22.7 5.5 5.72 0. I I.86 0.5 7. 6.73 to 0.5 6 9 IO I6 21 26 36 45 53 IN kVAR tom Moron Srttn * 750 600 rev min rev min (5) (6) 2 3.63 0.92 to 0.5 4. the natural power factor for some three phase electrical installations are given E POWER FACTOR IN INDUSTRIAL INSTALLATIONS in Table 4.48 0.72 to 0.2 G.7 7. 15.e the power factor bqond a \aIuc which ih limited b! con\idcration\ 01 magnetising kVAR of the motor as stated in Note 2.5 II 13 IS 2j 29 35 4x 60 6X 500 re\ min (7) 2.60 0.75 0.5 37 57 I:: 150 I87 CAPA(.75 St.25 3.5 4. 7. 24.5 :: 33 42 50 RA T I N G I 000 rev min (4) I.87 0. 21.51 0.80 0. 17.75 0.51 0. T YPE OF IN S T A L L A T I O N NATI’HAL. TYPE OF IN S T A L L A T I O N N ATIIRAI.5 6.58 0. For guidance.The reference to speed of motor ha\ been made 51ncc the manufacturer\ pro\ idc inlnrmat~on on that bawls.59 0.

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3 Even though. gardens around hotel installations or storage yards in industries) do not fall under the scope of Part 5. and keeping other aspects of safety provisions in view. the duties would be more onerous than those normally encountered in indoor situations.1 As compared to the various types of indoor installations covered in other parts of the Code. This part basically deals-with two types of outdoor installations. this duration is defined as not exceeding six months. In the case of the latter. namely. they are dealt With separately in Section I.they are meant to be dismantled.4 It may. In addition. For requirements pertaining to this. installations for lighting of public thoroughfares are permanent in nature. .PART 5 OUTDOOR INSTALLATIONS 0. however.being exposed to moderate to heavy environmental conditions. lighting or for meeting the needs of heavy machinery (example.2 Keeping the above in view. Permanent outdoor installations are those which are generally ‘in use for longer periods of time. outdoor installations ati distinct in nature by virtue of their. thereby calling for special considerations in their design. temporary and permanent. Part 5 of the Code has been set aside to deal with installations erected outdoor. . Merence should be made to relevant parts of the Code. open cast mines). 0. 0.F 0 R E W 0 R Da 0. 0. be noted that small outdoor locations around building installations (example. Temporary installations are those which are erected to serve for a small duration of time after which. electric power in outdoor installations is normally utilized for specific purposes such as. For convenience.

3 The requirements given in this Section are. 2 . 3 Carriage. 2.2. 2.2 Lu~wt All those physical features of a h i g h w a y .That portion of a road reserved exclusively for pedestrians.A border of stone. 2. by the name of the characteristic light dis!ribution. semicut-off. the following terms together with those provided in IS : 1885 (Part 16: Set 2)-1968* shall apply.A raised p l a t f o r m o r a guarded area so sited in the carriageway as to divide the streams of traffic and to provide a safety area for pedestrians. concrete or other rigid material formed at the edge of a carriageway.2.\. reflector.The distance measured horizontally between the centre of the column or wall face and the centre of a luminaire (see Fig.1. TERMINOLOGY 2. means of support and electrical and other auxiliaries.1 Terms Relating to Highways 2. l Electrotechnical vocabulary : Part 16 Lighting.T h a t p o r t i o n o f a highway intended primarily for vehicular traffic. cut-off.1 This Section of the Code covers requirements of public lighting installations in order to provide guidance to those concerned with the preparation of public lighting schemes. 8 FOO~N~U. FOREWORD 0.I. 2. SCOPE 1.v .a\* . as far as p r a c t i c a b l e a l i g n e d w i t h [he recommendations of the International Commission on Illumination (CIE) modified to suit the local conditions and regulations. which have to be taken into account in planning a lighting installation.1). The actual details of design would entirely depend on the local circumstances.1. 196 2.A n array of 2.0 For the purpose of this Section. 1.A strip of highway adjacent to and level with the main carriageway to provide an opportunity for vehicles to leave the carriageway in an emergency.1.1. each reserved for traffic in one direction only.6 S e r v i c e R o a d .1).6 Mounting Height . 0. 0.) 2. 2. 1 .2. 2.5 Central Reserve . Sj’stenl -.12 Kerb .2.4 D u a l Curriugewu.1. (Lighting systems are commonly designated.A subsidiary road between a principal road and buildings or properties facing thereon and connected only at selected points with the principal road.SECTION 1 PUBLIC LIGHTING INSTALLATIONS 0. 2 . comprising a body and any refractor. 2.1. luminaires.11 Rqfuge -. it has been found necessary to lay down guidelines fo. 2.10 Shoulder .9 Verie . 7 Cjxcle Truck . shopping enclaves.4 Outreach . 2. forming part of the highway and substantially at the same level as the carriageway.1 High\csj. 2.The unpaved area flanking a carriageway.A way or part of a highway for use by pedal cycles only.The vertical distance between the centre of the luminaire and the surface of the carriage (see Fig.A layout of the separated carriageways.2 Terms Relating to Lighting Installation 2.A longitudinal space dividing a dual carriageway. 2 . NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE .1. for example.2 This Section of the Code is intended to cover general principles governing the lighting of public thoroughfares and to lay down recommendations on the quantity and quality of lighting to be provided. 2.A.2. sited in a manner concordant with this distribution.1 Lighting Installation -The whole of the equipment provided for lighting the highway comprising the lamps. etc.5 Overhung -The distance measured horizontally between the centre of a luminaire mounted on a bracket and the adjacent edge of the carriageway (see Fig.2 This Section deals onl with electric lightin sources and does not inclu Je gas or other types o f lighting. 1.other t h a n t h e s u r f a c i n g o f t h e carriageway.3 Luminuire . diffuser or enclosure associated with the lamp(s). their installation and maintenance. such& those which apply for parks.r cesigning on efficient and economical lighting Installation. Section 2 General illumination lighting fittings and lighting for traffic and signalling.2.2 Lighting luminaires having a characteristic light distribution.3 This Section also does not cover exterior lighting installations.1.1. housing for one or more lamps. 2. 1. 1 . etc. With the availability of variety of light sources for such insfallations and the need for proper illumination of a variety of traffic routes and city centres. flood lighting of routes and structures of architectural importance. .A way for the passage of vehicular traffic over which such traffic may lawfully pass. 1 . 2.1 One of the most common forms of permanent outdoor installations is the public lighting installations intehded for lighting of public thoroughfares.1).

A curve traced on an imaginary sphere with a source at its centre and joining. which is on the other side of the carriage. If a very small portion of a surface has an intensity I candelas in a particular direction and its orthogonal projection (that is.3.8 Span -That part of the highway lying between successive luminaires in an installation.3.T h e l u m i n o u s f l u x incident on a.3.vmmetrical) Distribution .~K:\(. 2.3.T~:.2.I(.The distance between kerb lines measured at right angles to the length of the carriageway (see Fig. 2.9 Svmmetrical (Converse As.The ratio of the maximum intensity to the mean hemispherical intensity of the light emitted below the horizontal. along the centre line of the carriageway. ‘2. 2. 23. The unit of 2. illumination is the lumen per square metre (lux).14 Beam -. 2. namely the spacing. IV7 Location of columns h = Mounting height of luminaires d = Width of the carriage way p = Outreach s = Overhang c = Clearance 0= F I G.l.KIS.An assymmetrical dist.A distribution of luminous intensity which is substantially symmetrical (conversely asymmetrical) about the vertical axis of the luminaire. nor the distance between successive luminaires on the same side of the carriageway. 2 . than 90 percent of the maximum intensity.9 Width of Carriagewav .2.3.2. 2.3.15 Beam Centre. flux divided by 6. DIMENSIOSS I’\HT 5 0I’TI)OOH I\S’I \ I I \‘UIOUS . width.I. between a Juminaire on one side of the carriageway and the next luminaire.12 Mean Hemispherical .3.13 1ntensit.3.The light given by a light source or a luminaire or receivtd by a surface irrespective of the directions in which it is distributed. 2.10 Axial Non-axial) Distribution .8 Light Distribution . I).11 Peak Intensity Ratio . It is not the distance measured on the diagonal joining them.3. 2.The attribute of visual sensation according to which an area appears to emit more or less light. NOTES In a staggered arrangement.2 Lower Hemispherical Flux or Dotinward Flux-The luminous flux emitted by a luminaire in all directions below the horizontal. surface per unit area.all the points corresponding to those directions in which the luminous intensity is the same or a plane projection of this curie. staggered. ‘the distance is measured. 2. Direction) -T The ratio of an actual intensity from the luminaire (in a particular direction) to the mean hemispherical inrensity.3. the luminance in this direction is l/D candelas per unit area.Luminosity. axial. 1). overhang and arrangement.3.‘ntensitv . 3 .is the visual sensation which correlates approximately with the photometric quantity ‘luminance’.1 Luminous Nux . It is some time called brightness.2.A direction midway between the directions for which the intensity is 90 percent of the maximum in a vertical plane through the maximum and on a conical surface through the maximum. 2.(.10 Arrangement --The pattern according to which luminaires are sited on plan. (This is the average intensity in the lower hemisphere.The inter-related linear dimensions and characteristics of the system. The usual unit is the candela per square metre (cd/ mz).The downward.. mounting height. for example.28 (2 7r ).riPution I in w h i c h t h e dlrections o f m a x i m u m l u m i n o u s intensity lie (do not lie) in vertical planes substantially parallel to the axis of the carriageway. 2. 2. The unit of luminous intensity is. opposite.16 Isocandela Curve -. 1 SITING OF I. measured along the centre line of the carriageway.7 Light Output-The luminous flux emitted by a luminaire.11 Geometry (of a Lighting System) .) Ratio (in a Particular 2.4 Illuhination .3. N OTE . IS intensity per unit projected area of a surface. the candela (cd): 2. its projection on a plane perpendicular to the given direction) has an area D. containing the maximum intensity.3.5 Luminance (at a Point of Surface and in a Given -Direction). between successive luminaires in an installation (see Fig. 3 L u m i n o u s Intensitv -The q u a n t i t y which describes the light-giving power of a luminaire in any particular direction.7 Spacing -The distance.MISAIRI:S: CII.The distribution of luminous intensity from a luminaire in various directions in space. The unit of the luminous flux is the lumen (lm).3.The portion of the light output of the luminaire contained by the solid angle subtended at the effective centre of the luminaire . 2.The lumil.6 Luminosity .2. (Converse 2. 2.2. but no intensity less.3 Photometric Terms 2.

For the purposes of this Section.1 The classification of lighting installations in public thoroughfares given in 3. N OTE 3 -Grouo F includes roads in the vicinitv of aerodromes.2 Cut-off employing the techmque used for concealing lamps and surfaces of high luminance from direct view in order to reduce glare. 3. railways: docks and navigable waterways. wherein description bf terms are given for guidance. a high standard of lighting is advisable on all roads. 4. 4. roads are classified as given in Table I. CLASSIFICATION 3. reflector. Town and city centres and areas of civic importance (see NOTE 2). speed of traffic and comfort to drivers are the only consideration.1.1. character of the street (whether a shopping area or a ring-road in non-built-up area).0 Ideally. Group E also includes important shopping streets.2. Grade separated junctions.5 Post Top Luminaire . 3...T h e principle aim of public lighting along roads in residential areas (Group C) is to provide light along the stretch of carriage way and footpath for safety and comfort of road users mainly the pedestrians. The system of lighting. consideration has to be given to ensure that the lighting is soft and does not cause glare. the properties of the carriageway surface. from good engineering point of view as well as economy should take into account all the relevant factors.3 R o a d s i n Cit.3.4. Curve . suth as the presence of factories. aesthetic considerations.An array of isocandela curves. the existence of lumps. Other main roads with considerable mixed traffic like main city streets. places of public resort.Luminaire 2. 2. bends or long straight stretches and overhanging trees. igriiters.3 Semi-out-off employing the techmque for concealing lamps and surfaces of high luminance from direct view in order to reAuce glare but to a lesser degree than cut-off luminaire.4. together with any refractor.17 Isocandela Diagram .4 Integral Luminaire ..4.Curve of 2.2 Types of Roads .2 is based on volume. brightness and other lighting characteristic the source.1 Main Roads .Lummaire with arrangement for mounting the same svmmetrically on the top of the coloumn. where special lighting requirements are to be met in addition to compliance with general principles. starters. capaciters. It is left to the local engineer to decide upon the category of the lighting for the given road. Residential and unclassified roads. Tunnels (roads underground). Roads with special requirements (see NOTE 3). etc. boulevards. Secondary roads with comparatively light traffic.The aim of public lighting 198 Subgroup A I Subgroup A2 B Subgroup BI Secondary roads of considerable traffic such as principal local traffic routes. bridges and elevated roads (see NOTE 2). Luminaire . besides the comfort of NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE .2 Roads in Residential Areas.18 Polar distribution using polar co-ordinates. arterial roads . GENERAL PRINeIPLES 4. promenados and such other places which are the focus of special activities after dark. shopping streets. 2. N OTE 2 --Such areas are set apart in view of the fact that their standard of lighting is different from and higher than that described for other groups. 4. Centres. B and Dj is to permit users of the roads at night to move about with greatest possible safety and comfort so that the traffic capacity of the road at night is as much equal to that planned for day time as possible. both from the points of view of traffic safety and comfort.For the purposes of lighting installations. These are roads not included in Groups’A and B.etc.4. _ Luminaire . speed and composition of the traffic using them.T h e m a i n consideration while designing the lighting in city centres (Group E) :Is proper illumination of footpaths for pedestrians. Towards this end consideration has to be given while designing the lighting on road junctior)s and pedestrian crossings so that these can be easily identified by the drivers.4 Terms Relating to Luminaires iight A TABLE 1 ROAD CLASSIFICATION GROUP (as in IS : 1944) D ESCRIPTION (1) (2) Main Roads : Very important routes with rapid and dense traffic where safety.1 Street Lighting Luminaire . 3.4. bridges are classified short or long when their lengths are less than or greater than 60 metres.1 Aims of Public Lighting Installations 4.1. 2. Secondary roads-Roads which do not require lighting up to Group A standard.Lumina’ire with all its accessories such as ballasts. However integrally with the body of the luminaire. etc.Luminaire 2. dispersive surround or other enclosure which may be associated with the source in order to modify the light distribution in a desired man&r and protect the light s o u r c e from weather conditions and insects and/or for the sake of appearance. Subgroup BZ C D E F G NOTE I .A housing for a light source or sources. 2. along main roads bridges and flyovers (Groups A. Further amplification of the types of thoroughfares can be had from Appendix A.3.

which may interfere with his judgement. advertisement signs or road direction signs.3.0 The following four factors contribute to the fundamental criteria of quality of public lighting : a) The level of illuminance. Most of the long range guidance is offered by the luminaires. 5. It is obvious that it is the road surface luminance rather than the illumination level which provides for an accurate measure of the effective light in a street lighting installation. Reference may be made to 7. The following principles are considered essential [see also IS : 1944 (Parts I & 2)-1970*].1. b) The uniformity of luminance.4 V i s u a l G u i d a n c e . d) Good seeing condition by silhouette vision.The design and column heights for flyovers are governed by the layout of flyovers. railway is required to observe a number of signals along the tracks in the course of his work. Other factors that can lead to glare are presence of undersirable large surface of high reflection factor. would a pilot mistake the stretch of the road as airport landing strip at night time. 4.2 Visual Field qf the Driver-The visual ~. in order of a) The carriageway. including the bright luminaires.24 Glare and Visual Comfort -Glare in public lighting is generally caused b y t h e luminaires. height above normal ground level and the width of the low level roads. Similar considerations are applicable to navigators in the vicinity of docks.These are as follows : a) Visibility of the whole of the road and its details such as entry of side-roads.3 Visibility . 4. Good contrast should always be produced: a) Between the carriageway and all objects which indicate its boundaries: and *Code of practice for lighting of public thoroughfares yirsr re\Vsion). of roads in the vicinity of airports is to ensure that under no circumstances. it is in practice the requirements of the drivers which are more stringent. spacing and column heights are governed by the road-width and the classification of the roads.et_~~a~~gt~~p~~t~~~e. 4. c) Clear visibility of objects in time. 5. roundabouts. any factor which tends to increase contrast should be exploited. since the characteristics of the obstacles may vary over a very wide range. Mith Special Requirements 4. the calculation and measurement of luminance are likely to present difficulties.2 Layout for Flyovers. 4. roundabouts. islands.2.4 Roads (Group F) . traffic signs.0 Though public lighting has to satisfy both drivers and pedestrians. 4 Airports ~ The tn main consideratton designing lighting. Typical layouts for various road width are given in Table 2. b) The surrounds to the road. and d) The optical guidance. comprises. including signs. Also the lamps should not cause glare to the pilot either while taking off or more specifically while landing.1 regarding illumination values to be provided on the road surfaces. etc.3. c) The limitation of glare.3. 4. 3 . and c) The sky. The spacing may be governed by the. acceptable level. 4. specular surfaces.structuraI design 199 b) Rail~~a~~s and Docks .2. It is necessary that none of the street lamps cause either glare to the driver or is mistaken by the driver for track signals. 1 Leve1.3 Criteria of Quality 4.This provides visual comfort for the driver.s qf L u m i n a n c e . 4 .3. excessively bright shop windows.It is required to control the glare due to luminaires at a value which keeps the visual d&omfort below a.2. etc. .Separate considerations are required to be given for each of the following: b) Between any obstacles which may be present and the background against which it appears. PART 5 OUTDOOR IkTALLATlONS .The driver of the 4.3 Limitation of Glare .the drivers. and f) General or special lighting of signs. b) Visual guidance on the alignment of the road. Also care is required to easily identify flow of traffic and road deviders. However.1 Requirements qf Drivers . 4.T h e level of luminance should be adequate to provide visibility which guarantee for the user a maximum of safety and sufficient visual comfort.2.2 Principles of Vision in Public Lighting 4. e) Continuity and uniformity of lighting. etc.1 Layout for Roads-The design.2 Uniformity of Luminance .The phenomenon of visibility is directly related to contrast. 4. DESIGN 5.A good visual guidance is required especially in long stretches of the road and even ‘ m o r e o n c o m p l i c a t e d intersections. with the present state of technique and the knowledge of reflection properties of road surfaces..

RICAL CODE 200 .L6 TO 9 m L9 TO 12m 2B s I’ w-m _-- __________ ----------- ------------ 6 -__________ ----------- ----------- Ll2 T O 2Om 2c h8 TO 206 2D ~--------~ c~-------cI _ _____w_____ A _ _ _ _ -‘c- 35 _____________________--_______ __----------.O F I G.ECI. 2 S TANDARD L AYOUTS FOR R OADS (Cormi) NATIONAL EL.& -w-ec .

-.0 H 3.H.1 The level of illumination of the junction should be substantially different from the nearby ‘2 .0 H 2.a~-_.-_________ -- mm -or= = = a =..5 H 2SH 2.spacing for various road widths of low level road are given in Table 4. 2 . column heights and .-Q _ -9.Spacing of the junction columns should be 50 to 75 percent of the normal spacing of.L_---_____--_____-_----___2F S = Spacing between columns F I G.3 Junctiods .1 The arrangements.0. I’he layout of typical flyovers is given in Fig.CO L U M N H EIGHT FIG.2 The layouts with recommended arrangements.0 H 3.5 H 3.5 H 3.5 H 12 A2 BI 82 C B2 C C 3c 3A) II < 10 m 3D 3C) IO < . 2c 2c 28 2B 28 ‘28 2c 9 9 9 9 Y 9 7 7 3. These columns may be installed on the traffic islands located at the junctions. 3 S T A N D A R D LAYOUTS FOR F L Y O V E R S ( FOUR A L T E R N A T I V E S) 201 PART 5 OllTDOOR INSTALLATIONS .I 12 r TABLE 2 CLASSIFICATION OF ROADS AND RECOMMENDED ARRANGEMENT OF COLUMNS W IDTH OF C ARRIAGE WAY CROUP MENT AS IN A R R A N G E . 5._ Le.0 H 2.5 H 2c.~~~2 ~-_-z_--_~--_ = = 92-_= .2. _ . 53. column heights and spacing for various road widths on flyover are given in the Table 3.--_ _ _ a----a-_-_xc .TE A 1 ___-_-___--I_-. = z~YL-_-_~-c_-_-~= z--z= = --w--e s Q. 2 3D) IO < I. SPACING s (5) . < 20 m 1~ < 20 m : 4-z: 3B) r: < 10 m l2 < 10 m 11 < 10 m F I G.5-3.0 H 3. 0 = Location of columns R OADS 2 STANDARD L AYOUTS FOR ( SIX A LTERNATIVES ) of the flyovers. 3A to 3D.OO . 5.2. columns on the main roads. e-m _-- ‘p-. recommended with layout 5. 2.-.H (1) m 24 18-20 (2) Al A2 Al A2 BI (3) (4) m 9-14 9 9-14 9 E 2D 2c 2%o~H 2.

OF GROUP MENT A R R A N G E ._______. be illuminated by locating the columns in such configuration that the iunction is noticed by fast moving traffic.In case this scheme is adopted the level of illuminations should be 150 percent of that of the roads. I b) Change in height c$ column: ._r-mm-* 9 D *Above the flyover road level. (3) 3c 38 3A (‘4: m 9 9 9 SPACING b) Juncfion of IWO m a j o r r o a d s . 0 = Location of columns 4 S I M P L E T w o RO A D J U N C T I O N S ( TH R E E A L T E R N A T I V E S ) 202 NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE . 4A to 4C.1) CARRIAGEWAY (1) In 12 W IDTH The design would depend upon existence of traffic islands at the junctions.CO L U M N AS IN H E I G H T * FIG.1_ e-v---- GROuP (2) A R R A N G E .5 H the colour of the light source In case the main road is lit by HPMV lamps. the junction could be lit by HPSV lamps or vice versa 5.2) CARRIAGEWAY (1) In W IDTH OF 1. Recommended sizes are given in Table 5.COLUMN MENT AS IN H E I G H T* FIG. roads.5 H 1.T h e s e & 2-2._____ --.e shown in Fig. TABLE 4 RECOMMENDED ARRANGEMENT OF COLUMNS ON FLYOVERS (LOW LEVEL ROADS) IClause 5. SP A C I N G (S) 2..:_.2. (2) D D junctions would generally’ be proiided with traffic island at suitable locations to regulate 7-! __-___.2 The different types of junctions commonly encountered are discussed below in details as they require special consideration : 4 S i m p l e tM)o road juncrion -This type of junction should.2. The junctions may be lighted by either of the following methods : __-_-__-_ 4 Higher level of illumination .TABLE -3 RECOMMENDED ARRANGEMENT OF COLUMNS ON FLYOVERS.. Typical layout of such junctions a1.3.The size of columns adopted at the junction should be higher than those adopted on roads. (3) (Z m . 4B TABLE 5 RECOMMENDED VARIATION IN HEIGHT OF COLUMNS OF JUNCTIONS H EIGHT ON OF COLIJMNS ROADS m 7 9 14 R ECOMMENDED HEIGHT OF C OLUMNS AT JUNCTIONS m 9 14 High mast c) Change . (Cluuse 5.H 2 H .5 H 2. F I G..5 H 4A Over 2C D IO to 20 up lo IO : :“D 9 14 9 3A *Above low level road.

