( Reaffirmed 1996

)

NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE

BUREAU

OF

INDIAN

STANDARDS

MANAK BHAVAN. 9 BAHADUR SHAH ZAFAR MARG NEW DELHI 110002

SP 30:1984 First Published August 1985 First Reprint April 1990 Second Reprint September 1992 Third Reprint September 1993 Fourth Reprint November 1998 0 BUREAU OF INDIAN STANDARDS UDC 621.3 : 006.78

The National Electrical Code was adopted by the Bureau of Indian Standards (then Indian Standards Institution) on 15 June 1984, after the draft finalized by the National Electrical Code Sectional Committee had been approved by Electrotechnical Division Council

PRICE Rs 600.00

Printed in India at Central Electric Press, A-12/1, Naraina Industrial Area, Phase-l, New Delhi 110028 and Published by the Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi 110002.

INTRODUCTION
Development programmes are interwoven to a large extent with electrical energy. Realizing the need for harnessing this most useful form of energy available, a great amount of emphasis is being laid on the implementation of the programmes for electrical power generation and a substantial portion of the national budget is being allotted for the purpose. The main feature of this effort is to plan for and execute the economic selection, installation and maintenance of electrical equipment employed in the generation, transmission, distribution and utilization of electric power. The design and practices being followed by the various agencies engaged in this type of activity could be rationalized in the light of newer equipment and processes. to remove any extraneous safety and other factors. Realizing the need for standardizing the requirements of the various Electricity Boards and other bodies; the Electrotechnical Division Council under the Code of Practice for Power Installation and Maintenance Sectional Committee has been formulating Indian Standard Codes of practice on the various aspects of handling the power equipment. These codes have been revised from time to time to align wtth the latest technology made available as well as to incorporate the experience gained in the implementation of these codes. However, time and again the need has been felt for a cogent Electrical Code covering unified practices and procedures and safety requirements to be complied with in the design, execution, inspection and maintenance of electrical installation in different locations. The lndiun E/ecrrici;.v Rules, 1956 contain specific regulations to be adhered to in the supply and use of electrical energy in the interest of safety. Nevertheless, there are several areas which need amplification and complementing. The National Electrical Code is formulated primarily to elaborate the Indian Electricity Rules which are statutory in nature and serve as a comprehensive document an electrical practices in our country. The task of the preparation of the Code is entrusted with the National Electrical Code (NEC) Sectional Committee (ETDC 56). This guiding committee and the expert groups under the same have a broad based representation from central and state government organizations, private bodies and professional institutions having wide experience in the field of electrotechnology, particularly in the field of installation engineering. The object of the National Electrical Code (NEC) is given below : The object of the National Electrical Code is to complement the lndiun E/ectricif~v Rules,. 1956 by way of elaborating as well as recommending practices to comply with their requirements. This code is to provide information in a consolidated form to electrical engineers and contractors in the country who are concerned with the design and operation of electrical installations. The presentation of information in the Code has been broadly organized in the following manner : Part I Part 2 Part 3 Part 4 Part 5 Part 6 Part 7 General and Common Aspects Electrical Installation in Standby Generating Stations and Sub-stations. Electrical Installations in Non-Industrial Buildings Electrical Installations in Industrial Buildings Outdoor Installations Electrical Installations in Agricultural Premises Electrical Installations in Hazardous Areas.

c) Light current installation in the occupancy : 1) Electric bells and clock systems. excludes requirements coming under the purview of utilities. and does not constitute fundamental standardization work. however. as it presents a method of identifying information that is classified on the basis of type of occupancy. The Code also does not cover electrical installations in underground mines. adogts a modified approach to this classification taking into account the following broad guidelines : a) The classification of electrical installations should take into account the skill and capabilities of the occupants utilizing the installation.he information in a handbook form. a method considered best meeting the needs of practising engineers. In the preparation of NEC. NEC. such installations should be -excluded from the scope of the Code. apart from the fact that all the required information may not be vi . The NEC is basically a compilation document taking assistance from detailed codes already available. though elaborate. b) Heavy current installation in the occupancy : 1) Power supply and distribution system. who are also familiar with the National Building Code of India 1983. To a limited extent. 4) Metering of consumption.The National Electrical Code Sectional Committee (ETDC 56) has decided upon the above format as best suited for a compendium like this after considerable deliberations. and 3) Fire protection signalling systems. d) Specific requirements for protection and safety. however. would find that a one-to-one correspondence does not exist between the building classification made in them. 2) Cables and accessories for power circuit. 3) Protective equipment. air-conditioning and lifts). Product details are also excluded from the compilation work for the time being. The Code. It should be brought out. The information relating to each type of installation identified above is further classified and presented in the following manner : a) Assessment of the general characteristics of the occupancy from the point of view of the electrical installation therein. Considering the variety of practices being followed by the Electricity Boards and the need to collect data on the same. The compilation work\ such as the one envisaged for the National Electrical Code. The NBC classification 01 buildings/occupancies is based on fire-safety considerations and. rather than the occupancy. efforts have been made to fill certain gaps in consultation with the relevant Technical Committees of ISI. and 7) Guidance on electrical aspects of building services (lighting. namely. while closely following the same. the large generating stations and distribution substations. it had been felt that at this stage. 5) Emergency electric supply. and b) Further classification should be based on the degree of sophistication of the electrical requirements of the building. that the approach of the National Electrical Code has been primarily to cater to system engineers. Individual product codes are available on specific power equipment for the use of product application engineer. 2) Electrical audio systems. 6) Reactive power compensation as applicable. Users of IVEC. the efforts of product groups had been taken into account while consolidating t.

In all cases. without calling for too many references to Part I dealing with general and common aspects. to only draw attention to the relevant standard. while in others the relevant provisions have been extracted and reproduced. in many instances.tely adopted for use by the various interests concerned. In order to keep pace with such changes and to incorporate the additional knowledge that will be gained through the implementation of the Code. technological innovations such . The individual parts of the Code. On the one hand is the need to make the Code selfcontained as a reference document and on the qther hand is the need to keep it less voluminous. a continuous programme of review is envisaged. It had been possible. which deal with specific occupancies. reference should be made to the individual standard and should any contradiction be observed between the provisions in individual code and those reproduced herein. The National Electrical Code (hereafter referred to as the Code) is intended to be advisory. should also preferably be self-contained to the extent possible. It contains guidelines.. for detailed guidance. therefore. is made difficult by the need to make a judicious choice of what is to be reproduced in the Code and what is to be referred to in the parent standard.available in a ready format. Its provisions will not be mandatory but will serve as a model for adoption in the interest of safety and economy. As a general rule.as better materials or new and better method also proved as ‘good practice’ would first be introduced in the individual standard as appropriate than in the National Electrical Code. can be immedia. vii . A complete revision of the Code is also intended in due course of time. which framed in unison with the statutory provisions of IE Rules 1956. the provisions of the former shall be considered accurate. with minimum elaboration for their specific purpose.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The contributions made by the following individuals/groups and their organizations in respect of the part/sections of the National Electrical Code prepared in collaboration with them are greatly acknowledged. Member 1. Shri D. N. Purandare Organization Electrical Contractors Association of Maharashtra, Bombay Siemens India Ltd, Bombay Chief Electrical Engineer to Government of Maharashtra, Bombay Fact Engineering & Design Organization, Udyogamandal Central Public Works Depart- Part 111 Electrical Installations ment, New .Delhi in Non-industrial Buildin s : ) lmgs Section I Domestic Dwe f. Electrical Contractors Association of Maharashtra, Bombay Part 111 Electrical Installations in Non-industrial Buildings : Section 2 Office Buildings, Shopping and Commercial Centres and Institutions Part 111 Electrical Installations in Non-industrial Buildings : Section 3 Recreational, Assembl; Buildings Part I I1 Electrical Installations in Non-industrial Buildings : Section 4 Medical Establishments Section 5 Hotels Part V Outdoor Installations Section 1 Public Lighting Installations and Section 2 Temporary Outdoor Installations 6. Shri V. S. Bhatia Shri A. N. Dutt Siemens India Ltd, Bombay Electrical Contractors Association of Eastern India, Calcutta General Insurance Corporation of India, Bombay Engineers India Ltd, New Delhi Part VII Electrical Installations in Hazardous Areas Part IV Electrical Installations in Industrial Buildings Part/Section of NEC Part II Electrical Installations in Standby Generating Stations and Captive Substations

Shri V. S. Bhatia Shri M: A. Khan.

Shri K. P. R. Pillai 2. Chief Engineer (Elect)-1

3. Shri D. N. Purandare

4. Shri M. J. Anandamurthv Chief Electrical Insnector. Government of Ta’mil Nadu, Madras 5. Shri M. L. Dongre Bombay Electric Supply & Transport Undertaking, Bombay

Shri A. Chatterjee 7. Shri G. N. Thadani 8. Chief Engineer (Elect)-1

Central Public Works -Depart- Appendix to Part III Specific ment, New Delhi Requirements for Electrical Installations in Multistoreyed Buildings.

NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE SECTIONAL COMMITTEE, ETDC 56
Chairman Shri M. L. Dongre C-214 Casuarina Cooperating Housing Society Best Nagar, Ghatkopar East Bombay. Members Shri M. J. Anandamurthy Electrical Inspector (Technical) (Alternate) Shri V. G. Bapat Shri K. S. Joshi (Alternate) Shri V. S. Bhatia Shri M. M. Shethna (Alternate) Shri ‘D. K. Biswas Federation of Electricity Undertakings of India, Bombay Siemens India Ltd, Bombay Department of Science and Technology (National Committee on Environmental Planning and Coordination), New Delhi Central Public Works Department, New Delhi Representing Chief Electrical Inspector, Government of Tamil Nadu, Madras

Chief Engineer (Elect)-1 Surveyor of Works (Elect)-1 (Ahernate) Shri P. J. Damany Shri J. H. Pate1 (A/female) Shri K. Dasgupta Shri P. Neogi (AIternare) Director of Mines Safety, Dhanbad Director of Mines Safety, Sitapur (A Iternate) ’ Shri A. N. Dutt Shri Abani Dutta (Alternate) Shri G. L. Dua Shri S. K. Sethi (Ahernafe) Deputy Chief Electrical Engineer (G) Shri K. C. Gupta Shri N. Raghavan (Alternate) Brig L. G. Ketkar Lt-Co1 G. R. Mahadevan (Alternate) Shri M. A. Khan Superintending Engineer (inspection) (AIternafe) Shri S. K. Kundu Shri S. R. Chakrabarty (Alfernare)

Gujarat Electricity Board, Vadodara Calcutta Electric Supply Corporation Ltd, Calcutta Directorate General of Mines Safety, Dhanbad

Electrical Contractors Association of Eastern India, Calcutta Rural Electrification Corporation Ltd, New Delhi Railway Board, Ministry of Railways New Delhi h’ational Safety Council, Bombay Directorate General of Inspection, Ministry of Defence, New Delhi

Chief Electrical Engineer to Government of Maharashtra, Bombay

Chief Electrical Inspector to Government of West Bengal, Calcutta

Shri S. V. Madgavkar Shri R. K. Sehgal (Ahcw7ate) Shri B. S. Landalika Shri H. R. Khan (Alternate) Shri K. K. Mondal Shri I. N. Khushu (A/female) Member (Hydroelectric) Director (H ED)-1 (AIIei’nare) Shri M. Muniram Shri S. N. Narasinga Rao Shri M. Ramatar (Alternate) Shri V. H. Navkal S h r i M . R . Iv. Menon (Ahernure) Dr G. M. Phadke Shri K. P. R. Pillai Shri D: N. Purandare Shri S. S. Jhaveri (Ahernute) Shri T. Ramachandran Shri B. M. Reddy Shri T. V. Shankaranarayana Shri V. Venkateshaiah (Alternate) Shri P. D. Sharma Shri S. C. Jain (Alternate) Shri G. N. Thadani Shri S. G. Gokhale (Alrernure) Representative Shri S. Govindaraj (Alternate 1) Shri A. S. R. Sastry (Ahernure II) Shri S. P. Sachdev, Director (Elec tech)

Bombay Suburban Electric Supply Ltd, Bombay Armv Headouarters. Ministry of Defence, h’ew Delhi. General Insurance Corporation of India, Bombay Central Electricity Authority, New Delhi Karnataka Electricity Board, Bangalore Power Project Engineering Division, Department of Atomic Energy, Bombay The Bombay Electric Supply and Transport Undertaking, Bombay Indian Electrical Manufacturers’ Association, Bombay Fact Engineering & Design Organization, Udyogamandal Electrical Contractors Associations of Maharashtra, Bombay Planning Commission, New Delhi Central Electricity Authority, New Delhi Chief Electrical Inspector to Government of Karanataka, Bangalore Delhi Electric Supply Undertaing, New- Delhi Engineers India Ltd, b!ew Delhi Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd, Hyderabad

Director General, IS1 (Ex-officio Member)

Secretary
Shri K. Ganesh Deputy Director (Elec tech), ISI

CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION

PART I GENERAL AND COMMON ASPECTS
0. Foreword SECTION I SCOPE OF THE NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE SECTION 2 DEFINITIONS
0.

3 4

1. 2. 3.

Foreword Scope Definitions List of Indian Standards on Electrotechnical Vocabulary

5 5 5 IO

SECTION 3 GRAPHICAL SYMBOLS FOR DIAGRAMS, LETTER SYMBOLS AND SIGNS 0. I. 2. 3. 4. Foreword Scope Graphical Symbols List of Indian Standards on Graphical Symbols Letter Symbols and signs

SECTION 4 GUIDE FOR PREPARATION OF DIAGRAMS, CHARTS AND TABLES, AND MARKING 0. I. 2. Foreword Scope Preparation of Diagrams, Charts and Tables 20 20 20

SECTION 5 UNITS AND SYSTEMS OF MEASUREMENT 0. Foreword I. Scope 2. Units and Systems of Measurement SECTION 6 STANDARD VALUES 0. I. 2. 3. 4.
0.

24 24 24

Foreword Scope Standard Values of voltages Preferred Current Ratings Standard System Frequency

26 26 26 27 27

SECTION 7 FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES I. 2. 3. Foreword Scope Fundamental Principles Design of Electrical Installation 28 28 28 29

SECTION 8 ASSESSMENT OF GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF BUILDINGS 0. Foreword 32

I. S c o p e 2. Assessment of General Characteristics of Buildings APPENDIX A Types of System Earthing SECTlOh’ 9 SELECTION OF EQUIPMENT 0. Foreword 1. Scope 2. Selection of Equip ment SECTlOh’ 10 ERECTIOh’ AND INITIAL TESTING OF INSTALLATION 0. I. 2. 3. Foreword Scope Erection Inspection and Testing

32 32 38

40 40 40

41 41 41 41

SECTION I I WIRING INSTALLATIONS 0. I. 2. 3. 4. Foreword Scope Equipment, Fittings and Accessories Construction Methods of Internal Wiring 46 46 46 48 51

SECTlOT’! I2 E A R T H I N G 0. Foreword I. Scope 2. General Remarks 3. Earth Electrodes 4. Earth Bus and Earth Wires 5. Measurement of Earth Electrode Resistance 6. Earthing of Installations in Buildings 7. Measurement of Earth Loop ,Impedance APPENDI’X A Representative Values of Soil Resistivity in Various Parts of India APPENDIX B Additional Rules for Earthing SECTION I3 SHORT-CIRCUIT CALCULATIONS ( Under Consideration) SECTION I4 ELECTRICAL ASPECTS OF BUILDING SERVICES 0. Foreword I. S c o p e 2. General Guidelines SECTION l4A LIGHTING 3. Aspects of Lighting Services SECTION l4B VENTILATION 4. Aspects of Ventilation SECTION l4C AIR-CONDITIONING AND HEATING 5. Aspects of Air-Conditioning and Heating Services SECTION l4D LIFTS AND ESCALATORS ‘6. Electrical Aspects of Lifts and Escalator Services
xii

57 57 57 59 62 63 63 64 65 66

69

71 71 71

71

72

72

73

5. Foreword Scope Terminology Exchange of Information Characteristices of Lightning Discharges Determination of the Need for Protection Zone of Protection Materials and Dimensions Design Isolation and Bonding Protection of Special Structures Inspection and Testing 81 81 81 81 82 82 83 83 83 86 87 87 SECTION I6 SAFETY IN ELECTRICAL WORK 0.SECTION 14E AUDIO SYSTEMS 7. General 3. 6. Safety Practices 5. Electrical Call Bell Services Clock Systems 78 79 77 75 SECTION I5 LIGHTNING PROTECTION 0. Electrical Aspects of Fire Alarm Systems SECTION l4G MISCELLANEOUS SERVICES 9.. 7. Foreword I. Safety Instructions 4. 4: 5. 2. 8. I I. Power Factor Improvement and Capacitor Rating SECTION I8 TABLES 0. 4. Scope 2. IO. IO.. Foreword Scope Terminology General Characteristics of Station installation Exchange of Information Layout and Building Construction Aspects Selection of Equipment IO1 102 102 102 102 102 102 XIII . Power Factor 4. Scope 2. I. I. Accidents and Treatment for Electric Shock SECTION I7 GUIDELINES FOR POWER-FACTOR IMPROVEMENT 0. Use of Capacitors 5. Foreword I. 9. 3. Safety Posters 6. 2. . Permit-to-work System 3. 6. 3. Electrical Aspects of Audio System Services S E C T I O N 14F FIRE ALARM SYS-lEMS 8. Foreword 95 92 92 92 92 93 94 88 88 88 88 91 91 91 PART 2 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS -IN STANDBY GENERATING STATIONS AND CAPATIVE SUBSTATIONS 0.

I. xiv Foreword Scope Terminology Classification General Characteristics of Installations Supply Characteristics and Parameters Testing of Installation Miscellaneous Provisions 123 123 123 123 123 124 126 126 . 8. ASSEMBLY BUILDINGS 0. IO. 2. APPENDIX Foreword Scope Terminology Classification General Characteristics of. Generating Sets Transformer Installations High Voltage Switching Stations Low Voltage Switching Stations and Distribution Panels Station Auxiliaries Wiring in Station Premises Earthing Building Services Fire Safety Requirements Lightning Protection Testing and Inspection 102 103 103 103 103 104 104 104 104 104 104 PART 3 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN NONINDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS 0. 4. . I. Foreword Scope Terminology Classification General Characteristics of Installations Supply Characteristics and Parameters Testing of Installation Miscellaneous Provisions 117 II7 II7 II7 II7 II8 121 I21 SECTION 3 RECREATIONAL. 15. 12. 13. 2.7. 7. I I. 4. 5. 8. 13. 3. 7. 14. 12. SHOPPING AND COMMERCIAL CENTRES AND 1NSTITUTIOtiS Q. 5. 3. 4. 3.Installation Supply Characteristics and 1 Parameters Switchgear for Control and Protection Service Lines Metering Earthing in Domestic Installations Building Services Fire Protection Testing of Installation Miscellaneous Provisions A Particular Requirements for Locations Containing a Bath Tub or Shower Basin I08 I08 I08 I08 I08 109 I IO Ill Ill III II2 II3 113 II3 II3 SECTlOIS 2 OFFICE BUILDINGS.6 . Foreword 107 SECTION 1 DOMESTIC DWELLINGS 0. 9. 6. 5. 2. 9. I. 17. IO. 16. I I. 6. 7.

APPENDIX Foreword Scope Terminology Classification of Sports Buildings General Characteristics of Sports Buildings Supply Characteristics and Parameters Testing of Installation Miscellaneous Provisions TO PART 3 Specific Requirements for Electrical Installations in Multi-Storeyed Buildings 159 -1. 6. 3. 6. Foreword I. APPENDIX Foreword Scope Terminology Classification General Characteristics of Installation Supply Characteristics and Parameters Testing of Installation Miscellaneous Provisions A Particular Requirements for Swimming Pools 144 145 146 147 148 151 152 152 152 152 152 153 155 155 156 SECTlOh’ 6 SPORTS BUILDINGS 0. 7. 5. 2. Standby and Special Safety Supply System I I. ESTABLISHMENTS 127 127 126 129 129 130 131 138 139 140 140 141 142 Foreword Scope Terminology Classification General Characteristics of Medical Establishments Safety Considerations Supply Characteristics and Parameters Additional Requirements for Hazardous Locations in Hospitals 8. 7. I. I. 7.SECTION 4 M.59 159 159 160 160 163 163 164 PART 4 ELECTRICAL lNSTALLATlONS IN INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS 0. 3. Scope 171 172 XV . 5. 6. 4. 4. I. 5. Building Services 9.EDICAL 0. 2. 4. Testing of Installation IO. 3. Miscellaneous Provisions APPENDIX A Zones of Risk in the Operating Theatre When Using Flammable Anaesthetic Mixtures of Anesthetic Gases and Cleaning Agents APPENDIX B Patient Environment APPENDIX C Example of an Electrical Installation in a Medical Establishment APPENDIX D Schematic Representation of Protective Conductors and Equipotential Bonding in Operating Theaters APPENDIX E Safety Supply Systems APPENDIX F Safety Supply System of a Hospital (Example) SECTION 5 HOTELS 0. Measures against Interference Provision 12. 2.

Selection of Equipment 7. Emergency] Standby Power Supplies 7.. Additional Requirements for Temporary Outdoor Installations 7. Supply Characteristics and Parameters 6. Foreword Scope Terminology Classification General Characteristics of Temporary Installations General Requirements for Temporary Outdoor Installations 6. SECTION I. Terminology 3. Foreword ‘I. 4. Scope 2. 5. Testing dnd Commissioning 216 216 216 216 216 217 217 219 2:3 196 196 196 I98 I98 199 207 209 210 212 215 I95 SECTION 3 OUTDOOR INSTALLATIONS 0. Miscellaneous/ Special Provisions APPENDIX A Examples of Industries Based on Fire Safety APPElVDlX B Selection of Wiring Systems APPENDIX C Requirements for Fire Safety in Specific Industries APPElVDlX D Recommended Values of Illumination and Limiting Values of Glare Index-Industrial Buildings APPENDIX E Power Factor in Industrial Installations 172 172 173 174 I78 I78 I79 I 79 180 1x1 183 184 I91 PART 5 OUTDOOR INSTALLATIONS 0. I. System Protection 8. Building Services 9.IGHTING I N S T A L L A T I O N S 0. Foreword 3A GENERAL Scope Terminology Types of Permanent Outdoor lnstallatiops General Characteristics of Permanent Outdoor Installations 220 220 220 221 222 SECTION 3B EQUIPMENT AND AUXILIARIES 5. Terminology 3. 3. 4. Foreword SECTION I PUBLIC L. Rules for Equipment and Auxiliaries \vi 222 . 2. Protection and Safety 8. 2. Classification 4. 3. Miscellaneous Considerations APPEFDIX A Terminology of Road Types SECTION 2 TEMPORARY OUTDOOR INSTALLATIONS 0.2. Designs 6. General Principles 5. General Characteristics of Industrial Buildings 5. Guidelines for Specific Location 8. Power Installation Requirements 9. Classification of industrial Buildings 4.

EMlSES 0.rardous Areas Testing of Installation A Indian Standards for Electrical Equipment for Use in Hazardous Atmospheres B Recommendations for the Protection of Diesel Engines for Permanent Installation in Hajrardous Areas C Recommendations for Storage Batteries for Use in Zone 2 Areas D Examples of Industries and their Working Places which Require Considerations in Regard to Hazardous Locations E Lightning Protection of Structures with Explosive or Highly Flammable Contents. 2. 3. 4. 7. 2. I. 243 244 244 245 245 246 248 261 261 262 263 APPENDIX APPENDIX 264 265 267 APPENDIX INDEX . Foreword scope Terminology Classification General Characteristics of Agricultural Premises Supply Characteristics and Parameters Services in Agricultural Premises Testing of Installation Miscellaneous Provisions 235 236 236 236 236 237 239 239 239 PART 7 ELECTRlCAL INSTALLATIONS IN HAZARDOUS AREAS 0. Requirement\ for Permanent Outdoor Installations StICTtON ?tJ AI)t)t-I’IONAL G U I D E L I N E S F O R S P E C I F I C AREAS 8. 3. 31) RPQ\IIREMt:N t S FO!i INS-I-At.A’l‘IONS 7. 8. 5.WC t tOS 3C‘ PRO It-C 1 t’OS t . 6.O R SAF-E’IY h.t IO?.l. APPENDIX APPENDtX Foreword Scope Terminotogy Statutory Regulations Fundamental Concepts Classification of Hazardous Areas Specific Guidelines for Electrical Installations in Ha. (iencral Rulc~ lor P r o t e c t i o n i n O u t d o o r I n s t a l l a t i o n 225 S1IC. 4. 6. I. 7. 5. Additional Guidelines for Installations in Specific Areas 231) 227 PART 6 ELECTRICAL 1NSTALLATlONS 1N AGRICULTURAL PR.

NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE PART 1 .

As in the Original Standard. this Page is Intentionally Left Blank .

3 This part of the Code is basically a compilation of guidelines available in several Indian Standards dealing with the various general aspects relating to electrical installation practice. Efforts have also been made to ensure that all the relevant details required for the understanding of the Code are available to the extent possible within Part I and references of individual standards have been kept to the minimum. 0. It is.PART 1 GENERAL AND COMMON ASPECTS 0.1 Each part/section of the National Electrical Code covers the requirements relating to electrical installations m specific occupancies. 0. 0.4 Effort has been made to make this part self-contained. so that users of the Code can derive utmost advantage in using it for application in the field even for occupancies not explicitely covered by the scope of subsequent Parts of the Code.2 The details enumerated in this part are generally applicable to all types of occupancies and are to be read as modified or supplemented with the information provided in the relevant Parts of the Code. however. These Indian Standards are listed at the Forewords to each Section. FOREWORD 0. . Individual sections of this part would therefore have to be read in conjunction with the relevant Indian Standards from which information has been condensed. felt essential to bring out the fundamental and general principles governing electrical installation practice together with common aspects applicable to all types of installations in a separate part to serve as a reference document on such matters.

between such recommendations and those concerning the equipment installed. h) Industrial premises. and b) Power generation arid transmission for such systems. 2. installations in rolling-stock. SCOPE OF THE NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 2. 0 Hotels. k) Agricultural premises. and m) Installations in hazardous areas.4 The Code does not apply to traction. d Medical establishments. c) Office buildings. j) Temporary and permanent outdoor installations. and g) Sports buildings. b) Recommendations concerning safety and related matter in the wiring of electrical installations of buildings or industrial compatibility promoting structures. 2.6 The Code is also not intended to apply to: a) Systems of distribution of energy to public. 4 Additional precautions to be taken for use of electrical equipment for special environmental conditions like explosive and activ. shopping and commercial centres and institutions.Where change in the occupancy places it under the scope of a different section of the Code.3 The Code applies to circuits other than the internal wiring of apparatus.7 The Code also does not cover guidelines on the payment for electrical work done in installations. 2. b) Domestic dwellings. 2.e atmosphere. 2.Any type of installation not covered by the above shall be classified in the group which most nearly resembles its existing or proposed use. motor vehicles. c) General safety procedures and practices in electrical work. on boardships. N OTE I .1 The National Electrical Code covers the following: 4 Standard good practices for selection of various items of electrical equipment forming part of power systems. NOTE 2 .SECTION 1 SCOPE OF THE NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 1.1 This Section of the Code describes the scope of the National Electrical Code. SCOPE 1. . 4 Recreational and other public premises. the same installation shall be made to comply with the requirements of the Code for the new occupancy. 4 NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE .5 The Code covers only electrical aspects of lightning protection of buildings and in so far as the effects of lightning on the electrical installations are concerned. 2. It does not cover lightning protection aspects from structural safety point of view. and aircraft or installations in underground mines. 2.2 The Code applies to electrical installations such as those in: a) Standby/emergency generating plants and bullding substations.

The electrical machines. the deP Initions given below shall apply.1 . often accompanied by partial volatilization of the electrodes.1 I Spark mcnon of shol-t d u r a t i o n wII_ich charactcri/cs a disruptive discharge. 5 2.I Outdoor electrical equipment are those \uitablc or installation in open air. It may sometimes be felt that the definitions are not sufficiently precise do not include all cases. have been drawn up by the relevant expert groups under the Electrotechnical Division Council with the object of striking a correct balance between absolute precision and simplicity.1 .17 Short-Circrrit -~ The intentional or accidental connection of two points of a circuit through a negligible impedance.7 Electric Current ~ The movement’ of electricity in a medium or along a circuit. characterized by a large current and a low voltage gradient.I’ Cirr~Lrirs Series ~~~ An arrangement of elements so that they all carry the same current or flux.1.FOREWORD 0.1.A material medium in which an electric field can exist in a stationary state. 6 Elec-tric Circuit ~. When the impedance is negligible.1.2 The definitions contained in the Code.1. Potential D(/fkretwP ~~~ The line of integral from one point to another of an electric field. 2 .1. 2.15 It~sulation decrease in insulation resistance.I4 Earlh Leakage Crtrrettl flowing to earth on account of imperfect insulation. 2.1 Each part of the Code gives.9 Arc A luminous discharge of electricity across a gas. The passage of a disruptive 2. NIIJI.8 Voltage. N OTE ~ A list of ‘Indian Standards on clcctrotcchnicc~l vocabulary relevant for the purposca of the Code i\ gkcn in 3.lO Flasho\!et discharge round an insulating material.1 This Section of the Code covers definitions of terms. 2.An arrangement of elements of which some are connected in series and others in parallel. 0.1. It may however be noted that for further guidance. 2. Users may find it convenient to refer to a detailed list of terms and their definitions contained in this section that are relevant to electrical installation practice. Series Parallel. A substance or body which 2.often applied _to the group of phenomena which accompany a short circuit between points at different . 2. 2. Faltll A n 2. do not take account of certain exceptions or are not identical with those which may. Such differences are inevitable and should be accepted in the interest of uniformity and clarity.A n a r r a n g e m e n t o f bodies or media through which a current can flow. apparatus and circuits forming part of an electrical installation or a power system. The direction of the current is accepted as opposite to that of the motion of negative electricity.1 Fundamental Definitions 2. abnormal 2. where necessaq definitions of terms and phrases relevant for the comprehensions of the requirements stipulated therein.2 Cotltluc~rol allows current of electricity to pass continuously. in addition to those contained in individual parts sections.Accidental connection 01 a conductor to earth.5 Currenr ~~ The elementary quantity of electricity flowing through a given section of a PAR-I’ I GENERAI. recourse should be made to IS : 1885 (series) on electrotechnical vocabulary containing a compendium of terms in the field. A brillinntlv l u m i n o u s phcno2. be found in other publications designed with different objectives and for other readers.1. 1. It does not however constitute a treatise on electrical engineering. DEFINITIONS 2.SECTION 2 DEFINITIONS O.1. The term is. conductor divided by the corresponding indefinitely small time. 2. The current 2. SCOPE 1. 2.potentials. AND COMMON ASPECTS .2.4 Elecrrotle ~~ A conducting element used for conveying current to and from a medium.3 Dielectrics ~.1.1.0 For the urposes of the National Electrical Code.1. 1 .1 Capacitor A system of two conductors (plates) separated over the extent of their surfaces by an insulation medium which is capable of storing electrical energy as electrical stress. _ Parallel ~-~ Electric or magnetic circuits are said to be in parallel (or shunt) when current or flux is d i\ idcd between them. taken along a given path. 2. The principal object of this exercise is to provide definitions which are sufficiently clear so that each term is understood with the same meaning by all concerned.1.I2 Cot?t?rc’tiotl (. 1 .13 Earth Fault --.16 O\wloatl Operating conditions in an electrically undamaged circuit which causes an overcurrent.1.1 Electrical Equipnlenl . 2 .2 Equipment 2. the connection is called a dead earth. 2.

A compact mechanical device for making and breaking a circuit both in normal conditions and in abnormal conditions.2.A machine for converting mechanical energy into electrical energy. Equipment . also assemblies of such devices and equipment with associated inter-connections. in which the motor. (Including GUS-Operaled Relal!) . opens a circuit in which it is inserted and’ breaks the current when this exceeds a given value for a sufficient time. 2. light.Breaker ( Mechanic*al) -~~ A mechanical switching device capable of making.3 Portable Equipment .A conductor other than cable.Portable 2.2.16 Switch-Fuse-A switch in which one or more poles have a fuse in series in a composite unit. measuring instruments. the shape of which varies according to the type of the fuse.6 Fixed Equipmenr . A antI Conlro~~eur 2.2.2. accessories.18 Circuit. 2. 2.12 Transformer .19 Fuse. forms an integral part of the equipment. 2. 2.‘cubicle containing bus-bars connected to incoming and outgoing distribution feeders controlled through links/fuses.A mechanical switching device capable of making.A totally enclosed structure.2.A machine for converting electrical energy into mechanical energy. carrying and breaking currents under normal circuit conditions and also making.8 Electric Motor .2. which by electromagnetic induction transforms variable voltage and current in one or more other windings usually at different values of voltage and current and at the same frequency. transmission.2. 2. controlling or connecting more than one outgoing circuit fed from one or more incoming circuits. 2.2. used for external connection between &rminals ‘of equipment. 2.4 Hand. 2.A switching device that by the melting of one or more of its specially designed and proportioned components.2.20 Enclosed Distribution Fuse-Board .11 Auto. the rotor or a stator.2. 2 . 2 ..A switch in which a fuselink or a fuse-carrier with fuse-link forms the moving contact of the switch. .Held equipment intended to be held in the hand during normal use. for the purposes of protecting.2. measuring.2:13 Reia. apparatus.An alternating current motor without a commutator in which one part only.2. 2.21 Carrridge Fuse-Link .2. 2.2.17 Fuse-Switch . 2. transmission. 2. 2. 2.7 Generator .A device designed to produce sudden predetermined changes in one or more phjvsical systems on the appearance of certain conditions in the phJsica/ system controlling it.2. distribution and conversion of electric energy.ljpe Fuse . NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 2.2. without continuously moving parts.Equipment intended to convert electrical energy into another form of energy.2. protective and regulating equipment.2 Current Using Equipmenr . 2 2 F u s e . carrier.Either fixed equipment or equipment not provided with a carrying handle and having such a mass that it cannot easily be moved.Na7W2 ~~ For the purposes of this Code.2.9 I n d u c t i o n M o t o r .Equipment which is moved while in operation or which can easily be moved from one place to another while connected to the supply. 2. carrying and breaking currents under normal circuit conditions which may include specified operating overload conditions and also carrying for a specified time currents under specified abnormal circuit conditions such as those of a short-circuit.A machine which consists of an electric motor mechanically coupled to a generator. 6 . if any.2.A transformer in which the primary and secondary windings have common part or parts. ‘provided at its two ends with metal contacts.i~chgcar general term covering switching devices and their combination with associated control. is connected to the supply network. with fuses.15 Switch (Mechanicat) .Transformer .L i n k . the other working by induction.T h e part of the fuse including the fuse-element which requires replacement by a new fuse-link after the fuse has operated and before the fuse can be put back to service. Controlgears are switching devices intended in principle for the control of electrical energy consuming equipment. 2. transformers. such as those of overcurrent and short-circuit. 2. wiring material and appliances. 2.A non-interchangeable fuse comprising a fuse-base a screw type fuse-.26 Interconnecting Bus-Bar . distribution or utilization of electrical energy such as machines.An enclosure containing bus-bars. for example. carrying for a specified time and breaking currents under specified abnormal circuit conditions such as those of a short-circuit.2.25 Distribution Pillar . the term electrical equipment can in general be used to any item used for such purposes as gtneration.2. enclosures and supporting structures intended in principle for use in connection with generation.A fuse-link having a totally enclosed container. 2.10 Motor Generator Set . heat or motive power.2. a gauge piece and a fuse-link.A piece of apparatus.24 D. protective devices.Equipment fastened to a support or otherwise secured in a specific location..2.5 Stationary Equipment . usually cylindrical.2.Breaker .23 Miniature Circuit.14 S~c. conversion.

2. regardless of whether or not it is supplied as an integral part of the device.An insulated incombustible support normally used for insulated cable.28 Fuse-Element (Fuse.3. a switch.21 Distribution Fuse.30 Fuse-Carrier-The movable part of a fuse designed to carry a fuse-link.A system of earthmg in which the parts of an installation are so earthed as specified but are not connected within the installation to the neutral conductor of the supply system or to earth through the trip coil of an earth leakage circuit-breaker.12 Conductor. 2.6 &ble.3. 2.11 Conductor.Board .18 GUI-0~ Any appliance for automatically interrupting the transmission of energy through any conductor when the current rises above a predetermined amount.3.3.27 Bimetallic Connector .A conductor not covered with insulating material.A box forming a part of wiring installation provided to contain joints in the conductors of cables of the installation. 2.35 Cable . fusible cut-out. Final. for example. 2. The term ‘lightning arrester’ includes any external series gap which is essential for the proper functioning of the device as installed for service.3.19 Dead .JN”RAl.The ends of the electrical conductors situated upon any consumer’s premises and belonging to him at which the supply of energy is delivered from the service line. or (Ho or more such conductors. a fuse. 2.14 Connector Box or Joint Box. Covered aerial conductors. 2. 2.2.2. 7 2 .A length of single-insulated conductor (solid or stranded). associated with the wiring and electrical appliance of an installation. 2.3 Wiring Practice 2.3. for example.A combination of a plug and socket arranged for attachment to a portable electrical appliance or to a flexible cord. Flexible -A cable containing one -:-or more cores. The fuse-base comprises all the parts necessary for insulation. the diameters of the cores and of the wires being sufficiently small to afford flexibility. Two flexible cords twisted together are known as ‘Twin Flexible Cord’ NOTE .2 Apparatus -.29 Fuse-Base. 2. are not separated from each other. It includes all branches and extensions derived from that particular way in the board.3.2. duct or groove or.Any conductor which is supported by insulators above the ground and is directly exposed to the weather. 3 . Insulated . e a c h p r o v i d e d w i t h i t s o w n insulation. AND COMMON ASPECTS . 2. 2.16 Consumer’s Terminals . appliances and fittings in which conductors are used for of which they m a y form a part.31 Lightning Arrester (Surge Diverter) .A flexible cable having conductor of small cross-sectional area.3. 2. each formed of a group of wires. a lampholder.8 Circuit .3. 2. 2.20 Direct Earthing System . 2.A connector dedgned for the purpose of connecting together two or more conductors of different materials (normally copper and aluminium) for preventing electrolytic corrosion. P A R T I C.3.Any device.13 Conductor. 2. N OTE .3.3.3.1 Accessory . which are laid up together.3.3. 2.serving as a mechanical protection. 23. a socket-outlet.Four classes of aerial conductors are recognized: a) b) c) d) Bare aerial conductors.7 Cable.A conductor with no provision for its insulation from earth. Sub .That part of a rewirable fuse.2.Wire in Rehirable Fuse). A r m o u r e d .A cable provided with a wrapping of metal (usually in the form of tape or wire).A conductor adequately covered with insulating material of such quality and thickness as to prevent danger. if not enclosed. without the intervention of a further distribution fuseboard other than a one-way board. 4 B u n c h e d . which is designed to melt and thus open the circuit.10 Cleat . The fuse-carrier does not include any fuse-link.A device designed to protect electrical apparatus from high transient voltage and to limit the duration and frequently the amplitude of followcurrent.The fixed part of a fuse provided with terminals for connection to the system. 2.3.An assemblage of parts including one or more fuses arranged for the distribution of electrical energy to final sub-circuits.3. SCP relevant standard. 2.For the maximum diameter and minimum number of wires for flexible cord.17 Cord. 2. and Weatherproof neutral-screened cable.3. Fkxible .2. The insulated conductor or conductors may or may not be provided with an overall mechanical protective covering. Earthed .2. 2.15 Conductor for Portable Appliankes .An outgoing circuit connected to one-way distribution fuse-board and intended to supply electrical energy at one or more points to current-using appliances.3 Aerial Conductor .At or about earth potential and/or disconnected from any live system.9 Circuit. Bare . a plug. or a ceiling rose.Electrical apparatus including all machines. Insulated aerial conductors.Cables are said to be ‘bunched’ when two or more are contained within a single conduit.An arrangement of conductor or conductors for the purpose of conveying energy and forming a system or a branch of a system. 2.

2.2. in addSon. b) Of an appliance .An appliance having accessible metal part is doubly insulated when protective insulation is provided in addition to the normal functional insulation. together with a switch as required. connecting to the earthing lead or to each other those parts of an installation which are required to be earthed.3. or reflector.3.3. Medium .The voltage which normally exceeds 650 volts (but less than 33 kV). High . Tents. to be earthed are connected to the general mass of earth and.23 Earth Continuity Conductor -The conductor.‘solidly earthed’ when it is electrically connected to earth electrode without a fuse. The socket-outlet is designed as a fixed member and the plug portion carries multiple metal contacts which connect with corresponding metal contacts in socket portion.4 Miscellaneous Terms 2. tarpaulin shelters.36 S w i t c h b o a r d . and the middle wire or common return conductor of a three-wire dc or single-phase ac system. cornice or projection. balcony. erected for temporary and ceremonial occasions with the permission of the Authority shall not be considered as building. 2. 2. in order to protect against electric shock in case of breakdown of the functional insulation. and a conductor is said to be . 2.40 are based on the provisions of IE Rules. plumbing and building services. but also between the envelope or support and earth.40 Voltage.3.A material capable of being easily ignited. Low .3.A system of earthing in which the parts of an installation. plinth. 3 3 Point-A point shall consist of the branch wiring from the branch distribution board.39 Volrage.35 Socket-Outlet and Plug .3.313 Voltage.3. Lighting . fixed platforms.26 Fitting.1 Building . roofs. It may however.24 Earth Electrode-A metal plate. in addition. are connected within the installation to the neutral conductor of the supply system.3. An object is said to be ‘earthed’ when it is electrically connected to an earth electrude. four-wire system. or a portable unit.4. including any clamp. a bracket. Extra. a single-phase or dc installation which is earthed by the supply undertaking (or otherwise at the source of the supply). 2. switch.3. walls.3.37 to 2. A three-pin socket-outlet point shall include. in the open position it provides an isolating distance between the terminals of each pole.A device for supporting or containing a lamp or lamps (for example.T h e equipment required for delivering energy from the electric supply system to the wiring system of the premises served. 2. as far as and including the ceiling rose or socket. 2. N O T E-The definitions given in 2.The voltage exceeding 33 kV under normal conditions.3. etc. 2 . fluorescent or incandescent) together with any holder.Any structure for whatsoever purpose and of whatsoever materials constructed and every part thereof whether used as human habitation or not and includes foundation.22 Earth --A connection to the general mass of earth by means of an earth electrode.A device used to open (or close) a circuit when either negligible current is interrupted (or established) or when the significant change in the voltage across the terminals of each of the pole of the disconnector occurs. specified. 2. SHAMIA NA HS.3. chimneys.28 Disconnector .29 Insulation Double Of a conductor . a pendant with ceiling rose. conductors and 2.The voltage which normally exceeds 250 volts but does not exceed 650 volts. part of a building or anything affixed thereto or any wall enclosing or intended to enclose any land or space and signs and outdoor display structures.An assemblage of switchgear with or without instruments but the term does not apply to a group of local switches or a final sub-circuit where each switch has its own insulating base. 2. 2.3. shade.3. be noted that voltage ranges as defined internationally are at variance with the above definitions.34 Service -. 2.30 Live or Alive-Electrically charged so as to have a potential difference from that of earth. 2. 2. 3 .3. the conductor of.27 Flammable .32 Neutral or Neutral Conductor Includes the neutral conductor of a three-phase 8 .25 Earthing Lead . resistance or impedance in the earth connection. pipe or other conductor electrically connected to the general mass of the earth.The voltage which does not normally exceed 250 volts.3.3.31 Multiple Earthed Neutral System . floors.3.3.High . the connecting wire or cable from the earth pm to the earth stud of the branch distribution board. NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 2. circuit-breaker. 2.A device consisting of two portions for easily connecting portable lighting fittings and other current-using appliances to the supply. verandah.outlet or suitable termination. 2.The final conductor by which the connection to the earth electrode is made.3. for example.37 Voltage. an electrolier.A conductor is said to have double insulation when insulating material intervenes not only between the conductor and its surrounding envelope (if a cable) or immediate suport (if bare). 2.

4.4.17 Consumer or. and -earth electrodes.4. PART I GENERAL AND COMMON ASPECTS 2.5 Clearance -The distance between two conducting parts along a string ~ stretched the shortest way between these conducting parts.4.4.14 Supply Terminals-The point at which a consumer received energy.A tariff applicable particularly or exclusively to domestic consumers. 2.A line for connecting a current consuming installation to the distribution network.27 Heating Tar$f .A zone extending from any point on a surface where persons usually stand or move about to the limits which a person can reach with the hand in any direction without assistance.25 ‘Industrial Tariff . 2.4.15 Service Line. 2.4. and associated equipment installed.4. 2. 2. 2.part preventing unintentional direct contact. to zero. 2. Customer-The party who receives electricity from the supply or distribution undei-taking for his own needs or for further distribution.4. 2. 2.4. Other forms are sometimes’used for special purposes.4. 2. 2.4 Impulse .16 Distribution Undertaking . 2. the same clause may provide for a decrease in charges in the opposite case. out the components to be taken into account and the methods to be employed in calculating the amounts to be charged by the supply/distribution undertaking to the consumer.28 Power Factor Clause . expressed as a numerical value or as a percentage.1 Simultn~eousl~~ A c c e s s i b l e P a r t s Conductors or conduciiveb parts that can be touched Bsimultaneously by a person or where applicable by livestock. 2.The amount to be paid per unit of energy (kWh) consumed. Where a finished ceiling is not provided. the underside of the joints or beams or tie beams shall determine the upper point of measurement ‘for determining the head robm.4.The magnitude of electricity supply.29 Load Factor .A tariff applicable to electricity supplies taken for space heating or for thermal applications or for both.23 Tari$f . 2. an occupancy shall be deemed to include the subsidiary occupancies which are contingent upon it.4.4.A part providing protection against direct contact from any usual direction Of access.10 Barrier .4.26 Lighting TariJf .A tariff applicable exclusively to industrial consumers. 2.3 Room Height-The vertical distance measured from the finished floor surface to the finished ceiling surface.19 Instailed Load-The sum of the rated inputs of the electrical apparatus installed on the consumer’s premises.21 Kilowatthour Rate (kWh . protection against direct contact.6 Creepage distance between two conducting parts along the surface of the insulating material or along the joint of two insulatihg bodies. 2. 2.22 Meter Rent .A part providing protection of equipment against certain external influences and. in any direction. N OTE -This current may have a capacitive c o m p o n e n t including that resulting from the deliberate use of capacitors.4.An amount to be paid for a specified period for metering. N O T E-The actual voltage may differ from the nominal voltage by a quantity within permitted tolerances.4. 2. -exposed conductive parts.T h e part of the installed load of consumer supplied by the supply undertaking.13 Nominal Voltage (of an Installation) Voltage by which an installatio or part of an installation is designated. shortest Distance . -extraneous conductive parts.24 Domestic Tariff .Simultaneously accessible parts may be: -live parts.A tariff applicab!: to electricity supplies taken mainly for lighting and other small appliances. fans and radios.4.Usually an aperiodic transient voltage or current which rises rapidly to a peak value and then falls.2 Occupancy or Use Group-The principal occupancy for which a building or a part of a building is used or intended to be used. generally more slowly.4.4. 2.4.18 Demand . 2.4.4. 2.4. Service .The. 2. kWh to kVAh consumed during the specified period.4.A clause setting out increase in charges to be applied if the ratio of the kWh to kVAh consumed by a consumer during a specified period below a set limit. 2. for the purposes of classification of a building according to occupancy.12 Leakage Current (in an Installation) ~~~ A current which flows to earth or to extraneous conductive parts in a circuit in the absence of a fault.11 Obstacle .A statement setting. according to the characteristics of the supply. R&e)-.The party supplying electricity to consumers entirely from extrernal sources of power via a distribution network.20 C o n n e c t e d L o a d .The ratio. N OTE -The power factor is generally measured by the ratio of. for example. 9 .4. 2. N CTE .4. 2.9 Enclosure .4.2. expressed in kW or kVA. Ideally it appioximates a double exponential form. 2.8 Arm’s Reach’.A . but not preventing dehberate action. of the energy consumption within a specified period (year. -protective conductors.