. 5. 8B and 8C.2 The aviation authority may have a specific interest in the pattern of the layout.. the mounting height. Similarly. the traffic islands design would change from location to location.5.The lighting of these could be either by semi-high mast as in Fig. Special consideration will have to be given to the design of lighting of such junction.T h e lighting of these could be advantageously achieved by use of high mast as given in Fig.. The lighting columns could be located in the islands to advantage. 5A to SC.. 7A and 7B or semi-high mast lighting as in Fig.. be kept in view while designing lighting scheme in the vicinity of the aerodromes: a) The light provided in the vicinity of an aerodrome shall be properly screened so as -to avoid any glare which may otherwise endanger safety of an aircraft arriving and departing from an aerodrome. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ -s -7 i 3 n 0 0 u 5c 0 = Location of columns F I G.flow of traffic. the traffic conditions.on all the roads. the islands do not permit planting of poles within the desired spacing.ds which have gardens or other construction which would be obstruction to line of vision of traffic . the width of the various roads and most important. At such junctions invariably entry for traffic may not be permitted.W h e n a proposed road lighting scheme is within 5 km of the boundary of an aerodrome it is essential that appropriate aviation authority is consulted regarding any restrictions and precautions to be observed that may be necessary. Two types of roundabouts are discussed below.. The following points should.1 General Requirements -. 5.. However.. PART 5 OUTDOOR INSTALLATIONS . Typical layout of such junctions are shown in Fig.5..4 Roundabouts 5.. c) Mtiltiple road junctions -The lighting of multiple road junction would depend upon the geographical layout of the roads. a) Islands which are clear or have on1. special considerations are required. 7C and 7D. Typical layout of such junctions are shown in Fig.5 Road Lighting in the Vicinity of Aerodrome 5. if the junctions are too wide or. 5..4.v parking l o t s .0 Multiple road junctions with roundabouts are much easier to design as a definite central roundabout is available to locate the columns. 6A to 6C. b) lslan. the colour a n d i n t e n s i t y . 8A or conventional lighiing as in Fig.. 5 J UNCTION O F T w o MA J O R R O A D S ( THREE A L T E R N A T I V E S ) 203 . distribution of iight emmitted above the horizontal so that lighting installation does not present anv danger to the air navigation. therefore.




1 .These lamps may sometimes be employed in modernizing an installation to obtain higher levels without the need for ballasts required for discharge lamps.6.. They are sometimes used for residential streets when initial cost is to be kept low.In lighting for roads in the vicinity of railways.ATIONS be achieved by means of properly designed luminaires and not by addition of unsightly screens to normal luminaires. The choice between high pressure 207 . It is essential that prior consultation is made with the appropriate authorities regarding any special provision that may be necessary. f-l Mercury-halide lamps. This may necessitate careful selection of light SOUXCC. 2D is not recommended.b) Lights mounted on the electric poles: pylones shall not cause an obstruction to the arriving and departing aircraft from an aerodrome in terms of obstacle limitation specified by the airport authorities.6. and d) Colour characteristics. on the waterside. docks and navigable waterways. These are suitable for installations where colour rendering is less important and where high powers are needed. They are not usually employed in traffic routes. SELECTION OF EQUIPMENT 6. 6. d) Tubular fluorescent lamps.4 Tubular fluorescent lamps -.2 Consultafions --. 6. Following conditions should be ensured : i) In case roads are not parallel to landing strips.These lamps have high luminous efficiency and long life.6 Siring -.1 Electric Light Sources 6. If these cannot be avoided by re-siting. 6 . b) Economy (determined by lumens/watt and life).1.I.0 G e n e r a l . siting of luminaires or the use of appropriate screened luminaire at certain points arid heights. 6 . 1 Requireyenrs .1.v lamps . e) Sodium vapour lamps. it is recommended that the columns be sited. 5 . 6.T h e requirements are likely to apply in all places where roads are so located that their lighting installation may affect the operation of railways. but local conditions vary so widely that it is not possible to lay down any rigid code applicable to all circumstances. 5.If the road is bordered by water (lake. 6.2 Mixed incandescent and mercur. because of the colour of the light source may iriterfere with the proper recognition of signal svstem.1 .1. ii) In case roads are parallel to landing strips.1 Incandescenr installations the employment of incandescent lamps is very limited in practice. 5.1 The sources normally used in public lighting are : a) Incandescent lamps. 2) Arrangement of mounting columns on opposite as in Fig. 56.0 The choice of source for public lighting is guided by the following considerations : a) Luminous flux.For new 6. c) High pressure mercury vapour lamps with clear or fluorescent bulbs. it is essential that this interference is avoided. c) It is particularly important to ensure that lighting of the road cannot ever be confused with the ground lighting of the flight paths by the pilots.113 High pressure mercur>> vapour lamp3 (HPMV) .1. b) Mixed incandescent and high pressure mercury vapour lamps. 1) Uniform design and spacing of columns is not recommended.1.5 Screening ~~ In all cases where screening of a light source is required this should preferably PART 5 OUTDOOR INSTAI.6.These -lamps have higher luminous efficiency and longer life than mixed incandescent and mercury lamps.1. no lighting should be provided on the stretch of road near the landing strip.The position of individual light source on the road may fall in line with signal lights and even when fairly remote may mask them or make them difficult to recognize or may hamper the vision because of glare. and 8) High pressure sodium vapour lamps lamps . These provisions should be met in a way that is mutually acceptable so that they may be incorporated at the design stage. c) Dimensions of the light sources. 5. if possible.* 5.4 Glare and Masking.6. Docks and Navigable Waterways 5. High pressure mercury vapour lamps with fluorescent bulbs are suitable for installations where colour appearance and colour rendering are important.1. it may be necessary to employ screening to obviate the interference even though the colour of the light source is not objectionable. docks and navigable waterways. river or canal) and if the lighting is single sided..6 Road Lighting in Vicinity of Railways. 3 C o l o u r --~ Where any form of road lighting is emploved there is a risk of confusion with signal light. 6. following 5 . They are suitable for installations where colour appearance and colour rendering are important and where large multiplelamp luminaires are acceptable.

however. b) Post top non-integral luminaires. d) Long straight sections. b) Nature of the optical arrangements and the light distribution which they provide. but the attention of lighting designers may be drawn to the fact that the most economical i_nstallation can be achieved only by the choice of the most suitable luminait‘e.insects. but should not nevertheless exceed I 000 cd. j) Presence or absence of auxiliaries.hen a certain amount qf glare may be accepted and when the luminaires are @-large size *Subject to a maximum value of I 000 cd whatever is the luminous flux emitted. especially those of architectural interest. and exposed to wind pressure. 6. There is.2. The intensity at the horizontal should not exceed IO cd per I 000 Im of flux from the light sources and the intensity at 80° is of the order of 30 cd per 1 000 Im. d) Whether the luminaire Is open or closed type. The direction of the maximum intensity may vary but should be below 75”.A luminaire whose light distribution is characterized by a less severe reduction in the intensity in the region 80” to 90”. The principal advantage of the semi-cut-off system is a greater flexibility in siting. 6. e) Resistance to heat. 6.A luminaire whose light distribution is characterized by a rapid reduction of luminous intensity in the region between 80” and the horizontal. the weight and area The influence of all these factors varies according to local circumstances and it is difficult to recommend one solution rather than another.2 Luminaires 6. and c) Many intersections and obstructions. and its use is favoured under the following conditions : a) Smooth carriageway surfaces. 8) Resistance to atmospheric conditions. k. Their colour is sometimes useful to provide visual guidance.mercury vapour fl*uorescent lamps and fluorescent tubes is in general determined by local considerations of aesthetics and cost of installation. and 4 Nature and power of the source or sources. and g) Flood-lighting luminaires. c) Light output ratio.1.2. 6. f) Non-cut-off tubular luminatres. selected according to the relative importance of the above mentioned factors. Non-cut-off luminaires are permissible on/J. that is. The direction of. cl Presence of large trees. 6.1.1. f-l Protection against collection of dust and . one essential characteristic of luminaires the choice of which directly influences the quality of the lighting. k) Fixing arrangements. soiling and corrosion.1. 6. c) Cut-off integral luminaires. f-l Few intersections and obstructions.7 High pressure sodium vapour lamps These lamps are improved versions of sodium vapour with efficiency of the order of to 100 Imi W with colour rendering satisfactory and of dimensions suited to fittings of small size and accurate light control. b) Absence of buildings. the maximum intensity may vary but should be below 65’. The principal advantage of the cut-off system is the reduction of glare and its use is favoured under the following conditions : 4 Matt carriageway surfaces.1.1. It is also particularly suitable under foggy conditions.6 Mercur)) h.These lamps are improved versions of HPMV lamps and having very much higher efficiencies in the order of 80 Im/W c o m b i n e d w i t h g o o d ’ c o l o u r characteristics. e) Slight humps.2.0 The luminaire has double role of protecting the light source from the weather and redistributing the luminous flux of the source. bridges. The intensity at the horizontal should not exceed 50 cd per I 000 Im of flux from the light sources! and the intensity at 80’ is of the order of 1 000 cd per I 000 lm. b) Buildings close to carriageway.2 Semi-cut-of luminaire -.1 Cut-c![f luminarie .A luminaire whose luminous intensity in directions making an angle equal to or greater than 80” from the downward vertical is not reduced materially and the intensity of which at the horizontal may exceed the values specified for the semi-cut-off distribution. d) Cut-off non-integral luminaires.1.1 The following three fundamental forms of 208 NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE . the general form of its distribution curves of luminous intensity pai%icularly in directions near the usual directions of vision. 6.1.3 Non-cur-@ luminaire . h) Ease of installation and maintenance.5 Sodium vapour lamps --The use of s o d i u m l a m p s i s convenient when colour rendering is not important and when a high luminous efficiency is desired. lide lamps . In the choice of the luminaire the following points should be considered : light distribution are considered according to the degree of glare which is acceptable : a) Post top integral luminaires.2. e) Semi-cut-off integral. 6.1.2.

2. cable ducts.5 .1.9 Cut-off or Semi-cut-off Non-cut-off 7.4 Inclination -. Ratio minimum. average illumination ratio 3 Transverse variation of illumination. the cut-off qualities of the luminaires and in certain situations (for example. 7. the level and uniformity of illumination shall be as high as possible and the glare strictly Nor1 2 In Group B lighting. *Code of practice for lighting in public thoroughfares. but also economic considerations giving allowance for cost of electrical control units.3 0. GUIDELINES FOR SPECIFIC LOCATIONS 7. greater tolerances on uniformity and glare arc admitted. Mounting height.3 33 33 20 20 Cut-off 4.1. These shall be used as ready reckoners.Attention given to the inclination of luminaires. Too great an inclination of.5 Cut-off = 3 Semi-cut-off = 3.clnd of reduced brightness.5 Non-cut-off = 4 No1t I reduced. etc.1. should be 6. m 6. An upward inclination which is generally called for reasons of aesthetics.4 0. Type of lumlnaire Cut-off Semi-cut-of1 9-10 : Semi-cut-off Cut-off or Semi-cut-off Non-cut-off 7. P A R T 5 0l:TDOOR INSTALLATIONS 209 . TABLE 6 LIGHTING INSTALLATION IN GROUP A (Clauses 4. though for a detailed guidance reference should be made to the relevant part of IS : 1944*.5-9 5. NOII 3 Mounting heights less than 7.the luminaire may modify.2) SI No (1) D~SC. 7. it may be preferable to make a installations not only take into account the i!lumination principles. should be employed with care. such as lighting of residential roads or road\ bordered by trees. F and (Ii lighting are under consideration.1 Several factors contribute to good public temporary trial installation of a few luminaires on a stretch of road to be lighted. Recommendations are made on the various components of design of public lighting installations and those require detailed calculations of the level and uniformity of illumination on the road surface and of glare. which may be justified by the character of the road\ and by the presence of facades. lux 2. particularly in certain directions.RIPTIO~: (2) GROI’P A l (3) 30 GROUP AND B ROADS A2 GROI‘P BI GKOI‘P HZ (6) 4 (4) I5 (5) 8 I Average Ifvel of illumination on road surface.5 m are undesirable except in special cases. III Group A lighting.1 The electrical design aspects of public lighting lighting and those are enumerated for guidance in various parts of IS : 1944*. etc.1 All’ lamps and luminaires and other fittings used in public lighting installations shall conform to the relevant Indian Standards.1 Lamps and Luminaires 8. NOTE ~ Recommendations for Groups C. when there are roads at several levels.2 Tables 6 to 8 give a summary of recommendations on the various types of thoroughfares. etc) this inclination may lead to unexpected glare. Maximum spacing of luminaire height ratio 9-10 Cut-off = 3 Semi-cut-off = 3. POWER INSTALLATION REQUIREMENTS 8. roundabouts.3.1 and 7. 8.1. percent 0. In certain cases they have some advantages in increasing the illumination of facades. 8.4 0. bends. To get some idea of the extent to which the installation would perform. Several criteria may not be satisfied for want of data such as characteristics of surface. switching.

yeB IS Floodlight luminaires on high masts 11) L.iunction boxes by looping rather than ‘T’ joints. m 4 ) Luminaires i v ) Public. 8. EIevored Roads I) General lighting 2) Choice of luminaire Similar to heavy traffic road\ Cut-off Not less than 6 supervisory remote control. For roads under groups A I. 8. each stretch of road shall . For roads under groups A.2. bridges and elevated road (Group D). m Separation between rows of lighting. separate mains shall be laid for group control of lamps on these roads.2.2 The cable circuits for each section of the roads shall be so designed as to prevent important section of the roads from being completely off in case of a fault on the underground bridges (> 60m) Iii) Bridges of historical importance iv) Parapet lighting: Mountmg height. A typical street lighting pillar with control circuit is shown in Fig. preferably emanating frop two separate street lighting pillars. m Choice of lamps : 1944 (Part 5)-19Xlt I) Average level of illuminance (surface of footbridge). or a section of it does not become completely dark. lux 4 6 Special considerations apply Q IO Not greater than I Not greater than I2 Tubular fluorescent lamps.s (above grotind) I) Average hoti/-ontal illuminance.s/ promenar1e. A2 and D. Auxiliary terminals of these contactors could provide facility of return indication in case of 210 . As in IS : 1944 ( P a r t s I & 2)-l970* IO-12 cut-off HPMV or HPSV lamps 5-6 Special considerations Not less than 20 see IS : 1944 ( P a r t s I & 2)-1970’ Normal street lighting techniques with minor adjustments [.2.2) IN TABLE 8 LIGHTING INSTALLATIONS IN GROUP E ROADS (Clause 7 . The recommended sifes of the cables for various installatidn are shown in Table 9. The street lighting cables shall be terminated ia separate junction boxes or street lighting pillars. the cables shall preferably be terminated into the column . 8. HPSV lamps or other linear sources of luminance weatherproof.3 in case of roads in groups A.4 Underground cables of suitable sizes should be utilized for the purpose of control. Part L Lighting of main roads firs1 revision) tCode of’ practice for lighting of public thoroughfares: Part 5 Lighting of grade separated junctions. dustproof. lux 2) Average level of illuminance (subways).be lit by two independent circuits. For junctions also.\ee IS : 1944 (Part 5)-19X1+] . Bridges i) Short bridges (> 60m) 30 0. robust *Code of practice for lighting of public thoroughfares: Part 6 Lighting of town and city centres and areas of civic importance (Group E). The pillars shall be provided with electrically operated contactors of suitable current rating. _tux C. B and D.TABLE 7 LIGHTING INSTALLATIONS GROUP D ROADS (Cbuse 7. Iux 2) Luminalres preferred IO 20 50 R EMARKS (2) 20 IO-15 Special consideratlohs. c’ar parh.s i il) Pedtwrial p recinc’ts I ) Average horizontal illuminance (footway level). 8. Grade Separared Junctions i) Lighting by conventional street lighting technique Complex junctions: I) General principles 2) Mounting height.2 Cables 8.4 R EMARKS (2) D ESCRIPTION (1) A. 9. lux 2) Average horizontal illuminancc (under canopies). the lamps shall be divided into at least two circuits in such a way that in case of fault on one circuit the entire junction. verminproof. NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE *Code of practice for lighting of public thoroughfares: Part 1 General prmclple>. v) Foot-bridges I) Illumination. i) Main squares [see IS : 1944 (Part 6)1981’]: I) Average level of illumination. The contactor circuits shall be provided with externally mounted switches for local manual operation.2.1 Underground cables shall be laid for power supply !o the street lamps. B and D. lux 3) Mounting height. m 3) Luminaire 4) Light sources ii) Lighting by tigh-mast lighting I) Minimum service level value (lux) 2) Uniformity ratio $ Sd\L 3) Height of masts. m i i ) Sho/IL>inR srree/. lux 2) Mounting height. 2 ) DESGZIPTION (1) A. m 4) Choice of luminaire B.

B and D. the entire area could be switched off by ripple control impulse.2. T i m e SM. The photoelectric switch shall be mounted so as to be free from the glare caused by head-lights of motor vehicles and protected from the weather. This could be achieved by either of the following schemes: 8. should preferably be by underground cables laid specially for street lighting purposes. In case of necessity. Even in such cases. M u l t i p l e L a m p Luminaire5 --. ripple control equipment could be used with suitable sensing devices at the control points. 4-tore Electronic Control Suitches . 3-phase. where complete black-out is not practicable. 4-core Single phase.This could be advanta- a) may be control . be controlled automatically by use of auto-control devices.Brown-out .The local electrically operated contractors may be controlled through time switches. 8.4. With suitable design these could also be utilised to switch off unwanted lights after peak traffic hours are over. these would need to be regulated from time to time due to seasonal variations. However. This could be programmed to switch off on demand by a pre-determined control frequency signal. with one year seasonal variations.4 BroMsn-out Control .control is necessary in vulnerable cities with heavy vehicular traffic at the time of war.Electronic relays respond- a) Special Re/aj% C o n t r o l .4. Special relays operated by normal supply or electronic impulses may be provided. In case of electrical operation the time switches should be of electricallywound mechanically-operated variety so as INSTALLATIONS geously adopted in areas where the source of lighting is filament lamp.1 The contactors may be provided with additional circuitry for remote/automatic control.The supply to the . The fqllowing controls are recommended.3 Power Supply .The contactors may. b) 4 UHF Control . This scheme enables return indication of the operation by auxiliary contacts of the contactors.It should be possible to instail pre-programmed electronic micro-processors. Following schemes for remote control are recommended: 4 Remote Control . 4-tore 3-phase. Following alternatives for brown-out control are recommended: 8. Ripple Control -. 4-core 3-phase.This Photoelectric achieved by installing suitably mounted photoelect&c switches near the control points.q-phase. The control could then be utilized to switch off the lamps instantaneously on demand by civil deferice authoriries. The time switches may be manually spring wound or electrically operated. Applying reduced voltage to such lamps would automatically reduce the illumination to any desired level. brown-out could be effected by switching off alternate lamqs and complete black-out by switching off all the lamps.2 Automatic* Control . b) b) Ripple Control. it would be possible to programme alternate (or any other combination) lamps to respond to specified ripple control signals.-On main roads the luminaires adopted could have tw. The supply to lamps on roads under groups A. When the need arises.3 Black-out Control .4 Control of Street Lighting Installations 8. Ripple Control-. 8. ing to predetermined control frequency could be installed at each switching point.Black-out control may be required to be adopted in case of war in vulnerable areas. use of telephone cables) to give control impulse to group control points.4.TABLE 9 RECOMMENDED TYPES AND SIZES OF CABLES R OAD G R O U P (1) SIZE OF CAHLES (2) T YPE OF CAHl. each controlled either PART J 0l:TDOOR 211 . b) 8. In case overhead wires are employed these should also be specially for street lighting purposes.4. These could be installed for each individual lamp.o or more lamps. complete black-out would be necessary at the time of possible air raids. rt-core 3-phase.T h i s m a y b e achieved by special control cables laid up to the street lighting pillar. a) voltage Control -.In case special control cables are not available.Special control cables are laid (alternatively.This may be achieved by injecting audio frequency impulse through suitable power supply network and installing suitable sensors at control points.itc*hes . 4-tore Single phase. C) A”: BI 82 c D 3-phase.5 The junction boxes with suitable sized contactors with independent fuses shall be provided for each phase.ES mm? 16-25 16-25 16-25 IO-25 IO-25 16-25 (3) to prevent their being affected by variations in supply frequency. In case of discharge lamps this scheme would not be suitable. 8. The contactors shall be controlled by electrically operated switches mounted for external manuali local operation.street lights may be either through overhead wires 01 underground cables.In case ripple control is adopted. alternately.

town and village has its own character 9. Aesthetic considerations should relate to the unit formed by the luminaire and its support and the situation in which it is placed. There are no simple or universal rules for aesthetically satisfactory design and layout since every city. either one or two phases could be switched off. Half of / CANOPY HINGE / HANDLE WELDED TO DOOR \ CDOUEILE HINGED DOORS / L O C K 9A Street Lighting Pillar F I G. the unit formed by the luminaire and its support should be considered. PILLAR-ccmfd. the lighting installation serves no useful ! purpose. the siting of the luminaires in the scene may lead to even if the luminaires unpleasant effects themselves considered in isolation. the time. or alternately alternate lamps be switched off by suitable ripple control signals. d) Replacement qf Lamps -. of great importance. In case of different phase or by separate ripple control signals. an attractive or at least a non-disturbing daytime appearance which harmonizes well with the surroundings is. though could not be achieved on short notice is recommended in case of prolonged operations. are aesthetic. 212 NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE . MISCELLANEOUS CONSIDERATIONS 9. Firstly. the wattage of the lamps could be reduced by replacing the same with lower wattage lamps. 9 A T Y P I C A L S T R E E T LIGHTIN‘~.1 Aesthetics-The aesthetics of a lighting installation are principally judged by day. Secondly. therefore.In case of prolonged brown-out operations. This.


n 8) Material and colour. I n exceptional cases a smaller clearance may be used. Arrays of luminaires.ROTARY SWITCH (EXTERNAL) ROTARY SWITCH ( INTERNAL 1 ‘r’ RELAY 9D Typical Wiring for Remote/ Auto Control F I G. NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE . bracket and luminaire. Where there is a footway close to the carriageway.2 Lighting Columns as Hazards . Normally the clearance between column and carriageway should be at least 1.5 m. If the vehicle collides with a lighting column the severity of injuries to the occupants is likely to be increased. the column s h o u l d b e s i t e d b e h i n d t h e footway. Ther6 is evidence to suggest that the number of such collisions decreases with the increase of distance of the column from the edge of the carriageway. Form of bracket. a) b) cl 4 Design and siting. 9 A T Y P I C A L S TREET L I G H T I N G P I L L A R and what may look well in one place may be in&ngruous in another. The points of general application are: 9. and e) Assembly of column. Columns and surroundings: Size and type of luminaire.A motor vehicle involved in an accident frequently leaves the carriageway and the probabijity of this happening increases with the speed of the vehicle.

Roads of this type should have two or several separate and one-way carriageways ’ A road similar to. reserved for use only by bicycles Commercial street Motorway Shopping street Express road Residential street Collector road Distributor road Local street All purpose road Trunk road! Major road Minor road. and with a high proportion of heavy goods vehicles in the traffic stream Street with frontages comprising a high proportion of shops or other premises which may be lit at night and with heavy pedestrian (and possibly pedal cycle) traffic Street with the majority of froritages comprising private houses A link between the radial or ring roads and the local access streets Street giving direct access to buildings and land with a minimum of through traffic A subsidiary road. stopping and parking are prohibited. or IO which is assigned.ATIONS .APPENDIX (Clause 3. TYPF: OF R O A D A general term denoting any public way for purposes of vehicular traffic A road which has become partly or wholly defined by buildings along one or both frontages A road reserved for’motor trafiic. accessible only from interchanges and on which. A main route in the through communication system of a country A road which has. but lacking some feature of a motorway. usually pirallel to the major road.KIP7loh o t T Y P E (2) KOAD TERM (1) A TERMINOLOGY FOR ROAD TYPES OF DESCRIPTION p2.I. or part of a road. for example: ~~ not dual-carriageway __ not fully access-controlled _~ not all intersections grade-separated Road usable by all traffic (including pedestrians and cyclists) Used to distinguish other roads from motorways. Service road Footway Cycle track Ring road P A R T 5 0I:TDOOR INSTAI. in particular. I) TLRM (1) Road Street Dts(. and giving access to premises That portion of a road reserved exclusively for pedestrians A way. a lesser traffic value than that of a major road A road round an urban area enabling traffic tc avoid the urban centre Radial road A road providing direct communication between the centre of an urban area and the outer districts Street with frontages comprising a high proportion of commercial premises (usually unlit at night).

fairs.In special cases.temporary use. The construction site installations are also characterised by frequent modifications. intended to be used for a temporary period not exceeding 6 months.for Durations not 4.1 The temporary outdoor electrical installations covered in this Section are those intended for the following purposes: a) Temporary Installations for Durations not Exceeding6 Months -Outdoor installations ‘open to sky or partially covered. etc. 0. N OTE I -Construction site installations for very long periods of times.2 The major risks in the use of power in such installation arise from short circuit resulting in fire accidents and exposure to live wire resulting in shock. construction site equipment. GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF TEMPORARY INSTALLATIONS 4.b. extension or demohlion of existing buildings: and c) Public engineering works.for Durations not Exceeding 45 Da. 0. It may be noted that this section basically intends to lay down additional safety measures to be adopted in the design of temporary installations.1. 3. and the general guidelines for outdoor installations under heavy conditions from the point of view of selection and use of equipment given in Part S/Set 3 shall also be referred to. reception. b) Temporary.1 Electrical installations are often required to be designed and erected for use for short periods of time ranging from a few hours to few months alld are connected to the supply source in open ground. 1.1 Environment 4. For the purposes of installations falling under the scope of this section.An NOTE 2 -. FOREWORD 0. Installations .form to the requirements in Part S/&c 3 of the Code.1 The following environmental factors shall apply to temporary outdoor installations: electrical installation open to sky or partially covered. NATE . therefore. TERMINOLOGY 2./or Durations not Exceeding 7 Dajcy ~ These include installations site of temporary nature intended for a week long public function or outdoor lighting installations of buildings and parts in view of festival and other reasons.1 Temporary Installations (Outdook) . SCOPE 1. It is. imperative to lay down the necessary precautions to be observed for such installations from the point of view of safety.These include temparary installations which cater to loads for the purposes of marriages.These include fairly larg loads such as for exhibitions. S u c h i n s t a l l a t i o n s a r e g e n e r a l l y unprotected from environmental hazards as compared to installations in buildings. En\ironnWnr (1) CLASSIFICATION Characterrrsrics (2) Remarks (3) External lighting fittings.3).0 For the purposes of this Section. Exceeding 24 Hours .SECTION 2 TEMPORARY OUTDOOR INSTALLATIONS 0. where the equipment are quite similar to those in heavy conditions shall con. demolition sites needs of building construction work such as lighting and power loads.1 This section of the Code covers the requirements for outdoor electrical installations bf . etc 3. 216 N A T I O N A L ELEaRICAL C O D E . 4 Temporarll Installations . the guidelines specified in this Section shall be applicable for longer durations subject to fresh inspection and tests with the prior app!oval of the supply authority (see a/so 8. etc. 1. religious and other public function.s -. the characteristics defined below generally apply. b) Works of repair.0 General guidelines on the assessment of characteristics of installations in buildings are given in Part I /Set 8 of the Code.Construction site irstallatlons arc thobe which include sites where the following are carried out: a) Construction of new building. the following definitions in addition to those given i n Part I /Set 2 of the Code shall apply. cl Temporary. alternation. 2. erected in the vicinity of construction sites solely for the purposes of supplying the electrical Presence of water Possibility of splashes from any direction Possibility of jets Temporary installaof water in any tions in parts direction Partial or total covering by water Presence of foreign Presence of small objects solid bodies Presence of dust in significant quantity Impact High severity Construction.3 Temporary installations covered in this section are enumerated in 3 and are classified based on the duration of their existence in use. 2. NOTE ~ Exhibition or fair site lighting installations of the permanent type shall conform to the requirements specified in Part 5 Set I of the Code. Installations .

GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR TEMPORARY OUTDOOR INSTALLATIONS 5.Environment (1) Vibrations Chorocteristics (2) Medium severity Remorks (3) Constructions. If overhead line is laid up to the temporary substation. c) A service line at voltages below 250 V. Section I Design. of the existing distribution system. One construction site may be served by several sources of supply. tCode of practice for design. conductors.1 Commissioning of Substation .2. of overhead power lines: Part I kV.1 Supply Intake Arrangements 6. in 6.tant to clearly differentiate them. or d) A tapping form one of the existing serviceconnection. etc. In case supply at voltages above 650 V *Code of practice for design. b) A HV feeder and step-down transformer. location and installation of PART 5 OUTQOOR INSTALLATIONS 217 . ADDITIONAL REQUIREMENTS FOR TEMPORARY OUTDOOR INSTALLATIONS Presence of flora! No harmful mould growth hazard Presence of fauna Hazard from fauna (insects.2 Utilization 4. such as for marri. All the circuits supplied from the same point of supply comprise one installation and it is impoy. in particular. references shall be.1. including fixed or mobile power generators. insulation and the method of stringing the conductors and the mechanical strength of the line as a whole shall conform to the relevant provisions of IS : 5613 (Part I /Set I)-1970* and IS : 5613 (Part l/Set 2)197lt. small animals) Solar radiation Solar radiation of hbrmful intensity and/or duration Depends on the location of the installation Hazard from exposure of equipment Generally applicable for installations located outdoors Seismic effects 6. Such as wooden cloth structures in tents Structures which are weak or . laree oublic gatherings. signalling or control.1 The following factors of utilization apply: Uiilization (1) Capability of persons Characteristics (2) Uninstructed persons Remarks (3) Majority of occupants say in an exhibition circus fairs Instructed persons Asy. installation shall in general conform to the requirements stipulated in the relevant Section of Part I of the Code. Lightning 4. Section 2 Installation and installation and maintenance Lines op to and including I I installation and maintenance Lines up to and including II maintenance. etc. difiicult an enclosure.p&es to operating adequately advised or supervised by skilled persons Contact of persons with earth potential Conditions of evacuation during emergency Frequent Construction sites Low density occupation easy conditions of evacuation Small gatherings. in respect of wiring of circuits. materials of the line. Depending on the availability of s are ca acity. demolitions sites equipmrnt. of overhead power lines: Part I kV.Circus.subject to movement such as tents. The power supply authority’s line should be brought up to the substation in a separate enclosure. 6. tents The nature of construction materials used in temporary installations may be combustible. ages and similar functions Hieh densitv bccu. are large and the power supply authority has no network in the vicinity of the temporary installation that could be utilized then it would be necessary to establish a temporary substation where the switchgear and transformer can be installed. then the ‘supporting poles.In case the loads at construction sites or to exhibitions. etc conditions of evacuation Nature of processed Construciion o f structure Fire risk Combustible Shamianahs. a smgle distribution point. cabinet or distribution board shall consist of only components belonging to one and the same installation except for circuits for standby supplies.2 If the equipment used in temporary and provisional places of work in the open. removable partitions etc Structural design flexible or unstable 5. Additional requirements are giver. tRe suppP y intake arrangements could be through either of the following: a) A HV feeder. 5. The substation site shall be so selected that it is as close to the load centre as possible. birds. 6.1. made to the guidelines contained in Part S/Set 3 of the Code.1 Temporary.0 The type of outdoor itMallations will depend on the magnitude and duration of the installation. c’ircuses.inSide pation. such a s building sites are similar to those used in surface mining applications.

a suitable enclosure to install the switchgear and the metering arrangement shall also be erected.1.1(a) especially outside cities and town bare conductors are permitted. Alternatively. The subcircuit switch shall be so spaced that there shall be a minimum clear distance of 60 mm “--tween the NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE . purposes described under 3.3 The main switch shall be installed on a firm and vertfcal surface.2.2.1 Main Circuit 6.28 The supply intake point shall be placed outside the periphery of area which is accessible to the general public. the outgoing end of the main switch shall be connected to busbar of adequate size and various subcircuits shall be connected to this busbar through double or triple pole switches.6 The cable shall be laid either underground or supported in the air.2. shall be laid at a depth of 900 mm. 6.overhead wiring.1. The switches shall be mounted on a firm support and shall be at a height between I ‘m and 2 m from the floor level. 6. the cables shall either be cleated with saddles of proper sire along the walls of a permanent structure if available.2. 6.5 The main switches shall be located at a height not exceeding 1.11 In cities and towns. For main circuits. it shall be laid in whole or split pipes.2.2. The incoming and outgoing cable/wires of the main switch shall be firmly supported so that cable and wire ends connected to the main switch shall not be subjected to any mechanical force. bare conductors shall not be used.2 The main switch shall be adequately protected from ingress of water.2. it is advisable to wire up the installation with insulated wires including for main circuits in open compounds or running along or across roads.2 Power Distribution 6. the underground part of the installation and the overhead part of the installation shall separately conform to the requirements as mentioned in this Section.1). then: 6. and partly overhead may be used. 6. When laid underground. at exhibitions.2. the rating shall be decided taking the environmental conditions into account.2. The main switch shall be installed in an enclosure or a wooden cupboard and as close to the metering point as possible (see also 6.4 There shall be adequate ventilation in the room where main switches are installed and there shall be operational space around the switch in accordance with good practice. The enclosure or the which the main-switch is installed that the equipment within shall be the environmental conditions (see cupboard in shall be such unaffected by 4.2.1. bricks and earth for providing mechanical protection. Precautions shall be taken to ensure that this cable when laid underground is done so with the same meticulous care as is done for a permanent installation. (c) and (d). towns and thickly populated localities. partly underground and In such an event. circuses.1. In case overhead wires are used in the installation they should conform to the relevant Indian Standards mentioned in 6.2 Subcircuit 6.1.2. covered with sand. 6. Only in the case of load for purposes mentioned under 3. cables shall be used.2. The switch room shall be accessible at any time of the day or night to authorised persons. 6. 6.1. 6.2.1. When laid overground.1.2 Control of Circuits 6.10 For temporary installations in cities and towns for.2 Means of emergency switching shall be provided on the supply to all current using equipment on which it may be necessary to disconnect all live conductors in order to remove a hazard.1(b). it shall be supported on rigid poles. or alternatively.2.1. transmitted to it from any portion of the cables and wires.1 A device shall be provided on the incoming cable to each supply unit and each distribution unit for switching and isolating. With this type of arrangement it shall be possible to switch off the supply at the intake point or at the distribution point. depending upon whether they are single phase or 3 phase circuits. 6. etc.1). Crossing of the road shall preferably be required.1.7 In selecting the equipment and cables. b) mixed wiring. which can withstand the mechanical vibrations created at the installation site as well as the wind pressure at the location.1. 6. 6. The height of the cable shall not be less than 2 m when run inside the compound and at least 5 m when run along or across road.1. the cable 218 6. 6.2. preferably laid underground.4 The main switch on the installation shall be connected to the point of supply by means of an armoured cable and the termination of this cable shall be adequately protected from rain water.5 m so as to be accessible in emergencies.1 At the origin of each installation a unit containing the main controlgear and the principal protective device shall be provided.1. 6. they shall be cleated along the walls of structures with proper saddles. An independent earthing shall be established inside the installation premises.i. In case the cable passes underneath the passages.1 On large temporary installations like those on construction sites.1. 4 mixed wiring o f i n s u l a t e d a n d b a r e conductor .9 In cities.1.2. if the premises where temporary electric supply required is isolated. 6.2.1.

In construction sites.2.2 For local earthing the earth electrode shall be burried near the supply intake point. shall get their duplicate earth connection from the earth continuity busbar on the sub-distribution board.6.2 Ihe outgoing wires from the subcircuit \\+itches inside the enclosure shall be cleated firmly on wooden battens’ or taken through cc)nduits which are fixed by means of. PROTECTION AND SAFETY 7. Spans more than 2 m shall have guide wire support. 7. (b) and (c) shall be ready at least 24 hours prior to connection of supply. The earth continuity wire shall be a single core insulated wire and shall be connected to the locab earth plate and taken along the cable connecting the supply intake point and the mainswitch on the installation. short circuit and earth leakage by suitable protective devices. The distribution boards shall be fixed on firm supports or on pole firmly planted in the ground. 6.1(a).1(c) there should be a period of at least 6 hours after compl&ion of the work and prior to connecting supply for the purpose of testing the installation and visual inspection. prior approval of the supply authority.3 When the specified duration of use of the installation as defined in 2. 6. then a drawing may also be given to the electric supply authority. suitable fire extinguishers shall be kept at the supply intake point and near the main switch of the installation. At the point of supply the load on the neutral shall not be more than 20 percent of the computed value of the load in the phases. the distribution board shall be placed in a cubicle.2.2.2. an independent earth continuity wire stiall be used.1 Supply to all temporary installations should be connected by a specific date for the user and therefore the installation work meant for types of installations in 3. All switches.2. 8. with the. TESTING AND COMMISSIONING 8.3 Earthing 6. On this drawing different points where various from appliances/equipment are intended to be used.2. For local earthing. If such a place is not available. so as to properly test the installation and find the loads in different subcircuits.2. The taped joints shall be properly supported and preferably clamped on either side of the joint so that the joint is not subject to a strain.4 Ta ed joints shall not be used at heights less t Ran 3 m.2. at a place where it is safe from atmospheric conditions. 6.6 Installation at construction sites The enttre area where the temporary supply will be used. 8. extreme care shah be taken to ensure that there is no risk of any type of hazard either from electrical shock or fire. For series lights used f o r decorative purposes no taped joint shall be used. For large public functions.2. No flammable material shall be stored near the service intake point or the operational area of electrical equipment or appliances. the guidelines specified in this Section shall be applicable subject to fresh inspection and tests as above.23 The distribution boards the subcircuits shall be at an accessible height but not less than I m. 6. therefore.5 A broken bulb of a lamp in a series circuit is a risk and therefore series lamps shall not be strung or hung at heights less than 3 metres. the armouring shall be connected to earthing arrangement of Power Supply Authority. 6. The Icad wires connected to the subcircuits switches shall be suitably supported on wall with clips and shall not be left hanging. A defective series lamp shall not be allowed to remain in its position and shall be immediately removed.2. All appliances and equipment connected to subdistribution board. The ronnection from this earth continuity wire shall be taken to various subdistribution boards and terminated on a busbar. etc. shall be indicated beforehand and in case the electric supply is required at construction site for pipe lines. In the case of installation described’ in 3. exhibitions. 6. 7. protection of persons against indirect contact shall be assured by automatic disconnection of supply appropriate to the system of earthing.3.1 All appliances and equipment on temporary installation shall be connected to a system of duplicate earthing one of the Power Supply Authority and one local. PART 5 OUTDOOR INSTALLATIONS 219 .2.2.1 is required to be extended beyond the stipulated period of 6 months. may also be indicated.saddles to the masonry wall or wooden partition wall. 8. Subcircuit distribution board shall be installed.3. sockets and fixed appliances shall be protected from rain by enclosing these in cubicles. Socket outlet shall either be protected by residual current devices having operating current not exceeding 30 mA or be supplied by safety extra-low voltage or electrical separation of circuit each socket outlet being supplied by a separate transformer. Wherever armoured cables are used.1 The installation as a whole shall be protected against overload.2 Temporary supply is generally used at public places and for public functions and. In a 3 phase circuit the loads on the 3 phases shall be balanced.2 The various tests on the installation shall be carried out as laid down in Part I /Set IO of the Code.

stacking and primary processing.A movable or stationary mechanical item of plant designed for NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE . 0. e) Loading stations. property and the proper functioning.The process of performing work through the controlled application of electrical power. adjusting. SECTION 3A GENERAL 1. This process includes: Operaring : which means.2 This Section of the Code attempts to cover the general requirements applicable to equipment and auxiliaries for a variety of permanent outdoor site installations which are enumerated in 3. 1. signal supervisory and communication system. operating characteristics and cycle duty. etc.7 Transport Conveying System . b) Secondary processing.3 The general characteristics of permanent outdoor installations are enumerated in 4. 0. The object of this Section is to set out the guiding principles so as to ensure the safety of persons. switching. ditch bunker loaders. removal of faults and testing. area 2. The working level and/or working area may change location with the progress of .4 Closed Electrical Operating Area . as well as the special and arduous environmental. and h) Ancillaries. bucket-chain excavators. livestock. 2.SECTION 3 PERMANENT OUTDOOR INSTALLATIONS O.1 Operations (Electrical) . 2. c) Transport conveying. i n c l u d i n g t r i p p e r carriages. means alterations. namely: bucket-wheel excavators. 2. the area shall be clearly and visibly marked by appropriate signs. TERMINOLOGY 2. and I31 Mobile electric drills.Winning and stacking machines are used in the process of uncovering or detaching materials from the earth’s surface or stacking such material.4 In the preparation of this Section considerable assistance has been derived from IEC Publication 62 I ‘Electrical installations for outdoor sites under heavy conditions (including open-cast mines and quarries).FOREWORD 0.3 Electrical Operating Area . 9 Power generating and distribution systems. Jz) Control. 0.An area accessible only through the use of a tool or key. d) M o b i l e c o n v e y o r s . 2.An area accessible to operating personnel in the normal performance of their duties. Servicing : which maintenance. e) Haulage trucks.2 Operating. for operations of equipment and machinery therein _ used for the purposes such as: a) Winning. They include the following: a) Excavators. The area shall be clearly and visibly marked by appropriate signs. reclaimers. including hoppers and surge bins. It is intended to provide necessary guidelines for such installations in this Section for the purposes of the practising engineers and the relevant authorities. The design and selection of equipment and components have to take into consideration the expected loading.2 This Section does not cover temporary and provisional places of work of durations less than 6 months for which reference shall be made to Part S/Set 2 of the Code. draglines. 2. shovels and other excavators. SCOPE 1. 2. Area . operational.operations.That part of an open-cut mine or quarry on which machinery and/or rolling stock are in operation.1 This Section of the Code covers requirements for permanent outdoor installations.1 Outdoor installations of the permanent nature require special treatment as compared to temporary installations of short durations (less than 6 months) primarily owing to the continucus exposure of the former installation and equipment forming part of it to heavy conditions of service at site. b) Spreaders and stackers.5 Working Level (Bench).An accessible only by the opening of a door or the removal of a barrier. These machines are designed to be able to change location according to operational requirements. d) Associated pumping and water supply systems. issued by the International Electrotechnical Commission. controlling and supervision.0 For the purpose of this Section. 220 Nwt ~~ However this Section shall be applicable to building sites and earth-moving sites as far as the equipment used therein are similar to those used in surface mining application. c) Mobile conveyor bridges. 9 Floating dredgers. the definitions given in Part I together with those given below shall apply: 2. transportation and storage conditions.6 Winning and Stacking Machinery .