Section 3 Lamps and auxiliary apparatus IS : I885 (Part I 7). 3. NOTE -The load factor for a given demand is also equal to thelratio of the utilization time to the time in hours within the same period. Section 2 Resistance heating IS : I885 (Part 53). L I S T O F I N D I A N S T A N D A R D S O N ELECTROTECHNICAL VOCABULARY IS : 1885 Electrotechnical vocabulary: IS : 1885 (Part I)-1961 Fundamental definitions IS : 1885 (Part 8)-1965 Secondary cells and batteries IS : 1885 (Part 9)-1966 Electrical relays IS : 1885 (Part IO)-1968 Electrical power system protection IS : 1885 (Part I I)-1966 Electrical measurements IS : 1885 (Part l4)-1967 Nuclear power plants IS : 1885 (Part l5)-1967 Primary cells and batteries I S : 1 8 8 5 ( P a r t 16/Set I)-1968 L i g h t i n g .Other Parts/Sections of the IS : 1885 series cover terminology relating to the field of electronics and telecommunications. 1885 (Part 37)-1974 Tariffs for electricity IS : l&5 (Part 3X)-1977 Transformers (&r’s/ re\ri. t r a n s mission and distribution of electrical energy IS : 1 8 8 5 ( P a r t 32)-1972 Cables.I979 Switchgear and controlgear (/irst revision) IS : 1885 (Part 27)-1969 Static power convertors IS : 1885 (Part 28)-1972 I n s t r u m e n t t r a n s formers IS : 1885 (Part 29)-1971 Mining terms I S : 1885 (Part 30)-1971 O v e r h e a d . Section I General terms IS : I885 (Part 5 I Set 2)-1979 I n d u s t r i a l electro-heating.1980 Mica (superseding 1s : 1174) IS : 1885 (Part 54)-1980 Insulators IS : 1885 (Part 55)-1981 Electric fans N O T E . day. Section I General aspects IS : 1 8 8 5 ‘ ( P a r t I6/Sec 2)-1968 L i g h t i n g . conductars and accessories for electricity supply IS : 1885 (Part 34)-1972 Cinematography IS : 1885 (Part 35)-1973 Rotating machinery IS :. 10 NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE .sion) IS : 1885 (Part 42)-1977 Power capacitors IS : 1885 (Part 43)-1977 E l e c t r i c a l e q u i p ment used in medical practice IS : 1885 (Part 49)1978 I n d u s t r i a l p r o c e s s measurement and control 1s : 1885 ( P a r t 5I1Sec I)-1979 I n d u s t r i a l electro-heating. Section 2 General illumination lighting fittings and lighting for traffic and signalling IS : 1885 * ( P a r t l6/ Set 3)-1967 L i g h t i n g .month. etc) to the energy consumption that would result from continuous use of the maximum kW demand occurring within the same period.

FOREWORD b) Alternating Current. 0. 50 Hz 0.6 Direct Current. 0.1.1. Single-Phase. 50 Hz 2.1.1.8 Underground Cable 220v 2. 2.1.1. 415 V.1. the graphical symbols given below shall apply. They represent a consensus of opinion in the discipline and are recommended for direct adoption.11 Winding. GRAPHICAL SYMBOLS 2. OHz.1 Fundamental Symbols 2. For additional symbols in the subject reference should be made to IS : 2032 (series) on graphical symbols used in electrotechnology. the following Indian Standards could be referred to: IS : 3722 Letter Symbols and Signs used in Electrical Technology ( P a r t I)-1983 G e n e r a l G u i d e l i n e s o n symbols and subscripts. Considerable amount of standardization had been achieved in the field of symbols for electrotechnology that it is now possible to device electrical network schematics using them so that these schematic diagrams could be uniformly understood by all converned. 110 V 2 Neutral. I . SCOPE 1.1. 3wf. LETTER SYMBOLS AND SIGNS 0.5 Negatilv Polarity 2.1 This Section of the Code covers graphical symbols for diagrams.SECTION 3 GRAPHICAL SYMBOLS FOR DIAGRAMS.0 For the purposes of the Code. N O T E-A list of Indian Standards on graphical symbols used in electrotechnology relevant to the Code is given in 3.1 2.2 The symbols contained in this Section of the Code have been drawn up by individual expert groups under the Electrotechnical Division Council.1 The purpose of the Section of the Code is :o summarize a list of graphical symbols which are to be used for installation diagrams.7 Dirwt Current.12 Terminals -5OHz PART I GENERAL AND COMMON ASPECTS 0 . General Symbol 2.2 Alternating current. (Part 2)-1983 Reference Tables for symbols and subscripts. 220 V 110 v 2.1.15 ” c) Alternating Current. Delta Direct Current A 2. Three-Phase with neutral. 1. 3 Conductors including 2N 2. letter symbols and signs. Star a) Alternating Current. 50 Hz 3Nw50Hz 2.3 It has also been felt essential for the purposes of this Section to draw the attention of practising engineers to standardized letter symbols and signs.1. 2 Conductors.1 A Positive Polaritj~ + 2. Three-Phase.9 Overhead Line 2.3 Neutral N 2. For further details.10 Winding.

15 Inductance.19 Fault Windings 2.14 Impedance * 2.1 r16 Winding LF_ 0 M 2.1.2 Equippent 2.1.2.3 Motor k# 2.1 Flexible Conductor 2.6 Induction Motor.2.2. Resistor.5 Mechanically Coupled Machines 2.2.Transformer 2.2.2.1. Inductor + 2.2. Variable Resistor 2.2 Generator 0 G AC generator $2.1.17 Capacitance.13 Resistance.8 Auto.9 II-Phase Transformer with Three Separate Windings-Star-Star-Delta 0 G DC generator G 0 I2 NATIONAL ELECI-RICAL CORE .m Earth - i t Induction Motor with Wound Rotor li 2.1. Three-Phase. Capacitor 2. Squirrel Cage 2.7 Transformers with Two Separate 0 0 M 8 2.2.4 Synchronous Motor 0 MS 2.2.1.

14 Rheostatic Starter 2. Cubicle Box. 1SA A n 2.2.2.20 Signal Lamp rl A 2.on.23 Socket Outlet.2.2.13 Auto.2.24 Plug 2.2.12 Star-Delta Starter 2.2. Main Fuse Board with Switches 2.16 Contactor 2.10 Starter 2.17 Circuit-Breaker PART 1 GENERAL AND COMMON ASPECTS 13 .21 Link 2.2.22 Distribution Board.Line Starter for Reversing 2.2.z.11 LX.15 Snitch 1 t 2.18 Isolator 2.19 Fuse 2.2.2. YoR (4 Socket Outlet.2.2.2.Transformer Starter 2.2. SA.2.

2.2.37 Current Transformer 0 2.2.2.32 Recording Instrument (general symbol) 0 2.29 Power Factor Meter 2.42 Lamp Mounted on a Ceiling NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE .2.2.2.38 Voltage Tran$ormer LJJ M 2.35 Clock 0 A 2.33 Integrating Meter X 2.28 Varmeter VCN 0 2.39 Wiring on the Swface 2.2.2.26 Ammeter tl Wh 2.2.41 Lamp cl 2.25 Voltmeter 2.36 Master Clock L 0 W 2.27 Wattmeter 0 2.2.34 Watthour Meter 0 V 2.2.2.2.31 Indicating Instrument (general symbol) 0 2.2.40 Wiring in Conduit R 0 2.30 Ohmmeter 0 EI L coscp 2.2.2.2.2.

48 Bell A 2.2.41 S t o r a g e T.53 Aerial C\ 2.2.2.56 ManualI.? Operated Fire Alarm 2.pe Water Heaters 2.2.43 Emergency Lamp 2.52 Fan Regulay 2.2.46 Heater XY 2.2.2.2.49 Buzzer 2.55 Television Receiving Srt 2.IST O F I N D I A N S T A N D A R D S GRAPHICAL SYMBOLS ON IS : 2032 Graphical symbols used in elcctrotechnology: IS : 2032 (Part 2)-I962 Kind of current distribution system and methods of connection IS : 2032 (Part 3)-1962 Circuit elements and variability IS : 2032 (Part 4)-1964 Rotating machines and transformers IS : 2032 (Part 5)-I965 Generating stations and sub-stations IS : 2032 (Part 6)-1965 Motor starters IS : 2032 (Part 7)-1974 Switchgear and auxiliaries (first revision) IS PART I CENERAI.51 Exhaust Fan II I cl 0 0 3 .2.2. AND COMMON ASPECTS .2. 1.2.45 Flood Light 2.50 Ceiling Fan 2.2.2.57 Automatic Fire Detector Sh?tch R 2.2.44 spot Light X c = 2.54 Radio Recviling Set I III2.2.

l L. 3 4. EI..rca stcradian met re met rc mcl rc met rc mcl rc met rc mcI rc \qu.c 5. 5. In order to enable uniform understanding of t.0.ANTII\ (2) Naie (4) radian Symbol ’ (5) rad Other units are degree minute and second I.IS : 2032 (Part IO)-1969 Measuring instruments IS : 2032 (Part I I)-1970 Electrical installations in buildings IS : 2032 (Part IS)-1976 Aircraft electrical symbols IS : 2032 (Part l8)-1976’Symbolsand connection diagrams for integrating meters Es : 2032 (Part 19)-1977 Electrical equipment used in medical practice IS : 2032 (Part 21)-1977. radial d8.EC’TRI(‘AI. geometry.1. other subjects such as radiation and light.1 Quantities and units used in electro- 4. 6 7. a list of symbols.a140 gl\cn a\ hiloponc (hp) I6 \ ‘L\TIONAI..eltcr symbols and signs used in Electrotcchnology: Parr I General guidance on symbols and subscripts. CODE .L’ rnc.KY . tr/ kg AlbO. Electric welding equipment IS : 2 0 3 2 ( P a r t 22)-1978 Irlstrument t r a n s formers IS : 2032 (Part 23)-1978 Instruments for process measurement and control IS : 2032 (Part 25)-1980 Electrical installations . kinematics.he meamng they represent. synibols of units.1 Symbols and Subscripts 4. and guidance on the use of subscripts are covered in IS : 3722 (Part I)-l983* Ready reference tables for symbols and subscripts are contained in IS : 3722 (Part 2)1983*.0 General technology cover in addition to electricity and magnetism.signs used in abbreviatibns for denoting quantltles. 9. II wlld angle length breadth hclpht..imcrcr ua\clcn~lh arc.S AND SIGNS 4.E Ilk>! No... \urt. LETTER SYMB0I. Several disciplines interact with TABI.. C!ClC wcond per Ihc WI m kIlogramVorcc (kgl’) t’or Height i s . For the purposes of this Code. names of quantities and of constants and subscripts referred to frequently is given in 4.Ind haul ‘. 12.2 Guidance on the choice of alphabet and their type. dynamics and thermodynamics. thtir functions and units shall contorm to those recommended in. 4.111 Table I gives a reference likt of symbols and subscripts used in electrotechnology. the letter symbols and . X. IS : 3722 (Part I)-l983* and IS : 3722 (Part 2)-1983*. Part 2 Rcfcrcncc lables for symbols and subscripts. representation of vector quantities. (1) NAMt Ok I R EF E RE N C E GABLE c FOR wmoLs AND S U B S C R I P T S SI UN I T h QI.0. numerical values. m m m m m m \otumc tlmc cuhlc mc. 4. IO. dcprh Ihlchnc\\ I-adlu\.n ships 4. the result that terminolo y used’in one disci line becomes clc~sely interre ?ated with that o P the other.. angle (plane angle) 2.c WYontl Olhcr unit\ iirc mlnutc .

41. I a V u E CL c I J e R P G Y Z X 6 P degree Celsius I per kelvin volt volt volt coulomb farad ampere ampere per square mctrc webcr ohm ohm mctre siemens sicmcns per metre ohm ohm radian watt var voltampere OC K“ V V V C F A A. 38. voltage electromotive force electric flux capacitance (electric) current current density magnetic flux r&tancc rcsistivity conductance conductivity impedance reactance loss angle active power reactive power apparent power power factor dissipation factor number of lurns In a winding turns ratio transformation ratio of an instrument transformer 34. 37. 49. 17.m Pa (6) 20. IS. tension.. 47. 26. work energy power efficiency thermodynamic temperature. 19. 29. 35. OF @hW’lTlTY NAME CHIEF REMARKS (1) 16. 27. 48. 36. per cubic IlwR ‘hewton newton metrc newton per squaremetre (Pascal) joule jouk watt N N.m s S/m R n rad W var VA Temperature Interval of )K ::xzY (clccrric) potential potential difference. 32. 43. Q s A tl N tt K PART I GENERAL AND COMMON ASPECTS 17 . 31.TRUE I REFERENCE TABLE FOR SYMROLS AND SU~RIPTS-Conrd ITEM No. 40. 28. 44. 21. 45. (2) density (mass density) force torque pressure (3) P F T P (4) kilogram. 22. rn’ Wb n fI. 46. absolute temperature temperature (Celsius) W E P r) T J J W Also expressed in percent kelvin K 25. 42. 23. 39. 24. 33. 30.

St UNIT A NO. (‘ODE . E candela per square metre lux cd Im cd rn’ Ix NOTE I . illumination I I I candela lumen 1. transformation ratio of a voltage transformer 51. .For alternatiw symbols and other units of designation. ELECTRICAl. ‘Letter symbols and signs used in Electrotechnology : 3722 (Part 2)-19X3* NOTE 2 . Ill NATIONAI. luminous flux 56. luminance 57. luminous intensity 55. the corresponding quantity IS numeric and its value is written as a number : Part 2 Reference tables for symbols and subscripts. (1) Q U A NT I T Y (2) (3) K Name (4) Symbol (5) I \ REMAUKS (6) 50. number of phases 53. number of pairs of poles 54. transformation ratio of a current lranbformer 52.we IS without the unit symbol.Wherever symbol for the unit is I. illuminance.TABLE I REFERENCE TABLE FOR SYMBOLS AND SURSf?RIPTS-Conrd ITEM N AME OF CHIEF SYMIWI.

2 This Section of the Code covers general guidelines on the subject.A c h a r t m a y s h o w t h e interrelation between: a) different operations.1. c) wiring diagrams or wiring tables. PART I GENERAL AND COMMON ASPECTS 2.Explanatory diagram intended to facilitate the understanding of the functioning in detail. Three types are defined below: a) Blocli diagram . 0 . CHARTS AND TABLES. 2.CHARTS AND TABLES 2.0 General 2. Charrs .1 Unit H. 2. 0.0 The main classifications are: a) explanatory diagrams.2 Inrerconnection diagram .1.SECTION 4 GUIDE FOR PREPARATION OF DIAGRAMS. and d) location diagrams or tables. installation. l-he) provide for a common basis f o r understanding and identifying conductors and tipparatus terminal\: but more important. such as terminal blocks and the wiring between them.6.3.1. SCOPE 1 .1.0. and b) Time seywnce charr or rahk .1 Classification According to Purpose 2.is one which in addition takes account of the time intervals between successive operations. b) operations and time.1 Various types of diagrams and charts are required to be prepared during the planning and execution stages of an electrical installation work.0. AND MARKING O. It is therefore necessary to define the different types of diagrams. b) explanatory charts or tables. group 01 apparatus or items of an apparatus are interrelated and or interconnected. 2. It shows by sypbols an installation or part of an installation and the electrical connections and other links concerned with its operation.1.Explanatory diagrams are intended to facilitate the study and understanding of the functioning of an installation or equipment. The diagrams may sometimes show the layout of the different parts and accessories. I. 2.gives the successive operation in a specified order.3 Tab/e . I Erplottator~~~ Diagrams . 2. 2 .2 Explanaktry~ Tables Explanatory charts or tables arz’ intended to facilitate the study of diagrams and to give additional information.1977 General requirements for diagrams (Part 4)-1977 Circuit diagram (Part 5)-1976 Interconnection diagrams and tables 0.FOREWORD 0. c) operations and physical quantities.D i a g r a m representing all connections within a unit of an installation. maintenance personnel. and d) the states of several items. Table I of the Section are in line with the guidelines accepted internationally on such matters. block symbols or pictures without necessarily showing all the connections. 2 Char1 . For an equipment. b) Circuit diagram .3 Wiring Diagrams or Wiring Tables Wiring diagrams are intended to guide the making and checking of the connection of an installation or equipment.3 The guidelines for marking of conductors gicen in 2.A table replaces or supplements a diagram or a chart. Two examples are given below: a) S e q u e n c e chart or rahle . ensure safety to operating. charts and tables for electrotechnology : I)-1976 Definitions and classi(Part fication (Part 2)-1976 Item designation (Part 3).3. 2. The contents of this Section are based primarily on the following publications: IS : 8270 Guide for the preparation of diagrams. It is a diagram in which an installation or equipment together with its functional interrelationships are represented by symbols.Diagram representing the connections between the different units of an installation. charts and tables in electrotechnology and for marking of conductors. 2. 19 .iring d i a g r a m . they show the inteknal or external connections or both.1.I This Section of the Code covers guidelines for preparation of diagrams. cl Equi\~alenr circuir diagram .Relatively simple diagram to facilitate the understanding of the principle of operation. charts and tables.Special typ of circuit diagram for the analysis and calculation of circuit characteristics.1 Diagram -~ A diagram may show the manner in which the various parts of a network. PREPARATION OF DIAGRAMS. their purposes and -format and the guiding principles for preparing them for the sake of uniformity.

1 The method of representation is distinguished bv: a) The number of conductors.2 Arrangemen/ c$ swlbols .Each conductor is represented by an individual line. equipment. 2) circuits which have a similar electrical function.1 Paper sizes_ for drawings shall preferabl! be according to the international A-series (XV IS : 1064-196lt). and 5) conductor symbols which would follow the same route on the diagram. *GUI& Ior preparation 01 dugram\. T h e f o l l o w i n g arc e x a m p l e s w h e r e topographical representation may bc used: a) Wiring diagrams. It shows the item designations used in related diagrams and tabler. ELECTRICAl.The symbols for the different parts of an item of apparatus or of an installation or equipment are drawn in close proximity on the diagram. forming a mixed diagram. different kinds of symbols as well as symbols of different forms are shown. which is represented by a graphical symbol on a diagram.3 Topo~yraphic~al p o s i t i o n s o f t h e 5)mbols o n t h e d i a g r a m correspond wholly. N OTE 2 -Several typer of diagrams may be combined Intlo a single diagram. detached o r assembled) (see 2. modules. and c) Network diagrams. 2.2 An item designation may be used fol general or special ptirposes depending on the kind o f i n f o r m a t i o n r e q u i r e d .2 Classification According to Method Representation Of 2. Several similar items of apparatus may accordingly be represented by a single symbol. a single line may represent: I) circuits of a multiphase system.1.3. 2. 2.1. plug-in units.2. devices or elements represented by a single symbol. cl the placing of the symbols to correspond 2.3 Item Designation 2.1.2.4.sical) location of items represented.1. the methods of representation are given below: a) Assembled representatiorr -.1. terminal blocks.1 Number of conducrors .2. the two methods of representation as given below may be distinguished: a) Single-line representation -. unit. parts list. rhe diagram.2).Lclines o n assignment of item designation. NOI ISe\crtil of the\e method\ of repruentatlon used on the umc dugwm. a n d tahle~ lor electrotcchnolog! Part 2 Item de\lgnation. chart. ma! he b) the arrangement of the symbols representing the elements or parts of an item of apparatus (for example.Diagram showing the terminals and the internal and/or external conductors connected to them.1. This designation correlates the Item on different diagrams.2. CODt. repwserttatiort . groups together with standard letter codes for the same are covered in IS : 8270 (Part 2)-l976* 2.2.A location diagram or table contains detailed information about the location of parts of the equipment. 2. 3) circuits or conductors which belong to the same signal path.2 of IS : 8270 (Part 2):l976* 2. c) Dctachecl r~~pre:8erltatiorl The symbols for the different parts of an item of apparatus or of an installation are :. devices Or elements represented by a single symbol (see 2.4 General Rules for Diagrams 2. NATIOSAI. circuit descriptions and in the equipment. and with the topographical layout of the devices (see 2.2.4 Localion D i a g r a m s o r T a b l e s . The same drawing may form both an explanator) and wiring diagram.3). The choice of drawing sizes should be decided after taking into account the necessary factors enumerated in 2. sub-assemblies.cparated a n d arranged in such a uay that the circuits ma!’ easily be followed.2 In IS : 2032:. b) Multi-line representation . Cu. for example. or partly to the topographical (ph\. +SpeclCwatlon ior paprr \IICS.Two or more conductors are represented by a sirigle line. N OTE I -A location diagram need not necessarily be to scale.1).T h e 2.raphwal symbols u s e d i n clectrotcchnolog! ( P a r t \ to ‘25). etc.33 Terminal diagram .2. Any of the wiring diagrams may be replaced or NOI I aupplcmcnted by a table. The item designation is shown at an appropriate place near the graphical symbol of the item. 2.1 Item is a term used for component. $(.1. etc.4.According to the number of conductors.3.2. b) Architectural diagrams.A c c o r d i n g to the arrangement of the symbols representing the elements or parts of an item of apparatus on 20 . 4) circuits which follow the same physical route. b) Semi-assembled representation -~~ The symbols for the different parts of an item of apparatus or of an installation are separated and arranged in such a way that the symbols for mechanical linkages between the parts which work together may be drawn easily. plant. In particular.1.

2. the order shall be red.1 Interconnection diagrams and tables provide information on the external electrical connections between equipment in an installation. and c) to use the chosen form consistently throughout the same set of documentation. identification and types of interconnection diagrams and tables are giveri in IS : 8270 (Part 5)-l97h* 2. Main marking is a system o f m a r k i n g charactcri7ing each conductor or group of conductors irrespective of their electrlcal function. 2. the neutral shall occupy the middle position. The basic rules for the choice of symbols shall be: a) to use the simplest form of symbol adequate for the particular purpose.2. meanb whereby conductors can be id!xntified in a circuit and also after they hake been detached a main marking based on the electrical functiortof each conductor or group of conductors. They are used as ari aid in the fabrication of wiring and for maintenance purposes. Supplementary marking is used as supplement to b) When the run of the conductors is vertical.For the .All the powbre examples are also not covered there. equipment and apparatus.2.0. Information on the internal connections of units are normally not provided but references to the appropriate circuit diagram [ SEC IS : 8270 (Part 4)-1977*1 may be provided. electroteclln~~lop~: *Guide lor preparatton of dlagramb. b) When the run of the conductors is vertical. the red shall be on the top or on the left or farthest away as viewed from th’e front.2 according to the system. yellow and blue: a) When the run of the conductors is horizontal.6.3 Specific guidelines on the application of IS : 2032 from the point of view df choice of alternative symbols.3 Guidance on layout. 2.0 General 2.5. The relative order remains applicable even if any poles of the system are omitted. 2. 2. the red shall be on the left or farthest away as viewed from the front.2 DC . .1 or 2.6.idc a. provided clarity is maintained.1 l-he purpose of marking is to pro\. from the terminals to which they ar-e connected. 2.6 Marking and Arrangement of Conductors 2. conductors Part 3 General requlrrmPnt\ for diagrams Par1 4 CIKUII diagrams. Any symbol may be composed using the guidanc:e from relevant Part of IS : 2032 and Section 3 Part I of the Code.6.6.5. C) When the system has a neutral connection in d) Unless the neutral connection can be readily distinguished from the phase connections. the red shall be on the top or on the left or farthest away is viewed from the front. the provisions of Table I below shall apply for the general application of marking conductors in installation.2.6.6.1 AC . The latter are recommended when the number of interconnections is large. orientation of symbols and met:hods of indicating symbol location are ‘covered In IS : 8270 (Part ?)-1977* 2.2. 2. . *Guldc lor marktng of insulated PART I GENERAL AND COMMON ASPECTS 21 .2 The various methods of marking applicable to electrical installations and the equipment which form part of them are covered in IS : 5578-l970* 2.6. chart\ and table\ for c) When the system is 3-wire with the conductors in the same place.2 The diagrams may employ single or multiple representation and may be combined with or replaced by tables. the red shall be on the left or farthest away as viewed from the front.2 Arrangement qf Conductors 2.0 Bus-bars and main connections which are substantially in one plane shall be arranged in the order given in either 2.The order of phase connection shall be. line thinkness. Reference is -also drawn to the provisions contained in relevant Indian Standard.1 I d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f I n s u l a t e d a n d Bpre konducrors . yellow. the neutral shall occupy an outer position.6.6. The rules also apply for marking conductors in assembies. b) to use a preferred form wherever possible.\rena -~ Ihe arrangement shall be as follows: When the run of the conducto-rs is horizontal.5.durposes of this code. Parr 5 lntcrconnwmn diagrams and tablea.41wernIs .5 Interconnection Diagrams and Tables 2.4. symbol sizes.2. the same place as the phase connections. red.0.6. blue and black.vr.

TABLE I ALPHANUMERIC NOTATION. I) DE>IGNATION OF C ONDUCTORS I~JENTIFICATI~N w 1 A \ Colour (4) Red Yellow Blue Black Red Yellow Blue Black + Red Blue Black Red Black Alphanumeric Notation (2) Graphical Symbol (3) (1) Supply ac system Apparatus ac system Phase I Phase 2 Phase 3 Neutral I Positive Negative I Midwire Phase seutral I Phase I Phase 2 Phase 3 Neutral LI L2 L3 N U V W N L+ LM L N SUPPlY dc system Supply ac system (single phase) Protective Earth conductor PE E Green and Yellow No colour other than the colour of the bare conductor Under consideration. Noiseless (clean earth) TE Frame or chassis Equipotential Terminal MM CC NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE .6. GRAPHICAL SYMBOLS AND COLOURS (Clause 2.

1.1. 01 of quantlt\ (unit 2.6 Volt (unit of electric potential difference atid emf) . recommendations on the selection of their multiples and submultiple\ and supplementary remarks (if any) are enumerated in Table I. 2.3 r~rot/ (unit of ctectric capacitance) capacitance of an electric capacitor having a difference of elect. when the power dissipated between these points is one watt.5 Ohm (unit of electrical resistance) l-he electrical resistance between two points of a conductor when a constant potential difference of one volt. It has been introduced in India under the Weights and Measures Act. 7 Weber (unit .1.The difference of electric potential which exists between two points of a conductor carrying a constant current of one ampere. 1 . of negligible circular CI-W\ section and placed at a distance of one mctrc apart In a v a c u u m will product a force ol 2 X IO ’ newton per metre length between the conductors.1.2 ~‘cllilol.2 The electrical units defined in 2. FOREWORD the plates. 2. composed of a single turn one volt if it is uniformly second. together with their expression in terms of other units.1 The International System of Units (Sl) have received worldwide acceptance and in’ every country legislation for their adoption either exists or is being introduced.of magnetic flux which. of electricity of one coulomb.2 This Section of the Code. magnetic flux) The linked with a circuit produces in it an emf of reduced to zero in one 0. 2. maintained i n t w o parallel straight conductors of infinite Icngth. 2.SECTION 5 UNITS AND SYSTEMS OF MEASUREMENT 0.1 This Section of the Code covers units and systems of measurement in electrotechnology.‘s. 0.The inductance of a closed circuit in which an emf of one volt is produced when the current in the circuits varies at the uniform rate of one ampere per second. 2 .-ic potential of one LOII hct\+een 2 . The 2.9 Siemens (unit of electric conductance) The conductance of a conductor of resistance I ohm and is numerically equal to I ohm-‘.1 Absolute Units 2 .4 Henry (unit of electric inductance) . 1 . 1 . Reference may therefore be necessary to IS : 10005-1980*. 2. 2. when it is charged with a quantit. produces a current of one ampere in the conductor. 8 Wurf (unit of electric power) -~ T h e power which results in the production of energy at the rate of IJ. applied to thehc points. provided no emf is generated in the conductor. for reasons of brevity. ITNITS AND SYSTEMS OF MEASUREMENT 2.1. is restricted to electrical units only.ll~ The quantit! of elcctricitlj conveyed electricity) in one second by a current of o n e a m p e r e . S C O P E 1. PART I GENERAL AND COMMON ASPECTS 23 .1. 2. 1. 1976.10 Teslu (unit of magnetic flux density) The tesla is a magnetic flux density of I Wb/m’.1. Use of Sl Units in matters relating to electrical engineering practice has many advantages. 1 A m p e r e (unit of electric current) A constant current which.1.

m m~‘.s-‘. V/m.mpere watt (2) (3) A. PH henry siemens/ mctrc volt/metre m3. nF. kW.kg. mctrc H/m F/m H-’ f3.kg. electromotive force Capacitance Electrical resistance Conductance Magnetic flux Magnetic flux density Inductance Conductivity Electric ticld . nT mH. Mf-l.kg.A-’ kgs’.kg. 24 NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE .s~z. nflm.WI. nC.kg-‘.A* m’.A-* rn-‘. PS mWb mT. nF/m. mS. J/s .kg. PF GR. electric charge Electric potential. mfIm. k0. PC M V .A-’ V Farad ohm siemens wcber tesla F n S Wb T H S/m V/m m’. PT.J~R kS. MfLm. pF/m henry/ metre farad per metre I per henry ohm.A kA. Kfl. W C - (4) EXPRESSION m TE R M S OF SI BASE Uhs (9 S ELECTION OF MIILTIPLES (6) m*. kS/m MV/m.s“ s.kg~‘.A-’ mF. nA.2) Q UANTITY SpOlOL NAME EXPRESSION TERMS O F OTHER UN I T S IN (1) Electric current Power Quantity of clectricity. mR. nH/m pF/m. Ir Volt V m*. potential difference.s-‘.A“ m’. mV/m. PA GW.kg.TABLE I ELECTRICAL UNITS OF MEASUREMENT ~(ClOUSP 2.A-’ GfTm.s*.kg-‘. PC.s-‘. mV. mz.PW coulomb kc. rV/m rH/m.S’. PH. rrF. .A’ m.4 c/v V/A NV V. kV/m 01 V/mm.strength Permeability Permittivity Reluctance Resistivity a.kg. WA. nH.m.i’A’ MS/m. fkm.S Wb/ m’ Wb/A mW. kV. MW. mA. Itflm. .s-‘.s-‘.

Pl*I.1.5 percent in the case of extra high voltage. only the lower voltage values would be relevant. t o a l i g n w i t h I E C rccommcndation\ and in view of’ the economic adbantageh thry offered. d u r i n g 1 9 5 9 . or b) 6 percent on the higher side or 9 percent on the lower side in the case of high voltage.1.22 II0 132 220 400 $ kV kV kV kV N O T E I . 1956.Phase S_wem *Vol~gc\ systcmb and frequency for tran\mi\\wn a n d distribution This variation in voltage should not be confused Noit with the permissible variarion from the declared voltage as given in 2. 2.2. all the standard values of voltages given in IS : 5851962* relating to ac transmission and distribution systems are reproduced in this Section.1 Standard Declared Voltage 2. 2.voltage shall be 2201440 v.1 The voltage at any point of the system under normal conditions shall not depart from the declared voltage by more than the values given below: a) 6 percent in the case of low or medium voltage.2.2 .1 For the sake of completeness.2. is recognized and product standards relate the voltage.0. 2. NOIE 2 I IO kV is not a standard voltage for transmission purposes but this value has been included for the sake of equipment thal are required for use on the I IO kV systems already in existence. SCOPE 415 v 3. extensions to existing systems at this voltage may have to be made at the same vbltage. However. 2. the importance of highest system voltage. The values of voltages recommended as standard in this SeAon are based on the contents of IS : 585-1962*.-rly those of systems operating below medium voltage levels is enumerated in IS : 585.1.2 Three. 2.I Sitl~lc. 0. Howclcr. It is realized that.2 For installation design purposes.Wire System . or c) 12. 1. This standardization helps in laying a sound foundation for further work reiating to product or installation engineering.3 In the case of voltages above I kV.2 This history of standardization of system voltages nart. which are generalI!.1. N O T E-The permissible variations given above are in accordance *vith Indian Electricity Rules.1 Standardization of basic parameters such as voltage.0 General 2.5 I45 245 420 v v kV kV kV kV kV kV kV kV kV LOWSI Vohage ‘216 374 3.1.6 II 22 33 66 132 220 400 V v kV kV kV kV kV kV kV kV kV 264 457 3. standarcJ values of nominal voltages were 230 V for singlephahc and 230 400 V for three-phase system. the limits of boltage between which the system and the equipment used in the system shall bc capable of operating continuously are as follows: Highest Voltage (Uln) 240 415 3.1 The standard voltages for three-phase system shall be as under: 0.rating of equipment with respect to highest system voltages only.The standard voltage shall be 240 V. values of 240 V si’nglephase atid 240 415 V *three-phase had been adopted. 2.0.1 .2.6 7.3 The standard dc distribution .3 kV 6. the original recommended. currents and frequency is one of the primary exercises undertaken at the national level. it is noted that for most of the types of installations covered in subsequent parts of the Code.1 This Section of the Code covers standard values of ac and dc distribution voltages. 2.6 kV I I kV f: K (voltage to neutral .0 IO 20 30 60 I20 200 380 V v kV kV kV kV kV kV kV kV kV 2.2 I2 24 36 72. preferred values of current ratings and standard system frequency.SECTION 6 STANDARD VALUES 2. IO percent above the corresponding nominal voltages given in 2.1.2 For medium and low voltage distribution system.Voltage Limits for AC Systems 2.Phasr.\. because of economic and other co+iderations. PART I GENERAL AND COMMON ASPECTS 25 .0.0 6.These boltages refer to the Ime-Id-line v o l t a g e . 1.2. STANDARD VALtiES OF VOLTAdES 2. and are applicable to the supply aurhorities.3 6. Trcvo.

STANDARD SYSTEM FREQUENCY 4. the R5 series. 4. the same shall be selected from RIO series (see IS : lO76-1967*).1 The preferred current ratings shall be selected from. CODE .3. PREFERRED CURRENT RATINGS 3.ECTRICAI. 4. NATIONAL EI.2 The limits within which the frequency is to be maintained are governed by the IE Rules. If intermediate values are required.1 The standard system frequency shall be 50 H7.

0 .1. transformer switchgear rooms.rchange q/ It@mation 2. a recognized authority.v Rules .2 In all cases.2 Distance from Electric Lines shall be allowed to be erected or re-erected. building engineer and the PART t GENERAI. or a modification. It may be added that subsequent requirements of the Code would. 2. drawn to the general requirements stipulated in Section 14.4 The building services plan shall also include at the early stages all the details of services that utilize electrical energy and the requirements of the electrical installation in order to enable the designers and others involved to decide the coordination to be ensured.FOREWORD 0.0. which would enable use of natural lighting and ventilation to the maximum. however. Unless otherwise exempted under the IE Rules.1 This -Section of the Code enumerates the fundamental principles of design and execution of electrical installations. Attention is. In case an Indian Standard does not exist. enumerated in 3. the civil work. SCOPE electrical engineer shall be ensured from the planning stage of the installation.1 Proper coordination and collaboration between the architect. The basic criteria in the design of electrical installation are enumerated in this Section which could be taken note of in the planning stages.1.~gr 2. 27 2 . used in an electrical installation shall conform to Indian Standard Specifications wherever they exist. Part 2 Fundamental principles’ issued by the International Electrotechnical Commission. 2.1. 2. In all such cases. or any additions or alterations made to the existing b u i l d i n g . that is.1. 2.0 c) Fxtra high voltage l i n e s 3.1 I 2 I. 2 Materials A l l m a t e r i a l s . and such other relevant data shall be specified in advance. I E.3 Sufficient coordination shall be ensured with the civil architect in the initial stages itself to ensure that sufficient building space be allotted for electrical installation purposes such as those required for sub-station installation. 1. etc. however. appliances. it is essential to consider those aspects of design of buildings as vital.0 General 2 . a rertical and horizontal clearance of 0. lift wells and other spaces required to be provided for service cable ducts.3 b+‘orktmn.ship Good workmanship is an essential requirement for compliance with this Code. Part I.5 Up IO and mcludmg 11000 v Abwc I I kV up IO a n d mcludmg 33 kV 3. The specific nature of each occupancy calls for additional i n f o r m a t i o n w h i c h a r e summariired in the respective Sections of the Code. 0 .1.rergy. from the point of safety 2.1.1.7 2.3 Lighting and Ventilation . The workmen shall also hold the appropriate certificate of competency.1 ate based on IEC Pub : 364-2 ‘Electrical installations of buildings. Measures for achieving protection against the various hazards are under consideration by the National Electrical Code Sectional Committee. 1 Co~~ornrir.2 h) High \ 0ltagc Ilnes 3. the materials and other items shall be those approved by the competent authority. the work on electrical installations shall be carried out under the supervision of a person holding a certificate of competency issued by. 2. 1.7 2. whether the proposed electrical work is a new installation or an extension to the existing one. and also the relevant regulations of the electric supply authority concerned. 1 . 0.From the point of view of conserving e.1. u n l e s s t h e f o l l o w i n g mtnimum clearances are orovided from the overhead electric supply lines: ’ Verricol m Horizonral m a) 1. equipment and their accessories.SECI’ION 7 FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES O.1 Coordination No building 2. 2 .2 The fundamental principles for protection for safetv f r o m v a r i o u s hazards in the use of electricity. it shall also be ensured that the current carrying capacity and the condition of the existing equipment and accessories are adequate.The installation shall generally be carried out in conformity with the requirements of the IE Rules (1956) as amended from time to time.r~ H*ith I n d i a n E1ecrricir. openings. f i t t i n g s . in. provide sufficient guidelines in respect of achieving the desired level of safety.1 This Section contains the fundamental principles for electrical installation. FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES 2. AND COMMON ASPECTS . The provisions that would have to be made for the accommodation of substation.30 m for ever) additional 33 kV or part thereof shall he prwided 2.o~ Ilne\ a n d medwm \olt.0 ( s e e NOTE) (SW NOTE) Nolr F o r e x t r a h i g h v o l t a g e l i n e s a p a r t j r o m t h e mlnimum clearances indicated. etc. the relevant authority shall be consulted.

6 Location and Equipment . Persons and livestock shall be protected against dangers that may arise from contact with exposed conductive parts. e) r) f3) h) Cross-section of conductors. and. d) Environmental conditioni. where the value of that current is equal to’ or greater than the shock current. k) Preventing of mutual influence between electrical and noneiectrical installations. 3. NOTE . Type of wiring and methods of installations.Even though specific provisions regarding the choice of location and space requirements for electrical installation in buildings Protective equipment. reference shall be made to IS : 3792-1978’. and g) Fannage. b) Nature of demand.5 Lifts and Escaiators. livestock’ and property against dangers and damage which may arise in the reasonable use of electrical intitallations.4. Emergency control. This protection can be achieved by one of the following methods: c) Layout.4 Heat Insulation 2. r) Levels of illumination. e) Location and requirements of switchrooms.0. 3 P r o t e c t i o n Agpinst Thermal EJfects in Normal Ser\Vce .The .electrical installation shall be so arranged that there is no risk of ignition of flammable materials due to high temperature or NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE . and b) excessive temperatures likely lo cause burns. b) Limiting the fault current which can pass C.) Automatic di&onnection of the supply on the occurrence of a fault likely to cause a current to flow through a body in contact with exposed conductive parts. Part I. Electrical Space for 2. 3. DESIGN OF ELECTRICAL b) Limiting the current which can pass through a body to a value lower than the shock current. 3. two major types of risks exist: a) shock currents.2 Protection Against lndirhct Contact - INSTALLATION 3. This protection can be achieved by one of the following methods: a) Preventing a fault current from ‘passing through the body of any person or any livestock.1.1. 3.3..0 General .1. livestock and property in accordance with 3. through a body to a value lower than the shock current.In electrical installations.Fdr information df the electrIcal engineer.1. 4 Preventing a current from passing through the body of any p’erson or any livestock. j) Disconnecting devices. have been provided in the relevant parts of the Code the following asp&s shall be taken note of in general while planning the building design: a) Need for and location and requirements of building substation. 3 . b) Load centre and centre of gravity of buildings. 3. 4 Room/spaces required for electrical utility. G&era1 provisions are outlined in Section 14.1 For information regarding recommended limits of thermal transmit^&nce of roofs and walls and transmission losses due to different constructions.1. and ml Accessibility.2. c) Emergency supply or supplies. fires and orher injurious effects.2 Proper coordination shall be ensured to provide for necessary arrangements to install and serve the electrical equipment needed for the airconditioning and heating services in the building. the lift/escalator manufacturer in consultation with the building planners.1.4.6 are intended to ensure’ the safety of persons.1 The design of the electrical installation shall take into account the following factors: a) The protection of persons.1 to 3.2 The following factors shall therefore be kept in view: a) Characteristics of the :available supply or supplies. and b) The proper functioning of the electrical installation for the use intended.1 Protection for Safety 3. 1 .0. 2. shall advise of the electrical requirements necessary for the lifts and escalators to be installed in the building. 2.0 The requirements stated in 3.1 Protection Against Direct Contact Persons and livestock shall be protected against danger that may arise from contact with live parts of the installation.

earthed (grounded) neutra P or mid-wire.6 T)qpe o f W i r i n g arid M e t h o d s o f Installations .For hve conductors. characteristics).6 g u i d e l i n e s on the methods f o r achieving protection and the choice of a particular protective measure are under consideration. 2) For dc: i) conductors equivalent to those listed above. 3. -and e) the maximum impedance with respect to the functioning of the short-circuit.2. for example. b) loads to be expected on the various circuits. includrng overcurrents caused by faults. and iii) protective conductor. etc. d) any special conditions.Partxular attention should be given to earth fault currents.1.1.electric arc. protection. e) Particular requirements of the supply undertaking. telecommunication. b) the admissible voltage drop.1.2.5 Cross Section of Conductors -the cross section of conductors shall be determined according to: a) their admissible maximum temperature.2.1. and the methods of installation depend on: a) the nature of the location. during normaLoperation of the electrical equipment. ii) neutral conductor. N OTE .1. and 4) prospective short-circuit . Also. signalling. This protection can be achieved by one of the following methods: a) Automatic disconnection on the occurrence of an overcurrent before this overcurrent attains a dangerous value taking into account its duration. 3. b) Nature and number of conductors: 1) For ac: i) phase conductor(s). 3.7 Methods for Prorecrion for Safer. 3. 3. 3. 3) maximum current allowable.The choice of the type of wiring 3. heating. c) the electromechanical stresses likely to occur due to shortcircuits. d) other mechanical stresses to which the conductors may be exposed.2 Yupplies Other Factors of Design 3. control.1 Characteristics qf the Available Supply or aj Nature of current: ac -and/or dc. 3. etc.4 Environmental Conditions (see Section 8 of Part I) 3. and b) Limiting the maximum overcurrent to a safe value and duration.! - While the general principles of protection against hazards in an electrical installation are given in 3.1. b) the nature of the walls or other parts of the building supporting the wire. Persons or livestock shall be protected against injury and property shall be protected against damage from ‘any excessive voltages likely to arise due to other causes (for example.1 to 3. there shall be no risk of persons or livestock suffering burns. and property shall be protected against damage due to excessive tempeatures or electromechnical stresses caused by any overcurrents likely to arise in live conductors. compliance with 3. PART I GENERAL AND COMMON ASPECTS 29 .The above listed items concern primarily the safety of electrical installations.2. and b) Circuits to be supplied by the emergency source. 2) frequency and frequency tolerances (see Section 6 of Part I).current (see Section 13 of Part I). and any other parts intended to carry a fault current shall be capable of carrying that current without assuming excessive temperature. 3. d) Protective measures inherent in the sup ly. c) daily and yearly variation of demand. signalling. power. Cross-sectional areas greater than those required for safety may be desirable for economic operation.4 assures their protectron against any fault currents.2.3 Emergency Supply or Supplies (see also Part 2 of the Code) a) Source of supply (nature.2 Nature of Demand-The number -and type of the circuits required for lighting.5 Protection Against Fault Currents Conductors. telecommunication. other than live conductors. c) Values and tolerances: I) voltage and voltage tolerances (see Section 6 of Part I). NOPE 2 .6 Profecrion Againsr Overvolrage Persons or livestock shall be protected against injury and property shall be protected against any harmful effects of a fault between *live parts of circuits supplied at different voltages.4 Protection Against Overcurrent Persons or livestock shall be protected against injury.1.2. are to be determined by: a) location of points of power demand. e) requirements for control. N OTE I . atmospheric phenomena or switching voltages).

and later replacement of individual items of electrical equipment.7 Protective Equipment . 4 voltage.10 Prevention ej’ Mutual Injluencv BetH. short-circuit).al Iu\~uIIu~~o:?: The electrical instaiiatlon shall be arranged in such a way that no mutual detrimental influence will occur between the electrical installation and nonelectrical installations of the building. 3.2. maintenance and repair. 32. The protective devices shall operate at values of current.‘l’oll-rkt~c. and interruption of supply. and d) undervoltage and no-voltage.The characteristics of protective equipment shall be determined with respect to their function which may be. 3.2. in interrupting device shall be installed in such a way that it can be easily recognized and effectively 2nd rapidly operated. testing. operation.8 Emergency Control. 3. for example.eell Electrical ud . e) the electromechanical stresses likely to occur due to short-circuits.t~ic. for inspection.2.Where in case of danger. circuits or individual items of apparatus as required fOJ maintenance. fault detection OJ repair.11 Accessihilit~~ of Electrical Equipment ~~ The electrical equipment shall be arranged so as to afford as may be necessary: 0 other stresses to which the wiring may be exposed during the erection of the electrical installation or in service. b) earth-fault current. voltage and time which are suitably related to the characteristics of the circuits and to the possibilities of danger. c) overvoltage. and 30 NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE . there is necessity f o r i m m e d i a t e 4 sufficient space for the initial installation b) accessibility testing.cl accessibility of wiring to persons and livestock. protection against the effects of: a) overcurrent (overload.9 Disconnecting Delkes -~ Disconnecting devices shall be provided so as t0 p e r m i t disconnection of the electrical installation. 3.2.