2. 2.10 Fixed Apparatus .contained or external power supply. of the transformer and/or generator. 2 . The general characteristics and service conditions enumerated in 4.That point of the power system.An electrical installation in which the generation and utilization plants are housed within the same structure. by means of a collector.27 Overhead Distribution Line (Feeder) .29 Safety Circuits and Devices .A device which causes a signal to be given in the event of reduced insulation resistance to earth.28 Return Conductors . 2. 2.15 Movable System 2 i4 railway Railway system which is designed to be tiovable to another location without dismantling.An apparatus or assembly of apparatus intended to be normally held in the hand during use and which can be carried by ‘a person.25 Overhead Distribution Traction Line (Feeder) ‘-~~ An line having electric bare conductors used for the interconnecting line between the power source and traction wire. N OTE .An electric line used for supplying moving machinery.11 Portable Apparatus .Any 2. exposed conductive parts are walls of enclosures.An apparatus or assembly of apparatus which is too heavy to be portable. 1 6 S e l f . bauxite.23 Trailing Cable .An open air sire for the extraction of materials or minerals such as coal.C o n t a i n e d P o w e r S u p p l y . 2. NOTIl-he earthable point may be the neutral point depending on the type of power system.An electrically powered vehicle usually operating on rubber tyres used for transport of materials and which may have a self. and f) Hydraulic conveyors systems. No’rE Cables are net included as part of apparatus.--Typical. a judicious estimate has to be made of the environmental factors that influence the performance of. 2. 2. 2. return current.21 Movable Distribution Cable . such as a reclaimer. T Y P E S O F P E R M A N E N T O U T D O O R INSTALLATIONS 3.An insulated cable that may be moved from time to time according to the operation without necessarily following the movements of the machinery.9 Secondary Processing Machinery . 2.20 Insulation Monitoring and Warning Device . 2. which would be connected to earth if the system were to be earthed. for example. 2. 2.17 External Power Supply . operating handles. 2. 2.An insulated cable specially designed to be frequently reeled on and off a cable drum or reeler mounted on a mobile machine.13 Movable Apparatus.1 cannot be made uniformly applicable to all such installations.24 Overhead Traction (Trolley) Wire . 3.12 Mobile Apparatus .0 The types of permanent outdoor installations covered by this Section are given in 3.19 Earthable Point . c) Bucket conveyors. 2. Depending on the site conditions and the nature of the operation involved. e) Screw conveyors. b) Cham conveyors. with its electric power source disconnected. 3. 2. 221 2.ations covered by this Section: a) Open-cuf or Open-cast Mine .An electrical installation in which the generation and utilization plants are not housed within the same structure. PART 5 OlJTDOOR INSTALLATlONS .18 Exposed Conductive Part -A conductive part which can be touched readily and which normally is not live but which may become live under fault conditions.An interconnecting electric line between distribution substation and load point.Conductors (which may be rails) used for carrying the. iron-ore.the conveying of materials continuously from one location to another. but which is moved between periods of use. 2.An apparatus or assembly of apparatus which is permanently installed in a determined place and which is not normally moved during or between periods of use.14 Haulage Truck .An insulated cable specially designed to be towed by a mobile machine.Any machinery necessary to process at a point remote from the open cut or quarry. d) Paddle or scraper conveyors. 2.8 Primary Processing machinery necessary to prepare material won from the earth prior to its transport to the final processing or utilization areas.Circuits and devices designed to prevent danger to personnel or livestock and damage to plant in the event of abnormal or unintentional operation.1.26 Overhead Collector Wire . locomotives) by means of a collector or pantograph.22 Drum Cable -.An apparatus or assembly of apparatus which is too heavy to br portable but which is capable of being moved without discontinuity of electric power during use. etc. 2. etc. They include the following: a) Belt conveyors. material won from the earth.An electric line having bare conductors used for supplying vehicles (for example.the installation.1 The following are the types of permanent outdoor install. Machinery .

container terminal. overspeed. Airport Aprons . wind pressure. refueiiing parking or maintenance. siewing and angles of inclination (tilting and mounting) which may occur under expected operational conditions. 5.A defined area on a land aerodrome.Rotating machines used in applications where high acceleration.0.N OTE ~ Underground mines are excluded from the scope of this Section. etc.0. the temperature of the exposed part shall not exceed the limits specified in Part 7 of t. b) Quarry . atmosphere. 5. including temperature.Protection shall be provided against damage and/or overheating during normal operation. RULES FOR EQUIPMENT A N D AUXILIARIES 5. etc.2 Transfi~rmers .8 Noise Limitations ~ Consideration shall be given in the design to limit the noise level in accordance with local rules. location and installation conditions under which they would operate.Components shall be des. mail or cargo. reversing or braking may be employed shall be so selected that they are capable of withstanding the expected stresses on parts such as rotor windings or cages. intended to accommodate aircraft for the purposes of loading and unloading passengers. installation and maintenance so that the electrical equipment or apparatus is procured to suit those conditions.Components shall be installed so that design features such as cooling systems shall not be impaired by external factors such as position.1 Selection of Equipment and Ancillaries 5. atmosphere.5 Operating Conditions .0. 5. gravel. clay.1.1 Rotating Machines . b) they are totally enclosed. moisture. hostile environment. passenger berths.1. Supply voltage variations. Supply frequency variations.1. operational. repair docks.he Code. 5.4 Protection -. GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF PERMANENT OUTDOOR INSTALIJATIONS 4. SECTION 3B EQUIPMENT A N D AUXILIARIES 5.0. 5. 5.6 Site Conditions .igned to meet such conditions as vibration. rotating machines shall be so located or guarded to prevent inadvertant contact with moving parts.0 The design and the selection of components shall be on the basis of expected loading. 4.2 Relevant Standards . etc. information regarding the duties.Transformers shall be so selected that: ink areas.. including rodents or other small animals. stator end windings. altitude.0.1 E x c h a n g e qf Information . etc. coils. However surface installations of underground mines are covered by this Section. cl Dockyards . gas. and ml Ecological impact.0.1 Some of these conditions. transportation and storage conditions: 4. jetty’s. r) g) Environment (dust. blocking of ventilation ducts. 5. internal leads and the tank of transformers on mobile and movable installations are capable of withstanding vibrations.7 Combustible Materials ~ If combustible material (for example. 5. acceleration. Insecure powrt supply and transients.or in expected fault conditions.A yard with facilities for receiving classifying and dispatching railway roiling stock ( see also Section 3E).0 General 5. b) c) d) e) Low and/or high ambient temperature. and c) diy type transformers including cooling NAT-IONAL ELECTRICAL CODE . stators.3 Materials ~ Materials used in component construction shall be appropriate f o r t h e environmental conditions. operating characteristics and cyclic duty taking into consideration the protection required in special and arduous environmental.An open air site for the extraction of materials such as limestone.includes loading and unioad- ordering electrical equipment for outdoor sites. kS Localities prone to natural calamities. Necessity for special measures may be decided in consultation with ail concerned. shafts and couplings.0.0. 5. dust or liquid) is present in such quantity as to create a hazard and contact is possible between any exposed part of the component and the combustible material. etc). to the extent that the operations therin are identical with those described in 1. should be gathered by the engineers responsible for their procurement.Before 222 4 the bracing of the core.The electrical specifications of ail components shall be not less than that required by the relevant Indian Standard. deceleration. e) Railwyav Marshalling Yards . railway yards. are listed below which may differ from their normal values: a) Altitude. marine h) Flammable and/or explosive material/or j) Vermin. High or low humidity.

5. the armouring may.1.system are protected against harmful ingress of dust. Such measures may consist of a) metallic screens. high frequency monitoring or other means. v o l t a g e d r o p a n d t h e mechanical strength required for the expected method of handling.5. b) Use of flame-retardant cooling medium. etc. or b) substantial semiconductive elements in contact with the protective conductor. The voltage drop should be calculated for both starting and maximum load conditions. measures shall be provided to minimize internal partial discharge or to render such effects harmless (for example.The precautions are recommended: following cables of the movable distribution. 223 voltage. 5. form the protective conductor.1.5 Protection against partial discharge -For flexible cables having nominal voltages greater than 4 000 V. (0 minutes) rms current expected. where necessary.1.5.3 Static Converters ---.Lvrs -. 5.1. PART S OUTDOOR INSTALLATIONS . Suitable protective measures shall be applied to reduce the touch and step voltages.1. In high voltage systems. This may be achieved by either: 4 monitoring the protective conductor against increase in resistance by the use of pilot cores. 5. the metallic armouring of a movable distribution cable may be used as a protective conductor provided that the security against breakage of the armouring (taking irito account strength.1. and transient overvoltage conditions.53 Armouring as protective conductor Where : the cross-sectional area of a single composite strand of the armouring is greater than 6 mm2.Selection of phase conductor size should take into consideration the expected load current. enable isolators to be locked. elongation. or b) cables should be specially designed and used in accordance with the requirements of relevant Indian Standard whether or not they are used on a drum.Where cables are fitted with substantial longitudinal semiconducting layers for the purpose of providing a current path to the protective conductor in the event of a fault. considering the type of insulation.1.1 Phase conductors . special measures shall be taken to guard against deterioration of the earthing circuit. b) Protection against interference with commuc) Protection against spurious operation due to electrical coupling with other apparatus. b) Ensuring. and provided that the armour conductivity is at least equal to that of a protective conductor of the required nominal cross-sectional area which would otherwise be required. Where supplying cyclic loads. 5. subject to the requirements of 5. automatic movement of the mechanism. e> Feedback supervision.5.6 Semiconducting la.5. where required suitable means to cl Suitable labelling of switching devices which are not meant for interrupting load or fault currents. field gradient control). 5.5 Cables 5. Adequate precautions shall be taken to prevent spillage of the cooling medium causing pollution. the current-carrying capacity should be based on the long time (for example. drum and trailing types. short-circuit current and duration o f f a u l t . and c) Protective in measures as specified 15 : 1 0 0 2 8 ( P a r t 2)-1982* for transformers with flammable cooling medium.The following measures are recommended for switching devices for outdoor sites: a) Selection of proper design that no unintentional switching may be caused under expected operational and risk conditions. the resistance between the semiconducting element and the protective conductor should be :ested to ensure that it is suitable to carry the prospective fault current.All multicore *Code of practice for selection.4 Limiting temperatures under short circuit -~ Cables shall be selected so as to ensure that the maximum allowable conductor temperature. installation and maintenance of transftirmers: Part 2 Installation. nication or electrical control equipment.4 Switching Devices --. The following additional protective measures are suggested from fire: a) Use of dry type transformers. and fl Measures to limit harmonics. lay. d) Protection against interaction between earthing systems of the input. s h a l l c o n t a i n a protective conductor. 5. output and control circuits. is not exceeded under expected short-circuit fault conditions. 5.5. etc ) is at least equal to that of all the conductors.2 Protective conductor . and d) Suitable installation precautions to prevent hazards to personnel from electric areas. a) Protection against harmful effects of over- The protective conductor may be in the form of core(s) and/or screen(s). For certain classes of movable distribution cables.

5. conduit or sleeving may be used for several circuits. protrc. 5 .1. shall be distinctly and indelibly colourcd green and yellow also see Part I : Set 4 of the Code over its whole length so that in any I5 mm length one of these colours shall cover at least 30 percent and not more than 70 percent of the surface. these means o f special insulated requirements shall apply only for voltages above 4 000 v. and 4) Cables operating at up to and including I.5. the following applies: a) For cables rated at ap to and iticluding I 000 V. for example. the only control core(s) which may be included in a multicore cable. the distance between the clamping supports of the cable shall be not less than 50 times the largest cable diameter in the cable run.5.wreen. All such cables (except bare earthing conductors) shall be insulated for the maximum voltage applied to any cable in the duct.Multicore cable which contain power.i.11 Pwar cable tbl. 2) Cables operating at above I 000 V in an unearthed system shall have either metallic screens or individual conductive rubber screens separating the power cores from the pilot core(s).1. all conductors of a given circuit shall follow the same magnetic path to neutralire the resultant magnetic flux. in which .s and/or atmouring fiw ~ahle. such insulation. frequent handling or ground movement. such insulation or outer taping shall at least be identified at each end by the green yellow colour combination applied in accordance with the foregoing paragraph. When using single-core cables for alternating current circuits.tiL~cJ 5. Alternatively. T e r m i n a t i o n s o f ’ fle. both power and control. the above. shall be the earth continuity check pilot. 000 V shall have pilot. control or supervisory cores shall be insulated to a voltage level equal to that of the power cores. control or supervisory cores separated from power cores by conductive rubber screens if on an unearthed system or metallic screens if on an earthed system. shall not be used where fatigue may occur. cl Composire multicore cables on reeling drums . 5. the pilot. for either system. ratios may be reduced to 25 and 50 times respectively. NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE .s aho\v I 000 I/‘~ Where flexible cables are handled manuaily while energized.5.13 Segregation of’ pobcler and control cores a) Single-cure cables Single-core cables which are installed in a common duct.Cables may be laid directly on or in the ground provided that tte outer sheath is designed for the operating 224 conditions. 1 . Multicore cables containing power and control cores shall comply with the following requirement as appropriate: 1) Any cable containing pilot. 5 . For voltages above I 000 V. Cables having extruded metallic sheaths. due to vibration. and that excessive bending and compressing are avoided.rihle c.12 Sheathing. control or supervisory cores may be used for reeling drum applications. cables with lead alloy or aluminium sheaths or mineral-insulated metal-sheathed cables. multicore cables may be used for several circuits.1.8 Identification of cwnd~rc~tor Unless o t h e r w i s k required. Where cables designed specially for this purpose are used. in which the protective conductor is insulated. In cases where cables are handled only by tools. 5. and b) For cables rated at above I 000 V. control and supervisory cores shall have such cores insulated from all other conducting elements of the cable. b) Mlrlticore cables -~ For voltages up to and including I 000 V. Suitable supplementary identification may also be used.1. the distance between the clamping supports of the cable shall be not less than 100 times the largest cable diameter in the cable run.ahks Flexible cables shall be terminated in such a way that their ends are not under stress or under tension effects. pilot.5.1. or outer taping. they shall have metallic screens and:‘dr armouring or shall be provided with conducting elastomeric screens of substantial cross-sectional area and so placed as to limit the touch and step voltages that may arise in the event of a cable fault. drum cable and trailing cable shall be tested by the cable manufacturer for partial discharge. the other colour covering the remainder of the surface. both power and control. Where the normal mode of operation of the machine requires frequent rotation through an arc of up to 360’ in either direction. conduit or sleeving.the protective conductor is insulated. 5.1 Plo~~ision (?f .st lin7itation Where the normal mode of operation of the machine requires infrequent rotation through an arc of up to 360” in either direction. 9 P a r t i a l dischar~qe pet~fowiance F o r cables rated at above 4 000 V each production length (minimum length I50 m) of movable distribution cable.5. 3) Cables operating at above I 000 V in an earthed system shall have metallic screens separating the power cores from the pilot core(s).

and taking into account their nature. or by other means. or fire.1.1 Protection Against Direct Contact 6.1.6 Cable Connectors Where plug and socket connectors are used at voltages above 1 000 V. 5. For unearthed control delrices.1 Use of plug/socket connectors - N OTE 4 -These minimum clearance distances in Tables I and 2 do not take into consideration such factors as creepage distances.0 The general rules for protection for electrical installation inside buildings.1. size and arrangement. etc.1. and eight times the cable diameter for cables which are constructed in accordance with 5.1. the degree -of mutual interference shall be considered. 6.15 Bending radius for jlexible cables over 2. these shall: a) necessitate the use of key or tool.Where and bolted plug/sdcket connectors or bolted connections are used. an insulation monitoring device shall also be provided for safety. or 225 .1. interlocking is not required provided suitable and adequate operational procedures are implemented.5(a) or (b).FOR PROTECTION IN OUTDOOR INSTALLATIONS 6.s no hazard to personnel created by automatic restarting.13 Barriers and enclosures shall be firmly secured in place.1 Complete Protection by Means of Barriers or Enclosures 6.r both of the following: 4 The provision of isolating switches which are interlocked with the plug/socket so as to prevent connection or disconnection while the circuit is energized and to prevent switching the circuit when the plug/socket connection is incomplete. The additional requirements applicable for permanent outdoor installations are given in the following clauses.1. voltage. b) proving function operation principle. or b) involve provision of an interlocking device such that the removal.5.5. or disengaged from.1. 5. and c) fail-safe principles with solid state switching devices. multicore ar?d single-core are used on a common rack.Any safety circuits shall incorporate fail-safe principle PART 5 OUTDOOR INSTALLATIONS as far as reasonably possible. 6.5.14 Separation of cables in racks Where power and control cables.1 The minimum electrical clehrances in air between field installed bare conductors and between such conductors and earthed paris (such as barriers and enclosures) Shall.1. 5. 6.1.1. Some of the principles suggested are: a) closed circuit principle.1.6.Tables I and 2 may be used to indicate clearance distances between conductors and earth in a TN or TT system by using the phase-to-earth.or tool necessitates previous switching off of all live parts.6.7 Control Circuits and Control Devices Control circuits and control devices shall not automatically reset after tripping unless resetting of the control device either does not cause automatic restarting of the device or there i. GENERAL RULES . SECTION 3C PROTECTION FOR SAFETY 6.4 Where access to the install&ion is necessary by removal of barriers. For unearthed control circuits. 5. measures shall be taken to limit the leakage and capacitance --currents that they shall not exceed 70 percent of the drop-out currents. N OTE 3 . in accordance with Tables I or 2.2 Use qf bolted plug/socket connectors bolted connections .5(a) or (b. tray or duct. by high frequency monitoring.subject to the voltage limitations given in (b) above provided that the cable is specially designed for such reeling duty. the socket while the’circuit is energized. measures shall be taken to prevent the plug from being engaged with. minimum bending radius for flexible cables during installation and handling in service is six times the cable diameter for cable not constructed in accordance with 5. NATE I -These tables need not apply within electrical apparatus wiring devices or manufactured assemblies nor when the installation is covered by other sections of the Code.1. 5.1. The measures under (b) are intended as a safety feature and should not be used for normal isolation purposes.5.1. The measures shall consist of one o.).8 Safety Circuits and Safety Devices .1. as enumerated in Part I /Set 7 of the Code are applicable for outdoor installations of permanent nature covered by the scope of this Section. opening of enciosurrs.1. NATE 2 -Tables I and 2 take into consideration the fact that the system voltage may vary up to 20 percent from the rated operating voltage. etc. b) The provision of protective conductor monitoring by means of either a pilot core.2 All live parts shall be inside enclosures or behind barriers providing at least the degrees of protection’ in accordance with Table 3. opening or withdrawal without the use of a key . 5. they shall have sufficient stability and durability to resist the strains and -stresses likely to occur in outdoor conditions.5 mm diameter-The recommended 5. diffeient voltage levels in the same area nor extreme environmental conditiorq.

kV Minimum distance for installations subject to overvoltages. the IP classification is intended to specify only the degree of protection required to protect persons from contact with live /! arts . protection equivalent to IPIX is also considered to be achieved by placing out of reach or by the interposition of obstacles. mm 1 40 3 65 6 90 IO 115 20 21s 30 325 45 520 60 700 110 I loo 950 Minimum distance for instal40 lations protected against overvoltages or connected to cables. for example. I.1.S. see IS : 2147-1962 ‘Design of protection provided by enclosures for low voltage switchgear controlgear’. by means of protective barriers or handrails. OP E R A T I N G AREAS W ITHIN C~. the voltage bands in the above table may be increased In the ratio of to I 500 V and above.2) VOLTAGE WITIII~: OP E R A T I N G A R E A S (21 B AND ( A C ) (1) WITHIK ELECTHIC. NATE 2 . mm IO 150 20 21s 30 325. such as dust. As used in the present standard. 226 NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE .AI.1.ostn EL E C T R I C A L OP~HATISG AR E A S (4) (3) Partial protection IP IX* if UG 660 V or no simaltaneously accessible parts at different voltages are situated within arm’s path Complete protection IP2X if CJ> 660 V or IWX if U > 660 V for top surfaces or barriers or enclosnres which are readily accessible This applies in particular to those parts of enclosures which might serve as a standing surface See Note I 50 < I/G 1 000 V Complete protection IP2X* or IP4X for top surfaces or barriers or enclosures which are readily accessible.TABLE I CLEARANCE DISTANCES FOR INDOOR INSTALLATIONS (Clause 6. This applies in particular to those parts of enclosures which might serve as a standing surface See Note I No protection IPOX if L1<6m V Partial protection IPOX* if u > 660 V or no simultaneously accessible parts at different voltages are situated within arm’s reach See Note I LI>loooV Complete protection IPSX within arm’s reach Complete protection IPSX within arm’s reach Partial protectiofi IPIX* Partial protection IPZX Partial protection IP 1 X* beyond arm’s reach beyond arm’s reach U = rated voltage of the installation between lines NOTE I .For details on IP classifications. I : I . N OTE 3 . I ) Maximum rms value of rated operating voltage. namely. Additional protection may be required for protection .1. kV Minimum distance for installations subject to overvoltages. from contact with moving parts or to prevent ingress of so Id foreign bodies. mm 60 70 90 160 270 380 520 TABLE 2 CLEARANCE DISTANCES FOR OUTDOOR INSTALLATIONS (Clause 6. 45 520 60 700 110 I 100 150 I 550 220 2200 .1) Maximum rms value of rated operating voltage.IS0 160 270 380 520 950 1 350 I 850 TABLE 3 MINIMUM PROTECTION AGAINST DIREKT CONTACT BY BARRIERS OR ENCLOSURES (APPLICABLE TO LIVE PARTS ONLY) (Clauses 6.The use of floor plug and socket connector is not precluded but such sockets shall be covered when not in use.1. up *For electrical operating areas and closed electrical operating areas.In the case of dc voltages. mm Minimum distance for installations protected against overvoltages or connected to cables. I.

7 .ATIONS 7.S Electric consideration.see Table 3.1. and inherent ac motor oscillations due to transient load changes.1.Overload and short-circuit protection for transformers..the power generation systems shall meet the requirements of motor starting. 7.. Stacking and Primary Processing Machinery 7.2 Supp(v systems -The effect of load fluctuations on the supply system shall be considered. which may result ir.1 . This is also applicable for the mounting of all types of electrical equipment in cubicles. 7. 7. 1 .1. limit switches.Under .2 Fire protection . sockets.The supply system shall meet the requirements of cyclic or periodic loads. motor starting. t o off’hoartl eyiiip~)t~‘tIt When power 1s suppiled to off-board nroh~lt~ . 6. peak load.1. 7.1. 7. rms load and frequency stability. 6. 9 . 7.corrosive atmospheric conditions or extreme vibrating conditions.1 -Effect on voltage levels .2 Protection Against Indirect Contact 6.1.~tem design . For protection requirements see 6.2. power source from within the machine. mobile. termination boxes.1.1 A Insrrlation Monitoring Devices for Vulcanizing Heating Platens . opening or withdrawal without the use of a key or tool is attempted.3 Insulation Monitoring Device jar IT S. etc. the device is fitted with ‘out of step’ protection. taking account any restrictions imposed by the electricity supplier. REQUIREMENTS FOR PERMANENT OUTDOOR INSTALLATIONS 7.1.1. cables.stem design . an insulation monitoring device is not required for power circuits which are supplied by a. shall take into consideration the starting requirements and cyclic nature of the load.Consideration should be given to the need for special and/or additio.l.1 M o u n t i n g qf’ Components .The effects of equipment starting and of the duty cycle on voltage levels.7 Drives ~-.1 S. etc.1 Winning.In the case of an IT system. In such cases.1 $\.2 Partial Protection by Placing Live Parts Out qf Reach -see Table 3.8.1.nal fire protection due to the fuels used [see 51.6 Electric consideration.The following recommendations apply to drives with a periodic or cyclic duty as well as to certain other drives with a continuous duty.9 Self-Contained Power S_vstems 7.When the supply of electrical energy is self-contained within stationary.trl‘ 2P? Tools . automatic reclosing or transferring devices should not be used in the power distribution system unless such device has sufficient time delay to allow motor disconnection. Where the equipment is required to operate under.7. etc.1 The provisions of Part I /Set 7 of the Code shall apply. such as by a transformer having electrical isolated windings or by a generator or storage battery. the normal mounting bolt or screw connection is adequate. 3 E a r t h i n g .9. 7. 6. etc) where the protective conductor is not monitored nor visible.It is important that the equipment manufacturer and user mutually understand whether the voltage specified is under no-load or full load conditions. 7. shall be taken into consideration to ensure the safety of personnel and equipment.9. Equipment .1. Mobile and Movable 7.4 S.f’Board Auxiliary.1. special protective connections to the structural parts of the installation are not required if the connecting surfaces between the electrical equipment housing and structural parts provide an adequate conducting area.8.1. 7.Under 7.1. o r m o v a b l e i t e m s o f equipment and there is no external supply.stem voltage . damage or the malfunction of equipment.8 External Pok’er Supply Systems 7.1.1. PART 5 0l:TDOOR INSTAl. Hand Lamps . 7. etc. limit switches.3 Partial Protection by the Provision of Obstacles .9.I.2 QJ.1. insulation monitoring devices are not required for vulcanizing heating platens where the power circuit is supplied from a transformer having electrically isolated windings.I.8.. such equipment need not be connected to the general mass of the earth..For mobile and movable off-board auxiliary equipment (such as welding equipment.\stems -.ind movable equipment conditions given in 7.2 Overcurrent protection --.7. a separate protective conductor shall be connected to motors. vulcanizing transformer<.In IT systems.4 Supplr. SECTION 3D REQUIREMENTS FOR INSTALLATIONS 7.1. or the combination of supply system and motor design characteristics is such as to permit automatic re-energization. a visible main equipotential bonding conductor shall be provided between such auxiliary equipment and plant. 7. 7.1.c) ensure automatic disconnection when removal.83 Automatic reclosing or transferring Where regeneration may delay the oneration of undervoitage devices.For the mounting of motors.2 . regeneration.

The devices described in the following paragraphs shall not be used for purposes of isolation or immobilisation to allow work to be carried out on parts which would otherwise be electrically energized or moving: a) Stop control circuits -The circuits of stop control and of other safety protection devices should be as simple.11.1.8. 221 NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE . means shall be provided to trip the motor starting switch or incoming line switch upon loss of power supply. 7. each group may operate in single or multiple circuits.2 Synchronous motor control controls shall be of a type in which the contacts are opened by a positive mechanical action and can only be reclosed by a further mechanical action.3.3 Stop control .4 tnterlocking of start controls Where equipment can be started from more than one location. fluctuations-The effect of shock.rated by a pullwire shall be arranged so that a pull on the wire in any direction will stop the controlled equipment. c) Locking of stop controls .1 Emergency stopping . Where several circuits are divided the respective contact elements shall be connected in series. provided special measures for the safety of personnel and equipment have been implemented.Under consideration. automatic motor field removal on disconnection is required. Additional stop controls may be provided. 7. providing at least the same protective measures as for the above devices are applied to ensure positive and reliable operations.1 . the simultaneous existence of two or more faults within the remote controls system need not be expected.11. When mechanically latched control devices are used and re-energization following loss of supply power would endanger personnel or equipment. 7. contactor. etc.A stop control shall be located near each start control. the control system shall permit operation from only one nominated location at any one time. shunt tripping devices may be used providing the tripping device and its stored energy tripping supply are monitored and regularly maintained. vibration or voltage fluctuations on control devices shall be taken into consideration. d) Pullwlire stop controls .1. unless start-up alarms are used.1 Shock.10 Cable Tvpes . The power disconnect device may be a remotely operated power manually or circuit-breaker.1. Emergency devices may be arranged to operate simultaneously in a number of different circuits. When automatic reclosing or transferring devices are used in the distribution system. b) Location of stop controls .11 Control Circuits and Control Devices vibration and voltage 7. The device shall also be tripped on operation of protective devices.Stop controls ope.11.3 are applicable.12 Emergency? Stopping and Emergency Devices 7. conditions given in 7. However.guarded against madvertant access.11. A number of emergency devices may be arranged in groups. disconnection of the external excitation is permitted if protection against selfexcitation is provided. Emergency stopping can be accomplished by means other than disconnection of power.Disconnection of power or other equally effective means shall be provided for stopping the drive under emergency conditions.Where required. when rotation converters are used. 7. 7.Where the cutout devices are actuated remotely they will be a) Automatic field removal . c) Power toss protection .1. However.1 .1.Where synchronous motors are used to drive any part of the installation.1. reliable and direct acting as is practical. audio-frequency of timemultiplex operations. Frequency sensitive devices are recommended. an automatic field excitation control is recommended. However.1.applicable. 7. For example. separate means of isolation may be provided for control circuits.11. 7. provision shall be made to guard against unauthorized starting.1.12. for example. except for lift call control.2 Emergency.A means of mains supply isolation shall be provided to isolate the power circuits from the equipment or parts thereof mclusive of control and motor circuits. The emergency device may use remote control systems.Where synchronous motors are used to drive periodic or cyclic loads. the equipment is in sight from all starting locations. The stop arranged as series tripping system. devices . b) Automatic field excitation controi . provided that such means otherwise comply with the intent of 7. However.Where synchronous motors are used to drive loads which may be regenerative. Acceptable methods include locking of stop controls in the ‘off position or ensuring that only the person operating the stop control has access to the start control.13 Provision for Supply Isolation . ensuring that safety of personnel and equipment is not endangered by inadvertant operation of control devices.1. means shall be provided to automatically trip the latched control device on loss of supply p’ower. 7.12. shunt tripping systems may be used providing the above-mentioned conditions are maintained.1. which may remain energized after disconnection of power circuits. or the equipment is .

7.8. 7. 7. Au. and cl personnel do not have access down the well.1 Mounting cJf Components -see 7.1. 7.1.2 Continued operation after .3. b) Personnel do not have access down the well.for IT S.4. Where individual stop controls are used. bonding . no protection conductor is required between the motor and the protective conductor connected directly to the fixed iiser provided that: a) the supply cable is terminated close to the well head. 7.3.Under Where a continuous metallic riser pipe is fitted between the motor and the well head.O p e r a t i o n m a y 7.1.3.S t o p controls shall be provided.7.1. 7.l Risers as protective condustors ~- consideration.9 Slop Controls -. by ensuring that all metallic parts are linked together.3 @F-hoard Equiiwlent .Under Lamps .1 General .10 S t o p p i n g of Dokwhill Con\vJws Under consideration. such as by sensors.see 7.3.Well TIpe Pumps 7.The operation of a s t o p control on a conveyor shall stop that conveyor and: a) aI1 upstream conveyors to a controlled loading point.the protective measures against indirect contact.9.8. D e v i c e s .for Monitoring 7.5 Insulation Vulcanizing Heating Platens .first earth continue after.2 Poccvr consideration.3. the first ‘earth fault only when all of the followmg condltions are met: fbu/t.An 7.3 E q u i p o t e n t i a l equipotential bonding conductor shall be installed between the main earth terminals of the supply 229 .The devices described in the following clauses shall not be used for purposes of isolation or immobilisation to allow work to be carried out on parts which would o t h e r w i s e b e electricatly e’nergized or moving.4 Insulation Monitoring Device .3.2 Location of stop controls --. that is.4. and a) An IT system is used. the operation of a stop control within one stop zone need not stop all upstream conveyors beyond that zone.Under 7.3.2 Secondary Processing Machinery .see 7. 7. It is recommended that stop controls be located at the head and tail ends of a conveyor and that pullwire stop controls be used along the length of the conveyor. On very long conveyor systems. 7. metallic screens or armouring are suspended from structures or frames of movable conveyors. however. Stop controls shall be accessible from any side of a conveyor to which there is access.Electrically initiated explosive devices should not be stored or used in the vicinity of such installations as hazards may exist due to fault currents flowing in the ground when syslems continue to operate following the first earth fault.1 . supp!.1.3. an equipotential bonding conductor shall be provided to the electrical equipment unless the structural parts of the conveyor are mechanically fastened and/ or electrically bonded together..7 Electric consideration. Cables without cables 7. they shall be located not more than 15 m from any accessible point along the conveyor. provided that the conveyor upstream of the zone is proved to be unloaded. NOTE Manually operated stop controls may also provide the function of an emergency stop.3.~ cables . 7. NOTE ~. Pumping and Water Supply Systems 7. Although the stop control may be reset automatically.1 Stopping sequence -. 7.Under consideration.wenis .riliar~~ Movable 7.Where semiconductive sheaths.2 Eyuipotential Bonding Conductor and Mobile and t.3.6 Electric Hand Hand Tools .4.4..1 Deep.3. and c) Equipotential bonding is provided.3. All accessible points along the pullwire operated stop control are considered as stop controls.s e e 7. ClJrldlcl~til~it~~ (!f Structural d) prevent run-back.Where electrical equipment supplied at a voltage in excess of 50 V is mounted on a conveyor structure and the cable to the equipment does not include a protective conductor. b) cause the material from all upstream conveyors to be diverted to an alternative route.3 Transport Conveyor Systevs 7. restarting shall be initiated manually. Parts .3. b) the conductivity of the metallic riser (stand pipe) and the connections (couplings) shall be at least equal to the conductivity of the protective conductor which would otherwise be necessary. such structures and frames shall be considered as extraneous conductive parts and shall be included as part of the whole plant in the design of . c) initiate b r a k i n g t o stop the conveyor iti safe time. The c6nductivity of the metallic structural parts of the conveyor and its fastenings shall be at least equal to that of the otherwise necessary equipotential bonding conductor.

their enclosures shall be connected to this bonding conpuctor.1 The requirements given in Sections 3A to 3D are applicable to the specific areas described in this Section in so far as the operations are identical with those described.Under consideration. 7.3 Lighting Installations in Railway Marshalling Yards 8. 8. where the conductor shall be connected directly to the fixed riser.Yards with flat shunting neck d) e) A departure . They also deal with traffic originating at or destined for centres. and K is a multiplying factor.0. 7. 7.Protection shall be provided to disconnect the supply in the case of a double fault (phase-earth-phase). (in amperes) is the rated current of the power fuses or. 8.The provisions of relevant Indian Standards shall apply. 0. Hump yards are those where shunting necks have shape of a camel hump. Normally one hump handles I 000 to I 500 wagons per day. It. track levels in specified crest of 2. Disconnection follows the second fault. That .1 Lighting of Aircraft Aprons .A yard in which the loads of incoming trains may stand clear of run’ning lines while waiting for their turn to be dealt with. The number of humps can be increased depending on the work-load.7 Control Circuits and Control Devices ~ Under consideration. may be provided.uemption from insulation monitoring device -.5 is suggested for the time being.ard -. 8.8 Safety Circuits and Safety Devices . a) Gra\lit\* _\. 230 c) Flat .5 m height. a) Multipurpose yard .3 Each yard can be of any one of the three formations based on method of construction: a) Baloon or classification type. It is utilized for classification and sorting of loads.1.A y a r d i n w h i c h trains are broken up on the different lines for the various directions or stations irrespective of station A yard where natural gra- dient -is available. It is mostly suitable for metre 2.= 2. A sorting jlard This is a yard in which wagons are separated in station order and reformed into trains in special order to meet the requirements of the section ahead or any other special transportation requirements. 8. Where transformers are located at the well head.5 Pumps Other Than Deep-Well Types Under R < -% ohms KX I. A device such as one which detects a change in neutral displacement on the occurrence of the first and second earth faults.3.5 Double line to earth faults .2 Guidance from relevant experts shall be t a k e n i n r e s p e c t of specific areas before installation work begins.1. and c) Grid type. 8.ard---. 7.1.1 Classification 8.1. Shunting is done without engine.3.0. 8. These yards are mechanized where wagon level crosses 2 500 wagons per day. NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE . NOTL ~ A value of K.4 E.A marshalling yard with facilities for receiving.2 The railway yards are also classified into three main categories depending on their handling capacity and way of working: where 1.0 General 8.3.2 times the releasing current for the instantaneous or short-time delay trip.and the well head(s). 7. b) A reception Jsard-.l.2 Lighting of Ports ‘and Harbours -The provisions of relevant Indian Standards shall apply. b) Ladder type.An insulation monitoring device (or earth fault detector) is not necessary.3.1.Under b) Hump .13arci This is a yard in which loads are kept waiting for departure. 7. C) A class$cation j.4. ADDITIONAL GUIDELINES FOR INSTALLATIONS IN SPECIFIC AREAS 8. The equipotential bonding conductor shall be so dimensioned that the voltage drop between any two points (of resistance value I?) that may be contacted simultaneously shall not exceed 50 V. NO~F Yards with grid type formatIon are reception-cwudespatch yards.6 Power Supply Cables . in the case of circuit-breakers. are called flat yard.1 The classification in respect of yard area is based on the speed and intensity of traffic both vehicular and otherwise. classifying and despatching vehicles to their several destination.llard ~~ Hump yard created by raising consideration.4.dzals from 300 to 700 wagons per day. so as to form them into trains and prepare them for correct marshalling. SECTION 3E ADDITIONAL GUIDELINES FOR SPECIFIC AREAS 8.

4 For the purpose of illumination. N OTE I King points are the first pair of points that the wagon meets after passing over the hump summit and these divide the hump yard into two portions.3.3.Queen points are the second pair of points the wagon meets on either of the two diverging lines taking off from the king points and these divide the classification lines into four wise. The levels given below are recommendatory.1 The power supply to the towers shall be through underground armoured cables. most important locations are ‘king points’ and ‘queen points’ and order of priority for lighting is determined accordingly.2 lux IO lux 5 lux NOTE 2.3 Levels of illumination would depend on the type of marshalling yard.4 Power Installation Requirements 8.3 Design 8.4 The junction boxes shall be p.3. PART 5 OUTDOOR INSTALLATIONS 231 . d) despatch yard. *Code of practice for installation and maintenance of paper insulated power cabies (up to and including 33 kV). 8. the recommended height of tower is 30 m.4.1 For the purpose of designing the lighting system.3.3. 8. ii) High pressure sodium vapour lamps.2 lux Small yards 0.3. Laying of cables in yard. 8.3.The following sources of light a’re recommended for the purpose of yard lighting. along the track and across the tracks should be done in accordance with IS : 1255l983* b) L u m i n a i r e s .1.3.electric supply shall be located at a suitable place nearest to the yard.3 The cables shall be preferably terminated on column junction boxes by looping joints. 8. 1.2 Means shall be provided to control supply to group of towers with controlgear located in feeding substation/switching substat ion. 8.2 Different segments (functions) of yards are: a) classification yard ~-. 8.4.0 The source of .3. Minimum size of cable shall be IO to 16mm? 4 core.3.5 lux 8.Nood lighting types of luminaires are recommended for yard lighting installation.8. The contactors shall be controlled by electrically operated switch mounted for external manual local operation.3.3. i) High pressure mercury vapour lamps.3. efc 5 lux 1. Each luminaire may be provided with 2 lamps of 400 W or I lamps of I 000 W. King Points. and e) through goods yard. rather than ‘T’ joint.4.2 Selection 8. 8.station wise. c) reception yard.3.rovided with suitable sized contactors with independent fuses for each phase.3.4.4. qf equipments a) Light sources . Type Important yard Minimum Special Location Maximum Like Shunting Neck. These are two in each hump yard. b) sorting yard .

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and the use of electricity for certain essential purposes.1 This Part of the Code is primarily intended for covering the specific requirements of electrical installations in agricultural premises which include premises where livestock are present and farm produce are handled or stored. assistance has been derived from IEC Pub 3647-705 ‘Electrical installations in buildings.2 Installations in agricultural premises are different from those covered in other Sections of the Code in that the external influences on the electrical services are quite different from those encountered elsewhere.FOREWORD 0. . 03 In the preparation of this draft. Section 705.PART 6 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN AGRICULTURAL PREMISES O. Even though the overall power requirements for such installations would be small. With the increase in sophistication in organizing the farm output of the country. Agricultural and Horticultural premises. Part 7 Requirements for special installations or location. it has been felt necessary to cover the requirements of such installation as a part of the Code. 0. the presense of livestock and other extraneous factors necessitate laying down specific requirements. issued by the International Electrotechnical Commission.

1. piggeries.Farm 3.1 Farm premises where livestock are not normally present and are those utilized solely for the purposes of handling or storing farm inputs and produce.The following conditions apply: Ulilization (1) Characteristics (2) Remarks (3) Electrical resistance of human body Contact of persons with earth potential Low resistance due to wet conditions Persons are frequently in touch with extraneous conductive parts or stand on conducting surfaces Low density occu. the definitions given in Part 1 /Set 2 of the Code shall apply. GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF AGRICULTURAL PREMISES 4.Special precautions pation difficult to be taken where conditions of animals are present evacuation High density occupation easy conditions of evacuation Layer House Poultry housing i Stationery Brooder House - Portable Conditions of evacuation during emergency Sheep folds (sheep and goats) I4ggeries Horse stables o equine houses Cattle housing Cattle sheds for average farmer (3 milch animals with their calves and pair of bullotks) Cattle sheds for rural milk producer (average of about 20 animals) Organized milk produces (130 animals) Large dairy farm (about 500 animals) Nature of processed or stored materials Building design Flammable mate.The following conditions generally apply: Environmen/ (1) Characrerisrics (2) Remarks (3) 2.g.1 For the purposes of this Part. CLASSIFICATION 3.1. birds and small animals Presence of fauna.1 Environment .2 Utitrzation .1.Examples of such premises are stables.Livestock houses are premises where livestock are present for long periods of time during the day (such as in a dairy farm) with or without associated farm units.2 Livestock houses can also be classified depending on the type animal or bird housed. houses are Houses . stdres and stalls Presence of corro.2 Livestock Houses .1. I. Harmful hazard present Electromagnetic influences Harmful presence of induced currents 4. For example: Animal1 Bird Housing Sub-Classificarion Presence of water Possibility of splashes from any direction. 3. 4.dwellings or similar locations situated in these premises.1 Livestock houses are further classified depending on the type of climatic conditions: a) Plain areas with moderate rainfall. N OTE . TERMINOLOGY 2.2 This part applies to premises where livestock are present.Barns rial including dust Propagation of fire is facilitated and risks due to structural movement of structures which are weak NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE * .2. cow houses. external lighting fittings Locations where hose-water is used regularly Applies to barns. for e. b) Arid areas and high altitude areas. SCOPE 1. 3. 4. sheepfolds. etc.2.a) Intermittent or Applies to locations in which livestock accidental subsive or polluting are present or fertijection to corsubstances rosive or pollu.lizers or plant ting subsprotective products are stored or tances handled b) Continuously subjected to Presence of flora and/or mould growth Harmful hazard present Insects. For the purpose of installations covered by this Part the conditions given below apply. and b) livestock houses.1 This Part of the Code covers requirements for the fixed electrical installations in agricultural premises excluding . hen-houses. 3. Possibility of je:s of water from any direction Presence of dust Presence of foreign solid bodies in significant quantity Locations where equipment may be subjected to splashed water. and c) Heavy rainfall areas and high rainfall humidity areas. stalls.0 General guidelines on the assessment of general characteristics of buildings are given in Part I /Set 8. 3.1.1 Installations in agricultural premises shall be broadly classified into: a) farm houses.

Where electrical equipment is installed in livestock building.3. protection against direct contact shall be provided by: a) barriers or enclosures affording at least the degree or protection IP 2X.3.irrhjng -.2.conditions are also applicable to locations directly connected through extraneous conductive parts to the locations where livestocks are present.2. 5.For the application of protective measure by safety extra-low voltage in locations in which hvestock are present or situated outside.4 System Protection 5. e) Stores. etc.4 Cables 5. b) Milk recording and testing room. 5.4. 5. supplementary equipotential bonding shall connect all exposed conductive parts which can be touched by livestock and the protective conductor of the installation. b) Slaughter shed. 5.1 information shall be exchanged among the people concerned on the electrical needs of the premises before installation work begins. 5.2. N OTE -~ A metallic grill connected to the protective conductor laid in the floor is recommended (see Fig. f-l Laboratory.3 In meat houses and abbattoirs. Due consideration shall be given to the evacuation of aliimals in case of emergency. be provided by the use of nonmetallic materials.2 Where additional protection against mechanical damage to cables is required.2 Protection Against Fire . o r b) insulation capable of withstanding a test VOItage of 500 V for one minute. sick shed. Where conductors or cables are carried overhead supported by buildings or by poles. F o r a c h i e v i n g p r o t e c t i o n by automatic disconnection of supply. the following sub-units are present: a) Sheds for animals.1 It is recommended to protect final subcircuits. ram or buck shed.3 Selection and Erection of Equipment Equipment shall be so selected that they suit the environmental conditions of use and shall be installed in such a way that their normal functioning is not affected by the external influences enumerated in 4. I). Due considerations shall also be given to locations presenting fire-risks. a residual current protective device shall be installed having a rated residual operating current of OSA. and as high as practicable. Each installation may have to cater to the services requii-ed in the subunits of the premises which depend on the type of agricultural premises as enumerated in 3. by residual current devices. 5. the conventional voltage limit in locations in which livestock are present or situated’outside is (I. e) Inspection. and 0 Office. 5. b) Sheering and store room.2. it shall be possible to isolate and control the buildings individually. These . 5.For fire safety purposes. All cables shall be placed out of reach of livestock and clear of all vehicular movement.2.2. 5. 5.Heaters used in the rearing and tending of livestock shall be secured or hung on a safe mounting so that an adequate spacing from both animals (risk of burns) and combustible materials (fire hazard) is assured.2 Wiring Systems 5. d) Byproducts handhng. 5.1 Protection Against Electric Shock . 5.2.5 Cable couplers shall not be used in agricultural premises. The minimum height above ground shall be 6 m. the following sub-units are present: a) Sheds such as flock shed.4.2 Where an installation serves more than one building. Devices for emergency electrical 237 PART 6 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN AGRICULTURAL PREMISES .3 Where long runs of cable must b c placed along the sides of buildings. shall.1 Main switchgear shall not be installed: a) within reach of livestock. 5.1._ = 25 V. the rated operating residual current not exceeding 30 mA and as low ai practicable but avoiding nuisance tripping.2. the following subunits are firesent: a) Animal sheds before slaughter. SUPPLY CHARACTERISTICS AND PARAMETERS 5. dressing and washing. 5. c) Utensils room. or b) in any position where access to it may be impeded by livestock.2 In cattle housing.5.1 In sheepfolds.3 Isolation and Slz. they shall wherever possible be placed on the outside of the buildings.3.1.4. d) Ration room. wherever possible. it. cl Flaying.3 Means of access to all live parts of *switchgear and other fixed live parts where different nominal voltages exist shall be marked to indicate the voltages present. ati c) Shepherd house. and &a Office.4.

account being taken of the condition likely. 12. For sheds of larger width two rows df lamps properly interspaced may be desirable. high mortality or poor fertility. The light sources shall be hung at a height not less than 1. one row of bulbs in the centre shall be adequate. IO. ample artificial light and ventilation shall be provided by electrical means. without the busbar. NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE .In meat houses and abattoirs. FIG.3 shall be adhered to. For poultry sheds of 6 m width and below.2 Abattoir . 15. 5. SERVICES IN AGRICULTURAL PERMISES 6. 6. IW (GLS) or SW (fluorescent) 238 per bird or I W per 28-38 cm are considered adequate.1 to 6.- Earth. The overall intensity in every abattoir shall not be less than 200 lux throughout the slaughter hall and workroom and at places where meat inspection is carried out. BO N D I N G ON AG R I C U L T U R A L P R E M I S E S switching including emergency stopping shall not be installed within reach of livestock or in any position where access to them may be impeded by livestock. but in the case of the latter lack of proper ventilation or lighting loads to insanitation and discomfort to the livestock thereby leading to retarded growth. conductor Sheet metal and foil partitions Water pipe Manure removal device Potential equali7ation.3 Farm Cattle Housing . with a regular supply of fresh air and light.A minimum of 14 hours day length shall be provided to the birds and artificial lighting shall be provided for the-same. For the purposes. 6.8 m above floor.1 Poultry Housing . through direct interconnection of conductive parta. The houses are required to be maintained’ reasonably cool in summer and warm in winter. The lamps shall be hung at/ a height not less than 2 m above floor level. In unrefrigerated work rooms. 6. 14. Feeding apparatus :: 3. Il. a temperature of not greater that1 iS”C would be required and air-conditioning may be required. for example.0 Farm houses and iivestock’houses do not in general require sophisticated electrical services. 13. to arise in the event of panic by livesfock. 4. Milking apparatus Steel structure Protective earth conductor (PE) Earth electrode Busbar for equipotential bonding* Earth electrode for lightning protection Earth electrode for electric fences ‘Equlpotential bonding can also be achieved.In large dairy farms. the illumination shall be at least 500 lux. I EX A M P L E OF EQIIIPOTENTIAI. in halls where meat or carcasses are hung. 6. The guidelines given in 6. structural steel mat Tethering device 7: Automatic watering device 8. 9. roof-lights shall be provided to give 50-200 lux of artificial lighting.