1 The characteristics of the following external influences shall be assessed: I) Environments a) Ambient temperature.FOREWORD 0. d) Diversion of installation from the point of view of control. However. NOIF. d) Presence of water. c) Contact of persons with earth potential. g) Mechanical stresses. d) Conditions of evacuation in an emergency.1 This Section of the Code covers guidelines for assessing the characteristics of buildings and the electrical installation therein. b) Atmospheric humidity. SCOPE 1. and q) Wind.1 . utilization and method of construction of the building. 2. Based on the work of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) under IECjTC 64 “Electrical Installations of Buildings’ this section covers a checklist of various factors that require assessment.2.2 Table I suggests the classification and codification of external influences which require assessment in the design and erection of electrical installation. prospective shortcircuit currents. m) Solar radiation.This assessment shall include those characteristics of main. j) Presence of fauna.2 Identification of External Influences on the Electrical Installation 2. Supplies and Structure . e) Presence of foreign solid bodies. 0.. However mqe severe conditions may prevail at outdoor sites and these require special considerations.2. h) Presence of flora and/or mould growth. safe operation. 0.3 The contents of this Section are primarily intended for installations inside buildings though to the extent possible they could be utilized for outdoor sites. k) Electromagnetic. Out of these influences.For t y p e s o f system earthing. I.Each condition of external influence is designated by a code comprising 2 group of two capital letters and a number as follows: 31 4 Maximum demand and diversity from the b) Type of distribution system. 2) Utilization a) Capability of persons. 2. electrostatic or ionizing influences. and b) Building design. which include. 3) Construction of Buitdings a) Constructional materials. WE Appendix A.O Purposes. point of view of economic and reliable design (see 3. p) Lightning.1 An assessment of the general characteristics of buildings is essential before planning for the needs of an electrical installation. c) Altitude. ASSESSMENT OF GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF BUILDINGS 2. standby and safety supply services. T h e s e characteristics when assessed shall also be taken into consideration in the selection and erection of equipment.SECTION 8 ASSESSMENT OF GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF BUILDINGS O. f) Preserce o f c o r r o s i v e o r p o l l u t i n g substances. testing and maintenance.2.2 of Section 7. 2. 2. Part I). PART 1 GENERAL AND COMMON ASPECTS . n) Seismic effects.0 An assessment of the general characteristics of buildings as enumerated below is essential from the point of view of design and protection for safety of the electrical installa!ion. c) Supply characteristics such as nature of current.The following shall be assessed: N OTE .2 This Section follows the internationally recommended method of identification of the external influences on the electrical installation such as environment. those which are specifically important for specific occupancies are listed at the relevant Sections of the Code. it is hoped that this Section would also enable understanding of installations not explicitly covered by the Code. and e) Nature of processed or stored material. nominal voltage.1 Identification of General Characteristics 2. types of systems of live conductors and types of system earthing. b) Electrical resistance of human body. NOTE I .

during its intended life. the code AC 2 signifies: A = environment AC = environment altitude AC2 = environment altitude > 2 000 m The code given here for marking equipment. 2. users of the Code would be familiar with the codification in terms of which the requirements would be stated in future editions. Where an authority is to be responsible for the operation of the installation. the effectiveness of. e) dc feedback. the protective measures for safety during the intended life is ensured. It is hoped that in due course the. and c) the reliability of equipment for proper functioning of the installation is appropriate to the intended life.An assessment shall be made of any characteristics of equipment likely to have harmful effects upon other electrical equipment or other services or likely to impair the supply. not taking into account the thermal contrthution of the equipment to he installed.\(‘II~KISI.3 Compatibility . Influences on outdoor installations are separately defined in the respective parts of the Code. as recommended by IEC are given in co1 4 for information. for example: a) transient overvoltages.4 Maintainability . is not intended to be used NOTE 2 . 3 For example. Table I) are given in descriptive language only.DINGS \ CLASS (ClNl/\<’ 2 2. that authority shall be consulted.T h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s d e f i n e d f o r e l e c t r i c a l installations are those accepted by the IEC and as applicable for electrical installations in buildings. b) rapidly fluctuatirig loads. Those characteristics are to be taken into account in applying the requirements of this code so that. the characteristics of influences (co1 2. f) high-frequency oscillations.An assessment shall be made of the frequency and quality of maintenance the installation can reasonably be expected to receive. uhcn operating. c) starting currents d) harmonic currents. and g) earth leakage currents.~‘\ (2) Awl I( \. having regard to the frequency and quality of maintenance expected: C = construction of buildings T h e s e c o n d l e t t e r relares t o t h e n a t u r e o f the exrernal injuenre A B c T h e n u m b e r relates to r h e c l a s s w i t h i n e a c h external inJluence I 2 .T h e jirsr letter external injluence A = environment B = utilization relates IO the general category of 2. Codification for the same (see NOTE I above). For the time being. C H A R A C T E R I S T I C S O F BI’II.2) CII\K. Those characteristics include. TABLE 1 ASSESSMENT OF GF. IO\\ \\I) I-\ \\ll’l I \ (3) COIN DESIGSI IO\ (1) (4) Environment I) Ambient temperature l-he ambient temperature 10 he considered for the cqulpment is the temperature at the place where the equipment is to he installed resulting from the influence of all other equipment in the hame location.NERAI. . Lower and upper limits of ranges 01 ambient temperature: -WC -400 c -2YC -5°C +5”c t5oc +50 c +5”c +5oc +40” c +400 c +6ooc AAI AA2 AA3 AA4 AA5 AA6 (Conrinued) 32 NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE . a) any periodic inspection and testing and maintenance and repairs like1 to be necessary during the intended lifye can be readily and safely carried out.

Locations in which sprayed water forms a continuous film on floors and ior walls. 2) Atmospheric humidity 3) Altitude 4) Presence of water Negligible Probability of presence of water is neghgible Locations in which the walls do not generally show traces of water but may do so for short periods. etc. Presence of foreign solid hodIt where the smallest dlmenslon is not less than 2. In conditions AEI and AE3. for example! in the form of vapour which good. dust may be present but is not slgmficant to operation of the electrical equipment.S mm Presence of foreign solid hodies where the smallest dimension is not Ins than I mm. S e a s h o r e locatIon\ huch as piers. the lowest part of equipment being not more than I m belou the water surface. AD5 AD6 AD7 Submersion Possibility of permanent and total coverlng by water AD8 5) Presence of foreign solid bodies: Negligible The quantity of nature ot dust or foreign sohd bodies i\ not slgmficant. Wires are examples of foreign solid bodies of which the smallest dimenslon is not less than I mm. AEI Small Objects AE2 Very small objects AE3 P A R T 1 GENERAI.jets of water from any dIrectIon PosGbihty of water waves Possibility of intermittent partial or total covering by water.Comd (‘I \\\I h\IGSArIO”. 1001s and small objects are examples of foreign solid bodies of which the smallest dimension is at least 2. Locations such as iwlmming pools uhere electrical equipment is permanently and totally covered with water under a pressure greater than 0. 10 certain external lightmg fittings. Locations where hosewater is used regularly (yards. for example. ventilation dl les rapidly.TABLE 1 ASSESSMENT OF GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF’ BUILDINGS . car-washing bays). etc. NOI I. Locations in which water vapour occasionally condenses as drops or where steam may occasionally be present. AND COMMON ASPECTS 33 . Installations subject to temperatures outside the ranges require special consideration. (1) CHAI~A~TE~I~TICS (2) The average temperature over a 24 hour period must not exceed 5°C below the upper limits. construction site equipment. this applies.1 h a r ADI under consideration <2OOOm >ZOOOm AC1 A PPLICATIONS E XAMPLES AND C ODE (3) (4) AC2 Free-falling drops Possibility of vertically falling drops AD2 Sprays Possibility of water falling as spray at an angle up to 60’C from the VertlCal Possibility of splashes from any direction AD3 Splashes AD4 Jets Waves lmmeralon Possibility of . heache\ quays. Combination of two ranges to define some environments may be necessary.5 mm. LocatIon\ which may be flooded and or uhere water may be at least I50 mm ahove the highest point of equipment. Locations where equipment may be subjected lo splashed water.

. such as chemical works and cement works.\ (1) DtJst 6) Presence of corrosive or polluting substances: Negligible The quantity or nature of corrosive or polluting substances is not significant The presence of corrosive or polluting substance of atmospheric origin is significant. this type of pollution arises especially in the production of abrasive. Locations where some chemical products are handled in small quantities and where these products may come only accidentially into contact with electrical equipment. Industrial installations subject to severe conditions. APPLI(‘ATIOYS AK. etc).~‘l-i WiS~II(‘S (2) Presence of dust in significant quantity. Usual industrial conditions. Usual industrial conditions.Provisional classification. c) Other mechanical stresses 8) Presence of fungus and/or mould growth No hazard Hazard No hazard of fungus and/or mould growth hazard of fungus and/or mould growth The hazard dcpcnda on local conditions and the nature of fungus. AF2 Intermittent or accidental Intermittent or accidental subjection to corrosive or polluting chemical substances being used or produced AF3 Continuous Continuously subject to corrosive or polluting chemical substances in substantial quantity. chemical works. Quantitative expression of impact severities is under consideration. insulating or conductive dusts.\ . EXAMPLM (3) coot (4) AE4 AFI Atmospheric Installations situated by the sea or industrial zones producing serious atmospheric pollution. such conditions are found in factory.. Conrrl I IOX CII . laboratories. garages. Quantitative expression of vibration severities is under consideration. Household and similar conditions.TABLE 1 ASSESSMENT OF GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF BUILDINGS CI \ss DI+I<. For example. IXstrnction should bc made bctvvccn harmful growth of vcgctatton or condittons for promotion of mould grovvth. AF4 7) Mechanical Stresses: a)’ Impact Low severity Medium severity High severity N OTE . AK1 AK2 Under consideration AJ Household and similar conditions where the effects of vibration are generally negligible. other laboratories or in locations where hydra-carbons are used (boiler-rooms. AHI AH2 AH3 9) Presence of vermin No hazard No hazard (Conrinued) 34 NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE . Severe industrial conditions.w~. AGI AG2 AC3 b) Vibration Low severity Medium severity High severity N OW .Provisional classification.

seismic effects must be specially considered. In general.presence of small animals or birds m harmful quantity or of an aggressive nature. The risks AQ2 and AQ3 relate to regions with a particularly high level of thunderstorm activity. birds. Parts of installation> located outside buildings. Harmful presence of induced currents. . Frequency is not taken into account in the classification.TABLE 1 ASSESSMENT OF GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF BUILDINGS . electromagnetic radiation. IO) Electromagnetic. AQI AQ2 AQ3 14) Wind (Under consideration) Utilization I) Capability of Persons Ordinary Children Uninstructed persons Children in locations intended for their occupation. ioni7ing radiation or induction. AN2 Up to 30 Gal (I Gal = I cm/s’) API AP2 AP3 Vibration which may cause the destruction of the building is outside the classification.Conrd C LASS D E S I G N A T I O N (1) Hazard C%A~AUTERI~~I~~ (2) Hazard from fauna (insects. electrostattc or ionizing influences Negligible No harmful effects from stray currents. Harmful presence of ionizing radiation. the frequency of seismic acceleration is between 0 and IO H z .presence of insects in harmful quantity or of an aggressive nature. if the seismic wave resonates with the building. Nurseries BAI BA2 ( COrIliflUPd) PART I GENERAL AND C O M M O N A S P E C T S 35 . small animals) A PPLICATIONS E XAMPLES AND C ODE (3) The hazard de nds on the nature of the vermin. AMI Stray currents Electromagnetics loni7ation Electrostatics Induction I I) Solar radiation Negligible Significant 12) Seismic effects Negligible Low severity Medium severity High severity AM2 AM3 AM4 AM5 AM6 ANI Solar radiation of harmful intensity and/or duration. Harmful presence of electrostatic fields. gstinction should he made between: (4) AL2 . electrostatic fields. Harmful presence of electromagnetic radiation. Harmful hazards of stray currents. however. AP4 over 30 up to and including 300 Gal over 300 up to and including 600 Gal greater than 600 Gal 13) Lightning Negligible Indirect exposure Direct exposure Hazard from supply arrangements Hazard from exposure of equipment Installations supplied by overhead lines.

Metallic surroundings such as boilers and tanks. BEI BE2 Buildings of normal or low height used for habitation. either numerous or of large area. Barns.TABLE I ASSESSMENT OF GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF BUILDINGS . for example. Norr-conducting locations. N O T E . High density occupation. difficult conditions of evacuation. to prevent processed materials being contaminated by electrical equipment. hydrocarbon stores. difficult conditions of evacuation. wood-working shops.Certain precautions may be necessary. by broken lamps.Con/d CII 4K \(‘trKISTI(‘S (2) A P P L I C A T I O N S AND CODE EXAMPUS (3) (4) Norm ~. kitchens. Oil refineries. sufficient experience to enable them to avoid dangers which electricity may create (engineers and technicians) BA3 Instructed BA4 Skilled BA5 2) Electrical Resistance of the Human Body Classification (Under consideration) 3) Contact of Persons with Earth Potential None Low Persons in non-conducting situations Persons do not in usual conditions make contact with extraneous conductive parts or stand on conducting surfaces. in the event of fault. paper factories.) BDI BD2 BD3 BD4 Explosion risk Contamination risks BE3 Foodstuff industries. Locations with extraneous conductive parts. Locations open to the public (theatres. (Conrinued) 36 NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE . processing or storage of flammable materials including presence of dust. etc. pharmaceutics. easy conditions of evacuation. Processing or storage of explosive or low flashpoint materials including presence of explosive dusts. BCI BC? BB Frequent BC3 Continuous BC4 4) Conditions of Evacuation in an Emergency Low density occupation. High-rise buildings open to the public (hotels. hospitals. Persons are frequently in touch with extraneous conductive parts or stand on conducting surfaces. Low density occupation. old persons) Electrical operating areas Persons adequately advised or supervised by skilled persons to enable them to avoid dangers which electricity may create (operating and maintenance staff) Persons with technical knowledge or Closed electrtcal operating areas. Presence of unprotected foodstuffs.This class does not necessarily apply to family dwellings. 5) Nature of Processed or Stored Materials No signifiant risks Fire risks Manufacture. High density occupation. cinemas). Handicapped Persons not in command of all their Hospitals physical and intellectual abilities (sick persons. and similar products without protection. Persons are in permanent contact with metallic surroundings and for whom the possibility of interrupting contact is limited. High-rise buildings. easy conditions of evacuation.

the exposed conductive parts of the installation being connected to earth electrodes electricallv PART I GENERAL AND COMMON ASPECTS s= c= neutral and protective functions provided by separate conductors.Figures I to 5 show examples of commonly used three-phase systems. the exposed conductive parts of the electrical installation being earthed. settlement of ground . CB3 Flexible or unstable CB4 A P P E N D I X A (Clause 2. Flexible wiring. (in ac system. _ High-rise buildings.Constructions of Building I) Constructional Materials Non-combustible Combustible 2) Building Design Negligible risk Prtortgation of Buildings of which the shape and dimensions facilitate the spread of fire (for example. NOTE 2 -The codes used have the following meanmgs: First letter indicates relationship of the power system to earth: T = direct connection of one point to earth. displacement between a building and the ground. (for example. and in which neutral and protective functions are c o m b i n e d i n a single conductor throughout the system. Subsequent letter(s) (if any) indicate arrangement of neutral and protective conductors: c) IT qstem -~ The IT system has no direct follows: TN-S system: having separate neutral and protective conductors throughout the system. a) TN Systems-TN power systems have one point directly earthed. Forced ventilation systems. chimney effects).O) TYPES OF SYSTEM EARTHING The folloGng types of system earthing are taken into account in this Code. connection between live parts and earth. air-support structures. 37 .TABLE 1 ASSESSMENT OF GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF BUILDINGS. removable partitions.The TT power system has one point directly earthed. I . or one point connected to earth through an impedance. CBI CB2 APPLICATIONS EXAMPLES (3) AND CODE (4) Buildings mainly constructed of combustible materials Wooden buildings CA1 CA2 Movement Buildings of considerable length Risks due to structural movement or erected on unstable ground. neutral and protective functions combined in a single conductor (PEN conductor). oscillation) Tents. according to the arrangement of neutral and protective conductors as independent of the earth electrodes of the p o w e r s y s t e m . Three types of TN systems are recognized. TN C-S system: TN-C system: b) TT s. then exposed conductive parts of the installation being connected to that point by protective conductors.llstem -. Second letter indicates relationship of the exposed conductive parts of the installation to earth: T = direct electrical connection of exposed conductive parts to earth. in which neutral and protective functions are combined in a single conductor in a part of the system.Conld C LASS DESIGNATIOK CHARAUERISTI~S (2) . Structures which are weak or subjects to movement (for example. the earthed point is normally the neutral point). and I = all alive parts isolated from earth.or building foundations). NOTE I . false ceilings. independently of the earthing of any point of the power system. Installations needing support. and N = direct electrical connection of the exposed conductive parts to the earthed point of the power system. or Contraction or expansion joints.

2 T N .(‘l’IONS A N D PROI.F C‘~NDI:~T~R ‘TIIROIIGIIOI:T I III: SI.S~M 38 NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE . I T N . ~Ii~. 4 TT SYSTEM SYSTEM EARTH CONDUCTIVE PART FIG.S S Y S T E M N EUTRAL TIVE P R O T E C T I V E C O N D U C T O R S THRO~JGHOIJI I III: SJ~SIIXI FIJN~TIONS CONDIKV~R IN L30 Nt L20 v POWER SYSTEM EARTH CONDUCTIVE PARTS -A‘ = POWER SYSTEM EARTH :-)) -o -* b---l I hPE L-_-_-A & f POSED EX CONDUCTIVE PART F I G.S S YSTEM S EPARATE N EUTRAL AND F I G.SYSTEM EARTH SED CONDUCTIVE P&R1 S POWER SYSTEM EARTH CONDUCTIVE PARTS A N D PROTECCO M B I N E D I N A S I N G L E A P ART OF THE S Y S T E M F I G. 5 IT S~.E(. NEUTRAI. 3 7-N-C SYSTFM.YIW C O M B I N E D I N A SING1.SMM F I G.C .

the factors which may have an influence include: a) power factor.Every item of electrical equipment used in the installation shall conform to the relevant Indian Standard specifications wherever available. c) asymmetrical load.SECTION 9 SELECTION OF EQUIPMENT 0. i n p a r t i c u l a r .1 This Section of the Code covers general criteria for selection of equipment.Electrical equipment shall be suitable with respect to the maximum steady voltage (rms value for ac).Every item of electrical equipment selected shall have suitable characteristics appropriate to the values and conditions on which the design of the electrical installation (see 3. 2.2 Current .All electrical equipment shall be selected so as to withrtand safely the stresses and the environmental conditions (see 3.1 to 2. as well as overvoltages likely to occur. has an frequency 2. This Section of the Code is prepared in such a manner as to bring out only the essential criteria for selection of equipment. taking into account the load factor and the normal service conditions.2. and maintenance of electric power equipment. other equipment or impair the supply during normal service including switching operations.2.1 A series of product codes have been brought out in the field of electrotechnology which covers details of selection. the rated frequency of the equipment shall correspond to the frequency likely to occur in the circuit. 2. SELECTION OF EQUIPMENT 2.If influence on the characteristics of electrical equipment.3 Frequency .2. an item of equipment does not have by design the properties corresponding to its location it may be used on condition that adequate additional protection provided as part of the completed electrical installation. 1. NOTE . In this context.4 Power .5 Guidelines on the selection of specific equipment are covered in the relevant Indian Standard codes of practice. of Part 1 of the Code.2 of Section 7 of Part I) characteristic of its location to which it may be exposed. fulfil t h e requirements given in 2. and d) harmonics.For certain equipment. and users of the Code are recommended to make reference to individual product codes for detailed guidelines. likely to be applied. and with respect to the current likely to be carried in abnormal conditions and PART I GENERAL AND COMMON ASPECTS 39 . NOTE -This Section shall be read in conjunction with the Indian Standard codes on individual equipment. 2. If. FOREWORD the period (for example. SCOPE 1.All electrical equipment shall be selected with respect to the maximum steady current (rms value for ac) which it has to carry in normal service.2 Characteristics .Iitions of Installation . shall be suitable for the duty demanded of the equipment. if any) during which it may be expected to flow.2 of Section 7 of Part I) is b a s e d a n d s h a l l . 2. however. The general characteristics of building installations are assessed according to the guidelines given in Section 8.4.1 Voltage .1 Conformity to Indian Standards L.All electrical equipment to be selected on the basis of its power characteristics.All electrical equipment shall be selected so that it will not cause harmful effects on. 2. 0. b) inrush current.4 Prevention of Harmful effects .3 Con.2. 2. operating time of protective devices. it may be necessary to take account of the lowest voltage likely to occur. 2.2. 2.2. installation.

Guidelines on such aspects are outside the purview of the Code.7 Attention is also drawn to the provisions contained in relevant Indian Standard codes on installation of specific equipment which shall be adhered to during erection of the installation. these parts shall be so located as to prevent accidental contact therewith. In the event of defects being found.1 Before the completed installation.6 All electrical equipment likely to cause high temperatures or electric arcs shall be placed or guarded so as to eliminate the risk of ignition of flammable materials. among other things. contact prcssui-e and contact area.1. 2. General workmanship of the electrical wiring with regard to the layout and finish shall be examined for neatness that would facilitate easy identification of circuits of the system.1 For the erection of the electrical installation. 2. This. *Code of practice for electrical wiring installations: Part 3 inspection and testing of installation. with respect to the rating. fittings. 2. a reference could be made to individual equipment codes which cover maintenance schedules: 0. shall include checking whether all equipment. However. F O R E W O R D 0. 3. a general inspection shall be carried out by competent personnel to verify that the provisions of this Code and that of Indian Electricity Rules.SECTION 10 ERECTION AND INITIAL TESTING OF INSTALLATION 0. the nature and frequency of such measures depending on the nature of the electrical installation in question. and the installation retested. 1956 have been complied with.2.1 General Requirements 3. used in the installation are of adequate rating and quality to meet the requirements of the load. as determined in accordance with Section 9 of Part I shall not be impaired in the process of erection.5 All electrical equipment shall be installed in such a manner that the designed cooling conditions are not impaired. INSPECTION AND TESTING 3.3 Protective conductors and neutral conductors shall be identifiable at least at their terminations by colouring or other means. After putting the installation into 3.2 service periodic inspection and testing shall be carried out in order to maintain the installation in a sound condition. A complete check shall also be made of all the protective devices.3 Where an addition is to be made to the fixed wiring of an existing installation the latter s h a l l b e e x a m i n e d f o r c o m p l i a n c e with recommendations of this Code. soundness of termination with respect to tightness. SCOPE 1. or an addition to the existing installation.2 The equipment.4 Connections between conductors and between conductors and other electrical equipment shall be made in such a way that safe and reliable contacts ire ensured.1. ERECTION 2. adequacy of clearances.4 The contents of this Section are based on iS_: 732 (Part 3)-1982* 1. CODE 40 . accessories. This Section lists the aspects/parameters that are required to be verified before an installation could be certified as ready for energizing and use. these shall be rectified.ECTRICAI.1. as soon as practicable. 2. is put into service. 0. 3. 1956.At the completion of wiring. 3. These conductors in flexible cords or flexible cables shall be identifiable by colouring or other means throughout their length (see 2.6 of Section 4 of Part I).3 In addition to initial testing.1 Testing and ensurmg that the installation conforms to the predetermined conditions before the installation could be energized. 0. is a necessary prerequisite under the Giutory -provisions. individual product standards cover more detailed guidelines on precommissioning c h e c k s f o r i n d i v i d u a l equipment. inspection and testing shall be carried out in accordance with the Indian Electricity Rules.2. Inspection of the Installation 3. range of settings and for co-ordination between the various protective devices. 2. good workmanship by suitably qualified personnel and the use of proper materials shall be ensured. 2.1 This Section of the Code covers general principles of erection of installation and guidelines on initial testing before commissioning. Where the temperature of any exposed parts of electrical equipment is likely to cause injury to persons. periodic testing and preventive maintenance checks are necessary.0 General. wires and cables.2 While a complete check list of items to be checked and necessary tests to be done are included in this Section. characteristics of the electrical 2. NATIONAL EI.

25) in the case of transformers. 30) oil and winding temperature are set for specific requirements in transformers.It shall be checked whether: all blocking materials that are used for safe transportation in switchgears. ances are provided as required. rear and sides of the switthboards. fuse adequate. 7) in case of indoor substation. 4) suitable linked switch or circuit-breaker or lockable push button is provided near the motors/apparatus for controlling supply to the motor/apparatus in an easily accessible location. overhead bus bar trunking. 2) all connections to the earthing system are feasible for periodical inspection. etc. 31) in case of cable cellars. 11) all construction materials and temporary connections are removed. 28) accessories of transformers like breathers. etc. brass bolts and nuts with lead washers are provided in the pipes/ plates. 18) control switchfuses are provided at an accessible height from ground. automatic safety shutters/doors interlock. etc. 12) oil levels. etc. 15) earth pipe troughs. are in order. and tlie handles are provided with locking arrangements. bus bar covers/ shrouds.3. rubber mats. are adequate.1 Substation Installations ~~ in substation installation it shall be checked whether: handle interlock for safe and reliable operation in all panels and cubicles. sufficient ventilation and draining arrangements are made. 2) phase-to-phase and phase-toearth clear3) all equipments are efficiently earthed and properly connected to the required number of earth electrodes.2. there is any oil leak. adequate arrangements to pump out water that has entered due to seepage or other reason is provided. transformer tap position. 13) earth pipe troughs and cover slabs are provided for earth electrodes/earth pits. are kept in the substation. are in order. maintenance. 26) connections to bushings in transformers are tightened and have good contact.2. For earth connections. 6) the required number of caution boards.are free from cracks. 16) Panels and switchgears are all vermin and damp proof and all unused openings or holes are b!ocked properly. PAHT 22) the gap in the horngap fuse and the size of 23) the switch operates freely. 10) all na.2 Installation at Voltage not exceeding 650 V. Jl I GENERAL AND COMMON ASPECTS . 29) connections to gas relay in transformers are in order. relays. 24) Insulators . 5) two separate and distinct earth connections are provided for the motor/apparatus. 1) the installation has been carried out in accordance with the approved drawings. 3) sharp cable bends are avoided and cables are taken in a smooth manner in the trenches or alongside the walls and ceilings using suitable support clamps at regular intervals. 17) the earth bus bars for tightness and for corrosion free joint surface.me-plates are fixed and the equipment are fully painted. vent pipe. control switchfuse is provided at an accessible height from ground for controlling supply to overhead travelling crane hoists. 5) suitable fencing is provided with gate with lockable arrangements. 4) the required ground *clearance to live terminals is provided. are removed. all the blades make contact at the same time. 9) free accessibility is provided for all equipment for normal operation. 3. 14) earth electrodes are of GI pipes or CI pipes or copper plates. and 32) all incoming and outgoing circuits of panels are’clearly and indelibly labelled for identifications both at the front and at the rear. contactors. operating rods. 8) all cable trenches are provided with nonflammable covers. horizontal and vertical barriers. The arcing horns contact in advance. 21) clearances in the front. Neutral and lightning arrester earth pits are marked for easy identification. buchholz relay. 27) bushings are free from cracks and are clean. and are clean. bus bar tightness. fire-fighting equipments. 19) adequate head room is available in the transformer room for easy topping up of oil. 20) safety devices. etc. oil sumps/pits are free from rubbish and dirt and stone jelly and the earth connections are visible and easily accessible.

3. the following tests shall be carried out. and similarly. II) the screens and armours of the cables are earthed properly. and 17) number of wires in a conduit conform to provisions of this Code. 14) ammeters and voltmeters are tested and calibrated.Switchboards shall be tested in the manner indicated below: 3) the plug points in the lighting circuit are all of 3-pin type.The lighting circuits shall be checked whether: 3. tallation is put into service. and 16) in the case of air circuit-breakers. armoured cable wiring is used. switch fuses which are used for lighting control. 13) adequate precautions are taken to ensure that no live parts are so exposed as to cause danger. and separate supply for lighting circuit is taken. 6) a separate earth wire is run in the lighting installation to provide earthing for plug points. 16) flat washers backed up by spiring washers are used for making end connections. 2) ends of conduits enclosing the wiring leads are provided with suitable bushes. any testing of the electrical installation in an already existing installation shall commence after obtaining permit to work from the engineerincharge and after ensuring the safety provisions. etc. s u b .0 Gerwtd.3 Lighting. IO) the cables are not taken through areas where they are likely to be damaged or chemically affected.1 Switchboards . 3) the operation of all protective devices shall be tested by means of secondary or primary injection tests. provisions of arc chutes in their respective poles are made. 3. and no fuse is provided in the neutral. the wiring is enclosed to the full lengths. 9) if flexible metallic hose is used for wiring to motors and equipments. before an installation or an addition to the existing i. 3. 3. 4) the operation of the circuit-breakers shall be tested from all control stations.After inspection. fixtures and equipment. or alternatively.3 Testing of Installation 1) wooden boxes and uanels are avoided in 2) neutral links are provided in double pole _ factories for mounting the lighting boards and switch controls. the fourth core being used for earthing. fixtures.3. the third pin being suitably earthed.42 1) all switchboards shall be tested for di- electric test in the manner recommended in IS : 8623 (Part I)-l977*. 8) four core cables are used for overhead travelling crane and portable equipments. 15) the relays are inspected visually by moving covers for deposits or dusts or other foreign matter.m a i n b o a r d s a n d switches. 12) the belts of the belt driven equipment are properly guarded. 14) proper terminal connectors are used for termination of wires (conductors and earth leads) and all strands are inserted in the terminals. *Factory built assemblies of switchgear and controlgear: Part I General requirements. 13) the fittings and fixtures used for outdoor use are all of weather proof construction. conduit and conduit properly earthed. 8) cartridge fuse units are fitted with cartridge fuses only. conductors or cross over of conductors take place. 9) clear and permanent identification marks are painted in all distribution boards. 4) tamper-proof interlocked switch socket outlets are used for locations easily accessible. as necessary. and the hose secured properly. 2) all earth connections shall be checked for continuity. NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE . 7) proper connectors and junction boxes are used wherever joints are to be made in . 5) lighting wiring in factory area is taken enclosed ir. 15) flat ended screws are used for fixing conductor to the accessories. switchboards. I) spare knockouts provided in distribution boards and switchfuses are blocked. fittings and switchgears used in the hazardous area are of flame proof application.the metal rails on which the crane travels are electrically continuous and earthed and bonding of rails and earthing at both ends are done. IO) the polarity is checked and all fuses and single pole switches are connected on the phase conductor only and wiring is correctly connected to socket outlets.2.

Such a test shall be made after removing all metallic connections between the two poles of the installation and in these circumstances the insulation resistance between conductors of the installation shall be not less than that specified in (b). R1 = I 000 + 2P where R.5) indication/ signalling lamps shall be checked for working. but in that event the insulation resistance between the case or framework.5 MR. installation and maintenance of transformers: Part 2 Installation. appliance and sign shall be not less than that specified in the relevant Indian Standard specification or where there is no such specification shall be not less than 0.. and all live parts of each rheostat.The following tests shall be done: a) The insulation resistance shall be measured by applying between earth and the whole system of conductor or any section thereof with all fuses in place and all switches closed. = Ksuptibn resistance in MR at 0 E. *Code of practice for selection.. and except in earthed concentric wiring. Megohmmeter of 500 V or 1 000 V rating shall be used. a dc voltage of not less than twice the working voltage.vr r~\~ision).3. provided that the whole installation need not be required to have an insulation resistance greater than IMR. 3. 7) the closing and opening timings of the ciicuit-breakers shall be tested wherever required for autotransfer schemes. 6) the operation of the circuit-breakers shall be tested for all intedock. the value shall be corrected to 25°C. countersigned by the certified supervisor under whose direct supervision the installation was carried out. e) On completion of an electrical installation (or an extension to an installation) a certificate shall be furnished by the contractor. if desired. If any suspicion exists on this score. Cable installations shall be 3.4 Motors and Other Equipment .6 Earthing . may. and 9) the specific gravity of the electrolyte and the voltage of the control battery shall be measured. b) The insulathon resistance as measured at ambient temperature does not always give a reliable value. *Code of practice for earthing.~.\/~). b) The insulation resistance in megohms of an in?tallation measured as in (a) shall be not less than 50 divided by the number of points on the circuit. since moisture might have been absorbed during shipment and storage: When the temperature of such a motor is raised. 43 a) The insulation resistance of each phase winding against the frame and between the windings shall be measured. the working voltage shall be deemed to be that which is maintained between the outer or phase conductor and the neutral.I)I~~~.The following tests are made on motor and other equipment: 3. 3. +Code of practice for installation and maintenance of power cables up to and Including 33 kV (/ir. = Rated phase-to-phase voltage. heating and power appliances and electric signs.3. be disconnected from the circuit during the test. This certificate shall be in a prescribed form as required by the local electric supply authority.3. Star points should be disconnected.2 ~.3.s as listed in IS : 1002X (Part 2)-1981* shall be car-ricd out.3.5 Wiring Installation . 8) contact resistance of main and isolator contacts shall be measured. Where the supply is derived from three-wire (ac or dc) or a polyphase system the neutral pole of which is connected to earth either direct or through added resistance. even below the acceptable minimum.For checking the efficiency of earthing the following tests are recommended (see IS : 3043-1966*). the insulation resistance will initially drop considerably. AND COMMON ASPECTS .3 C’cihlc~s chcckcd ah laid doun in IS : 125%19X3+. motor winding shall be dried out. all lamps in position or both poles of installation otherwise electrically connected together.u. The following relation may serve as a reasonable guide: 2 0 X E. PART I GE:NERAI. provided that it does not exceed 500 volts for medium voltage circuits. c) Control rheostats. All commissioning tests 3. Minimum acceptable value of the insulation resistance varies with the rated power and the rated voltage of the motor. and P = Rated power kW. If the resistance is measured at a temperature different from 25OC. d) The insulation resistance shall also be measured betwetn all conductors connected to one pole or phase conductor of the >upply and all the conductors connected to the middle wire to the neutral on to the other pole of phase conductors of the supply.

b) The earth resistance of earthing grid is measured.a) The earth resistance of each electrode is measured. These tests shall preferably be done during the summer months. c) All electrodes are connected to the’grid and the earth resistance of the entire earthing system is measured. 44 NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE .

3. 2. Specially designed ceiling roses shall be used for multiple pendants. 2. 2. a socket outlet with plug shall be of three-pin type with the third terminal connected to the earth. it is necessary to install an interlocked plug and socket or alternatively a socket outlet which automatically gets screened by the withdrawal of plug.1 A switch shall be provided for the control of every lighting fitting or a group of lighting fittings. Design and consiruction. 0.5 Lampholders . 2. 0. 1 A ceiling rose or any other similar attachment shall not be used on a circuit the voltage of which normally exceeds 250 V .the distribution/sub-distribution board.1 This Section of the Code covers the essential design and constructional requirements for electrical wi. 2. etc. The requirements specified in this Section are based on safety and reliability considerations.1 Ceiling Roses and Similar Attachments 2 .5 2.75 l6/0. 2. 2.Lampholders for use with flexible pendants shall be provided with c o r d grips. etc.3 8. *Code of practice for electrical wiring iE. only one flexible cord shall be attached to a ceiling rose.3.3 The switch controlling the socket outlet shall be on the live side of the line.2 3210. steel chains. Where a lighting fitting is supported by one or more flexible cords.3.o 1.2 2 : 5. with suitable discrimination with back-up fuse or miniature circuit-breaker provided in. 2.3 No flammable shade shall form a part of lighting fittings unless such shade is well protected against all risks of fire. Guidance on such matters are covered in respective Sections of the Code.takitiOnS: Part 2. brackets fabricated from structural steel. Where fittings-wire is used for wiring fittings.2 Each socket outlet shall also be controlled by a switch which shall preferably be located immediately adjacent thereto or combined therewith. water cooler.1 Each 15A socket outlet provided in buildings for the use of domestic appliances sych as air-conditioner.3 Lighting Fittings 2.2 Socket Outlets and Plugs 2.1.4 Fitting-Wire .2. 1 . Celluloid shade or lighting fitting shall not be used under any circumstances.3 The contents of this Section are based on IS : 732 (Part 2)-1982* 1.2 8010. This Section of the Code is primarily intended to cover guidelines on design and construction of wiring installations which are commonly applicable to all types of occupancies. 2.1 A major portion of fixed installation design in a building relates to wiring installation.2. the maximum weight !o which the twin flexible cords may be subjected shall be as follows: Nominal CrossSectional Area of Twin Flexible Cord Number and Diameter in mm of Wires Maxrmum Permissible Weight kg mm* 0.2.2 Normally. PART I GENERAL AND COMMON ASPECTS 2.1. . depending upon the type and weight of the fittings. 2.The use of fittings-wire shall be restricted to the internal wiring of the lighting fittings.3 A ceihng rose shall not embody fuse terminal as an integral part of it.SECTION 11 WIRING INSTALLATIOlVS 0. FOREWORD 2.5 In an earthed system of supply. conductors connecting such current-consuming devices shall be of flexible cord with an earthing core and the earthing core shall be secured by connecting between1 the earth terminal of plug and the. N OTE ~ In situations where a socket outlet is accessible to children. shall be provided with its own individual fuse.2.5 0.8 14.5 4 2.ring installations.0 I . When such socket outlets with plugs are connected to any current+onsuming device of metal or any noninsulating material or both.2 It may be mentioned that the general design guidelines for wiring given in this Section have to be carefully considered while applying them to specific occupancies and a proper selection of the method is to be decided depending on local conditions.body of current-consuming devices.2 Where necessary lighting fittings shall be supported by suitable pipe/conduits. the sub-circuit leads shall termmate In a ceiling rose or box with connectors from which they shall be carried into the fittings.2 2410. The socketoutlet shall not necessarily embody the fuse as an integral part of it. Where control at more than one point is necessary as many two-way or intermediate switches may be provided as there are control points.4 Ordinary socket outlet may be fixed at any convenient place at a height above 20 cm from the floor level and shall be away from danger of mechanical injury. qQUIPMENT FITTINGS AND ACCESSORIES 2.2. SCOPE 1.A11 lampholders shall be provided with 45 .2 12810.2 4810. 0.

brackets.4 m. the clearance between the bottom-most point of the ceiling fan and the floor shall be not less than 2. Where centrecontact Edison screw lampholders are used.5 mm* aluminium and shall be protected from abrasion. and shall in addition be secured by means of split pins. Blocks shall not be less than 4 cm deep. Fan clamps for reinforced concrete roofs shall be buried with the casting and due care shall be taken that they shall serve the purpose. Fan clamps for wood beams shall be of suitable flat iron fixed on two sides of the beam and according to the size and section of the beam one or two mild steel bolts passing through the beam shall hold both flat irons together. provided where flexible cord enters the base or stem of portable lamp.2 Exhaust Fans . the neutral.All lamps unless otherwise required and suitably protected.Lamps fitted outdoor shall have weather-proof fittings so as to effectively prevent the ingress of moisture and dust. pendants and accessories attached to walls or ceilings shall be mounted on substantial wooden blocks twice varnished after all fixing holes are made in them. The hole shall be neatly plastered with cement and brought to the original finish of the wall. There shall be no joint in the suspension rod. f) Unless otherwise specified.8. 4 Portable lamps shall be wired with flexible cord. adequate strength to withstand the dead and impact forces imposed on it. 2. b) All ceiling fans shall be wired with normal wiring to ceiling roses or to special connector boxes to which fan rod wires shall be connected and suspended from hooks or shackels with insulators between hooks and suspension rods.shade carriers.9. but in a:1 cases care shall be taken to see that they are rigid and safe. Metallic guards shall be earthed suitably.For fixing of an exhaust fan. but if joints are unavoidable then such joints shall be screwed to special couplers of 5 cm minimum length and both ends of the pipes shall touch together within the couplers. Care shall be taken during fabrication that the metal does not crack while hammering to shape. 2. 2. respectively. sectional area not less than 1. they shall be of fixed rod type. Hand lamps shall be equipped with a handle of moulded composition or other material approved for the purpose. The bushing shall be of insulating material unless a jacketted type or cord is used.All fan clamps shall be so fabricated that fans revolve steadily. Regulators and Clamps 2. The minimum clearance between the ceiling and the plane of the blades shall be not !ess than 300 mm. The exhaust fan shall be connected to exhaust fan point which shall be wired as near to the hole as possible by means of a flexible cord. all ceiling roses. Other fan clamps shall be made to suit the position. There shall be a spacing of at least 125 mm between live parts and the mounting plane of the fixture. 4 Canopies on top and bottom of suspension e) The lead-in-wire shall be of nominal cross- b) A bushing or the equivalent shall be rods shall effectively hide suspensions and connections to fan motors. Flexible cord and cord grip lampholders shall not be used where exposed to weather. In all cases fan clamps shall be fabricated from new metal of suitable sizes and they shall be as close fitting as possible. Brass screws shall only be used for attaching fittings and accessories to their base blocks. care being taken that the blades rotate in the proper direction.7 Lamps . alternatively the two pipes may be welded. Fan clamps for steel joint shall be fabricated from flat iron to fit rigidly to the bottom flange of the beam. c) Fan clamps shall be of suitable design according to the nature of construction of 46 2. ceiling on which these clamps are to be fitted.0 mm’ copper or 1. the outer or screw contacts shall be connected to the ‘middle wire’. 2.8 Fans. NOTE . Hand lamps shall be equipped with a substantial guard attached to the lamp holder or handle.1 Ceiling Fans-Wiring for ceiling fans shall conform to the following requirements: a) Control of a ceiling fan shall be through its own regulator as well as a switch in series. regulators.6 Outdoor Lamps .9 Attachment of Fittings and Accessories 2.1 In wiring other than conduit wiring. In verandahs and similar exposed situations where pendants are used. c) Ali wiring shall be free from short-circuits and shall be tested for these defects prior to being connected to the circuit.5 m above the floor level.9. d) Exposed live parts within porcelain fixtures shall be suitably recessed and so located as to make it improbable that wires will come in contact with them. irrespective of being painted to match the surroundings. the earthed conductor of the circuit. shall be hung at a height of not less than 2. etc.8. The suspension rod shall be s. The size of such boards shall NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE . a circular hole shall be provided in the wall to suit the size of the frame which shall be fixed b y means of &-bolts embedded in the wall.2 Where teak or hardwood boards are used for mounting switches. 2. these boards shall be well varnished with pure shellac on all four sides (both inside and outside).

thoroughly protected both inside and outside with insulating varnish and of not less than 6. 3. the insulation of the cables is not subjected to damage and no short length of cables is subjected to excessive twisting or bending in any case. 3. the boards shall be painted with suitable.2.1 Reception and Distribution of Main Supply 3.4 R e c e s s i n g q/ hoards-. 1956 shall apply. These shall be of seasoned teak or other suitable quality timber with all joints dovetailed. CONSTRUCTION 3.2 Location The location of the main board should be such that it is easily accessible for fireman and other personnel to quickly disconnect the supply in case of emergencies. 3. vapour or gas is likely to be present.1. There shall be a clear distance of not less than 2. A teak wood board.1. where. The wiring throughout the installation shall be such that there is no break in the neutral wire in the form of the switch or fuse unit.2 M a i n Sn’itches and S~citc~hhoards 3. 3.Such type of boards are parlicularly suitable for small switchboards for mounting metal-clad switchgear connected to supply at low voltages. All wires passing through the metal board shall be bushed.2 The main switchgear shall be easily accessible and shall he situated as near as practicable to the termination of service line. cl e) Switchboards shall not be erected above gas Wooden boards . There shall be a clear distance of I m in front of the switchboard. 3.These shall consist of a box made of sheet metal not less than 2 mm thick and shall be provided with a hinged cover to.1. 4 In a damp situation or where flammable or explosive dust.1.For small installations connected to a single-phase 240 volts supply. according to the manner in which the cabks are run.1. or within 2. such as bakclite. hinged-type metal boards shall be made of sheet covering mounted on channel or angle iron frame.23 Metal-clad switchgear shall preferably be mounted on any of the following types of boards: a) Hinged-type metal ‘boards . Rule 5 I(t)(c) of Indian Electricity Rules. an indication of a permanent nature shall be provided to identity the earthed neutral conductor. the distance being increased for larger boards in order that on closing of the cover.5 mm in thickness. 3. shall bc provided at the back for attachment of incoming and outgoing cables. or with unbreakable glass doors in teak 17 PART I GENERAL AND COMMON ASPECTS . the switchboard shall be totally enclosed or made flameproof as may be necessitated by the particular circumstances.1. N OTE . in dry situations and in ventilated rooms and they shall not be placed in the vicinity of storage batteries or exposed to chemical fumes. f-l In case of switchboards unavoidably fixed in places likely to be exposed to weather. Where t. If there are any attachments of bare connections at the back of the switchboard.5 cm between the teak wood board and the cover. g) Adequate illumination shall be provided for all working spaces about the switchboards when installed indoors.1.1.depend on the number of accessories that could conveniently and neatly be arranged. 3.1 All main switches shall be either of metal-clad enclosed pattern or of any insulated enclosed pattern which shall be fixed at close proximity to the point of entry of supply. Alternatively.1 Control at the Point of Commencement of SUPPlY be provided with glands or bushings or adopted tb receive screwed conduit. The joints shall be welded. The front shall be fitted with a hinged panel of teak wood or other suitable material.5 m of any washing unit in the washing rooms.2.hete is danger of attack by termite.2. N O T E-Such type of boards are particularly suitable for large switchboards for mountmg large number of switchgears or higher capacity metal-clad switchgear or both. The board shall be securely fixed to the wall by means of rag bolts. b) Main switchboards shall be installed in rooms or cupboards having provisions for locking arrangement so as to safeguard against operation by unauthorized personnel.1. or wooden Gutties and shall he provided with a locking arrangement and an earthing stud.W h e r e S O specified. antitermite paint.3 On the main switchgear. b) cl Open type switchboards shall be placed only Fixed-type metal boards . stoves or sinks. to drip or to abnormal moist atmosphere. woode? hoards may be used as main-boards or sub-boards. the outer casing shall be weatherproof and shall 3. or on the floor and supported on the wall at the top if necessary.enable the board to swing open for examination ‘of the wiring at the back. the conductors include an earthed conductor of a two-wire system or an earthed neutral conductor of a multi-wire system or a conductor which is to be connected thereto.These shall consist of an angle or channel iron frame fixed on the wall.1.1. plugs. the switchboards shah be recessed in the wall. on the underside instead of pure shellac.1 There shall be ctrcuit-breakei or a linked switch with fuse on each live conductor of the supply mains at the point of entry.1.