PREMISES 239 .I.1 For large scale livestock keeping. and b) for continuity of supply.ATIONS IN ACRICI:I:Fl’RAI.7. falling lines.ROVlSlONS 8.3 Circuits of wirings which are only occasionally used. 8. appropriate distances shall be observed to take account of induction currents. for example. 8. MISCELLANEOUS P. shall be fitted with a separate switch marked accordingly. PART 6 ELECTRICAL INSTAI.Where electric fences are in *the vicinity of overhead lines. 8. TESTING OF INSTALLATION 7. a fast acting. such as in a dairy farm. during threshing time. etc.2 Electric Fences -. it shall be essential to provide: a) a warning device for indicating failure of air circulation system. Any earth electrode connected to the earth terminal of an electric lfence controller shall be separate from the earthing system of any other circuit and shall be situated outside the resistance area of any electrode used for protective earthing.emergency supply system is recommended.1 Before commissioning the installation shall be tested and inspected as given in Part l/See IO of the Code.

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0. walls or dams. where during normal operations a hazardous atmosphere is likely to occur in sufficient quantity to constitute a hazard had to be treated in a special manner from the point of the design of electrical installation. With regard to electrical installations. by taking care in the layout of the installation. important that sound engineering judgement should be exercised while applying these guidelines. Any area. processed. Some of these standards deal with particular construction techniques. It is. 0. 0.6 While preparing this Part. 0. 0. These standards are listed in Appendix A. others with aspects of standardization which are relevant to more than one techniques. therefore. handled and stored are combustible.PART 7 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN HAZARDOUS AREAS O.5 This Part includes generalized statements and recommendations on matters on which there are diverse opinions.Hazardous areas can be limited in extant by constructlon measures. When ignited these may burn readily and with considerable explosive force when mixed with air in the appropriate proportions. 0. gases and vapours which in industry are generated. Ventilation or application of protective gas will reduce the probability of the presence of explosive gas atmosphere so that areas of greater hazard can be transformed to areas of lesser hazard or to nonhazardous areas. This Part of the Code does not include provisions for installations in underground mines. The requirements laid down herein are in addition to those specified in Part 4 of the Code.7 As distinct from the hazardous areas in buildi& on the surface. that is. N OTE -.1 Hazardous atmosphere is the atmosphere where any flammable gas or vapour in a concentration capable of ignition occurs.2 Many liquids. essential ignition sources include arcs. to locate much of the equipment in less hazardous or nonhazardous areas and thus reduce the amount of spcciai equipment required. The scope of this Part therefore includes installations in hazardous areas such as petroleum refineries and petrochemical and chemical industries.FOREWORD 0. Some examples of industrial locations which require application of the guidelines in this Part are given in Appendix D. sparks or hot surfaces produced either in normal operation or under specified fault conditions.3 This Part of the Code is intended to provide guidelines for electrical installations and equipment in locations where a hazardous atmosphere is likely to be present with a view to maximizing electrical safety. environmental conditions in mines demand special consideration. it is frequently possible. .4 It is recognized that when electrical equipment is to be installed in or near a hazardous area. several standards for electrical equipment for explosive atmospheres have been referred to.

gas or mist under an!’ foreseeable operating conditions. 2.Adequate ventilation IS that which IS sufficient to prevent accumulations of significant quantities of gas-air mixtures in concentration over one-fourth of the lower flammable limit. 2. dispersed in air. unde’r atmospheric conditions.19 Re’lative Density of Gas or Vapour -. the electrical installations in hazardous areas shall complv. a flammable gas-air mixture.15 Source of Release A source of release is a point or location from which a gas. Precautions may be necessary to ensure safety but guidance on this aspect is outside the scope of this Part. 2. will form an ha/ardou~ atmosphere.3 Hazard -~ The presence.17 Unrestricted Release ~ A release (normal or abnormal) of flammable gas or vapour which cannot be diluted below the lower flammable limit. a halardous atmosphere is likely to occur. 1. 2. sustain fire or explosion when such reaction is initiated by a suitable spark. in which after ignition. These limits are called the ‘lower explosive limit’ (LEL) and the ‘upper explosive limit’ (UEL). liquid and:or mist which can react continuously with atmospheric oxygen and which may therefore. combustion spreads throughout the unconsumed mixture. the following definitions shall apply. 1. 2.6 Ex losive (Flammable) Limits ~. petroleum refineries and other similar areas where halard\ of explosion due to gases and vapours exist. 2.3l~~mmable Gas or Vapour . 1 4 I g n i t i o n T e m p e r a t u r e ~~~ T-he l o w e s t temperature at which ignition occurs in a mixture of explosive gas and air when the m e t h o d specified in IS : 7X20-1975* is followed. of. and in which flammable gases and volatile liquids arc processed. 2. or the risk of presence. vapour.1 Flammable Material .2 1 Electrical Apparatus for Hazardous Areas Electrical apparatus which will not ignite rhe *Methods of test for Ignition tempcraturc\. loaded.ardous area or a remotely hazardous area.18 A d e q u a t e Ventilation -. 2. when mixed with air. vapour. 2.An atmosphere containing any flammable gas or vapour in a concentration capable of ignition.10 Flammable Mist Droplets of flammable liquid. mist or liquid may be released into the atmosphere so that a hasardous atmosphere could be formed. stored.7 Flammability Range -~ The range of gas or vapour mixtures with air between the flammable limits over which the gas mixtures are (i continuously explosive.Ga: or vapour . 2. kPa. with the requirements for industrial installatcon in nonhazardous areas laid down in Part 4 of the Code.I of the Code.9 Flammable I>iquid producing .T h e density of a gas or a vapour related to the density of air at the same prcssurc and the same temperature.13 Boiling Point boiling at an ambient pressure ot lOI. This Part also doe:. not apply to the areas in underground mines. 2.1 I Liquefied flammable Gas Flammable gas which.An area no part of which has within either a haT.I flnmmable \apour.12 Flash Point liquid gives 50 much vapour that this vapour.3 This Part does not apply to installations in hazardous areas having ignitable dusts and fibres. under normal ambient pressures and tempet-atures. vapour or mist with air. NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE . 2. so as to form a ha.0 For the purpose of this Part. A liquid capable of 2. in addition tb those given in Part .1. TERMINOLOGY 2.16 Restricted Release ~~ A release (normal or abnormal) of flammable gas or \‘apour which can be diluted below the lower flammable limit. which can be ignited by an electrical arc or spark. 2.2 In addition to the recommendations given in this Part. 2. 2.4 In any plant installation irrespective of size there may be numerous sources of ignition apart from those associated with electrical apparatus.5 Hazardous Area ~ An area where during normal operations. The temperature at which the 2. is in gaseous state but which is handled in a liquid state under the applied conditions of pressure and ‘or temperature. flame or hot surface. 1 This Part of the Code covers recommendations for clcctrical installations in chemical industries.A flammable material is a gas. unloaded or otherwise handled. w h e n mlxed with a i r In c e r t a i n 244 proportions. SCOPE 1 .2 Flammable Gas-Air Mixture A mixture of flammable gas. 2.20 Nonhazardous (Safe) Area . 2.. The ternpcrature of a liquid 2.rardous atmosphere.4 Hazardous (Flammable) Atmosphere .The extreme values P the concentration of a flammable gas or or vapour in air under atmospheric conditions. A adequately ventilated area could be naturally ventilated or artificially ventilated. 2. forms an ignitable mixture and gives a momentary flash on application of a small pilot flame under specified conditions of test. 2 . 1.

4. or b) eliminate the source of ignition.A gas which cannot be ignited when mixed. 2. 4.26 Flame Arrester -~ A device for releasing gas from an enclosure in such a way that in case of an internal explosion there is no appreciable increase in internal pressure and the released gas will not ignite the surrounding flammable atmosphere. 2.ardous.measures should aim at reducing the likelihood of occurrence of either or both of the above factors SO that the likelihood of coincidence is SO small as to be negligible. 3. Similarly consideration should be given to design and operation of process equipment to ensure that even when it is operating abnormally. its physical characteristics and the natural tendency of vapours to disperse in the a t m o s p h e r e s h a l l b e recognized. 2. and c) Occurrence of ignition. 2. and c) Vapour or flammable this regard are available at Central Mining Research Station (CMRS). Bombay (M aharashtra). applicable to the installation and use of electrical apparatus in hazardous areas shall be kept in view.1 Flammable gases and vapours may cause a *Method of marking for identifying electrical equipment for explosive atmospheres.1 In following the recommendations of this f’ire or explosion when the following three basic conditions are satisfied: a) Presence of sufficient quantity of a flammable gas or vapour. hot surfaces. 2. Facilities for testing . FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS 4. Once a plant has been classliied.2 It is recommended that plants and installations in which flammable materials are handled or stored be so designed that the degree and extent of hazardous areas are kept to a minimum. b) Mixing of flammable gas or vapour with air or oxygen in the proportions required to produce an explosive or ignitable mixture.22 Ignition Capable Apparatus . the various statutes and regulations in force in the country. Department of Explosives. 3. Flammable substances.2 Attention is invited to the fact that the manufacture and use of equipment in hazardous areas is controlled by the statutory authorities listed below for the area of their jurisdiction: 4 The Directorate General of Mines Safety. it is important that no modification to equipment or operating procedures are made without discussion with those responsible for the area classification.Specific measures applied to electrical apparatus to prevent ignition of a surrounding flammable atmosphere by such apparatus. PART 7 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN HAZARDOUS AREAS .3 Testing .Apparatus which in normal operation produce sparks. Dhanbad (Bihar).24 Type of Protection .27 Inert Gas .4 Marking of equipment shall confdrm to IS : 824l-l976*. with a flammable gas or vapour in any concentration.3 Where it is necessary to use electrical apparatus in an environment in which there may be a flammable atmosphere and it is not possible to: a) eliminate l i k e l i h o o d o f a f l a m m a b l e atmosphere occuring around the source of ignition. S T A T U T O R Y R E G U L A T I O N S 3. It is necessary to ensure that process equipment which has been subjected to maintenance shall be carefully checked during and after re-assembly to ensure that safety aspect or integrity of the original design has been maintained before it is returned to service.4 In most practical situations where flammable materials are used it is difficult to ensure that a 245 Part. Nagpur (Maharashtra).surrounding flammable atmosphere in which it is used. and c) The Directorate General Factory Advice Services and Labour Institute. or a flame which can ignite a specific flammable mixture. the potential release of which shall be considered in area classification of electrical installations (see 5) include the followings: a) Nonliquefiable gases.25 Maximum Surface Temperature -The highest temperature attained under practical conditions of operation within the rating of the apparatus (and recognized overloads. if any. Bihar. associated therewith) by any part of any surface (internal or external) the exposure of which to a flammable atmosphere may involve a risk.Measures taken to ensure that electrical apparatus cannot cause an explosion. the amount of flammable material released to the atmosphere is minimized in order to reduce the extent of the area made haz. b) The Chief Controllerate of Explosives. Then . 3.Equipment to be installed in hazardous area have to be certified by a recognized testing authority. 3. Dhanbad. b) Liquefied petroleum gas. 4. 2. 4. Unauthorized action may invalidate the area classification.23 S a f e t y M e a s u r e s . In applying this principle to any potential hazard the quantity of the substance that might be liberated.

It does not deal with dusts since these material can be quiescant for long periods of time until they are disturbed into suspension by a suitable mechanism (ser also 1. This limit is chosen so as to provide a factor of safety for these compounds whose densities are close to that of air. In the petroleum industry such a condition is rarely encountered except in confined spaces. Properties< of primary interest from an ignition standpoint are: TABLE I AREA CLASSIFICATION ZONES (1) DESCRIPTION (2) An area in which a flammable atmosphere is present continuously.Earlier. 5. an area not classified as Zone 0.1. lighter-than-air.This area classification deals only with risks due to combustible gases and vapours and combustible mists.0 A complete knowledge of the physical properties of the flammable*materials involved is essential for classifying a hazardous area. d) volatility. c) flash point. A vapour density greater than one.1 Properties qf Flammable Materials 5. electrical apparatus which has an increased likelihood of becoming a source of ignition may . and f) ignition energy. e) ignition temperature. heavier-than-air.The area classification is given in Table I. The basis for hazardous area classification recognises the differing degrees of probability with which flammable atmospheres (explosive concentrations of combustible gas or vapour) may arise in installations in terms of both the frequency of occurrence and the probable duration of existence on each occasion. indicates the gas or vapour will tend to sink. It presupposes only that any abnormal occurrence is rapidly dispersed so that possible contact with electrical apparatus is of minimum duratton Norc: I . 246 NOTE 2 used.1 The objective of the hazardous area classification is to ensure an adequately safe level of operation of electrical apparatus in flammable atmospheres using the fundamental concepts outlined in 4. a) relative density. 5. b) flammable limits. classified areas were called divisions.1 Relative dertsirt* . Conversely where the likelihood of a flammable atmosphere is reduced. such as the vapour space of closed process vessels. In Zone 0. It may also be difficult to ensure that the electrical apparatus will never give rise to a source of ignition.75. that is.nazardous atmosphere will never occur. for the combustible indicates the gas or vapour will rise in a comparatively still atmosphere.2. the boundary between compounds which may be considered lighter-than-air is set at a relative vapour density of 0. or is present for long periods R EMARKS (3) This classification is applicable only where the harard will exist continuously.2 Flammable limits .2 Extent of Hazardous Area 5. 5.0 General 5.2. storage tanks or closed containers. is deemed non-hazardous or safe and no special precautions are necessary. be predicted without a detailed assessment.Where a substantial volume of gas or vapour is released into the atmosphere from. Reliance is therefore placed on using electrical apparatus which has an extremely low likelihood of creating a source of ignition in situations where a flammable atmosphere has a high likelihood of occurring.1 Area Classification . Some of these characteristics have a direct influence on the degree and extent of hazardous areas while the others affect the design of electrical equipment. N OTE . that is.0.2. a localised source.1. The latter effects will increase with compounds of greater relative vapour density.2. In Zone I.In process industries. 5. and where movement may not. 5. Any electrical apparatus must afford a degree of protection as near as practicable to absolute. any arc or spark would almost certainly lead to fire or explosion. CLASSIFICATION OF HAZARDOUS AREAS 5. It is recommended to avoid installing electrical equipment in Zone 0 areas to the extent possible.By implication. Zone I or Zone 2. NOTE 3 . may be caused only by the atmospnere IS likely to occur in Hrghly improbable and simulnormal operation taneous occurrence of an arc or spark together with a and* if it does occur it will exist hazardous atmosphere arising out of failure of conditions for a short time of control. NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE . the hazard is likely to occur at any time requiring fullest practicable application of measures Zone 0 Zone I An area in which a flammable atmosphere is likely to be present periodically or occasionally during normal operation Zone 2 An area in which Zone 2 is applicable to areas where hazard is unlikely and a flammable .1.The lower the ‘lower flammable limit’ the larger may be the extent of the hazardous area.3). a relative density less than one. therefore. and may thereby ‘spread some distance horizontally and at a low level.

1.2.For flammable liquids.5 Ignition temperature ar. like those used for measurement and control of process variable.2.9 For vapours released at or near ground level.2.1. the opposite is true. *Classification for hazardous areas (other than mines) for electrical installations: Part I Areas having flammable gases and va pours (/irsr rr16ion).2.0 In addition to the properties of tlammable materials involved.A flammable 5. c) Free space immediately above open dipping.Air currents may substantially alter the ‘outline of the limits of potential hazard. 5. the release velocity increases above that which causes turbulent flow.1 Risk points .ld ignition energy .be the extent of the hazardous area.2.2.2.T h e e x t e n t o f hazardous area may increase with increasing rate of release of flammabie materiai. 5.[fecting Extent of Hazard 5. the dispersion of vapours that the extent of potentially hazardous area would be greatly reduced.point . the extent of hazardous area may decrease if. walls) may impede the ventilation and thus may enlarge the extent. Minor releases of flaimable material may be part of normal operation’ but leakage which entail repair or shut down are not part of normal operation. However.2.2. thoSe at ground are next most likely. The extent may also be reduced by an improved arrangement of the ventilation system.Some liquids (such. following factors need to be considered for determining the degree and extent of hazardous areas while applying the guidelines given in IS : 5572 (Part I)-l978* 5.With an increased rate of ventilation. b) Free space above liquid level in tanks. etc.2. 5.2 Temperature ef process liquid . baths. 5.Due to an improved ‘dilution for release of flammable gases. there being little or no potential hazard at and below ground and greater potential hazard above ground. NOTE . are connected directly to gas or a liquid process equipment.8 Obstacles . NOTE .Boiling point can be used for comparing the volatility of flammable liquids.2.Normal operation is the situation in which all plant equipment is operating within its design parameters.Elevated or depressed sources of release will alter the areas of potential hazard.3 Internal Hazards 5.2. Examples of occasional risk points are the immediate vicinity of mechanical glands. A very mild breeze may serve to extend the area in those directions to which vapours might normally be carried. with constant release rate. as certain halogenatcd hydrocarbons) do not possess a flash point although they are capable of producing a flammable atmosphere: in these cases.hazardous area may increase with increasing temperature of process liquid provided the temperature is above the flash point. tk larger may.5 Release velocity -.2. the potential hazard decreases. and 4 Thi immediate vicinity of vapour exhausts and liquid outlets where these are designed to discharge as part of normal plant function. they may limit the mo?ement of a cloud of an explosive gas atmosphere and thus may reduce the extent.2. It should be noted the liquid or vapour temperature after the release may be increased or decreased by the ambient temperature or other factors (for example.2 Factors A. 5. a hot surface). the equilibrium liquid temperature corresponding to saturated concentration at lower flammable limit should be compared with the relevant maximum liquid temperature. The lower the initial boiling point the greater the vapour pressure for a given liquid temperature and hence the greater concentration of vapour at the release source resulting in greater extent of hazardous area. seals relying on wetting by the fluid being pumped and other localized spillage points and of vapour exhausts and liquid outlets designed to discharge only on plant malfunction. 5.Obstacles (for example.2..For lighter-than-air gases.7 Ventilation .3 C o n c e n t r a t i o n of vapour . 5. and as the height above ground increase.2. the extent of hazardous area may be reduced.3.2. 5.4 Volatility .2.1. 247 PART 7 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN HAZARDOUS AREAS . 5.2. The lower the flash point.2. On the other hand. this may introduce additional source of internal and/or external release and consequently influence the external area classification. vapours and/or mists in the air. 5.Ignition temperature and ignition energy of a flammable gas or vapour are taken into account in the design of electrical apparatus for hazardous areas so that these dd not present an ignition risk. 5. the more closely it approximates a flammable gas.3 F l a s h atmosphere cannot exist if the flash point is significantly above the relevant maximum temperature of the flammable liquid. a stronger breeze may so accelerate.2. 5.2. dykes.4 Rate sf release.2.2. . the concentration of the released vapour is related to the vapour pressure at the relevant maximum liquid temperature.2.The extent of a . Some examples of persistent risk points are as follows: a) Interior of pressure vessels and pipes containing gas-air mixtures.2. N OTE .6 Air current .0 In cases where electrical apparatus. the areas where potentially hazardous concentrations are most likely to be found are below ground. The rhore volatile a liquid and the lower its flash point.