\lrihirriort Hourcl\ 411 a) The distribution fuse-boards shall be located as near as possible to the centre of the load they are intended to control.1. c) These shall be of either metal-clad type.2. fans and 5-A . Such sub-circuit shall not have more than a total of ten points of lights. control for switching operation. 3. The switches shall always be linked.1 Main and branch distribution boards shall be of any type mentioned under 3. <‘ODE . these fuses shall be so arranged that the fuses are not live when their respective switches are in off position.2.6 Arrangemetlr o/’ apparatus 3.2 Main distribution board shall be provided with a circuit-breaker on each circuit.1. The main switch shall be marked as such and where there is more than one main switch in the building. they shall be of the weatherproof type. 3.1. If a se arate fan circuit is provided. or a switch with a fuse on the phase or live conductor and link on the neutral or earthed conductor of each circuit. At least one spare circuit of the same capacity shall be provided on each branch distribution board.3 cm from any edge of the panel.1. Power subcircuits shall be designed according to the load but in no case shall there be more than two 15-A outlets on each sub-circuit. the number of P in ans the circuit shall not exceed ten.7 Identification and marking a) Marking shall be done as given in Table I of Set 41 Part I of the Code. In case of new installation. circuits for socket outlets may bc kept separate from fans and lights. or co\cred with \uit:thlc plastic compound. of the panel. The load on any low voltage sub-circuit shall not exceed 3 000 watts.3 .2. fitted on the same pole.ocket outlets. shall be so spaced that an arc cannot maintain between such parts and earth. 3. before proceeding with the actual construction of the boards.4 Installation on distribution boards 3.3. The load of such circuit shall be restricted to 800 watts.eutraI conductor shall be connected to a common link and be capable of being disconnected individually for testing purposes. on the live conductor of each sub-circuit and the earthed n. which shall be symmetrically and neatly arranged for arriving at the overall dimensions.1.3. fans and lights may be wired on a common circuit. Ample room shall be provided at the back for c o n n e c t i o n a n d a t t h e *front b e t w e e n t h e switchgear mountings.3 Branch distribution hoards a) Branch distribution boards shall be provided 4 Equipment which is on the front of a switchboard shall be so arranged that inadvertent personal contact with live parts is unlikely during the manipulation of switches. 3.3. But. if need is felt separate circuits may be provided for the I W O. including the disposition of the .C:(‘TWI<‘AI.1. or all-insulated type.5 In large installations of medium voltage. No fuse body shall be mounted within 2. b) No apparatus shall project beyond any edge b) Lights and fans may be wired on a common cl The. that they shall be readily accessible and their connections to all instruments and apparatus shall also be easily identifiable. if exposed to weather or damp situations. 3.1.1.Iltritt trtiil Brutli~h I~i. however. they shall be trcatcd with anti-corrosivc prcservativc. non-flammable insulating material. b) These shall be fixed on suitable stanchion or wall and shall be accessible for replacement of fuses. c) All markings shall be clear and pe. c) In installations requiring the use of group 4 The arrangement of the gear shall be such e) In every case in which switches and fuses are 0 No fuses other than fuses in instrument circuit shall be fixed on the back of or behind a switchboard panel or frame. N A T I O N A L EI. changing of fuses like operation. the outer surface of the doors being flush with the walls. In corrosive atmospheres. each such switch shall be marked to indicate which section of the installation it controls.3.1. Power sub-circuits shall be designed according to the load but in no case shall there be more than four outlets on each sub-circuit.rmanent. Normally. 3. Looping by cable connections at incoming and outgoing of these devices should be avoided. all circuits and sub-circuits shall be designed by making a provision of 20 percent increase in load due to any future modification. a proper drawing showing the detailed dimensions and design. various live parts. b) Where a board has more than one switch.2.wood frame with locking arrangement.5 cm of any edge of the panel and no hole other than the holes by means of which the panel is fixed shall be drilled closer than 1. shall be prepared and incorporated in the building drawing. and shall not bc more than 2 m from floor level. each such switch shall be marked to indicate which section of the installation it controls. circuit. unless they are effectively screened by substantial barriers of non-hygroscopic.3.mountings. with a fuse or a miniature circuit-breaker or both of adequate rating/setting.

1. these distribution boards shall be: The cables between these points shall be of such length as to allow. Conductor for final sub-circuit for fan and light wiring shall have a nominal crosssectional area not less than 1.1. the incoming and outgoing cables shall be fixed at one or more points according to the number of cables on the back of the board leaving suitable space in between cables. all branch switches shall be placed in the outer or live conductor of the circuit and no single-phase switch or fuse shall be inserted in the middle wire.00 mm2 copper and 1.down. Single-pole switches (other than for multiple control) carrying current of not more than I5 A may be of tumbler tybe or flush type which shall be ‘on’ when the handle or knob is . 3.6. following the arrangements of the apparatus mourited thereon.3.1. d All distribution boards shall be marked Lighting’ or ‘Power’. an indelible indication of its appropriate current rating for the protection of the circuit which it controls. t % ey are interlocked. the rating of the cable shall be the current which the circuit is designed to carry. 1) In a hinged type board. lugs or ferrules unless the terminal is of such a form that it is possible to securely clamp them without the cutting away of cable strands. or 2) arranged so that it is not possible to o n the two at the same time. as far as possible evenly between the number of ways of the board. 3 ) i n s t a l l e d in a room or enclosure accessible to only authorited persons.5 cm is maintained between conductors of opposite polarity or phase and between the conductors and any material other than insulating material.4. 3.5 Wiring qf tlivrrihurion boards: c) Every fuse shall have in its own case or cover.5 Branch Switches . All connections between pieces of apparatus or between apparatus and terminals on a board shall be neatly arranged in a definite sequence. Each shall be provided with a circuit . e) If required.1.1 Where cond:uctors pass through walls. or in an adjacent conspicuous position.50 mm? aluminium.50 mm? copper. be fixed at the corresponding points on the switchboard panel.d) Where two or more distribution fuse-boards feeding low voltage circuits are fed from a I) fixed not less than 2 m supply of medium voltage. I GENERAL ANS) COMMON ASPECTS 3. NOTE-The wiring of such low voltage distribution boards shall be segregated from each other and not run in the same condvk a) A fuse carrier shall not be fitted with a fuseelement of higher rating than that for which the carrier is designed (see Set 18. 3. b) The current rating of a fuse shall not exceed the current rating of the smallest cable in the circuit protected by the fuse.43 All conductors shall be of copper or aluminium. 3.5 mm?. . The cross-sectional areas of conductors for power wiring shall be not less than 2. if possible. avoiding unnecessary crossings. a pilot lamp shall be fixed and connected through an independent singlepole switch and fuse to the bus-bars of the board.6 Passing Through Walls and Floors 3. earth or earthed neutral conductor of the circuit. conductors are carrying the maximum current under the normal conditions of service.1.2 If the .3. 3. Care shall be taken to see that wires pass very 49 PAR1 . the switchboard panel to swing through an angle of not less than 900 3.6 Fuses apart. 4. 4 All bare conductors shall be rigidly fixed in such a manner that a clearance of at least 2. Part I c?f the Code). 3. and also marked with the voltage and number of phases of the supply.list giving details of each circuit which it controls and the current rating of the circuit and size offusedlement.4. copper.4 Selection of Size qf Conductor (see Set I8 Part I of the Code).1.1. leaving the spare circuit for future extension.00 mm? aluminium. total load of the consuming devices shall be divided. The minimum cross-sectional area of conductors of flexible cord shall be 0.1. namely.1 The sizes d conductors of circuits shall be so selected that the drop in voltage from consumer’s terminals in a public supply (or from the bus-bars of the main switchboard controlling the various circuits in a private generation plant) to any point on the installation does not exceed 3 percent of the voltage at the consumer’s terminals (or at two bus-bars as the case may be) when the a) In wiring a branch distributioh board. b) c) Cables shall be connected to a terminal only by soldered or welded or crimped lugs using suitable sleeve.cable size is increased to avoid voltage drop in the circuit. as the case may be.of the following methods shall be employed.and shall also. Cables in each circuit shall be bunched together. and distribution is done on the two-wire system. one.Where the supply is derived from a three-wire or four-wire source.1. and the metal case is marked ‘Danger 415 volts’ and identified with proper phase marking and danger marks. In each circuit or sub-circuit the fuse shall be selected to match the cable rating to ensure the desired protection.

5 m above the floor. 4. Under no circumstances two wires shall be placed in one groove of porcelain cleats.1.1.Vulcanized rubber inslulated cables.7 Fixing to Walls and Ceilings . braided or unbraided. a) In ordinary cases. of the casing or conductor.5 cm wider than the cleat used.5 Where cleated wiring is laid along iron joists or any metal. it shall be chamfered on the edges. Care shall also be taken that graoves of porcelaicl cleats do not compress the insluation nor be too wide to give a very loose fit. cleats shall be of such dimensions that in the case of branch loads. b) Where practicable the same method shall be 4.This system shall not be employed for wiring on damp walls or ceilings unless suitable precautions in an approved manner are adopted to effectively prevent dampness from affecting the insulation of conductors.1. provided that this rule shall not apply.1.5 cm of the surface.2 Where a wall tube passes outside a building so as to be exposed to weather. In the case of new buildings.1 Where owing to irregular coursing or other reasons the plugging of the walls or ceiling with wood plugs presents difficulties. The end of conduit shall be neatly bushed with porcelain.Plugs for ordinary wails or ceilings shall be of well-seasoned teak or other suitable hardwood not less than 5 cm long and 2. shall be used without any further protection. a base piece and a cap.1 Cleated Wiring System 4. if the cable used in twin-core.2 To achieve neatness.5 cm above the floors and flush with the ceiling below. plugging of walls or ceilings may be done by a suitable type of asbestos.6. 4. adopted in the cases of stone walls. 4.For circuit voltages up to 250 volts. wrought all over and varnished with two coats of varnish or painted as may be required.1.1 General. in which cases they shall be adequately protected.1. cleats shall be attached to plugs arranged in the manner specified under 4. if necessary. plastic (PVC and polyethylene) insulated cables. c) Insulated conductors while passing through 3.1.1.1. METHODS OF INTERNAL WIRING 4. as far as pra&icable.1.7. b) The conductor shall be carried either in a rigid steel conduit or a rigid non-metallic conduit or in a porcelain tube of such a size which permits easy drawing-in. where conductors pass round corners.1. the outer end shall be bell-mouthed-and turned downwards. floors shall be protected from mechanical injury by means of rigid steel conduit to a tieight not less than I.6 Fixing qf Cleats a) A teak wood box extending through the whole thickness of the wall shall be buried in the wall and casings or conductors shall be carried so as to allow 1. wherever possible. which will rigidly maintain a distance of at :least 1. teak wood plugs shall be fixed in the walls before they are plastered 3. conductors shall not be less than 2. A special pattern of cleat may be used. 3. 4.freely through protective pipe or box and that the wires pass through in a straight line without any twist or cross in wires. a wood batten shall be provided and fixed with not less than one plug per 1.5 cm square on the inner end and 2 cm square on the outer end They shall be cemented into walls to within 6. wood or other suitable material.All cleated wiring shall be run.7.3 cm between the NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 4.All cleats shall be of apprqved design and shall consist of two parts. The batten shall be of seasoned teak or other suitable seasoned hardwood 2 cm thick and 2.7 Distance Between Wires .1.7.5 cm apart centre-tocentre and in the case of sub-mains not less than 4 cm apart centre-to-centre. on either ends of such holes: be liable to mechanical injury and where they are less than I. batten. metal conduit or cleat (as the case may) shall be attached to the wall or ceiling in a suitable manner that would conform to the requirements given in the Code. but when owing to irregular coursing or other reasons it is impracticable to fix the cleats in a regular and workman like manner.lJ Crossing yf’ Conductors a) Where cleated conductors cross each other they shall be separated by an insulating biidging piece.3 cm air space on three sides.4 Cleats .25 m run. the wood casing. wood. spacing between such metal and porcelain cleats shall be inserted either with varnished wood fillet or varnished wood clamp securely fixed so as to prevent conductors coming in contact with such metal along which they are passing. and the difference in size shall be reasonable.2 Accessihi/ir\* .3 Class q/ Cables . the remainder being finished according to the nature of the surface with plaster or lime punning. so that there may be no risk of the conductors touching the wall owing to sagging or stretching. in such a manner so as to be visible except in positions where they would 50 . This steel conduit shall be earthed and securely bushed. 3. metallic or a fibre fixing plug. 4. 4. Care shall be taken in selecting size of cleats particularly for branch distribution wiring where two-way and three-way porcelain cleats are essential. and properly bushed on the open end. Cleats shall be fixed at distances not greater than 60 cm apart and at regular intervals.

steam or water pipes or immediately below the latter Casing under steel joists shall be securt. such as boards. All casing shall be spaced from the wall or ceiling by means of porcelain disc insulators not less than 6. Joints in capping shall not overlap those in the casing. tight and rigid without any twist. that is.I bridge piece of casing shall be fixed on the top of casing with neat finish and shall pass conductor\ avoiding crossing. in such case conductors shall be carried through steel conduit with all screwed accessories. The casing shall have grooved~ body with beaded or plain moulded cover as desired. two screws shall be inserted on the two dividing walls in a workmanlike manner). a) No cleated wiring shall be left unprotected up to I. all sides plaqed with smooth finish and all sides well varnish’ed. unless suitable precautions are taken. blocks. joint cut-outs or. and shall not be buried in walls or ceilings under plaster. (both inside and outside) with pure shellac varnish. ceilings. or other defects.5 A t t a c h m e n t qf Casing to Wall and Ceihng . etc. 4. 4 . 2 .The sizes of casing and capping for various sizes of 250 volts grade insulated cables in a groove shall be in accordance with those specified in Table 2 of Set 18! Part I of the Code.2.Casing and capping shall be run in lengths as long as possible. NOIV Care shall bc taken in llxing screws on cupping\ w that they do nol picrcr through Ihe walls casing and damage the insulation. Where crossing of wire\ is unavoidable and a junction box is not used. When brought through the floor it shall be enclosed in cOnduit in the manner specified’ in 4. and free joints.5 m. plastic insulated cables or other suitable insulated cables are used in the wiring work and carried within wood casing enclosure. if so desired. as far as possible. c) At the time of laying and drawing of conductors.s Where conductors pass through floors. NOTE--Lengths of conductors of the same polarity or phase. partitions. 9 P a s s i n g Thsou~h Fioor. Where conductors have to cross corners.9. The conduit shall 51 . care shall be taken to keep’the wires straight. The wooden boards shall be well varnished on all sides (both inside and outside) and may be mounted with suitable porcelain Insulators behind the boards.2 Wood C&g Wiring System 4. Casing shall be used only on dry walls and ceilings avoiding outside walls.5 cm and 01 same width as that of casing with same tini%h . shall be of well-seasoned teak wood or of suitable insulating material and shall be of double type.2.1.8 Ly~wur c?/’ Wood Cuing Wiring I. 30 cm between two successive screws on each side) for all sizes up to 64 mm casing and capping.3 Dimensions qf Casing .t\ that of capping shall be used with grooves at the bottom for conductors. of 4. free from knots. roof spaces or other concealed spaces in which they are not normally open to view. 2 . 2 Mureriol atltl Buftcrtl 91’ C a s i n g ~. All joints shall be scarfed or cut diagonally ‘in longitudinal section and shall be smoothed down by fitting to make joints a very close fit as far as possible. 4.All capping shall be attached to the casing (after all insulated wires are laid inside grooves) by round-head screws (rust resisting) fixed on edges and screwed to outer wails of the casing at an interval not exceeding 15 cm crosswise (that is.7 Join/s in Casing and Capping .1 General.All casing shall be fixed by means of suitable countersunk head wood screws to plugs at an interval not exceeding 90 cm for sizes up to 64 mm casing and not exceeding 60 cm for sizes above 64 mm casing. walls. 4.Conductors of opposite polarity or different phases shall not be PART I GENERAL AND COMMON ASPECTS 4. and spaced with disc insulators. saps.2. nor fixed in proximity to gas.2.fuse cut-outs shall not be inserted for any purpose.2. separate base and top. b) As far as possible.2.6 At/acVwwnl of Capping . . no open type of wiring shall run within floors. junction boxes of wooden or other insulating material with porcelain connectors inside shalf be used. b) In open type wiring.2. d) All wooden fittings. may be bunched. keeping mechanical continuity throughout the entire layout. teak wood solid corner pieces of a radius not less than 7. 4. but where joints are required for connecting or bifurcating the wires.5 mm thick. For sizes above 64 mm similar additional round-head screws shall be fixed on the centre-wall (or alternative walls in cases of 3 grooves) at an interval of 45 cm. shakes.d by hoopiron or by of wood clamps. Screw heads shall be countersunk within the dividing wall of the grooves (in the case of three-grooved casing. Wood casing wiring system shall not be used in damp places or in illventilated places.4 Bunching q/ Circuits .conductors except when the cabk used is twincore.. 4. they shall he carried in an approved heavy gauge conduit properly bushed at both ends.This system of wiring is suitable for low voltage installation where vulcanized rubber insulated cables. 4 .ay~Llt of wood casing wiring shall he such as to avoid corners as far as possible and avoid crossing of conductors inside the casing. and such pipe work shall be earthed and properly bushed on all open ends to prevent abrasion of cables.above floor level. 4.All casing shall be of seasoned teak wood or any other suitable hardwood. They shall be secured at joints with two or more screws as would be necessary.2.9 Prorecrion Near Floor bunched in one groove in wood casing.

3 Link Clips -.3.3.Wiring with tough rubbersheathed cables is suitable for low voltage installations.4. 4.1 In cases where there are chances of any damage to the wiring such wiring shall be covend with sheet metal protective covering. Where attack from termite is’prevalent. two coats of varnish.overall diameter of the cable. or by means of any other approved type of metallic covering.3. after the cables are laid. 4. or plaster walls and ceilings.3.3 Tough Rubber-Sheathed or PVC-Sheathed Wiring System 4.down in 3.0 General. 4.6 Passing Through Floors .be carried 1.3. and the PVC-sheathed wiring shall be painted with a synthetic enamel paint of quick drying type. internally and on the back.3. steel joists. straight teak wood battens of not less than IO mm finished thickness and the width of which is such as to suit total width of cables laid on the batten.5 Bends in Wiring -. The protective outer covering of the cables shall be stripped off near connecting terminals.. 4. The ends of all conduits or pipes shall be neatly bushed with porcelain. they sh‘8il be made moisture-proof 1 with suitable plastic compound.1 Passing Through Walls . These battens shall be secured to the walls and ceilings by countersunk head wood screws to coed plugs or other plugs at an interval pot exceeding 75 cm.11 Painting and Varnishing .5 m below ceiling level and neatly entered into the hasing.5 m from the floor.ith one coat of varnish or suitable paint matching with the surroundings. Prior to’erection. The conduits shall be neatly arranged so that the cables enter them straight without b_ending. be painted with one coat of oil-free paint or distemper of suitable colour over a coat of oil-free primer.The wiring shall not in any circumstances be bent so as to form a right angle but shall be rounded off at the corners to a radius not less than six times the . 4. In addition all casing together with capping after erection shall be painted or varnished to the 4 desired finish.If so required.2. clips specially made for dutdoor use from a durable metal. l 4. wires are sheathed in protective covering against atmosphere and well protected to withstand dampness.The method to be adopted shall be that laid.2. wood or other approved material.10 C a s i n g R o u n d Mouldings or Decora/ions -. shall be used. 43.10 Painting .6.4 Metal-Sheathed Wiring System 4.5 mm?. The conduit shall be securely earthed.3. the base of which is made flush with the plaster or brickwork.3.3. installations. Where junction boxes are provided.Link clips shall be so arranged that one single clip shall not ho&more than two twin-core TRS or PVC-sheathed cables up to I.1 All sheathed cables on brick walls. care shall be taken that the stiarp edge of the cutting instrument does not touch the rubber or PVC sheathed insulation of conductors.4 Protection of TRS or PVC-Sheathed Wiring . after erection.This shall be considered as special decoration work and carried out in consultation with the architect or the engineer-in-charge of construction work and with this approval. 4. above which a single clip shall hold a single twin-core cable. This system of wiring is suitable in situations where acids and alkalis are likely to be present. these shall be painted \. or any structural steel work shall he run on well-seasoned aqd varnished. The clips shall be fixed on varnished wood battens with any rustresisting pins or screws and spaced at intervals of IO cm in the case of horizontal runs and I5 cm in the case of vertical runs.from Mechanical Damage 52 . Care shall be taken to avoid hammering on link clips with any metal instruments. where so specified.3. resistant to weather and atmospheric corrosion. and this protective covering shall be maintained up to the close proximity of connecting terminals as far as practicable.Metal-sheathed wiring system is suitable for low voltage.4.2 Such protective covering shall in all cases be fitted or all downdrops within 1. and shall not be used in situations where acids and alkalis are likely to be present.8 B u r i e d C a b l e s . Metalsheathed wiring may be used in places exposed to sun and rain NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 4. the flat-head wood screws shall be countersunk within wood batten and smoothed down with file. stone. or the wiring shall be drawn through a conduit complying with all requirements of conduit wiring system. 4. if so required.3. which shall.While cutting and stripping of the outer covering of the cables. 4. 4. 4. and shall not be used in places exposed to sun and rain nor in damp places.1.0 Genera/. they may be taken in teak wood channelling of ample capacity or cement chases or conduit buried in the wall. the tough rubber sheathed wiring shall.T h e t o u g h r u b b e r sheathed cables shall not be buried directly in plaster. antitermite treatment shall be given. as the case may be. For the wiring and runs of mains exposed to heat and rain. 4.4. 4. be suitably protected at the floor level. In the latter case there shall be one or more conduits of adequate size to carry the cables.5 m above the floor and flush with the ceiling below. Wiring with PVC-sheathed cables is suitable for medium voltage’installation and may be installed directly under exposed conditions of sun and rain or damp places.9 Stripping of Outer Covering .5 m above floor level and 2.All casing and capping shall be given before erection.All cables taken through floors shall be enclosed in an insulated heavy gauge steel conduit extending I.

4. a batten shall first be laid on the joists and clipped to it as in. together with all joint-boxes and other similar receptacles are efficiently earthed in accordance with the requirements laid down under 5.2 The protective covering shall in all cases be carried right through the entire length of such doubtful positions. care shall be taken to remove cotton !ape covering from the top of rubber insulation of cable. The width of teak wood battens shall be such as to suit the total width of cables -laid on the batten. such wiring shall be covered with sheet metal protective covering.6.1 In cases where there are chances of any damage to the wiring.These shall be so arranged that one single clip shall not hold more than two twin-core metal-sheathed. 4. wood or other suitabk material. 4. All cables shall PART t tiENERAL AND COMMON ASPECTS be bonded through. In the latter case there shall be one or more conduits of adequate size to carry the cables.10 Earthing ~ Precautions shall be taken to ensure that all metal sheathing including portable appliance with exposed metal parts.1. joints shall be made by means of connectors. 4.4.6.4. Bonding connections shall be so arranged as not to come in contact with plaster.the sharp edge of cutting instrument does not touch the rubber or PVC insulation of conductors. 4.t an interval not exceeding 75 cm.4. the metal sheathing shall be nicked only. These battens shall be secured to the wills and ceilings by counter sunk head wood screws to wood plugs or other approved plugs a. The joint-boxes shall be so constructed as to prevent insects from entering them and to allow the white-washing of the walls without water having access to the connectors.onspicuously as possible.4. 4.2 Arrachment to Walls and Ceilings . stone walls or plastered walls and ceilings. this system may be installed in damp places with protection against ingress of dampness provided at the open ends of the cables. or protected by means of any other approved type of metallic covering. measured from the connection with the earth electrode to any other position in the completed installation shall not exceed IfI. etc. shall be used.4.2 While cutting and stripping of the outer covering of the cables. 4. well as manufacturers design and inst+uctions in connection with earthing of all insulated m.All cables taken through floors shall be enclosed in an insulated steel conduit extending 1. or across these boxes. insulated with porcelain. all openings in the same shall be sealed. or the wiring shall be drawn through a steel conduit pipe by complying with all requirements of conduit system of wiring.6 Stripping of Insulation and Outer Covering 4.7 Passing Through Floors . resistant to weather and atmospheric corrosion. The conduit(s) shall be neatly arranged so that the cables enter them straight without bending. as the case may be. the wood screws shall be counter sunk within wood batten and smoothed down with file. The earthing shall extend to all main switches. care shall be taken that .9 Buried Cables Metal-sheathed cables shall in no case be buried directly in the plaster or under any masonry work.4. 53 . 4. The cotton tape covering shall always remain inside lead covering of cables. For the wiring and runs of mains exposed to heat and rain.Where wiring is to be carried along the tace of rolled steel joists.All metal-sheathed cables on brick walls. steel joists or any structural steel work shall be run on well-seasoned and perfectly straight teak wood battens of not less than IO mm finished thickness.4.provided no joint of any description is exposed. stripped off.4. clips specially made for the outdoor use from a durable metal. with earth continuity conductors (each bonded cables) especially manufactured for the purpose. 4. as. cables up to 1.4.11 Testing . 4.4 ProtecGon of Wiring from Mechanical Damage 4.4. While connecting conductors to the connecting terminals of accessories. which have been well varnished on four sides. Prior to erection these shall be painted with one coat of varnish or suitable paint of colour to match with the surroundings.4. the base of which is made flush with the plaster or brickwork. Where paper-insulated metalsheathed cable is used.1 When rubber or PVC insulation has to be stripped for joints. metal-sheathed cables can be run on metallic saddles.8 Passing Through Walls -The method to be adopted shall be that laid down in 3.5 Join/s . 4.4.3 Wiring on Rolled Steel Joists .icrogap mainswitches or similar fittings. The wiring shall be fixed to the batten in the ordinary way.4.4.5 mm2 above which a single clip shall hold a single twincore cable.The electrical resistance of the metal sheathing together with the resistance of the earthing lead.4. The clips shall be fixed on varnished wood battens with brass pins or brass screws and placed at intervals of IO cm in the case of horizontal runs and 15 cm in the case of vertical runs. in comph&nce with Indian Electricity Rules. All tape shall be.1 Link Clips . 4.6. Alternatively. The ends of all conduits or pipes shall be neatly bushed with porcelain.3 and made electrically continuous throughout their lengths by means of soldered joints or approved suitable clamps or alternatively. distribution boards. not cut.4. or other approved material and enclosed in joint-boxes. 1956.5 m above the floor and flush with the ceiling below. 4. and the insulation between the metal sheath and the conductors shall be of rubber or PVC sheath only. 4.Where joint-box system is specified.

7 Bends in conduit .2 Recessed Conduit Wiring S.All necessary bends in the system including diversion shall be done by bending pipes. No single-core cable of nominal cross-sectional area greater than 130 mm* enclosed alone in a conduit and used for alternating current.1. no bare threaded portion of conduit pipe shall be allowed unless such bare threaded portion is treated with anti-corrosive preservative or covered with suitable plastic compound. bends.5. draw boxes.1 .8 Ourlets . f&r fittings.5.1 to 4.5.wo’rkman like manner for a perfect continuity between each wire and conduit.5.lO Erecrion and earthing of con&t The conduit of each circuit or section shall be completed before conductors are drawn-in. unions. Radius of such bends in conduits shall be not less than 7. If conduits are liable to mechanical damage. etc. or any other approved outlet boxes for either surface mounting or flush mounting system.Recessed conduit wiring system shall comply with’all the requirements for surface conduit wiring system specified in 4.Unless otherwise specified.5. The entire system of conduit after erection shall be tested for mechanical and electrical continuity throughout and permanently connected to earth by means of suitable earthing clamp.1.Conduit pipes shall be fixed by heavy gauge saddles.11 and in tidditional. NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE b) . All conduit accessories shall be of threaded type and under no circumstances pin grip type or clamp type . 4.accessories be used.4. junction boxes. shall be neatly painted after erection with two coats of any suitable paint.1. Conduit fittings shall be avoided as far as possible on conduit system exposed to weather.4 Prorection against dampness . at the time of their construction and shall be filled up neatly after erection of conduit and brought to . etc.11 Inspection type conduit fittings such as inspection boxes. shall be boxes of suitable meta. No steel conduit less than 16 mm in diameter. 4. all metalsheathed wiring or its protective covering when such is fitted.1.the original finish of the wall.All conductors used in conduit wiring shall preferably be stranded.9 Conductors .1.approved preseivative compound to secure protection against rust. Fixing qf conduir in chase -The conduit shall be fixed by means of staples or by means of saddles not more than 60 cm apart.1.1. they shall be a‘dequately protected. ceiling.5. In long distance straight runs of conduit. In alI cases.‘secured to suitable wood plugs or other plugs with screws in an approved manner at an interval of not more than I m. solid or inspection type normal bends. chases shall be provided in the wall. but on either side of couplers or bends or similar fitting.5. For lighting and small power outlet circuits phase segregation in separate conduits is recommended. 4. or fixing cast-iron inspection boxes whichever is more suitable. elbows or similar fittings. a) Making of chase-The chase in the wall shall be neatly made and be of ample dimensions to p. etc. All threaded joints of rigid steel conduit shall be treated with some.All conduit pipes shall be finished with stove enamelled surface. the bends at the outlets not being counted. including all bends. 4. solid type ‘fittings shall be used. 4.1.5 Prortction of conduit against rust The outer surface of ‘the conduit pipes.5.1 7)pe and size of conduit . elbows and tees shall be so installed that they remain accessible for such purposes as withdrawal of existing cable< or installation of additional cables.Where required. inspection type couplers at reasonable intervals Shall be provided or running threadi with couplers and jam-nuts shall be provided.2 Bunching of cables .12 Puinring . 4. No length of conduit shall have more than the equivalent of four quarter-bends from outlet to outlet. In the case of buildings under construction. The number of insulated conductors that can be drawn into rigid steel conduit are given in Table 3 of set 18/Part I of the Code. 4. 4. where necessary.5.5. tees. or by inserting suitable 54 4. insulated conductors of ac supply and dc supply shall be bunched in separate conduits. saddles shall be fixed at a distance of 30 cm from the centre of such fitting.5.shall be used.C o n d u i t shall be joined by means of screwed couplers and screwed accessoeries only.1. Threads on conduit pipes in all cases shall be between I I mm to 27 mm long sufficient to accommodate pipes to full threaded portion of couplers or accessories. 4. switches. 4.In order to minimize condensation or sweating inside the conduit all outlets of conduit system shall be properly drained and ventilated.ermit the conduit to be fixed in the manner desired.5 Conduit Wiring System 4.13 C o n d u i r j o i n t s . efficiently fastened to conduit in a .5.5.5 cm.6 Fixing of conduit .All outlets . conform to the rbquirements specified below.4.5.1. Cut ends df conduit pipes shall have no sharp edges nor any burrs left to avoid damage to the insulation of conductors while pulling them’ through such conduits. 4.-srem with Rigid Steel Conduits . Fixing of standaid bends or elbows shall be avoided as far as practicable and all curves maintained by bending the aonduit pipe itself with a long radius which will permit easy drawing-in of conductors.1 Surfacp Conduit Wiririg System with Rigid Steel Conduits 4. but in such a manner as to prevent the entry of insects as far as possible. forming part of the conduit system shall be adequately protected against rust particularly when such system is exposed to weather.5.1.

4. 4. Cautton should be exercised in the use of this conduit in locations where the ambient temperature is 5oOC or above.Suitable inspection boxes shall be provided to permit periodical inspection and to facilitate removal of wires. 9 Flush mounting type .9) or by employing normal bends. they shall be secured at intervals not exceeding I.4 Fixing of Conduits . However thts provision is not applicabk where flexible conduit 1s fished and for lengths of not over 900 mm at terminals where flexibility is necessary. Where there are long runs of straight conduit.Rigid PVC conduits are not.Where flexible nonmetallic conduits are unavoidabk. 4.10 Non-metallic conduit systems shall be used only where it is ensured that they -are: a) suitable for extremes of ambient temperature to which they are likely to be subjected in service. bends or diversions may be achieved by bending the conduits (see 45.a suitable means of earth attachment. 4.5. NOTE .5. 45. 4.53. Suitable ventilating holes shall be provided in the inspection box covers.Conductors of ac supply and dc supply shall be bunched in separate conduits.5. The number of insulated cables that may be drawn into the conduits are given in Table 4 of Set 18/Part I of the Code. b) resistant to moisture and chemical atmospheres. In order to minimize condensation or sweating inside the conduit. 4.npcrature of the conduits and fittings may exceed WC. For use underground. but in such a manner as to prevent the entry of insects. as far as possible. Certain types of ri id PVC conduits and their associated fittings are unsuitibe for use where the g ambient temperature is likely to fall below -5°C.536 Conduit fittings shall be avoided.5.5. inspection boxes. 4.The provision of 4. as far as possibk.Wherever 4.3 Conduit Wiring System with Rigid Nonmetallic Conduits . ii) Surface mounting type .5.2(a) to (d) shall apply.1 Outlets -all the outlets for fittings.5 m and within 300 mm ‘on each side of every outkt box or fittmg.g For use with recessed conduit wiring system the provisions of 4. inspection bends.3. it shall be of any suitable insulating material.Conduits shall be joined by means of screwed or plain couplers depending on whether the conduits are screwed or plain. and cl resistant to low temperature and sunlight effects. These shall be mounted flush with the wall. d) Types of accessories to be used . may be either of flush mounting type or of surface mounting type.3.outlet box is specified.53. As the material softens ‘when heated. if necessary.If surface mounting type. 4. the conduit sections -across the joint may be through flexible conduits of the same size as the rigid conduit.5. For !ighting and small power outlet circuits phase segregation in separate circuits is recommended.4 Conduit Wiring Systems wiih Flexibk Non-metallic Conduits . elbows or similar fittings.All outlets.1.All flush mounting outlets shall be of cast-iron or mild steel boxes with a cover of insulating material or shall be a box made of a suitable insulating material.532 Btinching of cables . 4.3.Rigid non-metallic conduits are used for surface. inspection type couplers shall be provided at intervals. The minimum sizes of inspection boxes shall be 75 X 15 mm. the material shall be acceptably resistant to moisture and corrosive agents.Inspection boxes .3.9 Heat may be used to soften the conduit for bending and forming joints in case of plain conduit. The switches and other outlets shall be mounted on such boxes. The metal box shall be effciently earthed with conduit by. e) When -crossing through expansion joints in buildings. positioning of conduit in close proximity to hot surfaces should be avoided. cl conduit .suitable for use where the normal w&king te. PART I GENERAL AND COMMON ASPECTS . switches etc. etc.3.5 B e n d s i n necessary. such al switches and sockets.5. recessed and conceakd conduit wiring.1 Qpe and sire-The conduit may be either threaded type or plain type and shall be used with the corresponding accessories.6 shall apply except that the spacing between saddles or supports is recommended to be 60 cm for rigid non-metallic conduits.5.3. 4. on outdoor systems.33 Conduit joints . all outlets of conduit systems shall be properly drained and ventilated. shall be boxes of substantial constru&ion.

other than live parts.0. GENERAL REMARKS 2.5 All medium voltage equipment shall be earthed by two separate and distinct connections with earth through an earth electrode.7 As far as possible all earth terminals shall be visible. 61. Specific requirements for earthing in individual installations are covered in respective Parts of the Code.1 The subject of earthing covers the problems relating to the conductidn of electricity through earth. It is recommended that the value of any earth system resistance shall not be more than 5 n. to denote a low impedance return path of the fault current. 2. 1956 as amended frdm time to time.1 This Section of the Code covers general requirements associated with earthing in electrical installations. the earth now . Particular requirements for earthing depending on the type of installation are covered in respective Sections of the Code.rthed by not less tgh an two separate and distinct conriections with earth each having its own electrode at the generating station or substation and may be earthed at any other point provided no interference is caused by such earthing.5.1 In cases where direct earthing may prove harmful rather than provide safety (for example. NOTE . there can exist no difference of .0.01 All connections shall be canfully made. 2.6 Earth electrodes shall be provided at generating stations. 62.potential in a short distance big enough to shock or injure an attendant when short-circuits or other abnormal occurrences take place. 2. loss of life or serious personal injury may result.4 Earthing shall generally be carried out in accordance with the requirements of Indian Electricity Rules. 67. as well as to ensure that operators and attendants shall be at earth potential at all times. earth bus and earth wires and methods of measurements.4 The contents of this Section are based on following: IS : 732 (Part 2)-1982 Code of practice for electrical wiring installations. 2. In the case of high and extra high volta es the neutral points shall be ea. 0. The choice of one system or the other would de nd on several considerations as each offer di tl” ferent degree of performance/ safety.0. 1. irrespective of reliance being placed on the earth itself. These relate to general conditions of soil resistivity.3 Additional rules applying to earth leakage circuit-breaker systems are covered in Appendix B. As a matter of fact. Part 2 Design and construction IS : 3043-1966 Code of practice for earthing. 2.9 Each earth system shall be so devised that the testing of individual earth ekctrode is possible.0. 5 1.2 The object of an earthing system is to provide as nearly as possible a surface under and 51 . as neatly as possible. 2.0 General 2. of animals and of property and is generally known as equipment earthing. 2. SCOPE around a station which shall be at a uniform potential and as near1 zero or absolute earth potential as possibk. the neutral may be earthed through a suitable impedance. while earthing of noncurrent carrying metal work and conductor is essential to the safety of human life. 69. 2. relaxation may be obtained from the competent authority.0.0. The different types of earthing s stems are listed in Appendix A to Set I/Part r of the Code.rarely serves as a art of the return circuit but is being used mainly Por fixing the voltage of system neutrals. 0.0. The following Indian Electricity Rules are particularly applicable: 32. 0. If necessary. 2. 2.SECTION 12 EARTHING O.0. ynless otherwise specified. shall be at earth potential.0. The earth connection improves service continuity and avoids damage to equipment and danger to human lives.1 Earthing provides safety of persons and apparatus against earth faults. xe purpose of this is to ensure thqt in general811 parts of apparatus. high frequency and mains frequency corekss induction furnaces).FOREWORD 0. which include types of systems of live conductors and types of system earthing. 88 (2) and 90. design parameters of earth electrode. NATIONAL ELEflRICAL CODE I.2 This Section of the Code summarises the essential requirements associated with earthing in electrical installations. if they are poorly made or inadequate for the purpose for which they are initnded. Also by providing such an earth surface of uniform potential under and surrounding the station. The terms earth and earthing have been used in this Code. Any system is characterised by the type of distribution system. and the relevant regulations of the electricity supply authority concerned. substations and consumer premises in accordance with the requirements.This section shall be read in conjunction with the provisions of IS : 3043-1966.3 Earthing associated with current-carrying conductor is normally essential to the security of the system and is generally known as system earthing.

1. Grain sire and distribution and closeness of packing ate also contributory factors since they control the manner in which the moisture is held in soil. fittings.1 The resistance to earth of an electrode of givep dimensions is dependent on the ekctrical resistivny of the soil in which it is installed. use can be made of purely local conditions in choosing suitable electrode sites and of methods of oreoaring the site sekcted. the material shall be approved by the competent authority. to secure optimum t%tivit< Reference is drawn to 1s : 3043-1966.1.content of the soil and its chemical composition and concentration of salts dissolved in the contained water.4 Potential Gradients . t h a t a n o v e r r i d i n g consideration in deciding which of the alternative method of protection is to be adopted for a particular system or location is the soil resistivity in the area concerned.0. Within an earthing grid. however. Local values should be verified by actual measurement and this is specially important whete the soil is stratified.13 All materials. conform to Indian Standard specifications wherever these exist. the values given in Appendix A should be taken only as a general guide. as owing to the disposition of earth current. the effective resistivity depends not only on the surface layers but also on the underlying geological formation. 2.0.3. 2. it is unlikelv that any protective gcar’iziying on carth%tg wili operate sin& ihe major fault is the open-circuit against which urthing gives no protection. the protective gear will operate to make the faulty portions of plant harmless.2. 2. For this the step potential and touch potential should be Investigated and kept withm safe limits. The situation is more difficult in the zone immediately outside the periphery where the problems may exist even for the theoretical case of a singk plate covering the substation area.1 System %Irrhing 2. therefore. necessitating the installation of earth electrode at depths to which frost ~111 not penetrate.13 Soil Resistivity 2X3. the potential of which with respect to neighbouring objects may PART I GENERAL AND COMMON ASPECTS .3. which will increase the maximum available earth fault current or’its duration until it has been ascertained that the existing arrangement of earth electrodes.4 While the fundamental nature and properties of a soil in a given area cannot be changed. In the case of underground system there may be no difficulty. shall be made.1 Design Considerations 2. 2. 2.1. etc. N OTE -Earthing may not ive protection against faults which are not csrntially earth f auks.1. high and extra high voltage equipment shall be earthed by not less than two separate and distinct connections with earth is designed primarily to preserve the security of the system by ensuring that the voltage on each live conductor is restricted to such a value with respect to the potential of the general mass of the earth as is consistent with the levels of insulation applied. does not include the case of a switch for use in controlling a generator or a transformer or a link for test purposes. essentially electrolytic in natun and is affected therefore by moisture . For example.1. used in earthing shall.1 The ngulations that every medium. Such dan er may arise if steep potential gradients exist witffin the premises or between boundary of the premises and an accessible point outside. link or switch other than a linked switch arranged to operate simultaneously on the earthed or earthed neutral conductor and the live conductors shall be inserted on any supply system. if a phase conductor of an overhead spur litic*brcaks. in or around the premises shall not have large dangerous potential differences impressed across his body in case of a fault within or outside the premises. therefore.1. that a person walking on the ground or touching an earthed objects. 2. Many of these factors vary locally and some seasonally and.0.12 No cut-out. In most cases such operation involves isolation of the faulty main or plant by circuit-breaker or fuses. -and the‘ part remote from the SUDD~Y falls to the nround.The object of equipment earthing is to ensure effective operation of the protective gear in the event of leakage through such metal work. the . earth bus-bar.2 Equipment Earthing . etc.1. 2.2 The earth system resistance should be such that when any fault occurs against which earthing is designed to give” protection. 2.1.step and touch potentials may be lowered to any value by reducing the mesh interval of the grid. but in the case of overhead line s stem protected only by fuses there may be Jifficulty in so arranging the value of the earth resistance that a conductor falling and making good contact with earth shall cause the fuses in the supply to operate.10 It is recommended that a drawing showin the main earth connection and earth electro!es be prepared for each installation.1. Earth conductivity is.It is necessary LO ensure. This however. ate capable of carrying the new value of earth fault current which may be obtained by this addition. It follows.11 No addition to the current-carrying system either temporary or permanent. attain a value which would cause danger to life or risk of fire.2 The type of soil largely determines its resistivity and representative values for s’oils generally found in India are given in Appendix A.0. 2. This problem may be serious in small stations where the grid may cover only a 57 2. especially in case of large electrical installations.33 The soil temperature also has some effect on soil resistivity but is important only near and below freezing point. 2.1. In the case of materials for which lndian Standard specifications do not exist.

care should be taken to select a material which is resistant to corrosion in the type of soil in which it will be used 3. namely: a) Long duration overloading as with normal system opertion. 3. I. to consider the possibility of occurrence of large potential differences. 3.STATIDN ELECTRODE OF EQUAL RESISTANCE AN0 2 OHMS IMPEDANCE IN REMAINDER OF CIRCUIT) (2) IN BOTH CASES A SUPPLY VOLTAGE OF 24OV HAS BEEN ASSUMED f 30 d z! 20 a 10 2 4 6 8 13 12 11 16 IMPEDANCE OR RESISTANCE IN OHMS FIG. 2. Special attention should be paid to the points near the operating handles of apparatus. when the limitations on step potential become less exacting.~ At consumer’s premises where the apparatus is protected by fuses.2 Under ordinary conditions of soil. 3. 3. it IS recommended to use either copper electrode or copper clad ekctrode or zinc coated (galvanized) iron electrodes.1 Although electrode material does not affect initial earth resistance. whether it is earthed directly below or remotely should be kept in view in order. Attempts shot& be made to design a substation so as to eliminate the possibility of touch contact beyond the earth-system periphery. if necessary.1. for exampk.1.1. and. While assessing the touch potential. due to electrolytic action which causes serious corrosion.2.1 An earth electrode should be designed to have a loading capacity adequate for the system in which it forms a part.electrode shall be kept free from paint.limited area.5 The . I RECOMMENDED EARTH CIRCUIT IMPEDANCE OR R ESISTANCE FOR D IFFERENT V ALUES OF F USE R ATING NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE . however. energy in the earth path at the point at which-it is installed under any condition of operation of the system.1.1. Failure IS fundamentally due to excessive rise of temperature at the surface of the electrode and is thus a function of current density and duration as well as electrical and thermal properties of soil. 3. that is. 1) CURVE A . potential equaliser grillages of closer mesh securely bonded to the structure and the operating handle’ should be buried below the surface where the operator may stand when operting the switch. and b) Short time overloading as under fault conditions in directly earthed system. iron or mild steel electrodes is reco:umended.3 In cases where soil conditions point to excessive corrosion of the electrode and the 60 ( connections. the method of earthing of the object touched. EARTH ELECTRODES 3. 32. it is recommended to use only copper ekctrodes. use of copper. 3.6 It is recommended to use similar material for earth electrodes and earth conductors or otherwise precautions should be taken to avoid corrosion.4 In direct current system.1. enamel and grease. it should be capable of dissipating without failure.TOTAL EARTH CIRCUIT WPEDANICE m L ii 5o 40 z L 0 (2) CURVE R-RESISTANCE OF CONSUMER’S EARTH ELECTRODE (ASSUMING SUG.1 Material 3.2 Two conditions of operation require consideration.1.2 Current Loading 3. the total earth circuit impedance shall not be more than that obtained by graphs given in Fig.

and d = diameter of rod or pipe in cm. c) Plate electrodes.4 Types of Earth Electrodes-The following types of earth electrodes are considered standard: a) Rod and pipe electrodes.50 m*.15 mm+ N OTE I . or alternatively giving rise to danger within the resistance area of the electrode Chich can be reduced only by introducing a good connection with the general mass of the karth.1 The design data on the various types of earth electrodes is given in Table I.5..“‘” (not less than) Size (Ideal 2. The relationship is given by: R=- Elecrro& Shape on 3. *Steel or galvanized iron. buried in the earth is in fact related to the capacitance of that electrode and its image in free space. 3. and ’ C = capacitance of the electrode and its image in free space. 33.60 mmt 25X4 m m * - 6 mm’* - 3.2 Earth electrodes should not be installed in proximity to a metal fence to avoid the possibility of the fence becoming live. 3.1 Under fault conditions the earth electrode is raised to a potential with respect to the general mass of the earth. they shall be separated by not less than 8.5 m) - I5 m I. PART 1 GENERAL AND COMMON ASPECTS 59 . the capacitance is divided into two by the plane of earths surface so that. b) Strip or conductor electrodes. it should be earthed. tCoppcr. For details regarding their design.30 mm? 3.5 m 0.(soil) in ohm- metre. 212 p loo P R =‘G log y ohms <’ MEASCIREMEI~ TABLE I DESIGN DATA ON EARTH QLECTRODES .TYPE Rod Pipe (Wc N$TE 1) OF E LECTRODES Strip - (1) (2) 38 m m * IO0 mm: 2. P = resistivity of the medium . y ohms 72 where I = length of rod or pipe in cm.The resistance of any electrode 100 P 4nC where R = resistance in an infinite medium.5 mm? L=if@. the formula is loo P R = 2 log.2 E f f e c t o f Resistance . *Code of practice for earthing. This results in the existence of voltages in the soil around the electrode which may be injurious to telephone and pilot cables whose cores are substantially at earth potential owing to the voltage to which the sheaths of such cables are raised.5 m 3 to 3. b) For strip or round conductor ekctrodes.33 Voltage Gradient 33.0 mm*7 60X60 cm Thickness - - 6.A typical illustration of plate ekctrode is given in Fig. and d) Cable sheaths.5 m (4) Round Conductor (5) Plate (WC NOTE 2 ) (6) Diameter 16 m m * (not less than) 12.0 m.A typical illustration of pipe earth electrode is given in Fig.5 Design Data on Earth Electrodes 3. N OTE 2 .5 m - 25 X 1. Ideal area is 3. In practical case. reference shall be made to IS : 3W3-I966* 3. If the’ metal fence is unavoidable. If two or more plates are used in parallel.pL. 2. The voltage gradient at the surface of the earth may also constitute danger to life. and thus dangerous at points remote from the substation. :Cast iron.5. loo P R=_ 27rc a) For rod or pipe ekctrodes.

7 GI PIPE I 75 8 i 150 1 II. FIG.- s C E MEN1 C O N C R E T E (WI))\ I a.:: .7 GI PIPE SdlO 01 PIPC 0 1500 (min. It 200&300#-4 ‘-0 12.’ f .’ ‘4 us ROD7 f Cl COVER HINGED TO Cl FRAME /MIRE MESH rCEMENt CONCRETE r912.I -@- -ALTERNATE LAYER OF CHARCOAL OR COKE AND SALT HOLE.3 rCI C O V E R H I N G E D TO Cl FRAME I_ ~~- t JygOafcME .. N OTE -Three or four buckets of water to be poured into sump every few days to keep the soil surrounding the earth pipe permanently moist. 3 A TYPICAL ILLUSTRATION OF PIPE EARTH ELECTRODE A TYPICAL ILLUSTRATION ELECTRODE OF PLATE EARTH .0 12-t ~6OOx600x6*3 GI PLATE bR 6OOx6OOx3~15 COPPER YLAIE SECltbN X X All dimensions in miilimctres. 2 NOTE -Three and four buckets 6f water to be poured into sump every few days to keep the soil surrounding the earth plate permanently moist. FIG. All dimensions in millimetres.1 2J I a t F!iKoAL ENLARGED DE LA i _.

they shall be run inside metallic conduits. a number of rods or pipes shall be connected together in parallel (see Fig.7 If a clamp has been used to provide connection between the earth wire and the metal sheath and armour. 4.5 The path of the earth wire shall.To reduce the depth of burial without increasing the resistance. enough to resist any strain that is likely to be put upon them.2 All earth wires and earthcontinuity conductors shall be of copper. galvanized iron.6 If the metal sheath and armour have been used as an earth continuity conductor the armour shall be bonded to the metal sheath and the connection between the earth wire and earthing electrode shall be made to the metal sheath. c) For plate electrodes. bolted and clamped joints are permissible.0. The resistance in this case is practically prdortional to the reciprocal of the number of electfydes used so along as each is situated outside the resistance area of the other. Where required. 4.0. 4. 4. NOTE . as far as possible.0. Bolted connectors and their screws shall be protected against any possible corrosion. riveted or bolted connectors) are permissible. w = depth of burial in cm.0 G e n e r a l 4.where I = length of the strip in cm. 4.Aluminium shall not bc used underground. EARTH BUS AND EARTH WIRES 4.1 The mimmum allowable size of earth wire is determined principally by mechanical consideration for they are more liable to mechanical injury and should therefore be strong 4. or steel or aluminium. be out of reach of any person. 4. The distance between two electrodes in such a case shall preferably be not less than twice the length of the electrode.4 Interconnections of earth-continuity conductors and main and branch earth wires shall be made in such a way that reliable and good electrical connections are permanently ensured. 35. 4). For stranded conductors.3 They shall be either stranded or solid bars or flat rectangular strips and may be bare provided due care is taken to avoid corrosion and mechanical damage to it.0. NOTE . indented. - R =4 where a ohms A = area of both sides of plate in m2. sleeve connectors (for example.0. and t = width (strip) or twice the diameter (conductors) in cm. it shall be so designed and 6 16 18 INDIVIDUAL RESISTANCE IN OHMS F I G.3 Effect of Depth of Burial .0.Welded. 4 R E S I S T A N C E OF EL E C T R O D E S A T D E P T H S A N D S O I L RESISTIVITIES P A R T 1 GEKI:RAL A N D C O M M O N A S P E C T S VARIOGS 61 .0.

be adopted.In this method two auxiliary earth electrodes. 5. The uresence ot strav currents in the soil is indicated bv wtndcring of the instrument pointer. The last readings then correspond to the true value of earth resistance.4 The auxiliary electrodes usually consist of 12. decrease of generator handle speed will cause thi? lo disappear.5 mm diameter mild steel rod driven up to I m into the ground. that is.This applies particularly while measuring the combined resistance of large installations.0.1 The eaithing arrangements of the consumer’s installation shall be such that on occurre. 4. 5. tire placed at suitable distances from the test electrode (see Fig. but an increase 0.1.1. 5).1.nce of a fault of negligible impedance from a phase or non-earthed conductor to adjacent exposed metal. . The current lead is taken in the other direction and the current electrode located at the same distance as the potential electrode.1 Two suitable directions. A reading is taken under this condition. A measured current is passed between the electrode ‘A’ to be tested and an auxiliary current electrode ‘C’ and the potential difference between the electrode ‘A’ and the auxiliary potential electrode ‘B’ is measured. the auxiliary current electrode ‘C’ shall be placed at least 30 m away from it and the auxiliary potential electrode ‘B’ shall be placed midway between them.8 The neutral conductor shall not be used as earth wire. a current corresponding to not less than threeand-a-half iimes the rating of the fuse or one-anda-half times the setting of the overload earth leakage circuit-breaker will flow except where voltage operated earth leakage circuit-breakers are used and make the faulty circuit dead. this elimination becomes very I? ~cult and it a dl betrer lo use an earth tester incorporating a handdrIven generalor.2 Alternative Method 5. EARTHING OF INSTALLATIONS IN BUILDINGS 6. The current electrode is then left in the last foregoing position and the potential electrode is moved out in 30-m steps until three consecutive readings are obtained without a change in value. besides the test electrode.lf Ihe testing current is of the same I* uency as the stray current. AMMETER - A\+ TEST ELECTRODE F I G. they may prodlice serious errors in the measured value.1. 50 Hz. permissjble impedance of the earth fault path may bc computed from the following NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE a 62 . The resistance of the test electrode ‘A’ is then given by: 5. If the test electrode is in the form of rod.1 Fall of Potential Method . The current electrode is then moved out in 30-m steps untik the same reading is obtained fdr three consecutive locations.In most cases there will be stray currents flowing in the soil and unless some steps are taken to eliminate their cffecc. The potential Lead is laid in one direction and an electrode is’placed 250 to 300 metres from the fence.0.1 The method described in 5. the test electrode shall be separated from the earthing system. 5. 5. 5. and I = reading of the ammeter in amperes.lnstaikd as to provide reliable connection without damage to the cable.2. 6. In these cases. MEASUREMENT OF EARTH ELECTRODE RESISTANCE 5. 8” POTENTIAL ELECTRODE X+lm CVJ.3 At the time of test. 5.1.isfactory results if the test electrode is of very low impedance (I ohm or less). at least 90 degrees apart. pipe or plate. . 4._ CURRENT ELECTROOE OF 3 METHOD O F M E A S U R E M E N T E LECTRODE R ESISTANCE E A R T H 5. arr: first selected.6 Unless three consecutive readings ot test electrode resistance with different spacings of electrodes agree. the test shall be repeated by increasing the distance between electrodes ‘A’ and ‘C’ up to 50 m and each time placing the electrode ‘B’ midway between them. 5.2 The source of current shall be isolated from the supply by a double wound transformer. NOTE .1. I hese earth testers usually generare direct current and have rotary current-reverser and synchronous rectifier mounted on rhc generator shaft so that alternating current is supplied 10 the lest circuit and the resulting potentials are rectified for measurement by a direct-reading moving-coil ohm meter.1. the to/q!. wheri possibk.9 The minimum sizes of earth-continuity conductors an4 earth wires shall be as given in the relevant part of the Code.1 If the test is made at power frequency.5 Ail the test electrodes and the current electrodes shall be so placed that they are independent of the resistance area of each other.1 may not give sat.2. the resistance of the voltmeter should be high compared to that of the auxiliary potential electrode ‘B’ and in no case should be less than 20 000 ohms. the following method may. p$ where R = resistance of the test electrode in ohms. V=F reading of the voltmeter in volts. Where fuses are used to disconnect the faulty section of an installation in the event of an earth fault.

they shall be protected against corrosion.For flexible cables.1 The factor of safety in the above formula ensures that in most cases the fuse will blow in a time which is sufficiently short to avoid danger and allowing for a number of circumstances.5. 6. in large installations the overall impedance permissible may be less than I ohm.2 It will be observed that this requirement determines the overall impedance and does not contain a specific reference to any part of the circuit such as the conduit or other earthcontinuity conductor together with the earthing lead.5. largest current carrying conductors. namely. increase in length of the circuit conductors and the earth-continuity conductors. inevitable extensions to installations involving. planning an installation to consult the supply authority or an electrical contractor having knowledge of local conditions. Where non-metallic joint boxes are used.6 Pipes and Structural Steel Work . lock nuts . such as a metal strip having a resistance not greater than that of the sheath of the largest cable entering the box. 7. Slackness in joints may result ih deterioration a n d e v e n c o m p l e t e l o s s o f continuity.for aluminium and need not be greater than 70 mm* for copper and 120 mm? for aluminium. fault. In fact. the metal sheath of the cables or the earth-contin ity conductor contained in a cable. z = Phase-toearth voltage of system Minimum Factor fusing current X of of fuse safety where 2 = permissible impedance in ohms.5. PVC and tough rubber sheathed cables the sizes of the earth-continuity conductors shall be in accordance with relevant Indian Standards.2 Earth-Conrinuit.Pipes.5 Metal Conduit Pipe Used as on EarrhContinuity Conducror . NOII .4 Cable Sheaths Used as Earth-Continuitjx Conduc/ors -~ Where the metal sheaths of cables are used as earth-continuity conductors. the size of the earth-continuity conductors should be equal to the size of the current-carrying -conductors and for metal sheathed. gas pipe. As regards the sizes of galvanized iron and steel earth-continuity conductors.The size of the earth-continuity conductors should be correlated with the sire of the current carrying conductors. 6.3 It is recommended . such as water pipe.5 mm? . 6.\a Conductors and Earth Wires not Contained in the Cables ~.5. 6.5 mm? for copper and 2. 6. increase of resistance due to drying out of the earth electrodes in dry weather. in order to ascertain which of the two.1 Connection to earth of those parts of an installation which require to be earthed shall be made by means of an earth-continuity conductor which may be a separate earth conductor.2 ‘It is desirable when. Joints shall be so made that their current-carrying capacity is not less than that of the conduit itself.1. earth-continuity conductor and earthing-lead. Plain slip or pin-grtp sockets are insufficient to ensure satisfactory electrical continuity of joints.should also be used.~~ The factor of safety in calculating the permissible Impedance should be left to the discretion of the de‘signer. Where necessary.3 Earth-Conlinuit!. means shall be provided to maintain the continuity.1. etc. provided the minimum size of earth-continuity conductors is not less than 1. earth electrodes at consumer’s premises and substations and any 63 . they may be equal to size of current-carrying conductors with which they are used. 6. 6. that is. 6.1 The current which will flow under earth fault conditions and will thus be available to operate the overload protection depends upon the impedance of the earth return loop. Conductors and Earth Wires Contained in the Cables . flexible cableY or flexible cord. every joint in such sheaths shall be so made that its current-carrying capacity is not less than that of the sheath itself. 6.4 Only pipe or rod earth electrodes are r e c o m m e n d e d and they shall satisfy the requirements of 3. such as the grading of fuse ratings.formula (for a normal three-phase system with earthed neutral).5 Earth-Continuity Conductors 6. The size of earth-continuity conductors to be used along with aluminium current-carrying conductors should be calculated on the basis of equivalent size of the copper current-carrying conductors. In the case of screwed conduit. for protection against earth-leakage currents is likely to prove satisfactory. MEASUREMENT OF IMPEDANCE EARTH LOOP 6.5. the use of fuses or overload circuit-breakers. or members of structural steel work shall not be used as earthcontinuity conductor.5.that t h e m a x i m u m sustained v o l t a g e d e v e l o p e d u n d e r f a u l t conditions between exposed metal required to be earthed and the consumer’s earth terminal shall not exceed 32 volts rms. This includes the line conductor. 65.Metal conduit pipe should generally not be used as an earthcontinuity conductor but where used a very high standard of workmanship in installation is essential. the &es of earth-continuity conductors should not be less than half of the PART 1 GENERAL AND COMMON ASPECTS 7. so that considerably less than this might be allowable for the earth-continuity system.

Deccan trap and gneisses Underlying bedrock-Deccan trap do do do Underlying be&ckgneisses Underlying bedrock-sandstone. Distt Nellore Andhra Pradesh 8 . Kartee 9.1. for example.parallel metallic return to the transformer neutral as tiell. Dhond. 6 C IRCUIT D IAGRAM OF N OTE 2 -Supply system is shown dotted. 6. L-+-J A = ammeter B = neon indicator C = main switch D = test switch E = consumer’s earth electrode F = supply fuses P = polarity switch s = substation earth electrode V = voltmeter At FF. as the transformer winding. Garimenapenta.2) A REPRESENTATIVE VALUES OF SOIL RESISTIVITY IN VARIOUS PARTS OF INDIA. F I G. shale and limestones. N OTE I -Arrows show current flow in neutral/earth loop. SL No. Distt Surat. Bijapur Distt. Bombay 6. jacks are provided for insertion of plugs for connection to external neutral and/or earth conductors. To test the overall earthing for any installation depending for protection on the operation of dvercurrent devices. Kakarapar. Delhi a) Najafgarh Agricultural Alluvium a) Black cotton soil b) Moorm Alluvium (highly clayey) a) Alluvium b) Alluvium a) Alluvium (dry sandy soil) b) Loamy to clayey soil c) Alluvium (saline) 3-6 6-40 2-10 I O-50 2 3-5 9-2 I 75-l 70 38-50 1.3. Karnataka 7. LOCALITY T YPE OF S OIL ORDER OF REHSJIVITY ohm-metre 6-23 6-24 4-i I REMARKS Underlying bedrockDeccan trap do Underlying bedrock-sandstones. Gujarat 2. After the supply has been connected this shall be done by the use of an earth loop impedance tester as shown in Fig. if desired. The opencircuit voltage of the loop tester should not exceed 32 volts. Taptee Valley 3 Narmada Valley Clayey black soil Alluvium Alluvium 4. The neutral is used in place of the phase conductor for the purpose of the test.5-9 . trap or gneisses do do do (Conrinued) NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 1. Purna Valley (Deogaon) 5. fus& it is necessary to measure the impedance of this loop under practical fault conditions. E ARTH L OOP I MPEDANCE T E S T E R APPENDIX (Clause 2.

B-2. 7) . The value of earth resistance is under consideration.dangerous rise of potential in the neutral. Kutch-Kandla (Amjar Area) bvrmx) 9-14 24-46 Underlying bedrock-traps.SL No. electrodes and earthing conductors shall be installed in one of the follbwing ways: 65 . 19. and to a separate earth electrode. K o r b a . ADDITIONAL RULES APPLYING TO T H E E A R T H L E A K A G E CIRCUITBREAKER SYSTEM B-3.) 14. Kerala (Trivandrum Distt. Cossipur. 1 Where a’ driven or buried elstrode is used. General ( see Fig. Nort. Koyna. Banaskantha Gujarat 22. ADDITlONAL RULES APPLYING TO THE DIRECT EARTHING SYSTEM B . M P I I. charnockite or granites 6-14 60-150 45-185 50. Wajrakarur.3) B ADDITIONAL RULES FOR EARTHINGS B-l. Villupuram. Andhra Pradesh 18. Mysore 16. selective Protection . Madras 21. Bharatpur 15. Bihar 13. sand-stones or gneisses Underlying bedrocklaterite. ADDITIONAL RULES APPLYING TO THE MULTIPLE EARTH NEUTRAL SYSTEM B-2. kalyadi. the earth resistance shall be as low as possible. Koiar G o l d F i e l d s 17. shale or trap do Underlying bedrockgranite Underlying bedrockgranites and gneisses Underlying bedrock-sandstones and gneisses do Sandy loam (Saline) Alluvium Sandy surface Alluvium Lateritic a) Alluvium b) Alluvium (sandy) ’ (clayey) 20. the circuit-breaker.I50 800-l 200 (dry) 4-50 60-200 II 170 2-5 ia:prox) Underlying bedrockgneisses do do Underlying bedrock-sandlaterite or trap Underlying bedrock-sandstone. Satara Distt.If B-3. Calcutta 12.l .All parts required to be earthed shall be connected to an earth electrode through the coil of an earth leakage circuit-breaker which controls the supply to all those parts of the installation which are to be protected.2 Selective operation of earth leakage circuit-breaker is required. PART I GENERAL AND COMMON ASPECTS B-3. Ambaji.1 Installation of the Earth Leakage CircuitBreaker System. Ramanathapuram Distt Madras Clayey sands Alluvium a) Alluvium b) Lateritic soil NOTF ~~ The soil resistivities are subject to wide seasonal variation as they depend very much on the moisture content APPENDIX (Clause 0. Bhagalpur. LOCALITY T Y P E O F SO I L O RDER O F R EMARKS RESISTIVITY ohm-metre Dry soil a) Moist clay b) Alluvium soil Alluvium a) Alluvium b) Top soil Lateritic clay 36-109 2-3 I O-20 > 2 5 Underlying bedrockquartzites Underlying bedrock-sandstone or shale b) Chhatarpur IO.1 This system shall be used only where the neutral and earth is low enough to preclude the possibility of a.

where there are no conduits to be earthed FOR F I G. F’ INSULATED CONDUCTOR E ARTH. which are to be protected as a unit shall be electrically separated from all other such parts and from any other earthed metal. earthing conductors. etc. 8) . condutts. Each part to be protected ‘as a unit shall be connected to an earth electrode through the coil of an earth leakage circuit-breaker. 7 CONNECTION OF E A R T H L E A K A G E CIRCIJIT-BREAKER SI M P L E I N S T A L L A T I O N INSULATE0 CdNOLtClOR \INSULAlED CONDUCTOR REINFORCEME ELECTRODE 4 EARTH ELECTRODE 8A By complete separation of the exposed metal of one installation from that of othger installations 88 By use of a double-insulated wiring system.BREAKERS C O M P L E T E SELE~TIVIT\ NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE .All metal frames.a) Arrangement Giving Complete SelectivitJ3 (see Fig.ING CONDUCTORS MAY BE BARE PLUG OUT L E ARfH E L E C T R O D E S F I G. 8 ‘ CO N N E C T I O N S 66 OF E A R T H L E A K A G E CIRWIT. Ali the separately protected portions of the installations may be connected to one electrode to the earth leakage circuitbreaker.

9) All the conduits and associated fittings shall be bonded together and connected to an earth electrode. All these portions may be connected to one electrode.A double-Insulated wiring system is used. 9 CONNEC‘TIONS OF EQUIPMENT E A R T H L E A K A G E CIIKIJIT-BREAKERS FOR P ARTIAL S ELECTIVITY PART I GENERAL AND COMMON ASPECTS 67 . but this electrode shall be separated from the electrode to w h i c h t h e c o n d u i t s a r e connected. Any conduit used does not then NOTE 2 ~ The earthing conductor is insulated from the conduit.b) Arrangement Giving Partial Se1ectivir.B.L. need to be earthed. Each part to be protected as a unit shall be connected to an earth electrode through the coil of a separate earth leakage circuitbreaker which controls all the active conductors supplying that portion of the installation only. all shall also be connected to another earth electrode through an earth leakage circuit-breaker which controls all the active conductors supplying the whole or portions of the installations concerned.. e. INSULATED f.v (Complete Selectivit)’ MYth Respect to Faults in Apparatus.g. tough rubber-sheathed cables. but no Selectivity M’ith Respect to Falls in Wiring in Conduit) (see Fig. ARTHING CONDUMAY BE BARE CONDUCTOR PLUG-SOCKET OUTLETS ELECTRODES f+pF I G.CONDUCTOR MAY BE 0ARE MAIN E. NOTL I -.C.

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‘SECTION 13 SHORT-CIRCUIT CALCULATIONS (Under Consideration) .

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2. detail is seen quickly and accurately and the room is free frog any sense of gloom or monotony. GENERAL GUIDELINES 2.1 Good lighting is necessary for all buildings and has three primary aims. in conjunction with the structure and decoration. b) Air-conditioning.1 Principles of Good Lighting 3. 0.2.1 Extensive guidelines on building design aspects have been covered from the point of view of ensuring economic services in an . minimizmg flicker from certain types of lamp and paying attention to the cdlour rendering properties of the light. 2. to assist preception of task detail and to give good modelling. for which reference shall be made to the relevant part of SP : 7-1983 ‘ National Building Code of India ‘.FOREWORD 0. and Installing emergency lighting systems where necessary.3 This Section of the Code draws attention to the requirements to be complied with in the design and construction of building services. SCOPE 1. safety and amenity and surroundings.1983. . SECTION 14A LIGHTING 3. Realization ot these aims involves: 4 Careful planning of the brightness and colour patterns within the working area and the surroundings so that attention is drawn naturally to the important areas. the following climatic factors influence the optimum orientation af t h e buildings: a) Solar* radiation and temperature. *Recommendations for orientation of building: Part I Non-industrial buildings. PART I GENERAL AND COMMON ASPECTS 2. These shall be referred to from the point of view of ensuring good design of building services and early coordination amongst all concerned. 4 In artificial lighting installations.1.where b) Using appropriate. ASPECTS OF LIGHTING SERVICES 3. These services. The first is to promote the work and other activities carried on within the buildings.occupancy in SP : 7 (Part 8).1 The chief aim of orientation of buildings is to provide physically and psychologically comfortable living inside the buildings by creating conditions which suitably and successfully ward off the undesirable effects of severe weather to a considerable extent by judicious use of the recommendations and _ knowledge of climatic factors. From the point of view of conservation of energy and safety in its use. whose proper functioning is important. directional lighting.1. c) Electric clock systems. a pleasing environment conducive to interest and a sense of well-being.1 Most of the modern day services in buildings depend on electrical energy. and the third is to create. and c) Lifts and escalators.1 This Section of the Code covers requirements for installation work relating to building services that use electric *power. c) Relative humidity.2 From the point of view of lighting and ventilation. 0.2. b) Clouds.2 Apart from the three major power consuming services in a buildin there are other functional/safety services ta at are basically light current installations. 1.2 Orientation of Building 2. For reasons of restricting the volume of the text. b) Electric call-bell systems. this Section is restricted to only the electrical aspects of building services. broadly. the second is to promoie the safety of people using the building. 71 . b) Form and texture in the task area and surroundings.SECTION 14 ELECTRICAL ASPECTS OF BUILDING SERVICES O. are: a) Lighting and ventilation. and d) Fire-alarm systems. These are: a) Electrical audio-systems. 4 Correlating lighting throughout the building to prevent excessive differences between adjacent areas and so as to reduce the risk of accidents.2 Good lighting design shall take into account the following: a) Planning the brightness pattern from the point of view of visual performance. and d) Prevailing winds. Reference shall be made to IS : 7662 (Part I)1974* on orientation of buildings. Non-electrical design aspects are not covered in the Code. it is found essential SO draw attention to essential design principles for building services. 3. 4 Controlling direct and reflected glare from light sources to eliminate visual discomfort.

electrical requirements for the system shall be made at the planning stage itself. 72 . 3. 1 The design of the system and its\ associated controls should take into account the following: a) The nature of the application. NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE *Code of practice for interior illumination: Part of good lighting and aspects of design. This may be achieved in one of the following ways: a) Natural supply and natural exhaust of air.2.1 Where desired temperatures and humidities cannot be obtainted by ventilation.Reference shall be made to IS : 2440-19752.C) Cornrolling glare. In the case of buildings to be air-conditioned.1 Design Considerations 4 Adequacy for preventing both strain in seeing and liability to accidents caused by poor visibility.1 Illumination Levels -. *Code of practice for industrial ventilation firs/ revision). 3.2 Design Aspects 3.2 Mechanical Ventilation . The schedule of recommended values of illumination and limiting values of glare index are given in IS : 3646 (Part 2)-1966t.General ventilat’on involves providing a building with relatively laIge quantities of outside air in order to improve general environment of building. 4. ASPECTS OF VENTILATION 4. iGuide for daylighting of buildings (secund revision). stroboscopic effect and flicker.2 Designing for Daylight .0 General 4.2.Reference should be made to IS : 3103-1975* and IS : 3362-19777 which cover methods of mechanical ventilation. and the occupants. 1 .0 General 5. capacity. 4 Colour rendering. b) Natural supply and mechanical exhaust of air.2 The considerations: following govern design g) Maintenance factors in lighting installation.2. and 4 Adequacy for pleasantness or amenity. tCode of practice for natural ventilation of residential buildings lfirsr revision).3 Lighting Problems and Economics Reference is drawn to Appendices C and D of IS : 3646 (Part I)-1966* SECTION 14B VENTILATION 4. and d) Mechanical supply and mechanical exhaust of air. 3. 4. to dilute inside air to prevent vitiation by body odours and to remove any products of combustion or other contaminants in air and to provide such thermal environments as will assist I 5 .0.0.The level of illumination for a particular occupation depends on the following criteria: a) Supply of fresh air for respiration. changes for various occupancies.1. b) The type of construction. fl Provision for emergency. provisions for.0. e) Lighting for movement. ASPECTS OF AIR-CONDITIONING AND HEATING SERVICES 5.1 Methods of Ventilation . For specific occupancies covered in the Code see relevant Part/Section. the’ maintenance of heat balance oaf the body in order to prevent discomfort and injury to health of the occupants. b) Removal of combustion products or other contaminants and to prevent vitiation by body odours. c) Mechanical supply and natural exhaust of air.3 Guidelines on principles of good lighting design can be had from IS : 3646 (Part I)-1966*. 5. 3.1 Ventilation of buildings is required to supply fresh air for respiration of occupants. c) External and internal load patterns. SECTION 14C AIR-CONDITIONING AND HEATING 5. airconditioning is resorted to. d) Desired space conditions. Principles tCode of practice for interior illumination: Part 2 Schedule for values of illumination and glare index. and Maximum energy effectiveness of the lighting system used consistent with the specific needs of visual tasks performed. cl Recommended schedule of values of air 4 The limits of comfort and heat tolerance of 4. b) Adequacy for realizing maximum visual c) Adequacy for the performance of visual tasks at satisfactory high levels of efficiency.

3 Consideration should be given to changes in building load and the system designed so that maximum operatianal efficiency_ is maintained under part. g) Opportunities for heat recovery.2. c) In intermediate seasons.4 Air-conditioning and systems circulating air to.0 General 6. 5.2 In case of air-conditioning plants where re-heating is used. 5.0. such as steam or electricity by means of a theremostat or some other device. 6.plant should be limited.. 51. lifts. ELECTRICAL ASPECTS OF LIFTS AND ESCALATOR SERVICES 6. SECTION 14D LIFTS AND ESCALATORS 6. Such system shall also be provided with automatic controls to stop fans in case of fire. large departmental stores or hotels with over 100 rooms in a single block shall be provided with effective means for preventing circulation of smoke through the system in the case of a fire in air filters or from other sources drawn into the system even though there is insufficient heat to actuate heat sensitive devices controlling fans or dampers. . or just outside. like wood sheathing or ducts which allow air to pass through around the conductors 5. The same method applies equally to other types of wiring. d) Provisions for machine.2. as soon as the temperature of the room reaches a predetermined high level not exceeding 44”C. Such means shall consist of suitable photo-electric or other effective smoke sensititve controls. preferably to 400°C and in any case it shall not exceed 538OC. c) Height between floor levels. f) Under frost conditions.2 The following aspects shall be taken into account to decide the electrical requirements for lifts: a) N u m b e r o f position.2. e) At weekends.2 The operation of the system in the following circumstances should be considered when assessing the complete design: a) In summer. a safety device shall be i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t h e instal~lation to cut off automatically the source of heating.room.5 Air-cdnditioning system serving large places of assembly (over I 000 persons).2 Electrical Requirements 5. where applicable. 5. unless a higher temperature is required for an industrial process carried on in the air-conditioned enclosure. Serious harm to the plant and sometimes fires may be caused by negligence in this respect. the total system should be separated into smaller increments having similar load requirements so that each area can be separately controlled to maintain optimum operating conditions.more tnan one floor or tire area shall be provided with dampers designed to close automatically in case of fire and thereby prevent spread of fire or smoke. h) Quantity/quality of service. e) Provisions for ventilation and lighting. d) At night.2. when measured in still air. f) Electric supply required. 73 . the lift/escalator manufacturer should advise the architect/engineer of the building of his electrical requirements. The surface temperature of all electric heaters used in an air-conditioned . b) In winter. or may be manually operated controls.1 Conduits . Similarly. f) Control methods for minimizing use of primary energy. and h) Economic factors (including probable future cost and availability of power). size capacity and b) Nu’mber of floors served by the lift.0. a junction box shall be installed or other means shall be adopted to break the continuity of such conduit at the point of entry. unless arranged to remove smoke from a fire. 5.3 In case of air-conditioning plants where heating by means of an electric heater designed to operate in an air current is used.e) Permissible control limits. and the conduit should be sealed round the conductors to prevent air being carried from one area into the other through the conduit and thereby giving rise not only to leakage and inefficiency but also to the risk of condensation of moisture inside the conduits. load conditions.1. and h) If extended low voltage conditions persist.1 For the information of the electrical engineer. This should be available early in the planning stage to ensure proper electrical provisions to be made for the service.when such conduits pass from a non-air-condmoned area into an air-conditioned area or into a fan chamber of duct. g) Details of wiring and apparatus required.Where conduits are used for carrying insulated electrical conductors and. in which case these shall be designed to remain in operation. g) If electricity supply failure occurs and when the supply is restored. a safety device PART 1 GENERAL AND COMMON ASPECTS shall be incorporated in the instailation to cut off the supply of electricity to the heating device whenever there is failure of the air current in which the heater is required to operate.2. ventilating 5.

tn the case of building more than 30 metres in height or where high speed lifts (I .3 No bare conductor shall be used in any lift car as may cause danger to persons. No form of ‘ N O ’ VCJLT’ trip relay should be included anywhere in the power supply of the lift.Machine rooms and all other rooms containing lift equipment should be provided with adequate illumination and with a switch fixed adjacent to. This means of isolation should be lockable.j) Occupant load factors. maximum permissible voltage drop. suitable for lamps or tools.2.8 Emergency signal or telephone . the switch *Code of practice for installation. N A T I O N A L E L E C T R I C A L CuDE 4 Pmver Supp(v Mums .2. should be provided in each room. so that correctLy rated fuses can be fitted.the entrance. operation and maintenance of electric passenger and goods lifts (second rwision). This alarm bell. 6. 6.1 General .2. The supply may be from a battery (or transformer) fixed in the machine room or. in order that any car may be shut down without isolating the supervisory control of the remainder. 6. m) Control system. should be fixed in an agreed position and wired to the lift well. The lift. ‘When a telephone is to be provided in the lift car. b) For banks of interconnected lifts. For multiple lifts with a common machine room a separate supply should be provided for each car.It is recommended that lift car be proylded either with an emergency signal that is operattve from the lift car and audible outside the lift well or with a telephone. 6.5 Suitable caution notice shall be affixed near every motor or other apparatus operating at a voltage exceeding 250 volts. particulars of full load current. The supply to the car light should be from a separate circuit. size of switches and other details to suit requirements. either on the controller or by a.2. At least one socket outlet. 6. on a schedule.6 Circuits which supply current to the motor shall not be included in any twin or multicore trailing cable used in connection with the control and safety devices. use of single travelling cable for lighting and control circuits is permitted.2. For multiple lifts a diversity factor may be used to determine the cable size and should be stated by the lift manufacturer. but the following are not included in the contract. k) Car speed. 4 Lightiqg. 6.4 All cables and other wiring in connection with the lift installation shall be of suitable grade for the voltage at which these are intended to be worked and if metallic covering is used it shall be efficiently earthed. the supply should be taken from the machine room lighting. from the building fire alarm supply. starting current. Each lift should be capable of being isolated from the mains supply.2.2.52 m/s or more) are employed. When the alarm system is connected to a transformer or trickle-charger.2. The car lighting supply should be independent of the power supply mains. for which should be in the lift well.2 All metal casings or metallic coverings containing or protecting any electric supply lines of apparatus shall be efficiently earthed. and n) Operation and maintenance. protected.circuit-breaker. maker should provide overcurrent protection for power and controi circuits. When an alarm bell is to be provided. Pits should be provided with a light.2.2. an alarm push which is wired to a terminal box in the lift well at the ground floor by the lift maker. and controlled by a switch in the machine room. 6.2. to be supplied by the lift maker (with indicator for more than one lift). 2 . All conductors should be insulated for the maximum voltage found in the cable. and accessible from the lower terminal floo’r entrance. a separate sub-circuit is required for the common supervisory system. 1 All electrical’ supply lines and apparatus in connection with the lift installation shall be so constructed and shall be so installed.1 Design and Operation. 74 . the lift maker should fit the cabinet in the car and provide wiring from the car to a terminal box adjacent to the lift well.$I revision).2. TSpecification for electric passenger and goods lifts (/S-. 6. each car is fitted with. 6. when available. 2 .2 Electrical Installation Requirements 6.2 Electrical Wiring and Apparatus 6 . The lift maker should specify.7 A trailing cable which incorporates conductors for’ the control circuits shall be separate and distinct from that which incorporates lighting and signalling circuits in the case of buildings less than 30 metres in height.2.Reference is drawn to IS : 1860-1980* and IS : 4666-1980t 6. worked and maintained that there may be no danger to persons therefrom. It is important that the switches at the intake and in the machine room which are provided by the electrical contractor are of correct size.2.The lift sub-circuit from the intake room should be separate from other building service.2.The requirements for main switches and wiring with reference to relevant regulations are given in IS : 4666-19807.2.

2 of Part 1 /Set 12 of the Code.3.3.3. a brake shall be provided on this shaft. This brake shall be located either. One side of the secondary winding of bell transformers and their cases shall be earthed. 9 E a r t h i n g . controllers and similar other parts shall be efficiently insulated and the insulation shall be capable of withstanding for a period of one minute the continuous application of a ac test voltage equal to ten times the voltage at which these electrical parts are energised.9 Caution Notice .The terminal for the earthing of the frame of the motor.3 Brake . such terminal being specially provided for this purpose. and between such contacts and earthed parts. door contacts. mechanically applied brake capable of stopping the up or down travelling escalator with any load up to rated load. Where screwed conduit screws into electric fittings carrying control current and making the case and cover electrically continuous with the conduit.1 Connection Between Driving Machine and Main Drive Shqft .0 General 7. ELECTRICAL ASPECTS OF AUDIO SYSTEM SERVICES 7. at least equivalent to a 5 mm brass screw.A l l electric safety switches and controllers shall be enclosed to protect against accidental contact.Each escalator shall be provided with an electrically released.An electric motor shall not drive more than one escalator.3 Specific requirements if any. With dc power supplies the main disconnecting switch and any circuit-breaker shall be so arranged and connected that the circuit -of brake magnet coil is opened at the same time that the main circuit is opened. 2 . a coupling. 6.The electrical parts of starting and stopping devices. lines and apparatus in the ezcalator shall be of suitable construction and shall be so installed.0. 3 . e l e c t r i c a l tubings or wireways which shall be securely fastened to the supporting structure. 6. the cases and covers of the tappet switch and similar electric appliances which normally carry the main current shall be at least equivalent to a 10 mm diameter bolt.The driving machine shall be connected to the main drive shaft by toothed gearing. The switch shall be so placed that it is close to and visible from the escalator machine to which the supply is contrdlled. 6. 6 . 75 I GENERAL AND COMMON ASPECTS . All metal casings or metallic coverings.1 This Section covers essential installation design -aspects of electrical audio systems for indoor and outdoor use both for temporary and permanent installations.3. 6. worked and maintained that there is no danger to persons from them.4 No bare conductor shall be used in any escalator as may cause danger to persons. 6.0.3.3.0.3.on the driving machine.Suitable ‘CAUTION’ notice shall be affixed near every motor or other apparatus operating at a voltage exceeding 250 volts. subject to a maximum voltage of 2 000 V when the test voltage is applied between contacts or similar parts in the open position. call and control buttons. 1 0 Jnsulation . junction boxes and similar electrical fittings which normally carry only the control current shall be. The terminal for the earthing of the metallic cases and covers of doors interlocks.3 Additional Requirements for Escalators 6. 2 . fused switch or a circuit-breaker shall be mstalled and shall be connected into the power supply line to the driving machine motor. 6. PART 7. The earthing conductor shall be secured to earthing terminal i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e recommendations made in IS : 3043-1966* and also in conformity with the provisions of Indian Electricity Rules. used for leading into_ a fitting. protected.2 Driving Motor. Where flexible. Where a chain is used to connect the driving machine to the main drive shaft. stop buttons. for individual occupancies are covered in individual Sections of the Code.6 .An enclosed. It is not required that this brake be of the electrically released type if an electrically released brake is provided . containing or protecting any electric supply line or apparatus shall be efficiently connected with earth. SECTION 14E AUDIO SYSTEMS 7. the earthing of the conduit may be considered to earth the fitting.6 All electrical supply.5 Electrical conductors shall be encased in rigid conduits. The cross-sectional area of copper earthing conductor shall be not s’maller than those specified in 5.3. the frame of the control panel.3. other operating and similar devices. limit switches. on the driving machine or on the main drive shaft. 6. car switches.7 Disconnect SLititch .2.8 E n c l o s u r e qf Electrical Parts -. 7. *Code of practice for earthing. 6. the fitting and such length of flexible conduit shall be effectively earthed.2 This applies to sound distribution systems and public address systems but does not cover installations in conference halls where both microphones and loudspeakers are distributed amongst the audience. or a chain. the winding machine. conduit is. 6. stud or screw. Disconnecting switches or circuit-breakers shall be of the manually closed multi-pole type.

All controls shall be mechanically and electrically noiseless. Joints in the cables shall be avoided.7.Proper equipment shall be made in ar:?rdance with good practice. A voltage regulating device shall be provided if the regulation is poorer than * 5 percent. be laid overhead at a height not less than 3.7 The plugs and sockets used in e l e c t r i c a l a u d i o s y s t e m s shall n o t b e interchangeable with those meant for power currents.2. 7.Where necessary.5 m.be such that. NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE practice for outdoor installation of public address *Code of practice for the’ installation of indoor amplifying and sound distribution syskems.4 In determining the positioning of the microphones and loudspeakers in the installation.1.1‘ All present controls should be mounted behind cover plates and designed for adjustment only with the help of tools.2.13 In case the number of the equipment is large. 7. The choice of equipment such as these for input signals. the quality of reproduction is as desired.arranged. The design of this installation shall . 7.1.4 Miscellaneous Provisions .2 Design Requirements 7. that is in installations where the breakdown of the sound distribution systems should be restored instantaneously or within a limited time.1‘0 All e q u i p m e n t s h a l l b e s e c u r e l y installed in rooms gatirded against unauthorized access.sound heard from different loudspeakers do not have any noticeable time lag. 7.2 of IS : 18811961* and IS : 1882-19617 o n t h e q u a l i t y o f reproduction suitable for different purposes.2. *Code of systems. Indoor cables can be laid on the floor along the walls or under the carpet.The completed installation shall be inspected and tested by the engineer to ensure that the work has been carried out in the manner specified.0. 1 The equipment should normally operate from 240 V. 7. 7. loudspeaker and telephone cables. a m p l i f y i n g e q u i p m e n t / s y s t e m a n d loudspeakers shall be governed by the considerations enumerated in IS : 1881-1961* and IS : 1882-1961 t.1. in such a manner that the controls are within easy reach.6 In large open grounds such as an outdoor stadium.3 Earrhing . depending on the nature of occupancy.0 The output from the microphone.2 The supply mains shall be controlled by a switch-fuse of adequate capacity.2. and c) the ducts are overhead lines required for wiring. 7. These shall be isolated from power. tCode of practice for outdoor installation of public address systems.2.2. they shall be either buried in the ground at a depth not less than 20 cm. in Table I of IS : 1882-1961* 7.2. care shall be taken to ensure that the . Any wiring required to be run along corridors or outside walls below 1.2. the stand-by equipment shall be readily available.3 Inspection and Testing . the linematching transformers shall be mounted in weather-proof junction boxes. gramophone. 7. 76 .8 Microphone and gramophone cables shall preferably use twisted pairs of conductors with sufficient insulation screened continuously with a close mesh of tinned-copper braid.1 The initial and ultimate requirements of the installations should be ascertained as accurately as possible by prior consultations. or inside an iron-pipe at that depth if heavy mechanical movement is expected above.2. 7.1. Microphone cables shall be laid without sharp bends. tape-recorder or radio receiver or from a sound film is amplified and presented through a system of loudspeakers installed at chosen locations. This may also.9 The loudspeaker cables shall be so chosen that the line losses do not exceed the values given. 7.1.2. When laid in the open. single phase 50 Hz ac mains supply.1 Exchange of Information 7. 7.1.1.1. The patch cords shall be neatly . Reference is drawn to 5.5 For outdoor installations. they shall be mounted on racks of suitable dimensions of metal or wood.1 Wiring for Audio System 7. b) the accommodation and location of the central amplifier equipment.2.1. e a r t h i n g o f the 7. 2 . Plans shall show: a) details of the installation proposed.2. advice of an acoustical expert shall be sought for best accuracy and reproducibility. reference shall be made to IS : 1881-196t* and IS : 188219611. 7. The copper braiding should be sheathed with an insulating covering.2. 2 . clipped securely to a bearer wire.2.2. 7.8 m’shall be protected by a conduit.4 For guidance on selection of equipment and their installation and maintenance. -Precautions shall be taken ‘to keep dust away. 7. 7. and the acoustic power requirements therein.2.2 PoMjer Supplies 7 .2 The positioning of equipment shall be such that the lengths of the interconnecting cable’s is kept to the minimum. In the absence of ac mains supply the system shall be suitable for operating from a storage battery.

These shall be supplemented by sector indicators for the various sectors at a central control point. including non-electrical aspects such as choice and disposition of fire-fighting equipment. If necessary remote indicating panel. Each indicator shall include: 8. When the premises are extensive.2. PART I GKNERAI. Part 4 of SP : 7-1983* 8.2. autonx~l~ fire alarm AND COMMON ASPECTS . stair cases and other flue-like opening. b) Smoke detectors: i) Optical detectors. 8. and shall be spaced at least 5 cm away from each other and other wiring.2. Operation of silencing switches shall not prevent sounding of alarm from any other zone simultaneously.2 For guidance on their choice and siting in the installation. 8.2 Alarm sounders shall be of the same kind in a particular installation.2. d) PVC or rubber insulated armoured cables.0. For every installation a control point shall be provided. c) Rubber insulated braided cables. 8. 8. so arranged that failure of either of the lamps -is readily apparent. ii) loniration chamber detector. where it can be under constant observation. OF FIRE drops or lamp indicators shall be grouped together on the main indicator board or control panel.C insulated cables. cables of the following types shall be used: a) Mineral insulated aluminium sheathed cables. etc. the premises shall be divided into sections’Tones. 8.2 Wiring for Fire Alarm Systems 8. or cancel the other indications of the alarm or fault. The laying of the cables shall be done in accordance with Part I Set I of the Code. c) Flame detectors. it is necessary that the origin of a call be indicated.0. 8.0.5 No section shall have more than 200 fire -detectors connected together. b) PV. see Appendix B. All call points in a section shall be connected to the same indicator. 8. a number of main indicator boards may be used covering different sectors.8 The indicating device associated with the various call points and sections shall be grouped together on the main indicator board.1.0 General 8.1 This Section is intended to cover the electrical aspects of the installation of fire alarm/protection systems in buildings.2 This Section is applicable in genera1 to all types of occupancies.1 The equipment and wiring of the fire alarm system shall be independent of any other equipment or wiring.4 At the control point the main indicator board or the Tone and section indicating boards a n d a l l c o m m o n control a p p a r a t u s a n d supervisory equipment shall be located.3 For large or intricate premises.2. The main control centre shall be located on the ground floor and should be segregated from the rest of the building by fire-break wall. iii) Chemically sensitive detector.10 For fire alarm systems.SECTION 14F FIRE ALARM SYSTEMS ASPECTS 8. ELECTRICAL ALARM SYSTEMS 8.2. or b) one lamp glowing during normal operation of the system for each section and the alarm indicated by the extinguishing of the lamp for the section where the call originates. depending on the nature of occupancy installation and maintenance aspects. 8. reference shall be made to Part 4 of SP : 7-1983* and the relevant Indian Standards. and e) Hard metal sheathed cables.1 The following types of fire detectors are a) two lamps connected in parallel associated available for installation in buildings: a) Heat detectors (IS : 217519771): i) ‘Point’ or ‘spot’ type detector ii) Line type detector.UK I” systems.2.1 Fire Detectors 8. The various *National Building Code.7 The arrangement of the circuits and the electrical connections shall be such that a call or fault in any circuit does not prevent the receipt of calls on any other circuit. tHeat WISIIIV~ lire-dctcctors for. while specific requirements if any or individual situations are covered in the respective sections of the Code. 8. For this. with audible alarms in the night quarters of the caretaker of the building should be provided.1. NOTF ~~~ These may be of fixed temperature detector or rate of rise detector.6 The origin of the calls may be indicated by the use of lamp indicators. The wiring shall be kept away from lift shafts. 77 8.2. with each indication.2. 8.3 For total requirements for fire protection of buildings. 8.2.9 The silencing switches/push buttons in their off position shall give an indication of this fact on the main control panel. The wiring of the fire alarm systems shall be in metallic conduits. Alarms should not sound on the failure of the indicator.