*<‘L\sification of hazardous areas (other than mines) for clcctrii‘al installations: Part I Areas having flammable gases a n d vapours (/ir.1 General 6.4. because no oxygen is present.rtrn[ o. 5. 5.2 Detailed guidelines.2. cd. SPECIFIC GUIDELINES FOR ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN HAZARDOUS AREAS 6. When an apparatus in vvhich the internal hazards arc comparable to Zone I is insta!led in a Zone 0 hazardous area.2 When apparatus in which the internal hazards arc comparable to Zone 2 is installed in a safe area’ or in Zone 2. *Specification for electrical equipment with type of protection ‘n’. 5 . Where adequate protection cannot be ensured.4 Efficient bonding should be installed where protection against stray currents or electrostatic charges is necessary.2.1. Interconnection system with other buried metal scrviccs and/or earth terminations for equipment grounding for the purpose of equalizing the potential distribution in the ground should preferably be made below ground. rc~~Y. This applies also when the abnormal release (when occurring) would be restricted. 2 . The earthing conductors shall be sufficiently strong and thick.3 Portable and transportable apparatus shall be grounded with one of the cores of flexible cable for power supply.1. the internal releases cannot create a flammable gas atmosphere. from the point of view of determining the extent of hazardous zones (and their classification) around the source of halard differ in the following broad situations: 6. and ii) Source of hazard above ground level. on the above situations can be had from IS : 5572 (Part I)-1978*. When there is a normal release. Grounding conductors which shall not reach a hazardously high temperature due to the anticipated maximum earthfault current flowing. 6. and ii) Fixed roof tank with vent.1 Earthing shall be in accordance with Part I /Set I2 of the Code. b) Where dilution with air is applied in case c) In all other types of protection. 6. however. provided that there is no normal release and that an abnormal release would be very infrequent and of a relatively short duration.1 ‘The treatment of hazardous area. shall be used.tion).4. b) Enclosed premises and surrounding area (process area with restricted ventilation). 6. but when the same apparatus is installed in Zone I or Zone 0 the external hazards determine the actual hazard condition.1. When. it is recommended that steel pipe racks in the process units and off-site areas should be earthed at every 25 m. location.1. of a restricted normal release the internal hazards are comparable to those in a safe area.2.2 Earthing and Bonding 6.1. the internal hazards determine the actual hazard condition. 6. a) Open-air situations (freely ventilated process area): i) Source of hazard located near ground level. The connection between metal part to be grounded and the grounding conductor shall be made secure mech. 248 NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE . Specific guidelines for installations in hazardous locations are given in Appendix E. for example.1. c) Storage tanks: i) Floating roof.2.2.3. reference should be made to the impact t e s t r e q u i r e m e n t s a c c o r d i n g t o I S : 82b91976* for the apparatus before deciding on any additional measures such as the provision of guards for transparent parts. The earth continuity conductor and the metallic screen wherever provided for the flexible cable should be bonded to the appropriate metal-work of the apparatus and to earthing pin of the plug.3.1’ Zonrs of Ha:ard 5.2. all utility and process pipelines should be bonded to a common conductor by means of earth bars or pipe clamps and connected to the earthing system at a point where the pipelines enter or leave the hazardous area except where conflicting with the requirements of cathodic protection. the internal hazards are comparable to the external hazards in Zone 2. by. the internal hazards are comparable to the hazards in Zone 0 and the abnormal relcasc is not relevant. and the portions of conductor which are likely to be corroded or damaged shall be well protected.anically and electrically by using adequate metallic fitting. In addition.1 Mechanical Slrength All apparatus shall be installed with due regard to the possibility of external mechanical damage.1 The hazards created inside the electrical apparatus by an internal release of flammable gas or vapour may be compared to the external area classification as follows: a ) Where pressurization with inert gas is appli- 6.2 Protection against lightning shall be provided in accordance with Part I /Set 15 of the Code. 4 E. the internal hazards are comparable to the external hazards in Zone 2. the abnormal release would be unrestricted.5 Earthing and bonding qf pipelines and pipe-racks ~ Unless adequately connected to earth elsewhere. the area classification would determine the actual hazard.2.

there is normally no need to have special enclosures for the conductors. and 5) Braided screen-protected flexible cables. slackened conduit joints and corrosion.2 The means of isolation. with an outer protective sheath. Where its installation in a potentially hazardous area cannot be avoided.1. with advantage.1 It is essential that the severity and duration of faults internal or external to the electrical apparatus be limited by external means to values that can bc sustained by the apparatus without disruptive effect. to avoid the possibility of arcing occurring at the point of contact or invasion of the intrinsically safe circuits by current arising from contact or electrostatic or electromagnetic induction. In addition. the switch shall break all poles.0 General. Such means of isolation should be provided for each item of electrical apparatus and/or each subcircuit.2. in addition to’ overload/overcurrent and short-circuit protection.4 Isolarion 6 .1.3. Requirements tor the installation of general power systems’may not apply to the installation of apparatus and systems with type of protection ‘i’ (intrinsic safety). Electrical tests should be carried out at fixed. This applies equallv to single ptiase subcircuits. intervals.2. The diameter of each strand of the conductor shall be not less than 0. Unarmoured lead-covered cable is not acceptable.1. shall be a switch which breaks all poles.2. 6. Protection *of the circulating-current type which automatically cuts off the supply in the event of the earth continuity conductor becoming disconnected. be adopted as’ the earth-monitoring device. Flexible cables are a potential source of hazard.1 Factors Ajfecling Choice of Wiring Svsrem 6.33 Protection and control apparatus shall be normally located in a non-hazardous area.6. internal shortcircuit or earth-fault conditions. 2) Plastics or rubber-sheathed steel screen protected or armoured cable.1.ld be provided with the appropriate type of protection. the conductors should be protected against mechanical damage (see 6.5.300 mm of copper or equivalent size of conductor in the case of aluminium conductors as specified in relevant Indian Standard. cracked glasses. or both should be included in the protection of the portable and transportable apparatus. 4) Mineral insulated metal sheathed cable.2 All circuits and apparatus in hazardous areas shall be provided with means to ensure disconnection quickly in the event of excessive overloads. deterioration of cement. solid drawn or seamless conduits. 6. 6. When the means of isolation is located in a non-hazardous area. when located in a hazardous area. The sheath of a metal-sheathed cable should not be used as the neutral conductor. 1 All electrical circuits should be provided with an effective means of complete circuit isolation. 6.1.1. E q u i p m e n t s h o u l d b e examined for mechanical faults.1.1. However.1. effective provision should be made to prevent the restoration of supply to the apparatus while the risk of exposure of line conductors to a flammable gas-air mixture continues.1. 3) Cables enclosed in a seamless aluminium sheath with or without armour.2 Care shall be taken when inspecting equipment in hazardous areas. 6. For intrinsically safe circuits. some protection will have to be afforded to such conductors primarily to prevent contact between conductors of intrinsically safe circuits and those of any other system.1.1.5 Operation and Maintenance 6. may.2 Wiring Installation 6. together with the portable apparatus. overcurrent.3 Automcrli” Ekclricai Proreclion 6. For (b) the following types of cables may be used in principle: 1) Lead-sheathed and armoured cable.1 None of the protection techniques for 6. 6. they should be frequently inspected.5).4.1 Screwed steel conduit systems are satisfactory. 1 . 4 .4 Apart from sen-powered apparatus and handlamps. 6. In case of distribution systems with isolated neutral.for many situations but should not be 249 electrical equipment for hazardous atmospheres are effective unless the apparatus is operated within the limits indicated by its nameplate marking and is properly maintained according to the recommendations of appropriate Indian Standards. an automatic earth-fault alarming device may be considered adequate. and which is provided with an appropriate type of protection against explosive hazards. such apparatus shou. of wiring and systems which may be used for installation in hazardous areas are: a) cables drawn into screwed. The means of isolation shall be capable of being locked in the ‘OFF’ position. and b) cables which are otherwise suitably protected against mechanical damage.3 When the means of isolation is not immediately adjacent to the associated ap’paratus. 6. the neutral being isolated by a removable link. including the neutral. PART 7 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN HAZARDOUS AREAS . including the neutral. 6. earth-leakage protection or earth monitoring.4. with sheath overall. circuits shall be made dead before removing covers.

the casing or sheathing should be independently earthed as near as possible to the .3 Where practicable. l-he a r m o u r i n g s h o u l d b e carried into the clamps to pro\idc m e c h a n i c a l support to the cable and to ensure electrical continuity.2 Where circuit:. 6.2. e q u i p m e n t o r pipework u s e d f o r c a r r y i n g combustible gases. The cable u s e d t o c o n n e c t t h e o\.2. and to prevent the collection of combustible gases. owing to particular circumstances. conduit or cable\.3 PVC-insulated and armoured cable. the earth electrodes for the surge-protection apparatus on the overhead line may be used for earthing the c a b l e s h e a t h o r taxing and for any lightning NATIONAL El. 6. contact.mmunication c i r c u i t s . 6.2. The casing. a n d t h e c o n n e c t i n g cable to the installation consequently is short. ducts and pipes. vapours or liquids in trenches. Leads h e a t h e d c a b l e s h o u l d be usal Hhcrc spillages may affect the intcgriti of the cable and or 3110~ migration of the liqujd through rhc c a b l e . 50 that no space remains around the cable through which combustible gas liquid or vapour might spread. a common electrode may be used for this independent earth and for the lightning-protective system of the installation.2.ided for them should be made good with cement or similar incombustible material to the full thickness of the floor.2. 2 . SteelHire armour is: preferred for underground use. conduit or sheathing of the cable should’ be bonded to the equipment or pipework in such a manner and at such intervals as to ensure that under the worst fault conditions. vapours or liquids from one ar-ca to another. c-ODE 6.2. 6. and e) A l u m i n i u m :trmouI-ed or sheathed cable shall not be used in Zone 0 areas. b) The wiring shall be so madc. either d e l i b e r a t e o r accidental. the Iced sh(.4 Where. pipes or trenches’ are used to accommodate cables. plastic-insulated and armoured tclcphonc cables may be to avoid contact with other circuits. 6.2.2.erhead line with the installation in the hazardous area should comply with the recommendations for wiring systems in ha/ardous areas. wall.1 Correctly designed terminations complete with armour clamp\ shall be prokidcd for armoured cable\. the passage of any current will not give rise to incendive sparking or bring about a tedperature rise approaching the ignition temperature of the combustible gas.or above ground or underground installation.2.5 ‘.7 Where an overhead supply line is used for either power or telecommunication circuits.2 Lead-sheathed and armoured cables arc suitable for underground installation.junction of the cable with the installation and bonded to the earthing lead of any lightning protective system associated with the hazardous area.2. partition or ceiling.3 is unavoidable.6 Where trunking.1. complying with IS : 15S4 (Part I)-l976* with an cxt ruded plastic outer sheath may be used l. vapour or liquid which may be present.2.2. the armouring. 4 F o r telecc. If convenient.2. 6. Wiring\ of circuits which have been approved as intrlnsically safe may follow’ the requirements of generaI electrical wiring except that the following requirement\ shall -be obserced: a) The conditions of use laid down on the test certificate issued by the approving authorit) shall be observed. the hole pro\. Where the overhead line supplying a building f o r m i n g : I hazardous area is supported by the building. Such precautions may involve the sealing of trunking. c) l-he w i r i n g s h a l l b e \o made as to avoid electromagnetic or clcctro5tatic i n d u c t i o n from other cil-cuit(s). 6. 1 . Alternatively.5 In Zone 0 areas only intrinsically hal’c circuits shall be installed and its uhe shall be kept to an unavoidable minimum. armouiing or sheathing and armouring should be electrically continuous and the end adjacent to the point of connection with the overhead line should be bonded to the earth electrode of the overhead line.s area to another. Where such cable is Icad covcrcd and armoured. d) T h e w i r i n g \hiill be adequateI! p r o t e c t e d against mechanicai damage. Alternatively cable glands may be used for this purpose.ith should bc plumbed or m e c h a n i c a l l y g r i p p e d a n d waled a n d t h e armouring should be carried O\CI the lcad joint. Conduit should not be used if it is likelv to be subjected to vibration. and an) 250 .E<l RIC‘At. partition or ceding..Vhere cables or conduit pass through a f l o o r . precautions should be taken to prevent the passage of combustible gases.2.1. vapours or liquids. 6. traverse 3 hazardous area in passing front one non-ha/ardou. contact between components referred to in 6. duets.2.2. In addition.2. wall. the uiring in the hazardous arca should c o m p l y w i t h the rc‘quirt’mcntc of thih htandald.u~i bhcrc vibration might cause fracture or loosening of joints and where excessive stress may be imposed as a result of its rigidity or where corrosion or excessive internal condensation of moisture is likely to occm. \houId bs a v o i d e d between apparatus. it should be terminated outside the hazardous area and be fitted at or near the terminal pole with an effective surge-protection apparatus. in the case of cable the insulation of the sheath may be sufficient to prevent danger. 6 .1. and the adequate ventilation or sand filling of trenches. 6.

be provided with locknuts. Conduit.11 Metal conduit containing no unions.2. and that the total resistance of the earth-fault current path. Surface-mounted conduit should be supported by spacing saddles. including those in or hetwan flameproof enclosures and conduit.protective system associated with the hazardous area. has been certified.12 For process pumps.3 The lengths of the screwed part of any conduit should be in accordance with the requirements of IS : 2148-1968:.3 All cables shall be provided with adequate mechanical protection. unless a self-contained’ assembly.2.2.8 All joints in an assembly of conduit should be painted aftet assembly with moistureresisting paint to inhibit . free from intermediate joints.8 The wiring entry to the apparatus.4 Where.10 Where cable terminals are used in apparatus and accessories with the type of protection ‘e’ or ‘n’they shall be fixed in position so as to ensure maintenance of the creepage and clearance distances as specified in IS : 638l-1972* and IS : 8289-1976t.2 Cable runs should. PART 7 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS TN HAZARDOLIS AREAS . direct or indirect. 6. should not be used except for the immediate connection of conduit to apparatus.3.2. proper means shall be provided to prevent accumulation of or to permit drainage of such liquid periodically.10 Seals shall be provided within 450 mm where conduit run is terminated on the apparatus.2. other than those of the inspection type. an additional approved seal or barrier shall be provided with an adequate drain between the seals in such a manner that leaks would be obvious. that is. for electrical equipment with type of protection ‘n’. 6. cable trays or through protective troughs or tubes.4.the development of rust. Cables shall be adequately supported throughout their length. The types of the cable for use in hazardous areas shall be as specified in this Section.2.7 Elbows or tees. 6.5 All screwed joints should be pulled up tight and should. The use of running couplings is not recommended but where it is impracticable to avoid their use. certified unions approved for flame-proof purposes should be used.4. 6. Rising cab!es should be clipped. having an exiernal diameter of more than 25 mm.3. where practicable.13 Where there is a probability that any vapour or moisture in the air may he condensed into liquid within the conduit runs. boxes or fittings that passes through a hazardous location with no fittings less than 300 mm beyond each boundary may not be sealed if the termination points of the unbroken conduit are in non-hazardous locations. 6. or in cable ducts. conditions associated. In view of the operating be uninterrupted. in concrete trenches. boxes or sealing fittings.9 Where a run of conduit.2. or cable sheaths and armour. etc. the apparatus used for.23. independent of external connections. 6.2. couplings. box or fitting in the conduit between the sealing fittings and point at which the conduit leaves the hazardous locations. coupling.2. should maintain the type of protection used. 6. 6.2.2. 6. 251 *Specification for construction and testing of electrical apparatus with ty e of protection ‘e’. measured from any point in the installation.1 Cable systems include cables laid above ground or cables laid underground directly buried. care being taken to avoid excessive pressure when clamp supports are used. continuous and therefore.2.3.3 Laying qf Conduits 6.9 Unused cable entries in electrical apparatus should be closed with plugs suitable for the type of protection used. irrespective of size.3. canned 6.2 Elbows of the solid type may be used for the immediate connection of conduit to apparatus. in a run of conduit. Horizontal cables may be carried on supports. is such as to ensure reliable operation of the protection devices in all seasons. cleated or otherwise attached to suitable supports which provide adequate mechanical protection.2. connections for instruments. and all inspection fittings should be of the fiameproof type. is such as to prevent a dangerous rise of temperature or voltage from the passage of fault current.2.3.4. 6. factorymade assemblies should be used and the running coupling should be secured by locknuts. should be fitted with a stopper box at each point of connection with apparatus or fittings.23. 6.2.It is important to ensure efficient earthing and bonding in a flameproof installation. 6. 6.2. 6.2. interconnection should be provided with the type of protection appropriate to the zone. it is necessary to employ a joint other than a screwed coupler. 6.4 Laving qf Cables 6.2. +Specification. with the use of flameproof apparatus. screwed and galvanized.3. that depend upon a single seal diaphram or tube to prevent process fluids from entering the electrical conduit system. 6. passes from a hazardous area to a nonhazardous area.2. a stopper or sealing box or appropriate sealing device shall be inserted on the side remote from the hazardous area. There shall be no union. :Specification for flameproof enclosures of electrical apparatus (/irsf revision). 6. NOTE -. Where discontinuities cannot be avoided.3. 6. attention is drawn to the necessity of ensuring that the resistance of all joints. in addition.2.1 Conduits shall be solid-drawn or seamless. either during installation or subsequently.3.

inserted it shall make connection before or at the same time as the main contact arc made.4. Use of screened cables are also permitted.2.2.6 Where trunking. should not be 252 NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE . 6. I he contacts of grounding conductor shall be mechanically and electrically of at least the same quality as the main contacts and when the plug i:. surge suppression devices should be fitted.2. 6. 7 Protet. Congideration should be giLen to the avoidance of frictignal contact N ith such cables. vertical runs should be avoided.6.2.2 Datlgers Jwm e. means should be provided to prevent sharp bending of the cable at both points of entry.1 Plugs and sockets for installation in Zone 2 areas shall bc flameproof type.4.2. preference should be given to non-draining cables.9 Cable glands. 6 .5. 6. shall be flameproof type for flameproof enclosure and double-compre\sion type for enclosure having type of protection other than flameproof. 2 . thq s h o u l d b e s u i t a b l y explosionprotcctcd.7.2.2. 6 .8’ Correctly designed complete with armour clamps shall be provided for armourcd cables. cl H e a v y t o u g h r u b b e r s h e a t h e d flexible cables. 2 . if ncccssary. Where this requirement is not met by construction other precautions shall be taken. and d) Plastic insulated cables equivalent to ordi.4. and to prc\ent the collection of combustible ga\es.2 An effective cable clamping device so designed as not to damage the insulation of the flexible cable.5. ducts. and particularly where such cables ma)’ be exposed to high temperature. 1 2 W h e r e t h e r e i s r i s k o f mineralinsulated cables being exposed to excessive v o l t a g e s s u c h a s i n d u c t i v e surges. 2 . Lapours or liquids in trenches.2.idcd w i t h m e a n s f o r ensuring adequate earth continuity.5 Pl1r. 6 . trenches 6.4.1 Flexible cable of the types specified below may be used for connection between a fixed source of supply and the portable transportable apparatus through flatieproof plugs and sockets: a) Ordinaq t o u g h r u b b e r sheathed tlcxible cables. the lead sheath should be plumbed or mechanically gripped and sealed and the armouring should be carried over the lead joint. the armouring should be carried into the clamps to provide mechanicai support to the cable and to ensure electrical continuity.2.2. installed in contact with Lvalls o r f l o o r . b) Ordinaq t o u g h pol!chloroprcnc shcathcd flexible cables. Those shall be of interlocked switch t)pc.2. 1 1 W h c r c elcctrol!. should be provided at the points of entry of the flexible cable to the apparatus and plug.4. Where surge supprccsion devices are installed in hazardous areas. precautions s h o u l d b c t a k e n t o ’ .4. b 6.tive Spark ing M e a s u r e s . 4 .6.2. 6.10 Cable fittings for mineral insulated cables shall be suitable for use with the appropriate apparatus to which they are to be attached.insulated cable may result from contact with walls or other surfaces to which the cable is attached. 6.13 Aluminium sheathed cables. 6. be provided with adequate means to prevent the transmission of flammable material into the non-hazardous area co:isidcration should also bc given to the treatment of cables against fire transmission.q.5 The passage of cables from a hiTardous area to a non-hazardous area should. pipes or a r c u s e d t o accommodate cables.v 6.In order to avoid the formation of sparks liable to ignite the explosive gas atmosphere.c ntItJ So1~Xrl. it should be kept clear of such surface or covered with a protective sheath. terminations 6.1 Dangers jirom li\?e parts --. 4 . In addition. any contact with bare live parts other than intrinsically safe parts shall be prevented.7 Cables capable of tr-ansmitting gases or vapours through the core shall be sealed in the hazardous location in such a manner as to prevent passage of gases or vapours into a non-hazardous location.2 Plugs and sockets shall be of the type that provides for connections to the earthing conductor of the tlexible cables. unless sheathed with a protective covering.2. Where such cables are load covered and armoured.6.f~om Datlgcrol:s 6. Such precautions may involve the scaling of trunking. 6.vposed and e.tic c o r r o s i o n o f c o p p e r sheath of mineral .rtrancous c~nndwri~~e purrs It is impracticable to cover all possible systems in this case but the basic principles on which safety depends are the limitation of earth c u r r e n t s ( m a g n i t u d e a n d potentials on equalizing conductors). where used. Fittings should bc arranged for scaling the cable i n s u l a t i o n a n d b e pro\.4 Where paper-insulated armoured cables are used.4. nary tough rubber sheathed tlcxible cables. In certain cases a warning label may be sufficient. In the case of other types of paper-insulated armoured cables..4. 6.2.precent t h e passage of combustible gases. 6. ducts and popes and the adequate ventilation or \and filling of trenches.7. Lapours or liquids from one area to another.2.