!stem ~~ Hotels.1.where sound of bell is undesirable.g the contact gap and pressure and means for locking the arrangement. schools. 8.1.3.1. *National Building Code.for Electrical Drives . 8. 9. and b) Details of chases.6 The electric circuit for fire fighting system shall be provided at its origin with a suitable switch for isolation. c) Pendulum type . b) For repeating a call indication at a distant point or points.2 Choice of Call-Bell System-The following guidelines are recommended: a) Simple Call Bell S~~stcrn --. ducts and condliits required for wiiing. the component parts shall be rigidly held together independently of the base. hospitals or similar large buildings where call.3.3 Fire Fighting Equipment 8.11 The source of supply for the alarm system shall be a secondary battery continuously trickle/float charged from ac mains.0 The choice of fire fighting equipment and their installation details shall be governed by the requirements specified in Part IV of SP : 7-1983* 8. 1).1. b) Flag t.5 The indications shall be one of the following types: a) L a m p t!‘pe . the following.2 On the basis of information collected on the extent of installation of electric bells and buzzers.For dwellings and small offices (see Fig. 9.2 Bells and buzzers which have a make or break contact shall be provided with means of adjustir.5 1 he starting equipment of the set shall incorporate an immeter and clearly marked to show full load current.3.1 If wooden bases are used for bells and buzzers. 2). SECTION 14G MISCELLANEOCJS SERVICES 9. 9.1.Factories.1 Guidance on installation of electric bells and call systems are covered in IS : 8884-1978t.1 Full details of the electric supply shall be furnished together with details of generator plant to the appropriate authorities.1.4. arid shall work satisfactorily at varying load. Suitable overload protective devices shall be provided to prevent discharging of the batteries through the charging equipment. 9. b) Multiple Call Be/l S.1.1. 8. 8.1. with facilities for automatic recharging in 8 hours sufficiently to supply the maximum alarm load at an adequate voltage for at least 2 hours. so that they are unaffected by any warping. but overload and novolt protection shall not be provided in the switch.0. mills.2 Sufficient power shall be made available for the purpose and the power source shall be entirely independent of all other equipment in the premises and shall not be interrupted at any time by the main switch controlling supply to the premises.0.1 Equipment and Materials 9. +Code of practice for the installation of electric bells and call systems.3 Pumping sets shall be direct coupled type. 9. NATIONAL ELECTPICAL CODE .1.1. aspects shall be ascertained in collaboration with the parties concerned: for control required a) Accommodation apparatus. etc.3. and c) For maintaining a call indication until an indication is reset.l’pe ~~ where positive indication is required which remain in position until restored.3. locatIon and distribution points. Any flexible’chordslattached to them should be covered with hard wearing braid. 9.3 Equipment for outdoor use shall be suitably protected against the environmental conditions.8. C) Time Bell Sjtstem .wems 8. or indicator call system in the building. points are numerous (see Fig. ELECTRICAL CALL BELL SER%‘lCES 9.3. An indicator lamp shall continuously glow in a prominent position to indicate this. drip-proof with air inlets and outlets protected with meshed wire panels where required motors shall have a suitable fixed warming resistance to maintain them in dry condition. 9. 8.2. They shall not incorporate no-volt trips. 78 9.1 Pela s may following sltua Y Ions: be required for the a) Where mains operated device is to be controlled by a circuit operating at a voltage not exceeding 24 V. for example in hospitals or in noisy locations such as forges.4 Bell push switches shall be of robust construction. 8. in the substation and in the fire-pump room.3.for Pumps in H_vdrant and Sprinkler S.for small installations having up to 20 call points.4 All motors and electrical equipment shall be continuously rated.3.0 General 9. The capacity of battery shall ‘be such that it is capable of maintaining the maximum alarm load on the system at an adequate voltage for at least I hour plus the standing load or losses for at least 48 hours.1.1 Requirements . Terminals shall be of adequate size and should be so arranged that the loosening of a terminal screw does not disturb the contact assembly.

The wiring shall be done in.1 The master clock shall be placed in a room not smaller than 2.The system may be operated at the normal mains voltage. *Code of practice for the installation and maintenance of impulse and electronic master and slave clock systems.1.30 m diameter of dial to every 2. I SI M P L E E L E C T R I C C A L L B ELL S Y S T E M 10. 10. The following is adequate: Dia BELL P U S H SWllcHES INDIC ATOR qf Clock Height .2 Where the supply is dc.2. direct connection of the system to the supply mains is not recommended. 10.50 m /llooloR CENTRAL SWlTCbtUOOY WITN 10. The capacity of the battery shall be at least sufficient to supply the installation for 48 hours. Where such openings are necessary. though it is preferable for the control circuit to be operated at a\ voltage not exceeding 24 V 9.3 Wiring. but from the point of view of readability.2 The location and size of slave clocks may frequently depend upon aesthetic requirements.45 m 0.4 Wiring.9. 3.1 Where the supply is ac. FIG.1.7 m of height is acceptable.1 Design Considerations 10. L SUPPLY F I G.1 Reference’is drawn to 5.2 Location of Clocks 10.1 of IS : 89691978*. accordance with Part l/Set I I of the Code. Batteries should always be provided. not less than IO Ah.30 m 0.1..1. two batteries should be provided with changeover switch.~ MU L T I P L E C A L L B ELL S Y S T E M PART I GENERAL AND C O M M O N ASPECTS 79 .6 m.60 m 2. single battery on ‘constant trickle charge is recommended. 10.4 X 3.3. 10.2 The enclosure of the clocks shall have no openings giving access to live parts or functional insulated parts or functional insulation other than the openings necessary for the use and working of the clocks.3. sufficient protection against accidental contact with live parts shall be provided.The wiring shall be done in accordance with Part I /Set I I of the Code Special conductor shall be provided. CLOCK SYSTEMS RESET KNO8 10. means being provided for charging at a higher rate when necessary.3 Power Supply .2.70 m 3.1. or the conduit may be colour coded for distinction from other circuits. a ration of 0.from Floor 0. 10.3 To ensure necessary continuity of supply.30 m 4. A schematic is shown in Fig. 10.

3 IM P U L S E M ASTER CLO<.ASTER CLOCK AVE CLOCKS RELAY TRICKLE CHARGE pk \ t \ ac SUPPLY F I G.K SY S T E M ti:ATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE .

14 Zone of Protection The space within which the lightning cotiductor is expected to provide protection against a direct lightning stroke.A building with roof made of or covered with sheet metal. pipe or other conductor or an array of conductors electrically connected to the general mass of the earth. 2. which Conductors 2. 2. Ali parts below the testing point in a down conductor are included in this term.4 The contents of this Section are based on IS : 2309-1969 ‘Code of practice for the protection of buildings and allied -structures against lightning’. so designed and situated as to enable resistance measurements to be made. require s p e c i a l consideratians. 0.10 Metal-Clad Building -~ A building with sides mtide of or covered with sheet metal. 2.1 For the purposes of the National Electrical Code. and between various portions of the latter.11 Metal-Roofed Building -.1 This Section of the Code covers guidelines on the basic electrical aspects of lightning protective systems for buildings and the electrical installation forming part of the system. gas and water pipes as well as climatic and soil conditions 81 guide of general nature on the principles and practices in the protection of structures against lightning.The whole system of interconnected’ conductors used to protect a structure from the effects of lightning. 2.A spark occurring between nearby metallic objects or between such objects and the lightning protective system or to earth.0 For the purposes of this section. 2. 2.The mechanical and electrical junctions between two or more portions of the lightning protective system or other metal bbnded to the system or both. Electrical connection between the 2. 1. 2.1 Air Termination (Lightning Conductor) or Air Termination Network --Those parts of a lightning protective system that are intended to collect the lightning discharges from the atmosphere. a number of years. these include those portions of the earth terminations that make direct electrical contact with the earth. 0. 2. the following definitions shall apply. 2. such as electrical installation.9 Lightning Protective System . atmospheric conditions.4 Earth Terminations or Earth Terminations Network ~~ Those part of the lightning protective system which are intended lo distribute the lightning discharges into the general mass of the PART I GENERAL AND COMMON ASPECTS .5 Earth Electrodes -.2 Bonds lightning protective system and other metal work. SCOPE 1.A metal plate. for specific occupancies from the point of lightning protection are covered in respective sections of the Code. 1. Information may also be obtained at an early stage regarding other services.6 Fasteners Devices used to fasten the conductors to the structures.3 Down Conductors connect the air terminations with the earth terminations. The primary object of such an exchange is to obtain information regarding the architectural features of the structure so that due provision may be made to retain the aesthetic features of the building while planning the location of the lightning conductors and down conductors of the’ lightning protective system.i This Section covers the essential design and construction details of lightning protective systems. 3. 0.It is the number of days in a year on which the thunder is heard in the particular region averaged over.2 Additional guidelines if any.SECTION 15 LIGHTNING PROTECTION O. 2. It is. however. intended to serve qnly as a earth.3 Lightning protection of industrial installations which are categorized as hazardous.8 Joints . EXCHANGE OF INFORMATION 311 The architect should exchange information with the engineer concerned when the building plans are hejng prepared.13 Testing Points ~~ Joints in down conductors or in bonds or in earth conductors connecting earth electrodes.7 Isoceraunic Level . TERMINOLOGY 2. T h e s e a r e summarised in Part 7 of the Code. 2. 2.12 Side Flash -. etc. 2. and account has to be taken of several other local conditions such as variati’ons in the architecture. the fixed installation for lightning protection is considered part of the electrical installation design and constitutes a major area where the installation design enginegr has to ensure proper coordination. t o p o g r a p h y o f t h e r e g i o n .FOREWORD 0.

tall trees. it is necessary to take into account the following factors: structure are electrical. It is not possible to provide protection against such . Although the amplitude of the lightning current may be verb high.When a high ekctric current is discharged through parallel conductors which are in close proximity to each other. structures of historic or cultural importance. This ignores the fusing or welding effects which occur locally consequent upon the rupture of a conductor which was previousiy damaged or was of inadequate cross-sectional 82 . 4. and the nature. of IO kA. These currents are unidirectional and may vary in amplitude from a _ few hundred amperes to about 200 kA.1 The lightning current which is discharged to earth through the resistance of the lightning conductor and earth electrode provided for a lightning protective system. along which the discharge is propagated. 5.1 The principal effects of lightning discharge to lightning conductors should. is suddenly raised lo a very high temperature. 5.3 Thermal Effects lightning discharge results in rise in temperature of the conductor throligh which the lightning current is discharged to the earth. 4. A vertical conductor of the dimensions generally used in a lightning protective system has an inductance of about 16 X IO-‘H/ 100 m. . area. C H A R A C T E R I S T I C S O F L I G H T N I N G DISCHARGES 4. and structures containing explosives and highly flammable materials. These effects are determined by the current which is discharged into the structure. f-l Height of structure.2.4 Me&a&al Effects . 5. A complete lightning discharge may thus last a second or even longer.2. the space between the thunder cloud and the lightning conductor. size and position of. however. thermal and mechanical.In practice the cross-sectional area of a lightning conductor is determined primarily by mechanical considerations. Many lightning discharges consist of a single stroke but some others involve a sequence of strokes which follow the same path and which discharge separate currents of amplitude and duration as mentioned above. The rate of rise of current in conjunction with the inductance of the discharge path produces an inductive voltage drop which would be added. a high voltage gradient which may be dangerous to persons and animals. ‘be provided with adequate mechanical fixings.1 Appendix C of IS : 2309-1969 gives the details of various factors that affect the risk of the structure being struck and the consequential effects of a stroke. b) Type of construction. those in areas where lightning strokes are prevalent.strong air pressure wave which is responsible for damages to buildings and other structures. around the earth electrode. buildings. produces a resistive voltage drop whtch momentarily raises the potential of the protective system with respect lo the absolute earth potential to a very high value.3. This results in a. The current in any lightning discharge rises steeply to its crest value in a few microseconds and decays to zero in a few milliseconds.1 A different mechanical effect exerted by a lightning discharge is due lo the fact that the air channel. Certain values called ‘index figures’.an effect. D E T E R M I N A T I O N O F T H E N E E D F O R PROTECTION 5. 4. The lightning current also produces.1. those concerned with ‘the maintenance of essential public services. masts. such as. 4.. to the resistive (ohmic) voltage drop across the earthing system. c) Contents or consequential effects. ps) and as a first approximation may be regarded as equivalent to high f r e q u e n c y discharge.2 Scale drawings showing plans and elevations of the structure shduld be obtained. d) Degree of isolation. within the zone of protection. NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE The thermal effect of 4. e) Type of terrain. that is.2 The lightning current rises steeply lo its crest value (approximately at the rate. and g) Lightning prevalance. all the metal component parts of the lightning protective system should be indicated on them.2 Electrical Effects -. these are subjected to large mechanical forces The a ground plan should show all the tall objects. with due regard to the time relationship. its duration IS so short that the thermal effect on a lightning protective system is usually negligible. there will be little doubt as to the need for lightning protectibn. etc. a) Usage of structure.In determining how fai to go in providing lightning protection for specific cases or whether or not it is needed at all. very tall or isolated structures. The examples of such structures are: a) b) c) d) e) r) those in or near which large number of people congregate.The principal eletrical effects of a lightning discharge are two-fold.1 Risk Index . therefore. transmission lowers.2 With many structures. In addition. have been assigned lo these factors which help in arriving at an overall ‘risk index’ to seye as an aid to judging whether lightning protectlon is necessary or not. 4. 4.4.

6. ZONE OF PROTECTION 6.1 The zone of protection of a lightnmg conductor denotes the .space within which a . . . . . hghtnmg conductor provides protection against a direct lightning stroke by diverting the stroke to itself. Examples of the protection of different types and shapes of buildings along with zone of protection provided by their lightning protective systems are given in Appendix A of IS : 23091969. 7. MATERIALS AND DIMENSIONS 7.1 Materials - The materials of lightning conductors, down conductors, earth termination
network, etc, of the protective system shall be reliably resistant to corrosion or be adequately protected against corrosion. The following materials are recommended:

TABLE 1 SHAPES AND MINIMUM SIZES OF CONDUCTORS FOR USE ABOVE GROUND

(Clause 7.2)

;:.
I,
2. :: 5. 7?

MATERIAL

AND SHAPE

MINIMUM SIZE

Round copper wire or copper-clad steel wire Stranded copper wire Copper strip Round galvanized iron wire CWvanized iron strip Round aluminium wire
Aluminium strip

6 mm diameta $0 mm.* (or 7/3.(10 m m
diameter)

20X3 mm
8 mm diameter

20X3 mm
9 mm diameter 25 X.3.15 mm

TABLE 2 SHAPES AND MINIMUM SIZES OF
CONDUCTORS FOR USE BELOW GROUND ((-louse 7.2)
2 r). M
ATERIAL AND

SHAPE

MlNlMClM

SIZE

a)

Copper - When solid or stranded copper wire or flat copper strips are used, they shall be of grade ordinarily required f o r comniercial electrical work, generally designated as being of 98 percent conductivity when annealed: They shall conform to relevant Indian Standard specifications.

Round copper wire or copper-clad steel wire 2. Copper strip 3. Round galvanized iron wire 4. Galvanized iron strip

8 mm diameter 32X6 mm IO mm diameter 32X6 mm

b) Copper-clad SW/ - Where copper-clad steel

is used. t h e c o p p e r coverlng shall be permanently and effectively welded to the steel core. The proportion of copper and steel shall be such that the conductance of the material is not less than 30 percent of the conductance of solid copper of the same total cross-sectional a’rea.

due to corrosion 7.3 Corrosion - Where atmospheric, chemical, electrolytic or other causes is likely to impair any part of the lightning protective system, suitable precautions should be taken to prevent its occurrence. The.contact of dissimilar metals is likely to initiate and accelerate corrosion unless the contact surfaces are kept completely dry and protected against the ingress of moisture. 7.3.1 Dissimilar metal contacts can exist where a conductor is held by fixing devices or against external metal surfaces. Corrosion can arise also where water passing over one metal comes into contact with another. Run-off water from copper, copper alloys and lead can attack altiminium alloys and zinc. The metal of the lightning protective system should be compatible with the metal ‘or metals used externally on the structure over which the system passes or with which it may make contact. 8. DESIGN

c) Gal\qnizd Steel- Where steel is used it
shall be thoroug,hly p r o t e c t e d a g a i n s t corrosion by a 71nc c o a t i n g w h i c h w i l l satisfactorily withstand the test specified in Appendix D of IS : 2309-1969. Copper is preferred to galvanized iron where corrosive gaich. industrial p o l l u t i o n or saltladen atmospheric condition\ ;trc ,cncountcrcd.

d) .Illrt~~irlilrt~r

Aluminlum ~irc :I& strips arc increasingly linding fa\our for u\e a s lightning conductor\ in \ic.\\ of the fact that aluminium has ;I conduct~\~t!~ almost double that of copper mahs for no\\. When used, it shall be at least 09 perccnr pul-e. (:f sufficient m e c h a n i c a l s t r e n g t h :Ind eflccti\ely protected against corrosion.

8.0 General

e) A1lo.1~~ -- Where a l l o y s o f m e t a l s a r e used they shall .be substantially as rchistant t o c o r r o s i o n a s c o p p e r u n d e r similar conditions. The recommended shape 7.2 Shapes and Sizes and minimum sizes--o& conductors for USC above ground and below ground are given in Table I and Table 2 rc\pcctl\cly.
P A R T I CENERAI. AND C O M M O N ASPEUTS

l.ightning protective systems should be installed with a view to offering least impedance to the passage of lightning current between air-t_erminalh and earth. There shall be at icast two parts. and more if practicable. This is d:lne bv connecting the conductors to form a cage cnc!osing t h e building. T h e b a s i c d e s i g n considerations for lightning protective systems are given in 9.2 of IS : 2309-1969. The principal component of a lightning protective system are: a) air terminations, b) down conductors,
83

c) joints and bends, d) testing points, e) earth terminations, f) earth electrodes, and g) fasteners. 8.1 Air Terminations - For the purpose of lightning protection, the vertical and horizontal conductors are considered equivalent and the use of pointed air terminations or vertical finials is, therefore, not regarded as essential except when dictated by practical considerations. An air termination may consist of a vertical conductor as for a spire, a single horizontal and vertical conductors for the protection of bigger buildings. 8.1.1 A vertical air termina’tion need not have more than one point and shall project at least 30 cm above the object, salient point or network on which it is fixed, 8.1.2 Horizontal air terminations should be so interconnected that no part of the roof is more than 9 m away from the nearest horizontal conductor except that an additional 30 cm may be allowed for each 30 cm by which the part to be protected is below the nearest protective conductor. For a flat roof, horizontal air terminations along the outer perimeter of the roof are used. For a roof of building with larger horizontal dimensions a network of parallel horizontal conductors should be installed as shown in IS : 2309-1969.
NOTC Salient points even if less than 9 m apart should each be provided with an air termination.
8.1.3 Horizontal air terminations should be coursed along contours, such as ridges, parapets and edges of flat roofs, and where necessary over flat surfaces in such a way as to join each air termination to the rest and should themselves form a closed network.

The method and nature of the fixings should be simple, solid and permanent, due attention being given to climatic conditions and possible corrosion. 8.2 Down number and Conductors - The spacing of down conductors shall largely depend upon the size and shape of the building and upon aesthetic considerations. The minimum number of down conductors may, however, be decided on the following considerations:

4 A structure having a base area not exceeding

100 m* may have one down conductor only if the height of the air termination provides sufficient protection. However, it is advisable to have at least two down cond.uctors except .for very small buildings. For structures having a base area exceeding 100 m*, the number of down conductors required should be worked out as follows: i) One for the first 100 m* plus one more for every additional 300 m* or part thereof, or

b)

ii) One for every 30 m of perimeter. The smaller of the two shall apply.

C) For a structure exceeding 30 m in height
additional consideration IS : 2309-1969 shall apply. as given in

8.2.1 Down conductors should be distributed round the outside walls of the structure. They shall preferably be run along the corners and other projections, due consideration being given to the location of air terminations and earth terminations. Lift shafts shall not be used for fixing down conductors. 8.2.2 It is very important that the down conductors shall follow the most direct path possible between the air termination and the earth termination. avoiding sharp bends, upturns and kinks. Joints shall as far as possible be avo&d in down conductors. Adequate protection may be provided to the conductors against machanical damage. Metal pipes should not be used as protection for the conductors. 8.2.3 Metal pipes leading rainwater from the roof to the ground may be connected to the down conductors but cannot replace them. Such connections shall have disconnecting joints for testing purposes. 8.2.4 Where the provision of suitable external routes for down conductors is impracticable or inadvisable, as in buildings of cantilever construction, from the first floor upwards, down conductors may be used in an air space provided by a non-metallic non-combustible internal duct. Any covered recess not smaller than 75 X I5 mm or any vertical service duct running the full height of the building may be used for this purpose, provided it does not contain an unarmoured or non-metal-sheathed cable.
NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE

8.1.4 The layout of the network may be designed to suit the shape of the roof and architectural features of the buildings. 8.1.5 The air termination network should cover all salient points of the structure. 8.1.6 All metallic finials, chimneys. ducts. vent pipes, railings, gutters and the like. on or above the main surface of the roof of the structure shall be bonded to, and form part of, the air termination network. If portions of a structure vary considerably in height, any necessary air termination or air termination network of the lower portions should, in addition to their own conductors, be bonded to the down conductors of the taller portions. 8.1.7 All air terminals shall be effectively secured against overturning either by attachment to the object to be protected or by means of substantial braces and fixings. which shall be permanently and rigidly attached to the building.
84

8.2.5 Any extended metal running vertically through the structure should be bonded to the lightning conductor at the top and the bottom unless the clearances are in accordance with

IS : 2309-1969 for tall structures. 8.26 A structure on bare rock, should be provided with at least two down conductors equally spaced. 8.2.7 In deciding on the routing of the down conductor, its accessibility for inspection, testing and maintenance should be taken into account. 8.3 Joints and Bonds 8.3.1 Joinrs - The lightning protective system shall have as few joints in it as necessary. In the down conductors below ground level these shall be mechanically and electrically effective and shall be so made as to exclude moisture completely. The joints may be clamped. screwed, bolted, crimped, riverted or welded. With overlapping joints the length of the overlap should not be less than 20 mm for all types of conductors. Contact surfaces should first be cleaned and then inhibited from oxidation with a suitable non-corrosive compound. Joints of dissimilar metal should be suitably protected against bimetallic action and corrosion. 8.3.1.1 In general, joints for strips shall be tinned, soldered, welded or brazed and at least double-riveted. Clamped or bolted joints shall only be used on test points or on bonds ,to existing metal, but joints shall only be of the clamped or screwed type. 8.3.2 Bonds - External metal on or forming part of a structure may have to discharge the full lightning current. Therefore. the bond to the lightning protective system shall have a crosssectional area not less than that employed for the main conductors. On the other hand, internal metal is not so vulnerable and its associated bonds are, at most, only likely to carry a portion of the total lightning current, apart from their function of equalizing potential. These latter bonds may, therefore, be smaller in crosssectional area than those used for the main conductors. All the bonds should be suitably protected against corrosion. Bonds shall be as short as possible. 8.4 Testing Points- Each down conductor shall be provided with a testing point in a position convenient for testing but inaccessible for interference. No connection, other than one direct to an earth electrode, shall be made below a testing point. Testing points shall be phosphorbronze. gunmetal, copper or any other suitable material. 8.5 Earth Terminations - Each down conductor shall have an independent earth termination. It should be capable of isolation for testing purposes. Suitable location for the earth termination shall be selected after testing and
PART I GENERAL AND

assessing the specific resistivity of the soil and with due regard to reliability of the sub-soil water to ensure minimum soil moistness. 8.5.1 Water pipe system should not be bonded to the earth termination system. However, if adequate. clearance between the two cannot be obtained, they may be effectively bonded and the bonds should be capable of isolation and testing. The gas pipes, however, should in no case be bonded to the earth termination system. 8.5.2 It is recommended that all earth terminations should be interconnected. Common earthing, besides equalizing the voltage at various earth terminations also minimizes any risk to it of mechanical damage. The condition for limiting earthing resistance given in 11 does nobapply and in such a case no provision need be made for isolation in earth. e 8.5.3 A structure standing on bare rock should be equipped with a conductor encircling and fixed to the structure at ground level and following reasonably closely the contour of the ground. This conductor should be installed so as to minimize any risk to it of mechanical damage.’ The condition for limiting earthing resistance given in 11 does not apply and in such a case no provision need be made for isolation in earth termination for testing. Where there is a risk to persons or to valuable equipment. expen advice should be sought. 8.6 Earth Electrodes - Earth electrodes shall be constructed and installed in accordance with Part I /Set I2 of the Code. 8.6.1 Earth electrodes shall consist of rods, strips or plates. Metal sheaths of cables shall not be used as earth electrodes. 8.6.2 When rods or pipes are used they should be driven into the ground as close as practicable but qutside the circumference of the structure. Long lengths in sections coupled’ by screwed connectors or socket joints can be built up where necessary to penetrate the substrate of low resistivity. Where ground conditions are more favourable for the use of shorter lengths of rods in parallel, the distance between the rods should preferably be not less than twice the length of the rods. The arrangement of earth electrodes are given in Fig. 6 of IS.: 2309-1969.
8.6.3 When strips are used, these should be buried in trenches or beneath the structure at a suitable depth, but not less than 0.5 m deep to

avoid damage by building or agricultural operations. The strips should preferably be Laid radially in two or more directions from the point of connection to a down conductor. But if this is
not possible they may extend in one direction only. However, if the space restriction requires the strips to be laid in parallel or in grid formation the distance between two strips should not be less than 2 m. 8.6.4

When plate electrodes are-used they shall
85

COMMON ASPECTS

oc ourled mto the ground so that the top edge of the plate is at a depth not less than 1.5 m from the surface of the ground. If two plate electrodes are to be used in parallel the distance between the two shall not be less than 8 m. 8.6.5 In the neighbourhood of structure where high temperatures are likely to be the encountered in the sub-soil, for example brick kilns, the earth electrodes may have to be installed at such a distance from the structure where the ground is not likely to be dried out. 8.7 Fasteners - Conductors shall be securely attached to the building or other object to be protected by fasteners which shall be-Substantial m construction. not subject to bi’eakage. and shall be made of galvanized steel or other suitable material. If fasteners are made of steel, they should be galvanilcd to protect them against corrosion. If they are made of any other material suitable precautions shou!, be taken to avoid corrosion. Some samples of fasteners are shown in IS : 2309-1969. 8.8 Earth Resistance - Each earth termination should have a resistance in ohms to earth not exceeding numerically the product of IO and the number of earth terminations to be provided. The whole qf the lightning protective system should have a combined resistance to earth not exceeding IO ohms before any bonding has been effected to metal in or on the structure or to surface below ground. 9. ISOLATION AND BONDING

total clearance required is the sum of the two distances and may be expressed by the following simple equation : D=0.3Ri where K l5n

D = required clearance in metres, R= the combined earthing resistance of the H = structure height in metres, and n= number of down conductors connected to a
earth termination

in ohms,

common air termination.

9.1.2 The above clearance may be halved if a . ^ . - . slight risk ot occurence ot a side Hash c a n b e accepted. 9.1.3 The drawback of isolation lies in obtaining and maintaining the necessary safe clearances and in ensuring that isolated metal has no connection via the water pipes or other services with the earth. In general, isolation can be practised only in small buildings. 9.2 Bonding - In structures which contain electrically continuous metal. for example, a roof. wall. floor or covering, this metal, suitably bonded, may be used as part of the lightning protective system. provided the amount and arrangement of the metal render it suitable for use in accordance with 8. 9.2.1 If a structure is simply a continuous metal frame without external coverings it mrfy not require any air termination or down conductors provided it can be ensured that the conducting path is electrically continuous and the base of the structure is adequately earthed. 9.2.2 -A reinforced concrete structure or a reinforced concrete frame structure may have sufficiently low inherent resistance to earth to provide protection against lightning and if connections are brought out from the reinforcement at the highest points derring construction. a test may be made to varify this at the compktion of the structure. 9.2.3 If the resistance to earth of the steel frame of a structure or the reinforcement of a reinforced concrete structure is found to be satisfactory, a suitable air termination’should be installed at the top of the structure and bonded to the steel frame or to the reinforcement. Where regular inspection is not possible. it is recommended that a corrosion resistant material be used for bonding to t%e steel or to the reinforcement and this should be brought out for connection to the air termination. Down conductor and earth terminations will, ot course. be required if the inherent resistance of the structure is fdund to be unsatisfactory when tested. 9.2.4 Where metal exists in a structure as reinforcement which cannot be bonded into a continuous conducting network, and which is not or cannot be equipped with external earthing NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE

9.0 When a.lightning protective system is struck
with a lightning discharge. its electrical potential with respect to earth is raised. and unless suitable precautions are taken. the discharge may seek alternative paths to earth by-side flashing to other metal in the structure. Side flashing may be avoided by the following two methods :

a) Isolation. and
b) Bonding. 9.1 Isolation - Isolation requires large clearances between the lightning protective system and other metal parts in the structure. To find out the approximate clearances. the following two factors should be taken into account :

a) The resistive voltage drop in the earth
termination. and b) The inductive voltage drop in the down conductors. 9.1.1 The resistive voltage drop require> a clearance of ‘0.3 m,‘ohm of earthing resistance while the inductive _,voltage drop requires a clearance of I m for each I5 m of structure height. For two or more down conductors with a common air termination this distance should be divided by the number of down conductors. The 86

connections, its presence should be disgarded. The danger inseparable from the presence of such metal can. lx mipimized by keeping it entirely isolated from the lightning protective system. 9.2.5 Where the roof structure is wholly or partly covered by metal, care should be taken that such metal is provided with a continuous conducting path to earth. 9.2.6 In any structure. metal which is attached to-the outer surface or projects through a wall or a roof and has insufficient clearance from the lightning protective system, and is unsuitable for use as pa0 of it, should preferably be bonded as directly as possible to the lightning protectives system. If the metal has considerable length (for example, cables, pipes, gutters, rain-water pipes, stair-ways, etc) and runs approximately parallel to a down conductor or bond, it should be bonded at each and but not below the test point. If the metal is in discontinuous lengths, each portion should be bonded to the lightning protective system; alternatively, where the clearance permits, the presenee of the metal may be disregarded. 9.2.7 Bonding of metal entering or leaving a structure in the form of sheathing or armouring of cable, electric conduit, telephone, steam, compressed air or other services with earth termination system, should be avoided. However, if they are .required to be bonded. the bond& should be done as directly as possible to the earth termination at the point of entry or exist outside the structure on the supply side of the service. The gas pipes should in no case be bonded with other metal parts. However. water pipes may be bonded to other metal parts, if isolation and adequate clearance cannot be obtained. In this operation all the statutory rules or regulations which may be in force should be followed and the competent authority should be consulted for providing lightning protection in such cases. 9.2.8 Masses of metal in a building, such as bell-frame in a t6wer. should be bonded to the nearest down conductor by the most direct route available.
9.2.9 Metal clading or curtain walling having a continuous conducting path in all directions may be used as part of a lightning protective system. 9.2.10 In bonding adjacent metalwork to the lightning protective system careful consideration should be given lo the possible effects such bonding would have upon metalwork which may be cathodically protected.. 10. PROTECTION OF SPECIAL STRUCTURES 10.1 For guidance on design of lightning protection systems for special structures, reference shall be made to IS : 2309-1969. Guidance for the appropriate authorities shall also be obtained.

systems shall be exammed by a coinpetent engineer after completion, alteration or extensions, in order to verify that they are in accordance with the recommendations of the Code. A routine inspection shall be made at least once a year.
11.2 Teathg 11.2.1 On completion of the installation or of any modification, the resistance of each earth termination or section thereof, shall. if possible, be measured and’the continuity of all conductors and the efficiency of all bonds and joints shall be verified. 11.23 Normally annual measurement of earth resistance shall be carried out but Local circumstances in the light of experience may justify increase or decrease in this interval but it should not be less than once in two years. In the case of structures housing explosives or flammable materials, the ‘interval shall be six months. 11.23 Earth resistance shall be measured in accordance with Part I/Set I2 of the Code. 11.2.4 The actual procedure adopted for the test shall be recorded in detail so that future tests may be carried out under similar conditions. The highest value of resistance measured shall be noted as the resistance of the soil and details of salting or other soil treatment, should be recorded. 11.2.5 The record shall also contain particulars of the engineer. contrzictor or owner responsible for ‘the installation or upkeep or both of the lightning protective system. Details bf additions or alterations to the system, and dates of testing together with the test results and reports, shall be carefully recorded.

11.3 Deterioration - If the resistance to earth of a lightning protective system or any section of it exceeds the lowest value obtained at the first installation by more thah 100 percent, appropriate steps shall be taken to ascertain the causes and to remedy defects, if any.
1.1.4 Testing Continuity and Efficacy of Conductors and Joints 11.4.1 The ohmic resistance of the lightning protective system complete with air termination, but without the earth’ connection should be measured and this should be a fraction of an ohm. If it exceeds I ohm, then there shall be some fault either electrical or mechanical, which shall be inspected and the defect rectified. 11.4,2_For this system .is best hivided into convement sectlons at testmg oints by suitable joints. A continuous curre.nt oPabout IO A shall be passed through the portion of the system under test and the resistance verified) against its-calculated or recorded value. Suitable portable precision testing sets for this purposes should be used.
87

11. INSPECTION AND TESTING II.1 Inspection - All lightning protective
PART I GENERAL AND COMMON ASPECTS

SECTION 16 SAFETY IN ELECTRICAL WORK O. No page should be detached or used for any other except bonafide work. etc. N OTE I -~ The permit is to be prepared in duplicate by the person-inxharge of operation on the basis of message.5 The ermits shall be issued not only to the staff of t Re supply under takings. 2. SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS 3. contractors. operation and maintenance work. a dated and initialled statement shall then and there be recorded in the book by the person responsible for it. and also of others who may be directly or indirectly connected with the work.6 A model form of permit-to-work certificate is given in IS : 5216 (Part I)-1982 ‘Recommendations on safety procedures and practices in electrical work : Part I General’. engineers. 3. In such cases all possible precautions shall be taken to ensure the safety of the staff engaged for such work. after taking necessary precautions. Such work shall only be carried out with proper equipment provided for _the purpose and.7 Permit books should be treated as important records. the person-in-charge of the maintenanqe staff should return the permit duly discharged to the issuing authority. The permit-to-work certlflcate from the person-incharge of operation to the person-in-charge of the men selected to carry out any particular work ensure that the portion of the installation where the work is to be carried out is rendered dead and safe for working.1 Safety Instructions for Working on Mains and Apparatus up to and including 650 V 3.on i s i n t e n d e d t o c o v e r recommendatiops on safety procedures and practices in electrical work. Part I 1982 General Part 2 1982 Life saving techniques IS : 2!5 I-1982 Specification for danger notice plates IS : 8923-1978 Warning symbol for dangerous voltages 2.1 This Section of the Code covers guidelines on safety procedures and practices in electrical work.8 Permit books shall be kept only by the person-in-charge of operation who shall maintain a record of the receipts and issues made by him.The words permit-to-work’ and ‘permit’ are Bynonymous for the purpose of this Section.2 It is essential that safety should be preached and practiced at all times in the installation.action taken shall be reported to the person-in-charg: _. 2. the. N OTE 2 The original permit will be issued to the personin-charge of work and the duplicate will be retained in the permit book. such as for the purpose of saving life or tjme in the event of an emergency.1.2 No work shall be commenced on live mains unless it is specifically intended to be so done by specially trained staff. it may become necessary to start the work without being able to obtain the necessary permit-to-work. i. N O T E. 03 This Section of the Code shall be read in conjunction with the following standards : IS : 5 2 1 6 R e c o m m e n d a t i o n s o n s a f e t y procedures and practices in electrical work. a permit-to-work should be issued to the person-in-charge of each department.4 In all cases. the original shall be returned to the issuing officer duly discharged for cancellation. 1 T h i s Sect. from the person-in-charge of the work.1 Work on Dead LOHI and Medium Voltage Mains and Apparatus .1 All work on major electrical installations shall be carried out under permit-to-work system which is now well established. 1. 0. In extenuating circumstance. unless standing instructions are issued by the competent authority to follow other procedures. PERMIT-TO-WORK SYSTEM 2.Unless a person is authorized to work on live imains and apparatus all mains and apparatus to be worked upon shall N-ATIONAL E L E C T R I C A L C O D E aa . All sheets in the permit books and the books themselves should be seriaily numbered. 2.as soon as possible. ‘23 On completion of the work for which the permit-to-work is issued. For further allocation of work by the permit receiving officer. N OTE 3 On completion of the work. safety insturctions and safety practices. in such cases. SCOPE 1. tokens may be issued to the workers authorizing them individually to carry out the prcscribcd work. duly logged. who might be required to work adjacent to live electrical mains or apparatus. 2. 2. If any sheet is detached. The real benefit to be derived from the guidelines covered in this Sec!‘!on will be realized only when the safety instructions it contains are regarded as normal routine duty and not as involving extra and laborious operations.FOREWORD 0 . the issue and return of permits shal! bc recorded in a special register provided for that purpose. but also to the staff of other departments. If more than one department is working on the same apparatus. All work shall be carried out under the personal supervision of a competent person. It covers basic approaches to-electrical work from the point of view of ensuring safety which include inbuilt safety in procedures such as permit-to-work system. by specially trained and experienced persons who are aware of the danger that exists when working on or near live mains or apparatus.

3. each phase shall first be connected through a test switch fuse.1.2. Exposed live equipment in the viscinity shall be cordoned off so that persons working on the released equipment in service. the inadvertent energizing of the mains and apparatus. shall be thoroughly examined to see whether they are in sound condition. The minimum working distance depends upon the actual voltages. etc. For earthing and short-circuiting. If necessary.4. 2) When any live mains is to be earthed. mats.Isolation of mains shall be effected by the following methods : 4 The electrical circuits shall be broken only by authorized persons by disconnecting switches. b) The operations of proving dead.2. except for the purpose of connecting the testing apparatus.4 . Measures shall be taken against.2. A . and such persons should take all safety measures as may be required. the following precautions shall be taken : 1) No person. the procedure prescribed in 3. and in all cases the phase sequence should be checked to ensure that only like phases are connected together. Warning boards shall be attached on or adjacent to the live apparatus and at the limits of the zone in which work may be carried out.1 General .3 Testing of Mains and Apparatus-No person shall apply test voltage to any mains unless he has received a permit-to-work and has warned all persons working on the mains of the proposed application of test voltage. Devices .4.on which it may be safely used and shall not. No live part should be within’unsafe distang of a person working on live low at&medium voltage mains so that he does not come in contact with it unless he is properly protected. on the ‘site of work.for Proving Mains and Apparatus Bead 3. ah connections to the live parts shall be made last.4 shall be scrupulously followed. If any part which will thus become alive is exposed. _ . the person-incharge of the test shall take due precautions to ensure that the exposed live portion does not constitute danger to any person.set consists of two rods a9 a) No person shall work on. person shall work within the minimum working distance from the exposed live mains and appartus. which is specially designed for connecting to the live parts. 3. such a device shall be used. earthed and short-circuited. earthing and short-circuiting of any mains shall be PAW t GENERA L AND COMMON ASPECTS . or in any way interfere with.2. 3. any mains or conduits or through containing a live mains except under the persotutl instructions and supervision. be used on higher voltapes. rubber gauntlets. and 3) The earths and short-circuits. experienced and authorized persons shall work on live mains and apparatus. Under no circumstances shall be person work with unsound gauntlets.2. carried out only by an authorized person under the instructions of the person-in-charge of maintenance. unbolting connections or switches which are racked out Where possible. Each rod is fitted with an indicating neon tube or other means which glows when the contact end of the rod comes in contact with exposed live parts. unless it is positively known to be dead and earthed. shall work on. 3. a safety sergent could be posted. Immediately before starting work. The cardoning off shall be done in such a way that it does not hinder the movement of the maintenance personel. isolating links.2 Work on Live Mains and Apparatus Only competent. specified on the permit-to-work shall not be removed or interfered with except by authority from the person-in-charge of the work. Before inserting fuses or links in a feeder or distribution pillar controlling the cable on which a fault has been cleared.All mains and apparatus shall be regarded as live and a source of danger and treated accordingly. platforms or other accessories and safety devices. proved dead. if used.1.1 High voltage neon lamp contact indicato& rods are often used for proving exposed mains and apparatus dead. 3.4 Connecting Dead Mains to Live Mains When dead mains are connected to live mains. of competent person.2 Contact indicator and phasing rods are provided-for phasing and proving exposed mains and apparatus dead. test or earth mains or apparatus unless covered by a permitto-work and after proving the mains dead.2 _Minimum Working Distance . only recognized methods should be used. and b) Where the means of isolation are provided with a device to prevent their reclosure by unauthorized persons. c) While working on mains. after receiving a permitto-work. that no other permit-to-work has been issued for working on this mains. the isolation should be visibly checked. ‘3.2. Each rod is clearly marked for the maximum voltage . It should also be ensured before the application of test voltage. 3. 3.1.No __ .be isolated from all sources of supply before starting the work. under any circumstances.2 Safety Instructions for Working on Mains and Apparatus at Voltages Above 650V 3.23 Isolation of Mains . It does not apply to operations carried out on mains and apparatus which are so constructed as to permit safe operation within these distances. stools.

3. 3. Apply the rod to’each phase required lo be proved dead. following precautions should be taken : b) If a cable is required to be cut.6). the end of the earthing device attached to the conductors of the earthed mains or apparatus shall be removed first and the other and connected lo earths shall be removed last.connected in series by a length of insulated cables.is applied to ixposed live parts and that of the other to earth or other exposed live parts provided there is sufficient voltage difference between the.Where the electrical.2. induction testing set or spiking device may be used for proving the cable dead.9 W o r k i n g o n mains H*hew visible isolation connot be carried out . b) Use only earthing switches or any. 3. that is.2.‘open’ or ‘closed’. and Again check the rod by applying it to live parts as in (2) above.3 Use of Conrocr Indicator and Phasing Rods .While using the high voltage contact indicator and phasing rods for proving the mains or apparatus dead.2. owing to dielectric absorption which is particularly prominent in the dc voltage testing of high voltage cables. the earthing and short-circuiting devices shall remain connected for the duration of the work. if any. agam the indicating tubes shall glow.od is. removal of the earthing and short-circuiting devices shall be carried out in the reverse order to that adopted for placing them (see 3. The indicator itself should first be tested on a live circuit before and after the verification. the indicating tube shall glow. appearing in the indicating tube. 3. the cable shall be discharged through a 2 megohms resistance and not directly.circuit cannot be broken visibly as set out in 3.4.is NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE . 3. Therefore.4. but the Indicating tube should glow on this test or tlFa. the indicating tubes should glow.On completion of work. Both rods are fitted with contact tips and indicating tubes. A non-contact indicating rod. 3.6 Earthing and short-circuiting mains a) High voltage mains shall not be worked u on unless they are discharged to earth aPter making them dead and are earthed and short-circuited with earthing and shortcircuiting equipment is adequate to carry possible short-circuit currents and specially meant for the purpose.A cable shall be identified as that having been proved dead prior to cutting or carrying out atiy operation which may involve work on or movement of the cable. one on each side of the work zone.4. 4 a) W cl Ensure that the rod is clean and dry. where duplicate feed is available and by one circuit opening device where duplicate feed is not available provided the following conditions are fulfilled : a) The position of the contacts of the circuit oF~ning device(s) -.2.2.The precautions mentioned below should be adopted to the extent applicable and possible : a) Examine earthing devices periodically and always prior lo their use. two. and earthed and short-circuited though work may be proceeding on one phase only.4. The cable shall be dischaiged for a sufficiently long period to prevent rebuilding up of voltage. The earthing device when used shall be first connected lo an effective earth.3 the circuit may be broken by two circuit opening devices. the indicating tube shall not glow. If the rod is in order the indicating tube will glow each time the plug sparks. the glow will to intermittent. etc.8 Sqfety precautions . Except for the purpose of ‘testing.7 Removing the eorth conntictions .useleu as a means of proving the mains or apparatus L N OTE 2-The rod should be tested both before and after the use.2.4.4 Testing ond morking of devices -.2A.2. a steel wedge shall be carefully driven through it at the point where it is to be cut or preferably by means of a spiking gun of approved design. if no live parts are available on the site. Check the rod by applying it to known live parts of the correct voltage. d After testing the cable with dc voltage. Each set of rods is normally marked for the maximum voltage on . be used on higher voltages. When the contact tip of one rod . rods up to II kV may be tested by applying them to the top of the spark plug in a running motor car cngme.5 Idcnt~ficotion of cables to be worked upon .for earthing . The conductor shall not be touched after the earthing device has been removed from it. d 4 N OTE I -All the above iperations shall be carried out at rhe same place and at the same time.It shill be ensured that all devices for proving high voltage mains and apparatus dead are marked clearly with the maximum voltage for which they are intended and should be tested periodically. other special apparatus where provided for earthing. Be very careful lo be in a position to see the glow. 90 c) Verify that the circuit is dead by means of discharging rod or potential indicator.which it may be used and shall not.2. phasing. under any circumstances. d) Earthing should be done in such a manner that the persons doing the job are protected by earth connections on both sides of their working zone. d All the three phases should he effectively 3.4.4. The other end of the device shall then be connected to the conductors lo he earthed. All earthing switches wherever installed should be locked up.

The locking devices shall be removed only by a compete_nt person and not until the work has been completed.1 The owner of every medium. FART I CENERAI. in a conspicuous positi0. cl The mains and apparatus to be worked on 4 In cases where duplicate feed is available.s (first revision)‘. both the circuit opening devices are in series between the mains and apparatus to be worked on and any source of supply. 4.2 Equipment. It has been fc. 5.2 It is also recognized as good practice to indicate by means of the symbol recommended in IS : 8923-1978 ‘Warning symbol for dangerous voltages’ on electrical equipment where the halards arising out of dangerous voltage exist.2.9 shall be observed with regard to each section. generator. the provisions of 3.982. d In cases where duplicate feed is not The circuit opening devices mentioned .When the mains to be worked upon are to be divided into two or more sections.1 In all electrical works. are adequately earthed and short-circuited between the circuit opening device and the position of the work.n a danger notice in Hindi or English and the local language of the district on every motor.4.4.3 and 3. 5. The danger notice plate shall conform to IS : 2551-1982 ‘Specification for danger notice pla te. transformer. all supports or high and extra high voltage etc.clearly indicated by the position of the operating handle or by signal lights or by other means.2.md that quite a large number of accidents occur due to the neglect of these practices. Recommendation on safety procedures and practices in electrical work: Part 2 Life saving techniques.(see IS : 5216 (Part 2)1982. ACCIDENTS AND TREATMENT FOR ELECTRIC SHOCK . available.2.6 and 3. the circuit opening device is between the mains to be worked on and any source of supply. high and extra high voltage installation is required to fix permanently. Devices and Appliances General guidelines regarding the same as given in l’S : 5216 (Part 1)~1.10 W o r k o n tttains wilh mw or more secrions .4. 4. SAFETY PRACTICES 4.above shall be locked in the open position before the work on the mains and apparatus is commenced. SAFETY POSTERS W The circuit opening device(s) can be locked’ mechanically in the open position. 5. AND COMMON ASPECTS 91 . 3. it is very necessary that certain elementary safety practices are observed. any short-circuiting and earthing removed and’ the permit-to-work form duly returned and cancclled.2. 6. The details of such practices are given m Appendix C of IS: 5216 (Part I)-1982.

rebate for lowi high power factor. signs.1 The disadvantages of low power factor are as follows : a) OvtJoading of cables and transformer.3 1 he guidelines provided in this Section are basically intended for installation operating at voltages below 650 V. transmissioti lines. Choke coils and magnetic systems. 3.2 Specific guidelines. Fluorescent and discharge lamps.85 and consumer is obliged to improve and maintain the power factor of his installation to.2 The power factor indicates the portion of the current in the system performing useful work. Moreover.SECTION 17 GUIDELINES FOR POWER-FACTOR IMPROVEMENT &FOREWORD 0. For higher voltage installations. the total c_urrent taken by almost every item of electrical equipment. The reactive power depends on the inducta. The choice of these components to bring up fhe power factor depends on economics. in the power factor would effect savings in the energy bills.1 Conditions of supply of electricity boards or licensees stipulate the lower limit of power factor which is generally 0. 3. 3.3. neon. capacitance and resistance. is made up of two parts. etc. cables.4. 92 not convertible mto useful output. improvetient. Arc welders. 1. the life of individual apparatus is considerably increased and the energy losses reduced.4 Effect of Power Factor to Consumer 3. The ratio of usefol power (kW) to apprarent power (kVA) is termed the power factor of the load. 0. except that of incandescent lighting and most forms of resistance heating. Induction furnaces and heating coils. 2. System components have fixed parameters of inductance.1 This Section has been prepared with a view to providing guidance to the consumers of electrical energy who take supply of low and 23 In case of ac supply.3 Principal Causes of Lower Power Factor 3. More useful a) the in-phase component of the current (active or useful current) which is utilized for doing work or producing heat. NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE . namely : medium vbltage for improvement of power factor at the installation in their premises.2 The various advantages of maintaining a high power factor of a system reflects on the national economy of a country. A power factor of unity (100 percent) deiotes 100 percent utilisation of the total current for useful work whereas a power factor of 0. GENERAL 2. 0. etc. SCOPE 1. if an installation on improvement 0 r*power factor are covered in the respective sections of the Code.1 The majority of ac electrical machines and equipment draw from the supply an apparent power (kVA) which exceeds the required useful power (kW). 3.70 shows that only 70 percent of the current is performing useful work. b) cl 4 e) f-l Power transformers and voltage regulators.3.1 When the tariffs of Electricity Boards and the licensees are based on kVA demand or kW demand with suitable penalty. 2.1.2 The principal cause of a low power factor is due to the reactive power flowing in the circuit. 3. This component is power is available for transmission and utilization without any extra cost. and b) the quadrature component of the current (also called ‘idle’ or ‘reactive’ current) and used for creating magnetic field in the machinery or apparatus. The reactive power is indispensable and constitutes an additional demand on the system. 2.4 The contents of this Section are based on “Guide I)-1975 for t tic I S : 7752 (Part improvement of power factor in consumers’ installations: Part I Low and medium suppI voltages”.lce and capacitance of the apparatus. for individual 1. POWER FACTOR 3. 0.1 This Section of the Code covers causes for l o w p o w e r f a c t o r a n d guIdelines for use of capacitors to improve the same in consumers installations. conform to these conditions. This is due to the reactive power (LVAR) necessary for alternating magnetic field.2 Power factor is dependent largely on consumers apparatus and partly on system components such as transformers. additional or more specific rules apply.1 The following electrical equipment and apparatus have a lower factor : a) Induction motors of all types particularly when they are underloaded. The available resources are utilized to its fullest possible extent.

also called static condensers.6 Central Compensation . regulation and reduces amperes loading and energy losses in the supply apparatus and lines.5. 4. switchgear. This ensures the control to be automatic through the same switching devices of the apparatus of applianct. provide necessary Capacitive reactive power. etc.1 In order to improve the power factor.2 The average values of the power factor for different types of 3 phase electrical installations as measured by one of major utilities in the country are given in respective Sections of the Code.5 Economics of Power Factor Improvement 3. Automaiic operation may be arranged by means of suitable relays in which a 93 .In industries where a large number of small motors or other appliances and machines are installed and whose operation is periodical it is economical to dispense with individual installation of capacitors.power factor prescribed in the conditions of supply of Electricity Boards or Licensees and the reduction in charges offered in supply tariffs fortfurther improvement of power factor shall.Capacitors may also be installed at a central point. generating plant. transformers. and d) Penal power rates.5 Group Compensation . _ 3. The successful operation of power factor i m p r o v e m e n t d e p e n d s v e r y largel-y on the positioning of the capacitor on the system. Improvement in voltage conditions and apparatus performance. Wherever 4.5. 3. N OTE . that is. 3. c) Reduced losses in the transformers and d) Lower loading of transformers. the consumer shall install capacitors where the natural power factor of this installation is low.1 Static caGacitors. that is. Ideal conditions are achieved when the highest power factor is maintained under all load conditions. The economic power factor Cos & is obtained from the expression 4 Reduction in the current.3 When considering the economics connected with power factor correction. compensate for losses and lower the loadings on supply equipment. where B is the total cost per kVAR per year of capacitor installation ihclusive of interest.2 The use of the static capacitors is an economical way of improving power factor on account of their comparatively-low cost. the value of economic improved power factor (Cos & ) may be obtained as foliows : Let th: tariff be Rs A per kVA of maximum demand per annum plus Rs P per kWh PART I GENERAL AND COMMOh ASPECTS 4. depreciation and maintenance. 3. U S E O F C A P A C I T O R S 4.2 The advailtages of high power factor are as follows : cos is the improved power factor after installing the capacitors qbl Cos $Q is the imttal power factor. etc. d e t e r m i n e t h e kVAR c a p a c i t y o f t h e capacitors to be installed. the load growth. these capacitors may be operate! manually or automatically as required. in general. 3.5. cables. The automatic control is preferred as it eliminates human errors.b) Decreased line voltage at point of appiicatioll. switchgears. c) inefficient operation of plant. e) Increased capability of the ‘power system (additional load can be met without additional equipment). In order to overcome problems of drawing leading currents on light loads.4 The minimum permissible . 4.5. when installed at or near the point of‘ consumption.5.4 I n d i v i d u a l C o m p e n s a t i o n possible the capacitor should be connected directly across the terminals of the low power factor appliance or equipment. ease of installation loss maintenance. 4. at the incoming supply or service position.The explanation for the derivation of the formula for economic power factor Cos $17 is given in Appendix A of IS : 7752 (Part I)-1975 ‘Guide for improvement of powerfactor in consumers’ installation: Part I Low and medtum supply voltages. along with orher considerations such as reduction of losses. b) Reduction in power cost. it is most important to remember that any power factor improving equipment will. 3.4. cables. etc. A bank of capacitors may be installed to connect them to the distribution centre of main bus-bars of the group of machines. relieve distribution system before the point of its installation from carrying the inductive reactive power to that extent. low losses and the advantage of extension’ by addition of requisite units to meet. cables. 43 Capacitors for power factor improvement may be arranged as described in IS : 7752 (Part I)-1975. installation of capacitors also improve the voltage.5 In case of two port tariff with kVA demand charged. and Reduction in voitagc dips caused by welding and slmiiar ‘equipment.

1 and 2. CONTACTOR. TO STAR DELTA STARTER F I G.7 The methods of connecting power factQr capacitors to supply line and motors is given in Fig. I M E T H O D S OF P OWER F ACTOR C ONNECTING C APACITORS TO FOR MOTORS IMPROVEMENT OF CIRCUIT BREAKER.contactor controls the capacitors bank ana maintains the correct amount of. 4. AS RECOMMENDED tSUIlABLE FOR GROUP OPERATION1 F I G.1 For calculating the siqe of the capacitor for power factor improvement ref&cacc rhould be made to Table 5 of Part 1 /Sac 18 of the Code. 5. POWER FACTtlR 1MPROYEMENT:AND CAPACITOR RATING 5. kVAR in the circuit.OR FUSE SWITCH. 2 M ETHODS OF C O N N E C T I N G C APACITORS FOR I MPROVEMENT of P O W E R F ACTOR TO S UPPLY L I N E 94 NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE .

AND NUMBER OF CABLES THAT MAY BE DRAWN IN ONE GROOVE OF THE CASING Width of casing of capping.0 C ARLES THAT E SIZE O F CAHLE A W N IN ON M A GROOVE Y H E In view of ihe fact that this data is voluminous and are themselves being extensively reviewed for possible up-dating by the concerned expert group.50 7/3. mm’ of Wires I.006 9 9 0.005 6 (5) flim 0.006 4 5 0.60’ I/2. of grooves Width of grooves.:.0 1. mm Length. mm Width of dividing fillet. mm Thickness of the back under the groove. 4)-1968 PVC insulated light duty 38 2 6 12 7 16 6 44 2 6 12 51 2 9 I3 64 2 13 18 76 2 16 24 89 102 2 16 35 2 19 38 IO IO IO IO 16 6 19 IO 19 IO 25 Ill I I 32 13 1: 32 13 6 6 6 IO IO 10 I3 2.011 _t t 0. mm Thickness of outer wall.5 to 3.173 0.564 4 0.85* I/2. this Section merely draw a reference to IS : 3961 (series).084 0 8 0.5 2.40 7/ 1. when made available in the form of ready reference tables facilitates the work. m NI’MRER D R OF 0.20 0.009 0.12* l/l.63 0. This Section of Part I gives in one place such of those tables which basically provide fundamental data not necessarily required for the understanding of the Code that they should appear along with relevant text.80 31 I .003 + ? 0.008 0.5 4 6 IO l/1.70 712.OOt 191 1. frequent need arises to make reference to certain data.1 In electrical engineering work.014 3 0. FOREWORD TAPLE 2 SIZE OF WOOD CASING AND CAPPINb. but are required to be referred to in designing the installation.j5t 711.183 4 8 0.525 0 0.1967 PVC insulated and PVC sheathed heavy duty cables (Part 3)-1968 Polyethylene insulated cables (.2 The recommended current rating of cables are covered in the form of tables in the following Indian Standards.006 t t 0.85 I .013 6 0. The data when finalized will form part of the Code.06 I / 3.029 6 3 0.031 0.009 t 0.037 0. 0. TINNED COPPER RATC~ CLlRREhT O F Fr:trWlRF (A) Nominal Number and Diameter Cross(in mm) Sectional Area.005 f 0.40 lil.040 0 I 0.a.Oi8 f 0.24 712.24 71 I .80 2 2 3 2 2 2 9 8 5 5 4 I2 12 IO 8 6 I2 12 IO 9 6 I I - I I - I i - N OMINAL D IAMETER T O L ERANCE PERMISSIRLE RESlSrANcE AT 20°C Max Min : 16 mm (2) (3) mm t 0.089 0. IS 3961 Recommended current ratings for cables (Part I)-1967 Paper insulated lead sheathed cables (Part 2).005 3 25 35 50 - - 6 t: 20 :: 40 :: 100 0.80 71 I .SECTION 18 TABLES 0. tFor aluminium conductors only PART I GENERAL AND COMMON ASPECTS !n .056 6 0.004 0.00 I I I I *For copper conductors only.009 0.50 0.020 (4) Dim 0.25 1 I so . mm No.053 5 0. mm Thickness of casing.75 0. which. mm Thickness of capping. TABLE 1 DIAMETER AND MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE RESISTANCE OF FUSE-WIRES.015 O.35 0.80 2.

55t 711.24 712. The table applies to I: I kV grade cabks.0 I.5 4 6 IO 16 25 35 Number and Diameter (inwm.5 2.85* 4 3 3 2 3 2 2’ _7 0 4 3 5’ 5 3 2 I2 IO 7 6 5 4 2 IO 8 0 5 4 3 20 I8 I2 IO 14 I2 IO 8 - - 1.50 7/3. m m 50 S (13) B‘ (14) 63 \ -Nominal N u m b e r and. 711. w NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE . l/l. The columns headed S apply to runs ot conduit which have distance not exceedlnp 4.85* r/2.oot - : - : 3 2 - s 7 5 4 2 : 6 4 3 8 7 5 6 5 4 9 8 9 NOTE .oot 19/1.80 5 4 3 2 7 6 5 3 2 I3 IO IO 6 5 4 20 I4 I4 IO 9 7 4 2 I4 II 9 5 2 2 I2 6 5 : .24 712.TABLE 3 MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE NUMBER OF 1.400 I /3. S B S Area of Wires B S B‘ S B B‘ S mm2 (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (9) (10) (11) (12) (8) 4 7 t.The table shows the maximum capacity of conduits for the simulataneous drawing of cables.6” .80 7/3. I6 20 25 N UMRER OF 32 C A B L E S.24 7/0. w.40.50 19/1. MUX Sectional (in mm) -+.:.copper conductors only.060 I(224 7/0. The columns headed B apply to runs of conduit which deflect from the straight by an angle of more than ISo *For copper conductors only.wgr 711.1 kV GRADE SINGLE-CORE CABLES THAT MAY BE DRAWN INTO RIGID NON-METALLIC CONDUITS SIZE OF CABLE S IZE OF C O N D U I T.3 4 6 10 I6 25 35 50 l/l.40 l/l. 5 IO 20 I4 5 13 1. ’ 16 io 32 40 25 CrossDiameter NUMBER OF CABLES.40 l/l.5 2.80 31 I. .129 111.80 3/1. tFor aluminium conductors only.06* l/2. TABLE 4 MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE NUMBER OF 1.70 712. - - 2 - 50 2 2 *For .12. ?For.80 71 I. of . . 50 . rluminium conductors only.0 I/ 1..\. and which do not deflect from the straight by an angle of more than IS”. m m 40 Max / Nominal CrossSectional Area mm* I.70 712.25 m between drawin-boxes.1 kV GRADE CABLES THAT CAN BE DRAWN INTO RIGID STEEL CONDUITS SIZE OF CABLE SnE OF CO N D U I T .

658 0.558 I.024 0.160 I.725 1.00 (14) - (11) 2.49 0.939 0.089 t-z .512 0.95 0.41 0.71 0.687 0.595 0.371 0.514 0.TABLE EXIST -.341 0.I.3669 0.685 0. PART I GENERAL AND COMMON ASPECTS 97 .97 0.775 0.191 0.266 8:.904 0.271 1.896 1.447 0.370 1.377 1.43 8.837 0.143 0.650 0.515 0.821 0.251 0.345 0.005 0.085 0.079 1.91 (5) 0.353 1.320 0.162 0.209 0.326 1.337 KB I:205 I.309 0.769 0.620 0.192 I.525 0.458 I.283 0.988 1.552 1.790 1.481 1.648 0.268 0.59 0.782 1.164 2.116 1.745 0.154 I.453 0.623 0.970 0.257 .748 0.884 0.811 0.The consumer a advised to make proper allowance for lower supply voltages where these exist during th working hours and may choose slightly higher kVAR than recommended in the table for such cases.047 I.903 1.358 0.982 0.936 0.654 0.575 I.894 0.686 0.164 I.996 0.559 I.743 a.076 I.536 0.268 1.: 1.319 0.887 0.47 0.744 0.216 0.677 1.778 I.700 0.529 1.46 0.645 0.242 0.750 0.225 0.114 1.130 I :!? I.430 1.288 2.512 0.899 1.798 1.684 0.356 I.840 0.096 1.909 0.262 0.426 0.625 0.500 0.203 0.066 0.395 0.567 0.964 I.473 I.805 0.836 1.48 0.034 1.738 1.592 1.5Og 0.556 0.I71 .010 0.108 1.086 0.685 0.929 I.361 0.124 0.871 0.450 0.213 0.229 I.121 0.308 1.466 0.398 0.836 0.921 0.276 1.724 0.849 0.117 1.083 0.998 1.758 1.157 I.538 0.z I:160 I.368 1.484 0.196 I.234 0.563 0.949 0.317 0.403 1.2% :::rl: 0.315 I.420 1.937 0.536 0.672 0.714 0.93 (7) MULTIPLI~NG 0.651 1.487 0.81 0.186 0.594 0.421 1:g 1.395 1.103 0.270 0.052 0.645 0.130 0.67 0.347 0.565 0.657 0.94 (a) 0.42 0.083 1.071 0.58 0.407 0.242 0.98 0.712 1.654 0.123 I.573 0.413 I.435 1.132 0.60 0.316 1.151 I.77 0.749 0.623 1.96 0.515 0.230 0.661 0.295 0.429 0.028 1.146 2.840 0.381 0.800 1.730 0.112 0.078 0.114 0.816 I.83 0.107 2.740 0.079 0.51 0.40 0.343 0.809 0.776 0.239 1.030 0.387 I.233 1.855 1.686 1.343 0.655 0.907 0.107 0.68 0.659 I.997 0.580 0.405 I.809 0.175 0.289 0.631 0.400 0.252 0.530 0.624 0.905 0.936 0.713 0.413 0.433 0.652 0.419 0.607 0.634 0.695 1.78 0.497 1.400 0.303 0.220 0.779 0.113 1.421 0.198 0.TOR (1) ING 5 CAPACITOR SIZES FOR POWER FACTOR IMPROVEMENT I MPROVED POWER FA C T O R 0.66 0._ __ _.130 1.355 0.140 0.63 0.507 0.639.454 :z .644 1.032 __ _.618 0.593 0.992 0.058 1.935 I.090 0.356 1.299 1.144 I.538 0.713 1.502 I .426 0.737 1.680 .124 1.804 0.624 I.507 0.860 1.191 I.600 0.343 0.963 0.847 0.709 I.053 0.026 - I.294 0.716 0.973 0.541 0.828 0.936 0.453 I.079 1.186 0.590 1.447 0.600 1.974 0.82 0.054 0.060 2.021 I.485 1.117 0.141 0.373 0.620 0.480 1.701 0.600 1.774 0.085 2.027 0.614 .161 0.604 0.131 1.063 1.160 0.309 0.399 0.716 0.713 0.552 0.742 1.593 0.97 0.564 0.740 0.712 0.882 0.204 0.176 0.634 0.798 0.042 1.567 I.681 1.95 (9) 0.534 0.363 0.459 0.80 (2) 0.982 0.803 0.263 1.549 0.2 2 0.826 1.61 0.453 0.939 0.275 0.732 1.183 0.79 0.408 0.257 0.544 1. 1.489 0.048 I.277 0.290 1.:: 11297 I.226 I.785 0.65 0.899 8:E 0.534 1.692 0.980 0.870 0.190 I.288 0.460 0.303 I .582 0.037 1.713 0.924 I.76 0.149 0.223 0.909 0.156 0.188 I.159 0.935 0.109 0.663 0.349 1.949 0.72 0.537 1.850 0.672 0.395 0.936 0.541 0.230 I.691 0.217 0.237 I.%6 0.463 0.301 0.817 0.679 0.720 0.878 0. POWER FA(.677 1.876 0.149 0.169 1.473 0.238 0.291 0.549 0.395 0.179 I.54 0.519 0.031 - I.561 .874 I.235 0.754 0.047 - FKTOR I.530 I.74 0.425 1.629 0.103 1.277 1.857 0.192 0.786 1.673 0.014 0.829 0.459 0.200 I.794 0.86 0.904 0.183 0.878 0.73 0.077 1.532 1.618 0.70 0.959 1.076 1.441 1.626 1.971 0.613 0.480 0.321 0.682 0.230 I.066 1.269 0.369 0.026 - It! I.878 0.262 0.751 1.417 1.478 0.335 0.84 085 0.585 1.629 1.729 0.: 0.62 0.480 0.434 0.281 0.996 0.584 0.020 0.134 0.300 1.374 0.452 0.440 0.501 I.104 0.453 0..126 0.035 0.190 0.677 1.499 0.508 0.913 1.386 1.806 0.53 0.87 0.784 1.424 0.55 0.: 0.918 0.578 0.518 0.742 I.329 0.846 1.334 1.519 1.022 1.861 I.870 0.939 0.942 0.063 0.059 0.013 0.850 0.96 (10) 0.50 0.138 I.973 I.228 I.546 0.202 I.089 0.030 0.058 0.390 ::E 0.027 0.189 I.80 0.112 1.90 0.92 @?6) 0.912 0.544 I.381 0.483 01450 0.870 0.69 0.299 0.902 0.98 0.56 0.215 .329 0.805 1.024 0.395 0.388 0.329 0.113 0.591 0.049 1.117 I.039 1.93 0.474 I.588 1.085 .92 0.442 1.750 0.553 0.578 1.652 0.485 0.243 0.192 0.097 0.815 0.838 0.492 0.88 0.042 - (12) 2.758 0.082 2.91 0.679 0.591 0.502 .488 0.145 0.90 (4) 0.809 0.698 0.202 I.785 0.479 0.608 0.246 0.487 I.369 I::.425 0.395 0.265 1.225 2.741 0.329 0.264 0.57 0.567 0. 0.75 0.209 0.727 0.136 I.165 I.230 I.437 0.855 0.597 0.075 1.99 1.958 0.519 I.136 0.769 0.151 I.397 1.248 1.636 1.905 0.167 0.881 1.292 0.777 0.533 I.310 0.316 0.283 0.417 0.647 1.188 0.771 0.421 0.64 0.317 0.062 1.580 0.620 0.230 0.709 0.079 0.986 0.155 0.091 1.52 0.355 0.369 0.250 0.94 0.172 0.832 1.347 0.027 - I:771 I.441 1.474 0.564 0.684 1.105 0.309 1.008 0.788 0.837 1.769 1.843 0.357 I.85 (3) 0.464 1.268 1.393 1.372 0.426 0.489 I.005 0.568 0.041 1.164 0.058 0. _ - NOTE .037 2.043 1.976 0.966 0.526 0.961 I.99 (13) 1.446 1.89 0.483 I.781 0.338 1.

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NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE PART 2 .

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As the general provisions relating to such installations are common and are themselves elaborate in nature. 0. even though to some extent the requirements stipulated herein could also be applicable to them.5 Specific requirements pertaining to standby generating stations and captive substations for multistoreyed/high-rise buildings are covered in Appendix to Part III of the Code. U.1 This part of the National Electrica! Code is primarily intend+_ to cover the requirements relating to standby generating stations and capttve substations intended for serving an individual occupancy.ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN ST iNDBY GENERATING STATIONS AND CAPTI\ E SUBSTATIONS O. This Part does not include the switching stations and other large generating plants coming solely under the pet-view of the electric supply authority of a metropolis. if any. for generating and switching substations for individual buildings that might vary depending on the nature of the occupancy or the size of the building are enumerated in the respective Sections of the Code.PART 2. It is essential to take recourse to the assistance of local authorities for further details. installation and maintenance of transformers : Part 2 Installations IS : IO1 I8 (Part 3)-l 982 Code of practice for selection. installation and maintenance of switchgear : Part 3 installations . 0.6 This Part shall be read in conjunction with the following publications : IS : 1641-1960 Code of practice for fire-safety of buildings (general) : General principles and fire grading IS : 1646-1982 Code of practice for fire-safety of buildings (general) : Electrical installations IS : 2309-1969 Code of practice for the protection of buildings and allied structures against lightning IS : 3034-1981 Code of practice for fire-safety of industrial buildings : Electrical generating and distributing stations (/i’r. 0.3 Specific requirements.FOREWORD 0. 0.as the fire-safety codes for generating stations and substations.2 Generating stations covered by this Part are the standby or emergency supply and captive substations normally housed in or around the building in question. it was felt essential to cover them in a separate part preceeding the other parts which cover the requirements for specific installations.sr revision) IS : 3043-1966 Code of practice for earthing IS : 10028 (Part 2)-I981 Code of practice for selection. It is generally not feasible to draw very strict guidelines for the design and layout for such installations owing to the complexity of the needs of building installations and hence only the essential safety considerations are listed out for compliance.4 In the preparation of this Part. note has been taken of the requirements stipulated in installation codes of individual equipment as well.

5 kVA and above are normally driven by diesel engine as this drive is most economical. This Part covers only the standby generating sets up to the capacity & I MW. the assessment .3 It is generally presumed that generating stations and substations are rest.ricted areas not metint f o r u n a u t h o r i s e d p e r s o n s .0 Stationary generating sets of about. An assessment shall also be made of the civil construction needs of the station equipment keeping in view a possible expansion in future. 3. and depending on whether the equipment are installed indoor or outdoor. Smaller sets are driven by petrol. 3.1 The selection of equipment shall be done in accordance with the guidelines provided in Part I /Set 9 of the Code.1 In case of large capacity sets which generate appreciable heat. the dimensioni of the power plant .of characteristics of the buildings based on its occupancy shall be taken note of as specified in individual Parts/Sections of the C&je. cable trenches.1 This Part of . as well as their installation shall be governed by the same. 102 of spread of possible fire exists. 3. SCOPE I. tCode of practice for fire-safety of industrial buildings.1 In determining the general characteristics of standby generating plants and building substations in a building. 6.1 For the purposks of this Part.nt shall be determihed based on the guidelines provided in Part 1’/Sec 8 of the Code.2 Switchgears. Reference is drawn to IS : 3034-1981t where risks coming under the jurisdiction of the electric supply authority in a city or metropolis. 5.2 This part is not intended to cover ‘captive generator sets’ of very large capacities which-are main or supporting mode of power supply. buildings (general): Electrical installations. Construction of such buildings shall conform to IS : ‘l&6-1982$. 7. interconnecting doors should be of fireproof construction.1 Information shall be exchanged amongst the personnel involved regarding the size and nature of substation and supply station requirements to be provided for an occupancy So that the type of equipment and their choice. Locating of substation in basements is generally not recommended. NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE . ventilating arrangement. the degree of external influence of the environme.E OF INFORMATION 4. 4. foundation details for heavy equipment. etc. SELECTION OF EQUIPMENT 6. Similarly the substatlons up to the capacities of 5 MVA and 33 _kV ‘are covered.Noise level limitation for generator sets are under study. 4. I. 5. emergency lifts. multistoreyed construction may also be adopted. LAYOUT TRUCTION ASPECTS CONS- 5. lifting beams. etc. Electrical generating and distributing stations f&r revision). the definition given in Part I/Set 2 of the Code shall apply.1. This Part also does not apply to stations BUILDING AND 5.the C o d e c o v e r s e s s e n t i a l requirements for electrical standby generating stations and captive substations intended to serve a building or group of buildings. o i l c i r c u i t . regarding the installation and location conditions. intensive care units.room and the transport ways shall be agreed to between the architect and electrical contractor.2 The capacity of the standby set for an installation should be such that in an event.b r e a k e r a n d transformers (except outdoor types) shall be housed preferably in detached single storey buildings of Type 1 construction. EXCHAF*I. During the planning of the building. 7. oil pumps.of power failure. GENERATING SETS 7. 5. In the case of industries having continuous p r o c e s s e s . a n d s u c h electrical operating areas fall under the category of BA4 utilisation for instructed Frsonnel (see Part I /Set 8). In the case of built up areas in cities. For instance in case of hospitals such loads comprise operation theatres and their supporting auxiliaries. which are adequately advised or supervised by skilled persons to avoid dangers that may arise owing to the use of electricity. the essential loads can be supplied power.1 The constructional features of all buildings housing the sta_tion installations shall comply with IS : 164l-1960* and IS : 3034-1981t. information shall be exchanged.2 Before ordering the equipment. TERMINOLOO\Y 2. Doorway openings in seperating walls of transformer or switchgear rooms shall be provided with sills not less than 15 -cm in height. tCode for fire-safety of. 7. *Code of practice for fire-safety of buildings (general)‘: General principles and fire grading. : 2. tlie rooms shall be well ventilated and provided with air exhaust equipment.2 Depending on the exact location of the station in the building premises. including such building features as access doors.4 The foundation of the standby generating sets shall preferably be isolated from that of the other structures of the building so that vmrations are not carried over. Icold storage in laboratories.3 Construction of fire separation walls shall cunform with the requirements of relevant Indian Standards. N OTE . GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF STATION INSTALLATIONS 3.

The larger ones. installation and maintenance of switchgear and controlgear: Part 3 installation. 11. Similar is the case of essential loads in large hotels. fuel oil pumps. batteries for short time emergency lighting.such loads are required to be supplied with power all the time.4 As a transformer station normally has a high voltage and a low voltage switchgear. or within 2. If constructed of wood it shall be slatted and treated with anti-sulphuric enamel.1 Reference is drawn to the requirements in IS : 10028 (Part 2)-19817. nonconducting material and together with rectifiers.. *Code of practice for fire-safety in industrial buildings: Electrical generating and distrihuting stations CjTrsr revision).0 Station auxiliaries could consist of: W b) cl 4 e) 0 batteries for standing diesel sets.Provision shall be made for sufficient diffusion and ventilation of gases from the. 7. The batteries not exceeding 20 V shall not be bunched or arranged in circular formation. changeover to generator supply. 11.5 All combustible materials within a distance of 60 cm measured horizontally from. N OTE .1. 8.4 The batteries shall be so arranged on the bench that a potential difference exceeding 12 V shall not exist between adjoining cells. :Code of practice for selection. Oil drainage facilities and partition walls between transformers and between transformer and other equipment such as oil circuit-breakers is necessary to reduce the risk of spread of fire. 8. overload and performance. 7. 10.1. the motor shall be provided with double or triple pole switches and fuses and an automatic battery and cut-out shall be placed in the generator circuit.3 The’ batteries shall stand directly on durable. any battery shall be protected with hard asbestos sheets.2 Batteries shall be installed in a separate enclosure away from any other auxilliary equipment or switchgear. transformers and supports for resistance of lamps.2. battery charging equipment.0 m measured vertically above. 11. 11. ventilating euipment. shall conform to 73 of IS :3034-1981*.6 All equipment of prime mover shall conform to relevant Indian Standard for construction. These materials shall rest on a bench which shall be kept dry and insulated from earth. non-absorbent. LOW VOL?AGE SWITCHING STATIONS AND DISTRIBUTION PANELS 10.1. 11. Such sets can either be manually started and switched on to essential loads with the use of changeover switches or they could be auto-start on mains failure and loads autochanged over to generator supply. I03 PART 2 GENERATING STATIONS AND CAPTIVE SUBSTATIONS . 11.1 Batteries 11. 8. Care shall be taken to ensure that direct sunlight does not fall on the batteries.2. 8.3 In case of large electrical installation in which essential loads are widely scattered it becomes necessary to run the generating set supply cables to these essential loads and in the event of mains failure. such as glass.1 Motor generator sets and converters or rectifiers together with necessary switch and control gear shall be mounted separately and away from the batteries. 7.1. Any subcircuit shall be provided with a fuse in each live conductor. non-absorbent and nonconducting material. and fire-fighting equipment. tCode ot practice for selection. are usually of outdoor type. In commercial premises and high-rise buildings.3 Transformer housed in cabins will require adequate ventilation to take away as much heat as possible. porcelain or glazed earthenware. because of their size.2 Transformer of capacity up to 1 MVA may be housed indoor or outdoor. temperature risk. 11. non-flammable material.1.I Reference is drawn to the requirements stipulated in IS : 101 18 (Part 3)-1982:.2 Battery Charging Equipment 11. either manually or through auto-ctiangeover contactors. all such equipment should be adequately separated. non-ignitable. TRANSFORMER INSTALLATIONS 8. 9. 7. installation and maintenance of transformers: Part 2 Installation. 11. STATION AUXILIARIES 11.5 The requirements for oil and gas fired installations shall conform to IS : 3034-1981*.1 Reference is drawn to’ the requirements stipulated in IS : 10118 (Part 3)-1982:. battery to prevent the accumulation of an explosive mixture. non-ignitable.3 The charging control panels shall be of durable.2. The enclosure shall be free from dust and well ventilated.4 The fuel oil storage requirements. Where a motor generator is employed. 11.2 The charging circuit shall be provided with double or triple pole switches and fuses. HIGH VOLTAGE SWITCHING STATIONS 9. a few lifts and circulation area lights and fire-fighting equipment have to be kept working by supply from standby sets.1 Batteries shall have containers of glass or any other non-corrosive.

electrical generating and distribution stations uir. 14. shall be at least 60 cm away from the nearest battery. WIRING IN STATION PREMISES 12.1 The provision of 17 of IS : 3043-1981* shall apply (see also Part 1 I Set 12). *Code of practice for fue-safety of industrial buildings. blowers. 104 NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE .4 Ventilating Equipment 11. 16. FIRE-SAFETY REQUIREMENTS 15.1 All cabling and electrical wiring inside generating’ or substation premises shall be done in accordance with the practice recommended in Part I /Set I I of the Code. 15. battery room. 11. *Code of practice for fire-safety of industrial buildings. such resistance or lamps unless enclosed in metallic enclosure.1 Lighting 14. In the case of diesel.1 The provisions of IS : 3034-I 98 I* shall apply for station installations.UMINATION (1) indoor Locations (2) lux 200 100 70 200-300 LIMINTING GLARE INDEX (3) a) Standby generator hall b) Auxilliary equipment. 11. 11. are regularly checked run up and the mechanical and electrical system tested to ensure that the set isjn operable condition all the time.3 Fuel Oil Pump 11.1. switchgear and transfdrmer chambers c) Basements d) Control rooms : i) Vertical conlrol panels ii) Control desks _ iii) Rear of control panel Our&or Locations a) Fuel oil storage area b) Transformers.4.2 The luminaires used shall be of dust-proof construction.rr wvision). 11. BUILDING SERVICES 14.2 The electric cable provided to run the pump motor shall be protected with oil-resistant outer sheath.4. 12.f batteries are charged through resistance or lamps. t&de of practice for the protection of building and allied structures against lightning @r. LIGHTNING PROTECTION 16.1 The provisions of 138 of IS : 230%19697 shall apply. outdoor switchgear 2s I9 ix - 300 I50 1.shall be on a bench which shall be kept dry and insulated from earth. sets which come into operation only in emergency as standby sets.1 Fuel oil pump shall be installed close to the engine room or inside the engine room. TABLE 1 RECOMMENDED VAtUEs OF ILLUMINATION AND GLARE INDEX bCATION ILL.1 The engine room shall be fitted with hot-air extractors. 17.2 The battery room shall be fitted with exhaust fans. The exhaust gases shall be let off to atmosphere where no other equipment is installed. For the purposes of station installations the values of illumination and limiting ‘value of glare index shall be as given in Table I. 15.3.2.sion).3. 13. 14.1 The general principles of good lighting for any occupancy shall be as given in Part I/ Set 14 of the Code.4 l.2 All wiring for automatic fire-fighting installation shall be of fire-resistant outer sheath. it shall be slatted and treated with anti-sulphuric enamel.1 The guidelines provided in Part I /Set 10 of the Code shall apply.rr m+. TESTING AND INSPECTION 17. it is necessary that such sets. EARTHING 13. If constructed of wood. Electrical generating and distributing stations yirsr revision). I I.

NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE PART 3 .

As in the Original Standard. this Page is Intentionally Left Blank .

electrical installations in buildings have been broadly classified as those in non-industrial and industrial buildings.3 Part 3 of the Code.4 The various Sections of Part 3 cover requirements applicable to buildings which are of nominal heights less than 15 m. . and for typical buildings which do not strictly fall into any of these. therefore covers requirements for major types of nonindustrial occupancies. While a majority of installations could be categorically classified as non-industrial. an industrial complex would necessarily incorporate sub-units such as offices. 0. 0. It is recognized that from the point of view fire-safety of buildings more than 15 m height require specific considerations. which are better defined than the earlier terminology used for classifying installations. it would also be extremely difficult to classify electrical installations based on power requirement or the voltage of supply as large buildings of non-industrial use consume sufficient power to consider them at par with the consumption of light industrial establishments. It is therefore necessary to consider for initial assessment of the installation the guidelines given in Part l/Set 8 of the Code.1 For the purposes of the Code. residential quarters and support services which are housed or fall in the category of non-industrial buildings. 0. The requirement stipulated in Part 3 and Part 4 of the Code would therefore require judicious application. recourse shall be made to the general guideliines stipulated in Part 1. These are summarised in Appendix to Part 3. It is felt that a large number of occupancies would fall in one of the categories.2 With the current trend in power utilization.PART 3 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN NON-INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS 0 FOREWORD 0.

2. namely. CLASSIFICATION 3.SECTION 1 DOMESTIC DWELLINGS 0.2 ‘The primary considerations in planning the electrical layout in domestic dwellings are economy and safety. Besides these. these requirements form part of Section I. For example apartment houses. 10. A brief description of the type of installations covered in this Section is given m 3. though uti)ized as living accommodation for short periods of time (by different occupants) are covered under the scope of Part 3/Set 5 of the Code. however. For convenience. be noted that lodging and ro.1 Environment . both portable and fixed has now become very common and popular even in slngk family dwejlings.4 Specific requirements for installations in rooms containing a bath tub or shower ‘basin. TERMINOLOGY 2. The optimum benefits from the use of electricity can be obtained onl if the installation is of suffkient capacity and axords enough fkxibility.1 Electrical installations in domestic dwellings and in buildings providing living accommodation for people are by far the simplest form of installation.These shall include any building or structure in which living quarters are provided for three or more families.1 For the purposes of this section.. It may.1 This Section of the Code covers requirements for electrical installations in domestic dwellings. These requirements also apply to similar locations in other occupancies. the definitions given in Part I/Set 2 of the Code shall apply. Use of ekctrical appliances. other considerations such as efficiency and reliability.The following environmental factors shall apply to electrical installations in domestic dwellings: Environmennr Characrerrsrics Remarks (1) (2) (3) Presence of water Probability of presence of water is negligible Presence of foreign The quantity or solid bodies nature of dust or foreign solid bodies is not signiticant Presence of corrosive or polluting substances The quantity and Applicable for most nature of of the locations corrosive or except for dwellpolluting subsings situated by tancer is not sea or in industrial significant zone in which case categorization AF2 applies (see Part I /SW 8) Impact and vibra. NOTE .Household and tion of low similar conditions severity Depends on the location of the building Mechanical stresses Siesmic effect and lighting 4.(dormitorics) and the provistons of Part 3/See 5 sgall apply.0 General guidelines on the assessment of characteristics of installations in buildings are given in Part I /Set 8 of the Code. Such buildings shall be further classified as follows: a) One or Two Family Private Dwelling -These II Contact of persons Persons in normally conducting situations NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE .3 Domestic installations are characterized mainly by a circuit voltage of 250 V to earth except in thecase of large power consumers where three-phase supply is given. SCOPE 1. mansions and chawls.’ GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF INSTALLATIONS 4. bathrooms are separately covered in Appendix A to this Section. such buildings are considered lodging or rootntng hottscs. 0. 4. For the purposes of installations falling under the scope of this Section. FOREWORD shall include any private dwelling which is occupied by members of a single family and has a total sleeping accommodation for not more than 20 persons. 3. 0. are those in buildings intended for the following purposes: Domestic Dwellings/ Residential Buildings - 20 pqsons. convenience and provisions for future expansion are also valid. living independently of each other and with independent cooking facilities. 1. 4.oming houses. such as hotels.2 Utilization -The following aspects of utiliration shall apply: Ulilizarion f-1) Capablity of persons Characrerisrics (2) Uninstructed persons Remarks (3) Applies to ail domestic installations These shall include any buildings in which sleeping accommodation is provided for normal residential (domestic) purposes with cooking and dining facilities. the characteristics defined below specifically apply.If accommodation is provided for more than 0. b) Apartment Houses (Flats) .1 The electrical installations covered in this Section.

Exumple .ing has begun.4 Electrical installation in a new building should normally begin immediately on the completion of the main structural building work. the work should start before finishing woik like plaster. for the householder may otherwise be tempted to carry out extension i of the installation himself or to rely upon use of multiplug adaptors and long flexible cords.: . However.. fans and power. 5.hIcult rise flats conditions of evacuation Nature of processcd or stored material No significant risks 5. For conduit wiring system. family dwellings Low dcnsit occu.3 While consideration should be given to the anticipated increase in the use of electricity for lighting.1 Branch Circuits Conditions of Low dcmity occu.1. 4. . (2) 35 45 55 85 140 (3) (4) (5) (6) t7) * A REA OF THE M A I N D W E L L I N G U N I T (ml) . provision being made lo protect conduits from damage. accessories. Light points 2-i 3_. 5. no installation work should start until the building is reasonably weatherproof. 4 points with 3 fans are reco?mended.I I I N~TE-T~~ tigures in table against SI No. however. planning an 5.1 General aspects to be taken note of before tubes: ’ 600mm I2OOmm I5OOmm Power socket outlcc (I5A) Fl~ore&ent Length 5. 2 indicate the rccommcnded number of points and the number of fans. loo0 5.. 2. etc. general purpose socket+utlet. sufficient coordination shall be ensured amongst the coqcerned parties.0. SUPPLY CHARACTERISTICS AND PARAMETERS 5. designing the 5. evacuation.l fitimation of Load Requirements .0.Apartment houses including highpstion. 5._.3 Number of Socket Outlets-The recommended schedule of socket-outlets for the various sub-units of a domestic dwelling are-given in Table 2. information should be exchanged between the owner of the building or architect or electrical contractor and the locdl supply authority in respect of tariffs applicable. current to be carried by any branch circuit unless the actual values are known.0.1. heating. For surface wiring system. both of which are not recommended. the necessary conduits and ducts should be positioned after the shuttering is in place and before the concrete is poured.The extent and form of electrical installation i n domestic dwellings is basically designed to cater to light and fan loads and for electrical appliances ‘and gadgets. etc.5.Building of normal evacuation during ption.2 Number of Points in Branch Circuits The recommended yardstick for dwelling units for determining the number of points is given in Table I. 3. but where electric wiring is to be concealed withirl the structures. painting. dl. 5. types of a paratus that ma be connected under each tarif P requirement o? space for mstallmg ? meters.For main dwelling unit of 55 m2. etc. easy con. A fundamentally safe installation may be rendered dangerous.I 2 3 $ Call-bell (buzzer) . (1) I. and for total load requirement of lights.1 .2 Before starting wiring and installation of fittings and. the following points shall be noted particularly in respect of domestic dwellings. .or low height used for one or two ditions of emergency. In estimating the. Usually. servicelines. switches. For this purpose. these shall be calculated based on the following recommended ratings: Irem Retwmmended Raring (in Watts) Incandescent lamps 60 60 loo 25 . installation. It is essential that adequate provision should be made for all the services which may be rEqutred immediately and during the intended useful life of the building.0. TABLE 2 RECOMMENDED SCHEDULE OF SOCKET-OUTLETS D ESCRIPTION ’ N UMBER 5A OF SOCKETO UTLETS *I (1) Bedroom Living room Kitchen Dining room Garage For refrigerator For air-conditioner Varandah Bathroom (2) 2 to 3 2 to 3 : I ISA (3) : 2 ’ I per IU m2 I i 1 (for each) f PART 3 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN NON-INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS . if extended in this way.0 Exchange of Information electrical installation are enumerated in Part I/Set 7 of the Code. Ceiling fans (see Nom below) 5A Socket outlets 2 3 4 5 7 ISA Socket outlets . work should begin before final finishing work like white washing. T A BL E I NUMBER OF POINTS D ESCRIPTION FOR DWELLING UNITS SL No. kitchen._.