Guidance on permissible power systems is given below: a) If a Dower svstem with an earthed neutral is used: the tipi TN-S system with separate neutral (N) and protective conductor (PE) throughout the system is preferred. either by the monitoring device or by a residual current operated device. Where gases of different degrees of hazard exist in the same area. The type TT power system is not permitted in Zone 0. Enclosures need not be separately connected to the equipotential bonding system if they are secured to and are in metallic contact with structural parts or piping which are connected to the equipotential bonding system. A power system of type TN-C (having combined neutral and protective functions in a single conductor throughout the system) is not allowed in hazardous areas. 6. conduits. 6..5 The selected electrical apparatus shall be adequat@ly protected against corrosive and solvent agencies. Instantaneous earth fault protection shall be installed. metal cable sheaths.To avoid dangerous sparking between metallic parts of structures.3. No cathodic protection shall be provided for metallic parts in Zone 0 unless they are specially designed for this application. 6.4 The selected appartus will normally have a recognized type of protection and should also be selected for the appropriate temperature class and the appropriate apparatus group applicable. However there are certain pieces of tiqui’pment. The conductance between metallic parts of structures ‘shall correspond to a cross section of at least IO mm’ of copper. 6. NATE-Potential equalization between vehicles and fixed installations may require special metins. an insulation monitoring device should be used to indicate the First earth fault.1. 6. 6. The neutral and the protective conductor shall not be connected together.7. 6.1 The selection of electrical apparatus for explosive gas atmospheres is based on the general principle that the likelihood of the simultaneous presence of a hazardous atmosphere and a source of ignition is reduced. For additional information. when insulated flanges in connecting pipelines are used.6 Particular consideration shall be given to the location of apparatus which incorporates aluminium or light alloys in the construction of its 253 4 For all power system installed in Zone 0 irrespective of the voltages due attention should be paid to the limitation of earth fault currents in magnitude and duration.3. in a hazardous area. which are not intended to be connected to the equipotential bonding system.3. located in hazardous areas are live extraneous conductive parts which shall be considered potentially dangerous (especially if equipped with the impressed current m&hod) despite their low negative potential.3 When the electrical apparatus has an internal release of flammable material.1.1.3 Selection of Equipment 6.1 General 6. the actual hazard is a combination of the external and internal hazards and both must be taken into account when selecting an adequate type o protection.1.5 Electromagnetic radiation . it shall be protected with a residual current device even if it is a safety extra-low voltage circuit (below 50 V).3.Account should be taken of the effects due to strong electromagnetic radiation.2.3 Potential equalization .7.2 When the electrical apparatus does not have an internal release of flammable material. and against water ingress and thermal and mechanical stresses as determined by the environmental conditions. to an acceptable low level.3. Therefore.7.3.4 Cathodically protected metallic parts -.1. steel wire armouring and metallic parts of structures but shall not include neutral conductors.1. for example. fault protection devices for certain applications in Zone I. se@ relevant Indian Standards.Cathodically protected metallic parts b) If a type IT power system (separate earths for power system and exposed conductive parts) is used in Zone I. the classification of the hazardous area surrounding the electrical equipment decide the selection of an adequate type of protection.3. PART 7 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN HAZARDOUS AREAS . all exposed and extraneous conductive parts shall be connected to the main or supplementary equipotential bonding system. cl For an IT power system (neutral isolated from earth or earthed through impedance). potential equaiization is always required for installations in Zone 0 and Zone I areas and may be necessary for installations in Zone 2 areas. However equipment in Zone 0 shall be disconnected instantaneously in case of the first earth fault. the type of protection appropriate for the highest degree of hazards shall be applicable.2.2.. for example some intrinsically safe apparatus. NoTt -~ It may also be necessary to provide instantaneous earth. 6. 6. The bonding system may include normal protective conductors. or combined in a single conductor. These construction requirements should ensure that the protection against explosion is not reduced when the apparatus is used in the specified conditions of service.

the maximum surface temperture may be based on a reference ambient temperature other than 40°C is used. temperature classification required for the apparatus.1. the following information is necessary: which would be allocated therefore to J.1). the surface to be considered is the external surface.3. N OTE I --A‘ reference ambient temperature of 40°C is normally assumed when apparatus is designed to operate within one of the temperature classes indicated above.7 As electrical apparatus for flammable special safety require gas atmospheres maintenance after they are installed. 3 . 6. NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 234 .1 In order that electrical apparatus may be selected for use in hazardous area. gases and vapours have been classified according to the groups or subgroups of apparatus required for use in the particular gas or vapour *Classification of maximum surface temperatures of electrical equipment for use in explosive atmospheres.3.1. enclosures or other enclosures may sometimes be eliminated by the adoption of special design. 6. the permitted maximum surface temperature have been classified in’ IS : 8239-1976* a!. or the upper-limit temperature for any unprotected surface according to IS : 8239-1976 (WC 6.8 It is advisable that the selection of made after full electrical apparatus be considerations hake been given not only to the initial cost of installation but also to the expected life and expenses for operation and maintenance of the apparatus.2. 6. For special applications.3). However. 6. follows: a) The classification of the area.1. the guidance provided in Table 2 shall be followed in the selection of equipment for hazardous rlreas. To simplify the manufacture of apparatus. 6.3. internal surfaces are equally important if the explosive gas air mixture has access to them c) The characteristics of the gas or vapour involved in relation to (see 6.ject group. 3 and 4 as applicable.The selection d t)‘pc of protection of the equipment for different lone of hazardous areas shall be made an accordance with Tables 2. Similarly electrical apparatus which is designed so that it may be used with certain fammable materials in a particular lone ma!’ be used with flammable materials in /one of lesser risk Hithout restriction provided it is determined that the flammable materials likeI!. the selection of electrical apparatus shall be made with full considerations to the facility and frequency of inspection and maintenance.3.1 of IS : 2148-1981-q. b) The ignition temperature of the gas or vapour involved. I) Ignition current or minimum ignition e n e r g y in the case of installations of intrinsically safe apparatus.2. No’rE 2 It should. 6. again to consideration of temperature classification and chemical compatibility.1.9 Unless otherwise specified for a particular equipment. to b e p r e s e n t are compatible with the following characteristics of the apparatus: a ) The apparatus grouping (where this is applicable). Temperature classes -. and c) Chemical compatibility. lesser sub. The necessity for equipment with flameproof. For apparatus with other types of explosion protection. any equipment which in the opinion of the authorized inspector affords a degree of safety not less than that afforded by the equipment specified may be accepted as an alternative.tion P. or 2) Safe gap data in the case of installations for flameproof enclosures_ Apparatus certified to the constructional and design requirements for a particular group may also be used with compounds of lesser risk and *Guide for selection of electrical equipment of halardous areas tSpecilication for flameproof enclosures for electrical apparatus. there is also a danger of ignition at a hot surface exposed to a flammable atmosphere. therefore.4 Apparafus groups . preparation for spares and repairing materials and the extent of allowable interruption of power supply during maintenance work.3). The maximum surface temperature of any unprotected surface of electrical equipment should not exceed the ignition temperature of the gas or vapour.3.Besides the danger 6f explosion caused by an electric spark or arc.2. These have been outlined in IS : 55711979* reference to which should be made (see a/so 5.~pc of protection -. 6 .enclosure.2. Flammable gases and vapours fall into fairly well-defined groups when classified with reference to their ignition temperature. 2 Selec. such as pressurized equipment.2..2 Sc~kcrion of’ t. the value will be clearly marked on the noted that for apparatus with type of protection ‘d’ flameproof enclosure.3.otdrrrt~ 6.1. This will permit determination of the. or the lowest values of ignition temperature if more than one combustible material is present. 6. that is--the lone (see 6.For the purpose of flameproof enclosures and intrinsic safety.. b) l’hc temperature classification.

or with a smgle fault. 2 . intrinsically safe electrical apparatus catagories ia and ih and associated circuits should be employed Type of protection ‘i’. (Ex-i. PTessL~ri:ed f?nnc/osure ( Ex-p) [see IS : 7389 (Part I)-197621 An enclosure for electrical apparatus in which the entry of flammable gas or vapour is prevented by maintaining the air (or other nonflammable gas) within the enclosure at a pressure above that of the external atmosphere.3.) Apparatus in this category is incapable of causing ignition in normal operation.WWJ~I~ rnision).1 9 und 6 . doors are properly secured.TABLE 2 TYPES OF PROTECTION FOR DIFFERENT HAZARDOUS AREAS ((‘lousrs 6. voltage. Zone I a) Type of protection adequate for Zone 0. through any joints or structural openings in the enclosure (WC IS : 2148-1981. Zone 0 Apparatus in this category is incapable of causing Ignition in normal operation. It is placed in one of the following categories: a) CU/CKWI. by breaking or closing the circuit) or accidentally (for example by shortcircuit or earth fault) is incapable.). tspecification for flameproof enclosures of electrical apparatus (. 3 . under prescribed test conditions. or with any combination of two faults applied with a specified safety factor for current and ior. An intrinsically safe apparatus is one in which all electrical circuits are intrinpically safe. without suffering damage and without communicating the internal flammation to the external flammable gas %r vapour for which it is designed. of causing ignition of a prescribed gas or vapour. This type of protection has following categories (for choice see Table 3). DESCRIPTION (3) lnrrrnsic Sq/er_v (Ex-i) (see IS : 5780-1980*) A circuit or part of a circuit is intrinsically safe when any spark or thermal effect produced normally (that is. or with any single fault applied. b) Flameproof equipment--Type of protection ‘d’ Flammproq/ Enclosure (Ex-d) An enclosure for electrical apparatus that will withstand when the covers or other accL%!. a) Pressurization with air and alarm in case of less of air pressure [Ex-p( I)] b) Pressurization with air and automatic switching off from electric supply in case of loss of air pressure [Ex-p(2)] c) Pressurization with inert gas and alarm in case of loss of inert gas pressure [Ex-p(3)] d) Pressurization with inert gas and automatic switching off from electric supply in case of less of inert gas pressure [Ex-p(4)] e) Dilution with air and alarm in case of loss of air supply [Ex-p(S)] f) Dilution with air and automatic switching off from electric supply in case of loss of air supply c) Pressurized enclosure-Type of protection ‘p’ [Ex-P(6)] *Intrinsically safe electrical apparatus and circuits (firs/ rethion). ZSpecification for presburi7ed enclosures of electrical appartus for use in explosive: Part I Pressurized enclosure with no internal source of flammable gas or vapour (firsr re\*itrt~). (Conrinued) PART 7 E:LE(‘TRICAL I N S T A L L A T I O N S I N HA%ARDOI:S AREAS 255 . when this is not practicable. 2 ) Zi)xE (1) TYPF OF PROTCCTION (2) No electrical equipment should be allowed. with a specified safety factor for current and/or voltage. an internal explosion of the flammable gas or vapour which may enter it or which may originate inslde the enclosure.

‘9’ only area classification and ignition temperature are required. *Specification tSpccification :Speclflcation @Specification . c) Increased safety apparatus protection ‘e’. d) Hermetically sea!ed apparatus protection ‘s’ (see Note I) 1 ypc 01 Nort I Special protection category IS reserved for those types of protrctlon that cannot be classilied as belonging wholly to any one of the above types.ond revision). n o a r c occur\ Nithin the outer cxplosi\r atmosphcrc either h! the transmi\+lon o f f l a m e o r h! the overheating of the fail\ of the cnclo\ure.iSpeclllcatlon 71 Spccillcatlon for for for for lor for sand-filled protection of electrical equipment for use in explosive atmospheres. e) Oil immersed apparatus Type of protection ‘0’ fJ Such other apparatus as mav he rpeclflcall> c e r t i f i e d o r as:iessed for use in Zone I arear\. where apparatus ‘is protected by Ex-‘I’ or Ex-‘d in addition to one of these types of protection. it is necessary to determine the appropriate apparatu\ grouplr. Norb 3 ~~~ Oil-immersed apparatus may bC used only m case its security will’pot apparatus. 2 For outdoor installation.h the cquipmellt ]\I 40 de\lpned and con\tructcd t h a t t h e cutcrnal intlammable ga\e\ or Lapour\ cann~>t e n t e r t h e cnclo\ure and hence prc\ent\ .UIC\ additional to those a d o p t e d in ordinal! !ndu\trlal practice a r e applltd. ‘n’ and where applicable. in huch a \cay that under the conditions of WC for. construction and testing of electrical apparatus with type of protection ‘e’.rical apparatus for llse in explos~e gas atmospheres. However. 01 PROTFL’llOh (2) d) Sand filled apparatus~-Type protection ‘q’ of Surrd-/i/M U/I/XI~&LC\ (Fx-q) (. rvpe of protectmn 6s’ Zone 2 a) Tlpe of protection applicable for Zone 0 or Zone I./\ (t Y-c‘) (WC’ IS h?X 1-1972$) A method ol protcctl~.SCJ/<. be impaired by tilting or vibration of the NOlb 4 For apparatus with type of protection ‘p’ ‘c’. \o a\ to gl\c InctcCl\i+ securlt! aga~nht the po\\lhlllt! r11 C\CCI\I\C temperature5 and the occurrcncc 01 ate\ or \parh\ in electrical apparatur uhlch di>ci !~ot p r o d u c e arc\ 01 \parks i n norm31 WI\ ~LC A m e t h o d oI protection in u htc.w IS 7724Flectrtcal apparatu\ which ha\ all it\ Ii\c I975*) p a r t \ cntircl) e m b e d d e d in a ma\\ of powder> material.I\.TABLE 2 TYPES OF PROTECTION FOR DIFFERENT tlAZARDD1’S AREAS Ccmrtl JOV6 (1) TYpt. flameproof enclosures of electrical apparatus (ser. It may be that a combination of several types of protection is incorporated within one piece of apparatus. electrical equipment with type of protection ‘n’.I \our-ce of ~gnltlon like an ale or spark from corn~rlg unto c~nl. Norr.n in \\hlch IIIC. the apparatus with type of protection ‘e’ and ‘n’ should be used with enclosures providing at least the following degree of protection: a) IP 55 where there are uninsulated conducting parts mternally. (see Note 2) type of /~1l~rW\<‘~/ . 256 NAtIONAt ELECT?fICAL C O D E . and b) IP 44 for insulated parts. oil-immersed eiect.H hich the apparatus ha\ been designed.~cl with the Inflammable g a s o r \apour.g according to IS : 5780-1979 ij and IS : 214% 19818) respectively. intrinsically sale electrical apparatus and circuits.

Adequate. Group I Group II 6.apparatus is sub-divided according to the requirements appropriate to the.3. gases and vapours are classified according to the ratio of their minimum igniting currents (MIC) with that of laboratory methane.4. Group II .X Below 0.1) IISTERNAL RELEASE AREA C LASSIFICATION T YPE ’ d e i. n NL) OF P ROTECTION P(3) P(4) P(5) P(6) i--7Normal Abnormal Restricted None Unrestricted Restrtcted Restricted Unrestricted Unrestricted Not relevant Legend N Not relevant Not relevant H P(2) . Zone-2 Zone-I NH.3 Individual Features Equipmenf for Hazardous Areas features of individual equipment in hazardous areas are indicated it is either regularly supervised by trained personnel or gas-free conditions are regularly monitored. 6. for which a particular group of enclosure is suitable are listed in IS : 9570-1980*.The essential for installation in Table 5.9 mm < 0. 2 Y / atmosphere.45 6.4. research. provided that adequate measures have been taken to ensure an adequate level of safety.see IS : 7689-1974* 6. gases and vapours are classified according to their maximum experimental safe gap (MESG).2.2 Apparatus which is intended to be used for short periods only may be of normal industrial design but only when operating in Zone 2.2 Stark Electricit!! .Represenrarive atus SuhGas &TO”P IIA IIB IIC Propane Ethylene Ma rimum Eqwimenral Safe Gap > 0. Not adequate. switchgear and equipment may be located in a pressurized room within a hazardous area meeting the following requirements: *Guide for control of undesirable static electricity.8 Betbeen 0. None-2 Zone-l NH.1.45 and 0. For flameproof enclosures. electrical 6.9 mm Greater than 0. i. if the internal components of circuits are not ignition-capable during normal operation.1) AKEA Cl \SSIFI<‘ATIO\ (1) Zone I Zone 2 ‘p’ E NCLOSURE DUES NOT C O N T A I N I GNITION -CAPABLE A PPARATUS (2) Alarm No action required E NCLOSURE C ONTAINS I GNITIONC APABLE A PPARATUS (3) Alarm and switch off Alarm TABLE 4 ADEQUATE TYPES OF PROTECTION FOR ELECTRICAL APPARATUS WITH AN INTERNAL SOURCE OF RELEASE (Clause 6. These sub-groups with a representative gas and the design parameters are as follows: Appar.1 Where unavoidable. Adequate.4. of the internal components of circuits have type of protection adequate for Zone-l.3.4. The groups of the apparatus are: ~~ for mining applications (fire damp) ~.applications in other industries.3 Pressurized Rooms Hydrogen Various gases and vapours. nature of the flammable. *Classification of flammable gases of vapours with air according to their maximum experimental safe gaps and minimum igniting currents. and in emergency situations) apparatus may be used which is not specially designed for use in Zone I or Zone 2 hazardous areas. For intrinsic safety. atmosphere for which the apparatus is intended. Zone-2 Zone-l NH. PART 7 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN HAZARDOUS AREAS 251 . 6. NOTE -.1.S m m Minimum lgnirion Currenr Ratio Above 0. NH.4. Zone-2 Zone-I Zone-O f I I 1 I J .5 mm less than 0. development or repair-work. Adequate.1 In exceptional circumstances (for example.TABLE 3 MINIMI’M ACTIONS IF FAILURE OF PROTECTIVE GAS FOR TYPE OF PROTECTION (Clause 6.3. Zone-2 Zone-i NH.- : Non-hazardous area.4 Miscellaneous Requirements Electrical of .1 Exceptional Circumsfances 6.

If necessary a suitable guard shall be provided by means of cables in screwed steel conduits. the enclosure together with the enclosed apparatus shall be type ‘d’ protection a) Lighting fittings for Zone I b) Lighting ftttings with type of protection ‘e’ or ‘n’ iv) Switchgear and controlgear No switchgear and controlgear shall be used. alternatively.3) E QUIPMENT (1) I) ZONE 0 (2) in this area ZONE I (3) Z ONE 2 (4) a) Motor suitable for Zone I areas. Provision against lateral displacement necessary All switches. ii) under adequate head of oil. circuit-breakers. auxiliary devices may be deleted or installed in a safe zone rendered safe by pressurization. fuses and other equipment. a) All power and drstribution Transformers and capacitors suitable transformers and capacitors for Zone I areas with type ‘d’ protection b) For control and. these shall be: i) type ‘d’ or hermitically sealed. instrumentation purposes. Motors with type of protection ‘p’ ii) Transformers and capacitors No transformer or capacitor shall be used in this area. Any other sparking accessories or switch shall comply with the requirements for Zone I area Where oil-filled transformers are used. iii) of mercury in glass type with adequate mechanical protection. for example. b) Motors with type of protection ?t’ a n d ‘e’ However all normally sparking parts such as slip-rings and brushes shall be provided with type of protection ‘d’ or ‘p’ Motors provided with a combination of the above forms of protection. slip-ring motors in which the main enclosures and windings are offype ‘e’ but the normally sparking parts of type ‘d’. type of protection ‘i’ Transformers and capacitors that are dry type or contatning liquids that need not have an)i special enclosure provided that the following requitements are satisfied: Cable boxes shall be suitable for specified level of current and fault clearing time Only off-circuit manually-operated tapchangers shall be allowed with provision for locking the operating handle in position Auxiliary devices shall be intrinsically safe or if they have sparking contacts.TABLE 5 FEATURES OF ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT (Clause 6.3. When not practicable use type 5’ protection All equipment where arcing may occur under normal conditions of operation shall be type ‘d’ unless the interruption of current occurs in a hermetically sealed chamber. and the equipment is provided with a general purpose (Conrimed) 2!% NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE .protection Motors No motor shall be used a) Motors with type of protection ‘d’ b). necessary precautions against spread of fire (see 1646-1961) shall be complied with iii) Lighting fittings No lighting fittings shall be used All ltghtrng fittings shall be flameproof. iv) of enclosed break type Or.





enclosure and also if the current interrupting contacts are oil-immersed, enclosed break switches for lighting. etc. with flameproof breaking chamber, mercury in glass switches and enclosed break microswitches v) Generators No generators shall be used in Zone 0 area Generators with Type ‘d’ and ‘p’ protectton Equipment suitable for Zone I areas Generators with type ‘n’ protection or ‘0’ and haying brushless excitation system and sparking parts, if provided shall comply with Zone I requirements vt) Diesel engines Unacceptable The use of permanentaly installed diesel engines to the avoided Where ncccs~~ry, they shall be protected as given i n Appendts H vii) Storage batteries Shall not be used. Storage batteries shall not be installed in Zone I areas except those in portable lamps where the enclosures housing the bulb. jwitch and battcrv shall be flameprooi type The use of permanently installed diesel engines to be avoided Equipment suitable for Zone I areas

Storage batteries shall be of type *e’ protection (see Appendix C)

a) The pressurized room shall be situated in


such area within a hazardous location, which is least hazardous and from which the operators working in the room can easily evacuate in the event of an accident. ceiling, floor, doors and the like shall be on non-combustible materials and shall be sufficiently resistant to explosion blasts or other mechanical effects. room shall be such as not-to allow gases or vapours to penetrate easily through them. and at least one of them shall face the direction of no source of hazard as for as practicable.

of doorways is maintained higher than the atmospheric pressure outside the room.

b) Main structural parts such as wells, pillars,

.i) An alarm or other device shall be provided so that any disorder in the pressurization system may’ be assuredly noticed. ” k) Openings to lead uirings or pipings from the hazardous locations into the room shall be so constructed as not to admit explosive gases into the room. by filling tightly the space around conduits or pipes with cement or similar incombustible materials.
N o r t - - E l e v a t e d ambient temperatures c a n b e e x p e c t e d i n pressurized room\. Accordingly, tt is advisable that due account be taken while selecting electrical equipment for installation In pressurized rooms.

cl Structural materials and construction of the d) More than one doorway shall be provided,

e) The design of the doorway facing the hazar-

dous area shall be such that the doors can only be opened outwards from the interior and they shall be double doors. In case it is necessary to provide a window facing the hazardous area, the window shall have enough strength to resist an explosion blast. blowout of gases or other possible mechanical effects. The source of air shall be free of hazardous concentrations of flammable gases and vapours contaminants and any other foreign matter. It shall be determined from the nature of the process and the physical layout. Prior to commissioning apparatus p r o t e c t e d b y pressurization o r c o n t i n u o u s dilution, it shall be verified by competent personnel that the installation of the equipment fulfils the requirements of relevant Indian Standards, either by inspection of the reference documents, or by tests if necessary. The following shall be considered: a) the protective gas supply is suitable, that is. impurities in the protective gas will not reduce the level of safety such as by attacking the enclosure or ducting material or introducing flammable material into the enclosure. b) The apparatus design and safety provisions are such that purging can be completed satisfactorily.

h) The voiume and pressure of supplying air

shall be such that the air pressure in the


NOTE -Satisfactory completion of purgin would include pas&g a volume of protective gas o Bat least five times the free internal volume of the protected
enclosure and associated ducting, prior to energizing the electrical apparatus.

b) connected at one point to the potential

equalization conductor if this exists in the
whole area of the installation of the intrinsically safe circuits, or

cl The minimum pressure required is maintained with the minimum protective gas supply stated by the manufacturer. not exceeded.

cl connected to earth at one point only if
earthing is required for functional or protective purposes. The installation method shall be chosen with regard to the functional requirements of the circuits according to the manufacturers’ instructions. If the circuit is isolated attention should be given due to static charges.
More than one earth connection is permitted on a network provided that the network i s galvanically separated into circuits each of which has only onC earth point.

d) The maximum temperature limits stated are
With regard to installation practices, following shall be considered: the


For wiring swtems:

from earth, particular to any possible danger

9 When cable wiring systems are used, the

cable entries shall prevent excess leakage of the protective gas and ensure that sparks or incandescent particles do hot escape from the enclosure.

ii) When conduit’wiring systems a;e used, it is recommended that all conduit entrances to an enclosure be sealed to prevent excess leakage of protective gas unless the conduit system is being used as a duct for supplying the protective gas.

b) The point at which the protective gas enters

the supply duct’ or ducts should be situated in a non-haz.ardous area.

c) Ducting should, as far as possible, be loca-

ted in a non-hazardous area. If ducting p/asses through a hazardous area, it shall be checked for leaks prior to start-up of the electrical apparatus to ensure that the requirements of 6.3,3.2.1 (a) are met. Where a safety barrier is used, the maximum fault voltage in apparatus connected to the barrier input terminals shall not exceed the fault voltage rating of the barrier. for example, 2 5 0 V. Where a safety barrier requires a connection to earth, the connecting load to the earthing terminal of the safety barrier should be as short as possible. The cross section of the connecting load shall t,ake account of the short circuit current to be expected, and shall have a minimum value of 1.5 mm2 copper. Consideration should be given to the need for. earthing of the supply system connected to the barrier input terminals. In installations with instrinsically=safe circuits, for example, in measuring and control cabinets, the terminals shall be reliably separated fiom the tion-intrinsically safe circuits (for example. by a separating Ijanel, or a gap of at least 50 mm). The terminals of the intrinsically safe circuits shall be marked as such. All terminals shall satisfy the requirements of relevant lndian Standards. Where terminals are arranged to provide separation of circuits by spacing alone, care shall be taken in the layout of terminals and the wiring method used. to prevent contact between circuits should a wire become disconnected. Enclosures and wiring of intrinsically safe circuits should meet the requirements which would be applied to similar types of equipment which are intended to be installed in nonhazardous areas otherwise having the same environmental conditions. If a n e n c l o s u r e contains both intrinsically safe circuits and non-

d) Exhaust ducting shall vent to a non-hazardous area or otherwise be designed to prevent the emission of sparks 3r hot particles such as by the use of spark