All types of wiring. carpark.1. SWITCHGEAR FOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION 6.5 ‘Power’ sub-circuits shall be kept separate and distinct from ‘lighting-and-fan’ sub-circuit. 6. Part I of the Code). their outer casing shall be weatherproof and shall be provided with glands or bushings or adopted to receive screwed conduit according to the manner in which cables are run.1. The arrangement of the gear shall be such that’ t h e y s h a l l b e r e a d i l y a c c e s s i b l e a n d their connections to all instruments and apparatus shall also be traceable. 6.1. unless they are effectively screened by insulating material shall be so spaced that an arc cannot be maintained between such parts and earth.1. Wiring for staircase lights and garage lights may be done in recessed conduit wiring systems.2 Selection of Wiring . to drip.6 Balancing of circuits in three-wire or polyphase installation shall be planned beforehand. if aesthetics is the main consideration. or the switch board is located in a position to which only authorized persons have access. 6. and c) PVC insdlated wiring in steel/non-metallic recessed conduits.5 . They shall not be placed in the vicinity of storage batteries and exposed to chemical fumes. the covers or access doors shall be clearly marked to indicate the voltage present. changing of fuses or similar operations.1 Location 6. a) Tough rubber sheathed or PVC insulated PVC sheathed wiring on wood batten. driveways. porch. terrace.1 All main switches or miniature circuit110 breakers shall be either of metal-clad enclosed pattern or of any insulated enclosed pattern which shall be fixed at close proximity to the point of entry of supply.1 The various live parts. The surface wiring when run along the walls should be as near the ceiling as possible. damp s i t u a t i o n o r where In a 6. the switch boards shall be recessed in the wall.1.1. 6. 6.8 Where so required.8 Wherever the load to be fed is more than I kW. 5.4 inflanimable or explosive dust. 6.1.f which the panel is fixed shall be drilled closer than 1.1.6 Switch boards.2 General Requirements of Switchboards 6. In each case. 5. recesged conduit wiring system may be adopted.1. b) PVC insulated wiring in steel/non-metallic surface conduits. 5. NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE .9 Equipments which are pn the front of a switchboard shall be so arranged that inadvertant personei contact with live parts is unlikely during the manipulation of switchgears. The wiring for 15 A plug outlets (power Gircuits) shall invariably be carried out either in surface/ recessed conduit wiring system where genera1 wiring is on wood batten.4 of Part I /Set I I of the Code shall apply. with a master double-pole switch for the subcircuit in addition to the individual switches. or to abnormal moist atmosphere.5 m of any washing unit in the washing room. the swi!ch boards shall be totally enclosed or made flame-proof as may be necessitated by the particular circumstances. 5. It is also recommended that a separate lighting circuit be u t i l i z e d ’ fFr all external lighting of steps.1. vapour or gas is likely to be present. etc. In all types of wirings due consideration shall be given for neatness and good appearance and safety. 6.2. All wiring shall be done on the distribution system with main and branch distribution boards located at convenient physical and electrical load centres.3 cm from aPy edge of the panel.5 Switch boards shall not be erected above gas stoves or sinks or within 2.25 m alone the. PVC and double flanged bushes shall be fitted in the holes of the switches for entry and exit of wires. 6.1.1. The depth of recess provided at the back for connection and the space at the front between the switchgear mountings shall be adequate. unless the front of the switch board is completely enclosed by a door.1. However.1.Any one of the following types of wiring may be used in a residential building (see Set I I. 5.3 Main switch boards shall be installed in rooms or cupboards having provision for locking so a s t o s a f e g u a r d a g a i n s t o p e r a t i o n b y unauthorized persons. floor. it shall be controlled by an isolator switch or miniature circuit-breaker. 1 .7 A switch board shall not be installed so that its bottom is within I. whether recessed or surface should be capable of easy inspection. If the points between which a voltage exceeding 250 volts is present are 2 m or more apart. 4 Selection of Size of ConductorsProvisions of 3. it is recommended that all socket-outlets in a room are connected to one phase. The conductors shall be so enclosed in e a r t h e d m e t a l o r i n c o m b u s t i b l e insu$ting material that it is not possible to have ready access to them. 6. walkways.7 It is recommended to provide at least two lighting sub-circuits in each house.1. if unavoidably fixed in places likely to be exposed to weather. 6.5 cm of any edge of the panel and no hole other than the holes by beans ~.2 Open type switch boards shall be placed only in dry situation and in well ventilated rooms.10 No mounting shall be mounted within 2.

III a) Hinged-t)pe metal boards ~ Such boards shall be suitable for mounting of metal clad switchgear consisting of not more than one switchgear and ICDB 4 way or 6 way. it is recommended that they should be earthed. 3 .2.. t h e m e t a l c l a d switchgears shall preferably be mounted on any of the following types of boards: earthed neutral conductor shall be connected to a common link and be capable of being disconnected individually for testing purposes. The main switchgear shall be ma’rked as such.2. 8. 6.2 Energymeters shall be installed at such a place which is readily accessible to both the owner of the building and the authorized representatives of the supply authority. it should preferably not be installed at a height less than I m from the ground. 6.1. these boards may be used as main board or sub-boards.4 Triple pole distribution boards shall not generally be used for final circuit distribution.Such boards b) shall be suitable for large switchboards for mounting large number of switchgears and: or higher capacity switchgear. 9. 6.3 Means for isolating the supply to the building shall be provided immediately after the energymeter. Where use of triple pole distribution boards is inevitable.4.y . 9.4 of Part 1 /Set 11 of the Code. METERING 8.2 In every case in which switches and fuses are fitted on the same pole. 8. 6. one for lights and fans and the other for high wattage (power) appliances particularly when the tariff is different for light and power. EARTHING IN DOMESTIC INSTALLATIONS 9. 9. 6.7 The neutral shall also distinctly marked. except the glass window through which the readings are noted 01 should be mounted inside a completely enclosed panel provided with a hinged or sliding doors with arrangement for locking it. these fuses shall be so arranged that the fuses are not alive when their respective switches are in the ‘off’ position. 7. F i x e d t. All pedestal lamp fittings of metallic construction shall be earthed.6.\‘pe metal board. 6.3 No fuse other than fuses in instrument circuit shall be fixed on the back of or behind a switchboard panel or frame.3. I5 A per way.4 All metal switchgears and switchboards shall be painted prior to erection. 6.6 The distribution boards tor light and power circuits shall be different.2 Lighting Fittings If the bracket type lamp holders are of metallic construction. shall be installed in accordance with 3.4. 6.1 The relevant. cl Where a board has more than one switchgear.All plugs and sockets shall be of three-pin type.2.1 Plugs and Sockets .2.4. 1 In d w e l l i n g u n i t s .6 The wiring throughout the installation shall be such that there is no break in the neutral wire in the form of a switch or fuse unit. enclosing it completely.2 Main distribution boards shall be controlled by a linked switchfuse or circuitbreaker.3 Types of Switchboards (see also Part I Set ll) 6 .0 Means shall be provided for proper earthing of all apparatus and abpliances in accordance with Part I lSec 12 of the Code. These shall be of seasoned and durable wood with solid back impregnated with varnish with joints dove-tailed.5 All distribution boards shall be marked ‘Lighting’ or ‘Power’ as the case may be and also with the voltage and number of phases of the supply. At least one spare circuit of the same capacity shall be provided on each branch distribution board. Wooden hoards --~~ For small installations connected to a single phase 240 volts supply.4.4. Each outgoing circuit shall be provided with a fuse on the phase or live conductor. each such switchgear shall be marked to indicate the section of the installation it controls. The energymeters should either be provided with a protective covering. The PART 3 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN NON-INDL'STRIAL Bl'ILDINGS . 6. Where there is more than one main switchboard in the building.2.4 Distribution Boards 6. 6. Each outgoing circuit shall be provided with a fuse or on the phase or live conductor.1 It is recommended to have two distinct circuits.4.2. 6.5 All switchboards connected to medium voltage and above.1 Distribution boards shall preferably’ be of metal clad type. These should be installed at a height where it is convenient to note the meter reading. one of the pins being connected to earth. they shall be of HRC fuse type only.3 Branch distribution boards shall be controlled by a linked switchfuse or circuitbreaker. SERVICE LINES 7.2. 6. each switchboard shall be marked to indicate the section of the installation and building it controls. 8. provisions of IS : 8061-1976 ‘Code of practice for design. 6. installation and maintenance of service lines up to and including 650 V’ shall apply.8 The main switch shall be easily accessible.

for example. 10.5 Bath Room -The body of automatic electric water heaters shall be earthed by the use of a three-pin plug or by a separate earth wire. ‘10.The general rules laid down in Part l/‘&c 14 of the-Code shall apply.For residential (domestic) dwellings. of three-pin plugs. designed to operate at low values of fault current. of floors served 6.5 ml s. shall be bonded to the metal or pipework of. 112 . In such cases the addition to the motor control gear of a differential or currentbalance type of circuit-breaker. 9. BUILDING SERVICES TABLE 3 RECOMMENDED LEVELS OF ILLUMINATION FOR DIFFERENT PARTS OF DOMESTIC DWELLINGS LCWZAT~ON ILLUMINATION LEVEL IUX :: 150 300 200 100 E 300 200 :Ez :: 100 70 300 Entrances. toasters. where it is desirable or necessary that metal work in proximity to electrical apparatus be bonded to ihe earthed metal work of the latter.1 Occupant load . The refrigerators.Bodies of hot-plates. electric irons. in kitchens.2 Where a lift is arranged to serve two.3 Lifts 10. bed heads Games or recreation room Table games Kitchen Kitchen sink Laundry Bathroom Bathroom mirror Sewing Workshop Stairs Garage Study 10.Bodies of all table fans.Where appli9. gas-heated electricity-driven washing machines. sinks and tanks shall be bonded together and earthed. shall be earthed by the use of three-pin plugs. if of metallic construction shall be earthed by means of a separate earth wire. layout and design of electrical installation shall take into account the number and type of such equipment.75-I . for example. the metal work of the electrical equipment. as for example. the general rules laid down in Part 1 /Set 14 of the code shall apply. if fixed wiring has been used. The choice of lamps.From the point of view of good reception it is recommended that radio sets should be earthed through an electrode different from that of the main earth system for other electrical appliances. and c) Room airconditioners.1 Whenever lifts are required to be installed in residential buildings. 10. then a separate earth wire shall be used for earthing these appliances. metal pipes. 103.1 Lighting. and b) Large flats (No. For domestic dwellings.3. electric radiators. as in cases of direct-coupled motordriven 4as boosters and motorized gas valves.4 Domestic Electric Appliances . pedestal fans. the following types of aircooling equipment are used: a) Evaporative cooler>.2.13 Car speed-Car speed for passenger lifts shall be as follows: a) In low and medium class flats 0. 103.1. 10. the inlet end of the gas supply shall be either fitted with a strong insulating bush. etc. 9. Where separation is not easily achieved. or. by and large. ovens and water boilers shall all be earthed by the use of three-pin plugs. if fixed wiring has been done. three or four flats per floor.2.3. if it is not possible to have separate earth electrode. b) Packaged air-conditioners. the design of lifts shall take into account the following recommendations. shall all be earthed by the use.3. 9.2 Ak-Conditioning 10. However. etc. lighting fittings shall be based on the recommended values of illumination given in Table 3. All non-electrical metal work including the bath fub. 10. gas equipment. the occupant load (the number of persons within any floor area) expressed in gross area in mZ/person shall not be less than 12. substantial enough to stand a flash test of 3 500 V and so designed as to be difficult to detach. would afford a desirable safeguard against fault current transfer specially where the rating of the plant is of a size and capacity which entails correspondingly high ratings for the normal overload protective devices.2 Passenger handling capacity (H) Expressed . the gas supply shall be introduced through a non-conducting plastic pipe from a point not in proximity to earthed metal work. exhaust fans.2 The power requirements. radio sets may be earthed through the main earth system. air-conditioners and coolers. Apparatus . heaters.. However.5.ts the estimated population that has to be handled m the buildings in the S-minute peak period.12) 0.3 Fans and Regulators .5 m/s. The covers of the regulators.~mg room Dming room Bedroom : General Dressing tables. hallways L. the lift may be placed NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 10.1.6 Radio Sets . However. kettles.7 Miscellaneous ances utilizing gas and electricity are in use.9.1 The general rules laid down in Part l/Set 14 of the Code shall apply. the passenger handling capacity for residential’ buildings shall be 5 percent.

13.adjoining the staircase. 6. ii) 3 sroreys and ahove I) Floor area less than 300 m? ~ N o t required. MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS 13. 9. b) Apurtment Houses/ Flats i) C/p to 2 storeys N o t r e q u i r e d . see Table 3. FIRE PROTECTION 11. (Conrim&) *Start dropping when compressor motor not in circuit.3 Guidelines on Power Factor Improvement in Domestio Dwellings .85 0.5 to 0. b) All the single pole switches shall be on phase cl The electrical outlets for apphances in the bathrooms shall be away from the shower or sink (see Appendix A).62 to 0.65 0.1 Tele hone Wiring ~~ Facilities for telephone wiring sR all be provided in all residential buildings where telephones are likely to be installed. 5. For guidance on ‘natural power factor available for single phase.8 3. h) It is preferable to provide earth leakage circuit-breaker at the intake of power supply at the consumer’s premises (see Part I Set I2 of the Code). with the lift entrances serving direct on to the landings. f-l The clearance between the bottom most point of the ceiling fan and the floor shall be not less than 2.8 0.6 0. Where the lift is to serve a considerable number of flats having access to balconies or corridors. II.\r 13.gn 2.7 0.6 to 0. Maximum (4) (W) 5 000 2 000. or live conductor only. Hair dryers Liquidiser Mixer Coffee grinder Refrigerator Free7er Shaver Table fan Ceiling fan I50 2000 450 350 400 x00 I 000 250 I20 100 I 50 I50 200 200 600 x0 25 60 I I. TESTING OF THE INSTALLATION 12.TOR (5) 0. shall be earthed effectively.E 4 POWER FACTOR FOR SINGLE PHASE ELECTRICAL APPLIANCES AND EQUIPMENT (Clau. 7. AVERAGE N A T U R A L P O W E R FAC.1 The provisions of Part I /Set IO of the Code shall apply.1 The following protection systems are recommended: a) One or Two Family Private Dwellings detection: extinguishing systems required. (1) APPLIANCL EQUIPMENT 0) . N e o n s.5 0.General guidelines on principal causes of low power factor and methods of compensation are given in Part I: Set I7 of the Code.7 to 0.82 0. PART 3 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN NON-INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS II3 .2 S a f e t y R e q u i r e m e n t s --~ Some of the important safety requirements in electrical installations in domestic dwellings are summarized below: a) All outlets for domestic electrical appliantes shall be of three-pin socket type.68 to 0. Wmdow type air-conditioners 0. third socket being connected to the earth. In high rise residential buildings.8 0. 12.55 I .65 0. 8. g) The metallic body of the fan regulator if any. NO. 10. Fire not 13.7 0. 4.75 to 0. 13. TAB1. it may be conveniently placed in a *well ventilated tower adjoining the building.4 m. d) Wiring for power outlets in the kitchen shall be preferably done in metallic conduit wiring. 2) F l o o r a r e a m o r e t h a n 3 0 0 m2 -Manually operated electric fire alarm. e) The electrical outlets shall not be located above the gas stove. Minimum (3) (W) 500 750 POWFK OUTPllT h . appliances and equipment used in domestic dwellings. 30 cm X I5 cm riser shall be provided for telephone wiring cables.5 to 0.75 0.3) Sl.

Z o n e 3 : 1PX I shower basin.2(c)] PARTICULAR REQUIREMENTS FOR LOCATIONS CONTAINING A BATH TUB OR SHOWER BASIN A-l.25 m above the floor. in this Appendix are based on the dimensions of four zones as described in Fig.5 0.25 m above the floor. 2 and 3 with protective conductors of all exposed conductive parts situated in these zones.2 A local supplementary equipotential bounding shall connect all extraneous conductive parts in Zones I. ELECTRICAl. A-4.9 to 0. SCOPE A . In Zone 3.1 Electrical equipment shall have at least the following degrees of protection: ZoneO: IPX7 Zone I: IPX5 Zone21 IPX4 IP X 5 in public baths. > A-4. Zone 3 -. A-4.8 to 0. A-2. 20. I and 2. SELECTION OF EQUIPMENT A-4. Zone 2 .is limited: a) by Zone 2 and the paraltel vertical plane 2.4 and 13. wiring systems shall be limited to those necessary to the supply of appliances situated in those zones.25 m above the floor.40 m external to Zone 2.6 0. 19. (1) APPLIANCE/EQUIPMENT (2) P OWER O U T P U T ’ Minimum (3) (W) 75 I50 80 300 25 IO 200 40 5 cleaner Maximum ’ (4) (W) 100 350 120 450 100 I5 450 100 IO A V E R A G E NATURAI POWER FA C T O R (5) 0. they are permitted if the necessary degree of protection is available.2. 18. or for a shower without basin. IS. whatever the nominal voltage.is limited: a) by the vertical plane circumscribring the bath tub or shower basin. I and 2. CLASSIFICATION OF ZONES A-2.7 0.2 In Zones 0.3 In Zones 0.6 to 0.7 to 0. by the vertical plane 0. and b) by the floor and the horizontal plane 2. Cabin fan Exhaust fan Sewing machine Washing machine Radio Night lamp Vac. 17. 14. I and 2. Z o n e 0 .Conrd (C/uuse I 3. shower basins and the surrounding zones where susceptibility of persons to electric shock is likely to be increased by a reduction in body resistance and contact with earth potential.1 Where safety extra low voltage is used. and b) by the floor and the horizontal plane. A-3. PROTECTION FOR SAFETY A-3.7 0.6 m from the shower head.1 The requirements given. A-3. 13.TABLE 4 POWER FACTOR FOR SINGLE PHASE ELECTRICAL APPLIANCES’ AND EQUIPMENT . and b) by the floor and the horizontal plane 2.60 m external to Zone I.8 0.5 0.6 0. Zone I -. I and 2 no switchgear and accessories shall be installed. C O D E . 1 The particular requirements of t h i s Appendix apply to bath tubs.uum Clock Tube light APPENDIX A [Clauses 0. NATIONAI. protection against direct contact shall be provided by: a) barriers or enclosures affording at least the degree of protection IP2X.3) SL No.is limited: a) by Zone I and the vertical parallel plane 0.I . 16.is the interior of the bath tub or N OTE -The d i m e n s i o n s are measured taking account of walls and fixed partition. or b) insulation capable of withstanding a test voltage of 500 V for I minute.6 0.7 12. Junction boxes are not permitted in Zones 0.

60 m from door of the shower cabinet. In Zone 1 only water heaters may be installed. 1 ZONE DIMENSIONS (Elevation) PkRT 3 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN NON-INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS . or c) protected by a residual current protective device. .4 In Zone 3. socket-outlets are permitted only if they are either: a distance of at least 0.40 m ZONE 2 ZONE 3 [ZONE 1 i Shower without Basin but with Fixed Partition LFIXED PARTITION WALL FIG. or b) supplied by safety extra-low voltage. only electrical appliances specially intended for use in the bath tub are permitted.A46 In Zone 0.5 Any switches and socket outlets shall be at Bath Tub ZONE 3 ZONE 1 Shower Basin 2. a) supplied individually by an isolating transformer. In Zone 2 only water heaters and Class I1 luminaires may be installed.A-4. A-4.

Fixed Partition f SHOWER HEAD HEAD \ ZONE 3 \ YO 9 F I G.ffffffff f ZONEI Z O N E 3 2 I I I I I 2.LOn / 1’ I Z O N E 1 ZONE 3 _/ -_-c) Shower Basin d) Shower Basin with Fixed Partition e) Shower without Basin f) Shower without Basin but with.a) Bath Tub b) Bath Tuh with Fixed Partition ?f. 116 2 Z ONE D IMENSIONS (Plan) NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE .

These include buildings used for schools. CLASSIFICATiON 3.2 In small buildings with comparatively moderate loads. banks. 0. educational and other institutional buildings are also covered here. Should any special provisions apply to them. stores. b) Shopping/ Comtnercial Centresj Mercantile 6uiltling.1 For the purpose of this Section. be made to 3 wherein a description is provided for the various types of installations covered in this Section. 4. TERMINOLOGY 2. they are identified at the relevant clauses. High-rise buildings housing office complexes are common. shopping and commercial centres and educational and similar institutional buildings.1 Environment . 0. colleges and daycare purposes for more than 8 hours per week involving assembly of people for instruction and education (including incidental recreation).1 This Section of the Code covers requirements for electrical installations in office buildings.possible to define strictly the type of buildings covered in this Section except in broad terms. an attempt has been made to identify the nature of the occupancy.~ (2) Presence of water Probability of presence of water is negligible The quantity or nature of dust or foreign solid bodies IS not significant Remarks (3) Presence of foreign solid bodies Presence of corrosive or polluting substances The quantity and Locations where nature of corrosome chemical sive or nollutine oroducts are substances is not handled in small significant quantities. however.SECTION 2 OFFICE BUILDINGS. etc. the categorication A F 2 applies (WP Part 3 See 8).1 Office buildings.0 General guidelines on the assessment of charactuistics of installations in buildings are given in Part I /Set 8 of the Code. 4. market.The following environmental factors shall apply to office buildings. departmental stores. Reference may. 3. GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF INSTALLATIONS 4.S II7 . For office and other buildings covered by this Section situated b) the se. (for example. professional establishments. Some of such buildings has to incorporate a standby/emergency power plant for essential service needs. or in industrial Tones. wholesale or retail. offices. However.. are those in buildings intended for the following purposes: a) Qffice Buildings] Business Buildings These include buildings for the transaction of business. where the large number of amenities is to be provided calls for a more complex distribution system. for display and sale of merchandise. 2. cl Educational Buildings . research establishments data processing installations. shopping and commercial centres and educational/institutional fluildings: C‘horacrerrsrrc. 0. the definitions given in Part I Il Set 2 of the Code shall apply. calling for a coordinated planning while designing the electrical services therein. producing serious pollution. FOREWORD 0. For the purpose of installations falling under the scope of this Section the characteristics defined b e l o w generally apply.4 It is not . and keeping in view the similarity with the type of buildings covered in this section. for the keeping of accounts and records and similar purposes. Impact and vlbration of IOU Lererlt! Depends on the location ol the building Mechanical >t rc5\e\ Sekmlc effect and lightning PART 3 EI.s ~~ These include buildings used as shops. S C O P E I.1 The electrical installations covered in this section. SHOPPING AND COMMERCIAL’ CENTRES AND INSTITUTIONS 0. etc. laboratories in schools and colleges) will be categorired as AF3. shopping and commercial centres can be of various types depending on the size of the civil structure or the extent of activity involved in the building. INSTALLATIONS IN NON-INDUSTRIA’L BUILOIN(. etc.3 For editorial convenience. 1. in the case of multistoreyed office-cum-commercial complex.C:CTRICAI. NOTE L a r g e r a s s e m b l y b u i l d i n g s r e c r e a t i o n a l occupancies are covered in Part 3 Set 3 of the Code. supply is normally at medium voltage and the distribution of power is less complex.

However. the interior decoration normally include false ceiling. Cl Nature of supply (current. easy conditions of evacuation High density occupation.6 Lighting circuits shall preferably be combined in switched groups so that lighting can N A T I O N A L EI. . 5.1 Branch Circuits 5. appliance and motor loads as well as special loads encourtpred in the types of buildings covered in this Section shall be taken into account. 5. building contractor and the electrical engineer on the various aspects of installation design. such as school laboratories and other buildings located in high industrial pollution zones. 5.1 Proper coordination shall be ensured between the architect. and 3) Lifts. difficult conditions of evacuation High density occupation.5 Areas where corrosive or polluting substances a r e p r e s e n t i n t e r m i t t e n t l y o r continuously. socket-outlets shall preferably be of metal clad weatherproof type with covers. etc) 5.3 In offices and showrooms. They shall be run at skirting level and encased for mechanical protection. etc.1. 2) Air-conditioning.1. C O D E High rise office commercial centres. central conrrol console. Any wiring laid above the false ceiling should be adequately protected such as by drawing the wires in metallic conduits and not run in open. 8) Maintainability of the installation.0. for special cases such as for communication networks. bells.2 The branch circuit calculations shall be done according to the general provisions laid down in Part 3/Set I of the Code. n) zb.Small offices and shops pation. ceiling fans. nominal voltages).1 The general design of wiring of branch circuits shall conform to those laid down in Part l/Set II of the Code.Five protection system shall include such details such as locations of detectors. b) Type of distribution system. the recommendations of the manufacturer shall apply.. to avoid trailing of wires and use of multiple outlets from one socket. From the point of view of the design of the various installations. telephones. the dc circuits be identifiable in the layout diagram. difficult conditions of evacuation Departmental stores m) CCTV for information display and security. frequency. furniture shops. f-l Nature of the external influences (see 4). the following shall be considered: a) Maximum demand and diversity. calculators. etc Nature of proces. A complete drawing of layout of the electrical . pumps for fire fighting. carpets and curtains. 5. cable runs and their segregation from the other cable system. location of sectionalized control switches. 5. public address system for fire fighting. installation shall be prepared together with associated floor plans indicating the details mentioned in (a) to (p) above. mains and sub-mains.0 Exchange of Information 5.1.1. the specific demands of the lighting. e) Division of the installation. facilities.4.1. 118 . However.pu. zonal indicators. distribution boards. underground shopping arcades.No significant risk Small shops sed or stored In view of large Existance of fire material volume of paper risk and furniture (for example. exhaust fans.The following aspects of utilization shall apply: Urilizorion (1) Capability of persons Chorocrerisrics (2) Remarks (3) j) Other details as relevant such as.1. sockets. fire-alarm system and wiring for data-processing equipment. clock systems. fire-alarm systems.4 Adequate number of socket-outlets shall be provided for electrically operated office machines such as electric typewriter. persons Children Persons adequately advised or supervised by skilled persons Uninstructed of occupants Applies to schools Applies lo areas A major percentage such as building substations and for operating and maintenance staff k) Telephone circuits including extensions and intercom. Wires shall not be covered by carpets. lighting. call-bells. h) Nature and details of building services.2 Utilization . 4 Prospective short-circuit current at the supply intake point. I ) Lighting. etc N OTE -. office buildings.Efl R I C A . SUPPLY CHARACTERISTICS A N D PARAMETERS 5. The wiring diagram shall include outlets for lights. 5. Contact of persons Conditions of evacuation during emergency Persons in nonconducting situations Low density occu. etc. In special occupancies such as school or college laboratories.d installation facility where appliP) Metering system for different loads.

1 In office buildings. Main switch room will serve feeders to various lpad centres such as air-conditioning plant.3 The location and layout of building substation shall conform to the general rules laid down in Part 2 of the Code.4 E m e r g e n c y Supply . The electrical needs for the appropriate type of installation shall.5.The designer of power supply for office buildings and commercial centres shall take into account the great concentration of power demand of the electrical loads. functions. Only authorized persons be allowed to enter the substation for operations/maintenance of any kind. Typical fire fighting installation requirements are also covered therein.In multistoreyed buildiggs.for general rules 5. Shall be of weatherproof onstruction or 1 or cabin.3. Group E (business buildings) and Group F (mercantile buildings) from the point of view of fire safety classification (see SP : 7-1983). Switchboards shall be located away from areas (likely to be crowded by the public. Consequently. rodent. 5. installation and maintenance of service lines up to and including 650 V PART 3 ELECTRIC-AI.o 0. banks.5. The general rules given below shall apply.1 If the load demand is high.3. such occupancies have to be provided with their own substation with vertical and horizontal forms of power distribution.3. a well ventilabed cabin segregated from the utility’s supply shall be provided.65 0. Reference is also drawn to SP : 7-1983 on guidelines for fire protection of buildings..3. 5.0 5. Typical proportions of power usage are given below: Purl of Elerrrrc~al in ~rallaritin Parr qf the Toral Power Requirement Percent 45 5 :: Diversirj Factor of mains failure. it can be in the form of separate and independent feeder from the undertaking terminated in equipment isolated from the regular supply line.I Educational buildings (Group B) Educational buildings above 2-storeys having an area of more than 500 ml per floor shall have besides fire-fighting equipment.be limited to desks which are occupied.3. Airconditioning in office buildings absorbs an especially high proportion of the total power used. certain safety and essential services shall be supplied even in the case *Code of practice for design. 5.3 Building Substations 5.5. automatic fire alarm systems are recommended for offices. For the purposes of office buildings. Other loads are taken to local distribution boards.3. etc. ‘dust.All current carrying equipment ishall he totally enclosed.The protection for safety laid down in Part I/Set 7 of the Code shall apply. elevators. where the buildings are more than 2 storeys with floor area above 500 rn? per floor. Such pipes shall be properly sealed at both ends to reduce the possibility of rain water flowing through the pipes and flooding the trenches.2 Service Lines -The general provisions laid down in IS : 8061-1976* shall apply. 5.0 General. therefore. 5. 5. shopping and commerctal centres. the-meterroom normally is situated in the ground floor. manually operated electrical fire alarm and automatic fire alarm systems. 5.5 System Protection .0 Genera/ .and insect-proof.95 I.1 .Wherever emergency supply is considered necessary.3. and commercial centres occupy various areas.and vermin-proof and if mounted outdoor. These are governed by the rules and regulations of the respective authorities. waterpressure pumps. water pumps. Cubicle type boards shall be with hinged doors interlocked with switch-operating mechanisms. be decided accordingly. ventilation installations. 5. They can also be effectively used in place of fuses in a distribution board.4 Meterin . requiring supply at high voltage. Boards . The substation room shall be well ventilated and inaccessible to birds and reasonably reptile-.5. accommodation for substation equipment will be #required.f k i o s Switchboards shall be of open type or cubicle type. miniature circuit-breakers of adequate capacity shall be preferred to switchfuse units. INSTALLATIONS IN NON-INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS . etc.2 The transformer power rating for the supply of the building shall be sufficient to cater to the highest simultaneous power requirements of the building. h o u s e d i n weatherpro0. professional establishments. In case of standby supply from diesel generator sets.4. and for laboratories with II9 Ventilation. 5.1. essential lighting and lifts.6 Selection of equipment shall be made according to the guidelines laid down in Part I/ Set 9 of the Code. 5. Essential services include amongst others. 5.2 Business buildings (tiroup E) Besides fire-fighting equipment. a number of o Brices. this Section fell under Group B (educattonal buildings). The power requirement of these essential loads is generally about 25 percent of the total power requirement of the building. 5.1 The type of buildings covered in.5 Switchboard9 and Panel. heating (air-conditioning) Power plant (drives) Lighting Lifts I . Electrical load for each of them would have to be metered separately.’ Cables leading from the substation to the main-building shall preferably be carried underground through ducts or pipes of adequate dimensions.3. All switches shall bear labels indicating their. 5.

Banks : a) Counters. Underground shopping centres shall be provided with atitomatic sprinklers.1.1. warehouses. INIWX (4) No.delicate instruments as well as computer installations.6 Building Services 5. Asthetics and interior decoration also play a part. tDoes not cover display (showroom lighting). common rooms Corridors Stairs 5. 5.3 Mercantile buildings (Group n’ ~ Besides fire-fighting eyuipment. L. and their layout. automatic sprinklers and automatic fire alarm systems are recommended for wholesale establishments. 5. lighting fittings and general lighting design together with power requirement shall be planned based on the recommended values of il!umination . Shops and Storest a) General areas b) Stock rooms 19 22 22 I9 19 I9 I9 16 -- 200 I50 :: I50 :zz 300 200 to 300 I6 It I6 :: lo 16 (see SI No.6. as well as for shopping areas inside buildings with area more than 500 rn? on each floor. 5. depending on the merchandise exhibited. stock rooms 3. Offices : a) Entrance halls and reception area b) Conference rooms.5. CODE .Manual exchange rooms (on desk) ii) Main distributton frame room 4.f lighting in the vertical and horizontal planes. sorting. automatic fire-alarm systems shall be installed.IMl?lNG GI ARt. etc.6. transport booking agencies. (1) (2) I. Colour temperature characteristics of the light source shall also be taken into account in the case of showroom lighting.lnd l i m i t i n g values of plarc i n d e x given in Table I.1 -The general rules laid dotin in Part TABLE I RECOMMENDED VALUES OF l1. magazines) c) Readirig tables d) Bodk repair and binding e) Catalogging. Libraries : a) Shelves b) Reading rooms (newspaper. The choice of lamps. NATIONAL ElJX-TRICAl.1‘2 In commercial premises.ighting d e s i g n i n s h o w r o o m s includes high level c.1 Lighting 5. a fairly high level of glare free lighting on working planes and s u b d u e d l i g h t i n g i n circulation areas are necessary. premises and shopping lines with central corridors open to sky. Schools and collenes : a) Assembly hallsi) General ii) When used for exams iii) Platforms b) ClaSs and lecture rooms : i) Desks ii) Black board Emb&idery and sewing rooms Art rooms Libraries Manual training Offices Staff rooms. I9 -- : I50 to 300 200 :: *Code of practice for interior illumination: Part 2 Schedule for value of illumination and glare index. 2 above) (see appropriate trades in 1:&3&G? (Part 2)-19y9*) 150 1. executive offices c) General offices d) Business machine operation e) Drawing offices f) Corridors and lift cars g) Stairs h) Lift landings j) Telephone exchanges: i).1~UMINATlON SL BUILI)ING A N D G L A R E INDKX ILLUMINATION (3) IUX ~. For other I/Set I4 of the Code shall apply. typing accounting book areas b) Public areas 70 150 300 300 I50 300 IS0 to to lo lo to I50 300 300 450 450 70 IFl 150 300 700 700 300 I9 I9 2.6.

passageways.1 The lighting circuits shall preferably be combined in switched groups as well as coordinated to functional groups of desks in an open plan office.2 A simple call bell system is suitable for small offices whereb.5-0. The layout in such a case would be determined by the size of building and staff.75 0. 5.6. MISCEI.2.3.1 The general guidelines contained in Part l/Set I4 shall apply regarding installation and maintenance of master and slave clock systems.6.5 above I.6. 121 PROVISIONS 5.2.6.5 2-2.3. In order to ensure proper coordination with design of the building for daylight use of devices such as photoelectric switches shall be encouraged for controlling lighting groups near windows. The design of the air-conditioning system.1 Group Control 7. Depending on the final requirements of the type of occupancy. PART 3 ELECTRICAl INSTALLATIONS IN NON-INDIISTRIAL Bl:II.3.6.6. of the Code shall apply.3. A visiblecum-audible indicator/bell panel shall be used. The switching points may be combined centrally at the entrance. such as in large offices.2. the type of equipment to be used. However. with a battery having sufficient voltage to ensure satisfactory operation. For private intercom systems.2 In case of large air-conditioning installations (So0 tonnes and ahove) it is advisable to have a separate isolated equipment room together with electrical controls. When call points are too numerous on a single indicator panel.1 Adequate coordination shall be ensured right from the planning stages with the telephone authorities to determine the needs for the telephone system catering to the various units in office buildings. Time bell systems shall be installed in schools to give Start-work and Stop-work signals.1 The general rules laid down in Part IiSec 14.2 Occupant load.I 2 13-20 Shops and departmental atorea 0.1.1 The general guidelines laid down in Part I/ Set 14. Each of which is connected to a pair of contact on a relay which is operated from the contacts of master clock.4. regarding installation of electric bells and call system shall be referred to. entirely under the control of the user.3.3 Lifts and Escalators 5. impulse clocks designed to operate at the same current may be connected in one series circuit.3 Electric Call Bell System 7.56. TESTING OF INSTALLATION 6.‘Sec 14 of the Code shall apply.75-1. These shall be as follows: 0tTice bullding 4-5 6.2 Telephones/Intercoms 7. 7. it is advisable to have at least two lifts side by side at the main entrance and one lift each at different sections of the building for inter-communication.1 The various tests on the installation shall be carried out as laid down in Part I See IO of the Code. 7. When two lifts are installed side by side. 7.’ it is desirable to have at least a battery of 2 lifts at two or more convenient points.These shall be as follows: a) Educational b) Business c) Mercantile : i) Ground floor and sales ii) Upper sale floor 4 IO 5.3.2 Air-Conditioning 5. 6.6. the machine room shall be suitably planned.2 In simple installations. All equipment rooms shall have provision for mechanical ventilation. wiring and other details shall be agreed to.4. the impulse clocks may be arranged in number of series circuits. 5.6. In a more complex installation like multistoreyed office buildings with large number of slave clocks.LANEOUS 7.5 5.1 The general rules laid down in Part l.DINGS . 7. the design of lifts shall take into account the following recommendations.\.4 Clock Systems 7.3 Passenger handling capacit. multiple call system shall be preferred.4 II IO-15 percent 15-25 pcrccnt Car speed -.3.y service staff may be called to a particular position by the caller. it is necessary to preplan the coordination of external and intercom systems. shall take into account the requirements stipulated in the following clauses. ( H) -These are expressed in terms of percent of the estimated population that has to be handled in the building in the 5 minute peak period as follows: Ouupanc~t a) Diversified (mixed) ol’f~ce occupancy b) Single purpose office occupancy 5. If this is not possible. 7. 7. All machines and switchgear may be housed in one machine room.5 For office buildings.

4. Educational/institutional buildings may use CCTV as a teaching aid for pre-recorded educational programmes. 7. 122 NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE .3 Master clock shall be placed in a dust free location. readily accessible for maintenance at all times.1 Commercial buildings may require the installation of CCTVs for one or more of the following purposes: a) Security. Reference shall be made to good practice for installation of such facilities.5 Closed Circuit T V 7.5.7. and b) Information display.

1 For the purposes of this S e c t i o n . 0. exhibition halls. 4. it is recominended that assistance should be derived from specialists as such details are beyond the scope of this Code. patriotic. cultural and theatrical buildings In view of large quantum of furniture and drapings P A R T 3 E L E C T R I C A L I N S T A L L A T I O N S I N NON-INDI:STRIAL BUILDINGS 123 .2 This Section does not cover sports buildings. I.The utilization shall apply: Uriliiarion (1) Capacity o f persons Characteri. t h e definitions given in Part I ‘Set 2 of the Code shall apply. in view of their unique nature. Temporary installations shall also conform lo the additional provisions laid down in Part S/SK 2 of the Code.3 Sports buildings. ASSEMBLY BUILDING!5 & F O R E W O R D A variety of buildings are being used for public a s s e m b l y f o r p u r p o s e s t h a t a r e recreational.stics (2) Uninstructed persons Persons adequately advised or supervised by skilled persons Condition\ of evacuation during emergency High density occupation. certain specific safety and reliability considerations become necessary for the electrical installation. GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF INSTALLATIONS 4. Buildings such as those catering to display of regular programmes demands a continuous power supply.1meJ. religious. civil and similar purposes. the primary feature being a congregation of people of all age groups for a short period of ‘time during a day or a group of days. 1. Presence of foreign solid bodies Presence of corrosive o r polluting substances Mechanical stresses Seismic effect and lighting following 4. for example.SECTION 3 RECREATIONAL.1 The electrical installations covered in this Section.Theatres . amusement. SCOPE 1. In view of the nature of use of such occupancies.r (1) Presence of water Characrerbrics (2) Probability of presence of water negligible The quantity or nature of dust or foreign solid bodies is not significant The quantity and nature of coirosive or polluting substances is not significant Impact and vibration of low severity Depends on the location of the building Remarks (3) 0.s Electrical operating areas Small thcatres and cinemas Multiple cinema halls. recreation. educational or officecommercial-curzl-cinema c o m p l e x s h a l l a l s o comply with this Section. assembly halls.The following environmental factors shall apply to recreational an’d assembly buildings: &n~Vro.0 General guidelines on the assessment of characteristics of installations in buildings are given in Section 8. The type of buildings covered in this Section are enumerated in 3. such as those meant for recreational and assembly purposes. clubs. social.1 Environment . auditoria. motion-picture (cinema) houses. etc. which are also basically assembly buildings. 6 of the Code. theatres. temporary or travclling depending on the nature or construction of the premises.2 Utilization . easy conditions of evacuation High density. are covered separately under Part 3’ Sec. 4.1 This Section of the Code covers requirements for electrical installation in buildings. For t h e purpose of installations falling under the scope of this section the characteristics defined below generally apply. T E R M I N O L O G Y 2. are those in buildings intended for the following purposes: Assetnhl!~/ Recreational Buildings ~~ These shall include any building where groups of people congregate or gather for amusement.1 NOTE -. difficult condltions o f evacuation Nature of processed or stored material Existence of fire risk aspects of Remarks (3) Majority of the 0ccupant. 3. 2. say. restaurants. Part 1 of the Code.2 The lighting design of such buildings are generally sophisticated. dance halls. museums. social or religious. It shall also be noted that assembly buildings forming part of other building complex. auditoria and the like. CLASSIFICATION 3. 0.are also classified further as permanent (air-conditioned and non-airconditioned). places of worship. theatres. These include cinema halls. required to be properly coordinated with the electro-acoustic demands. On the physical aspects of lighting and sound systems i n r e c r e a t i o n a l b u i l d i n g s .

5 Temporary wiring shall not be allowed in cabin. stairways. Ends of conduits shall be provided with screwed bushes. 5.15 The installation in a travelling cinema should generally c o n f o r m t o t h e a b o v e requirements a n d t h e b u i l d i n g s h o u l d b e sufficiently away from the near? conductor of power lines (.1. in particular on the following aspects: a) Audio-visual systems. and iv) Additional power connections.6 The cabin equipment shall be accessible at all times. passage ways.1.CHARACTERISTICS 5.10 All the lighting fittings shall be at a height of not less than 2. it should be taken only at a point of NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE . building contractor and the electrical engineer on the various aspects of the installation design in a building intended for recreational or assembly purposes.1.5 metres from each other. 5 . and c) For the remaining half of the auditorium.1.1.25 m. 5. rewinding room.1.13 In the queue sheds. queue sheds and similar places. and auditorium.0 The branch circuits shall-in general cater to the following individual load groups: a) Power installation: i) Stage machinery. 5.1.1. A front clearance of I m ‘should alsd be provided. exit and parts of the building open to the public.2 The installation work shall conform to the provisions of Indian Electricity Rules as well as other Rules applicable for assembly buildings formulated by the State Authorities. the wiring for the ‘open yard lighting shall be done with weather-:proof cables threaded through porcelain reel insulators suspended by earthed bearer wire at a height of not less than 5 m from ground level.11 The single pole switches for the individual lights and fans shall be mounted on sheet steel boards suitably earthed.4 Wiring shall be of the conduit type.1. and c) General auditorium lighting and other special service needs.14 For outdoor lighting. passage ways.1. in assembly buildings.3 The cabin shall be provided with two separate circuits. Nothing shall impede access to any part of the equipment or its controls. o n e f e e d i n g t h e c a b i n 124 and air-conditioning 5. the advice of the appropriate specialists shall be obtained. 5. etc. stage and portable 5. 5.1. all cables shall be enclosed in screwed metal conduits adequately earthed. Ends of conduits shall enter and be mechanically secured to the switch. 5. 5.0. and ii) In the rear of the theatre for stage. 5.0. water-tight fittings shall be used and fittings may be so mounted without spoiling the aesthetic view of the recreation buildings. 1 . Within the enclosure.5 m from the floor.1 Proper coordination shall be ensured between the architect.2 The control of the circuits in respect of the two halves of the auditorium referred to in 5. such as general lighting of outdoor.1. ii) Ventilation installation. audio systems lights.9 Wood work shall not be used ‘for t‘he mounting of or construction of the framework for iron-clad switch and distribution boards and controlgear.1.0. 1 The electrical lighting of the main building shall have atleast three separate and distinct main circuits as follows: a) For the enclosures (cabin) and hence through a dimmer regulator to the central lighting of the auditoriurp. foyer. 5. 5.1. work place dressing rooms. 5.1. with controls near the stage motor.7 Linked tumbler switches shall not be used for the control of circuits.Y(Y 2. PVC conduits may be used in the auditorium and other places. 5. control gears. bulk head fittings shall be used. b) Lighting: i) In front of the theatre. 5.17 In case of travelling cinemas. c) Emergency supply.1. stairways. 5. iii) Lifts. The reel insulators shall be spaced 0. b) For one half of the auditorium. exit and parts of the building open to the public.1. 5.1.2 of Part I I Set 7 of the Code). For large projecis. b) Stage lighting and control. equipment terminal boxes. 5. SUPPLY PARAMETERS 5.12 Suitable socket outlets shall be provided on the side walls for tapping supply to screen focussing lights. workshops and storehouses.1.1 Branch Circuits 5. 5.1 shall be remote from each other.8 Branch and main distribution boards shall be mcunted at suitable height not higher than 2 m from the floor level.18 When a tapping is taken from the open yard wiring. 5. Exchange of Information AND equipments and the other lights and fans. corridors and stairs.16 The plug points shall be provided at a height of about 1.

2.3 Service Lines .4 In the event of a breakdown of the airconditioning plant. Art Galleries: a) General b) Paintings 5. 5. 125 PART 3 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN NON-INDlJSTRIAL BUILDINGS . Usually.6.LARE INDEX a) A s t h e r e w i l l b e c o n c e n t r a t i o n a n d movement of people. auditoria b) Platforms c) Corridors d) Stairs 2.2 Air-Conditioning 5.2.2. The choice of lamps. fixed to the supporting pole. The general rules given below shall apply. P A R T OF BU I L D I N G ILLUMINATION Automatic fire alarm system Manualy operated electrical fire-alarm system L IMITING VALUE OF G.6. Such occupancies can’ be further classified into groups depending on the capacity of the theatre/auditorium to hold the congregation (see SP : 7-1983*).4 Building Substation 5.2 In air-conditioned assembly buildings. supply at voltages above I kV is given for large theatres and auditoria. The following shall be provided besides fire-fighting equipment: a) Buildings having a theatrical stage and fixed seats *Code of practice for design installation and maintenance of service lines~ up to and including 650 V +National Building Code. lighting fittings and /Igeneral lighting design together with power r&$nrement shall be planned based on the recommended values of illumination and glare index given in Table I. preferably at the rear of the building.4.5.1 The following aspects shall be taken . 5.6.1 The general rules laid down in Part I/ Set I4 of the Code shall apply. lifts and the lighting and fan circuits.The general rules laid down in Part I /Set 14 of the Code shall apply. I6 I6 :i I50 :: 100 IO IO - N OTE . TABLE 1 RECOMMENDED VALUES OF ILLUMINATION AND GLARE lNDEX SL NO. 5. green rooms. 5. the substation should be located away from the area where people and vehicles move about.3 Provisions shall be made to record the temperature inside the auditorium. Theatres: a) Foyers b) Auditoria c) Corridors d) Stairs 100-150 450 70 I00 I50 :: I00 I50 Special Lighting - c) It is desirable that the transformer which contains a large quantity of oil is not located in the basement as there is risk of fire. alternate arrangements should be available for ventilation and air circulation.6 Building Services 5. 5.0 The electrical power demand of an assembly building can vary from 30 kVA to more than I 000 kVA according to the.2.The above is meant for general guidelines apd does not include special lighting effects. Typical fire-fighting installation requirements are also covered therein.1 Feeder circuits shall generally conform to the requirements laid down in Part I /Set I1 of the Code.0 The rules for protection for safety laid down in Part !/Set 7 of the Code shall apply.5 k 2.2 Separate feeders shall be taken to airconditioning units. Cinemas: a) Foyers b) Auditoria c) Corridors d) Stairs 3. Building substations shall conform to the general requirements specified in Part 2 of the Code.2. 5. 5. Assembly and concert: a) Foyers. (1) (2) lux (3) (4) b) The substation should not be in the way of people and fire-fighting vehicles and personnel where they are -likely to attend to an emergency.6. Museums: a) General b) Display 4. 5.5.2.Service lines shall conform to the provisions laid down in IS : 8061-1976* 5. I.5 System Protection 5.2 Feeders 5.75”C.1 Tile type of occupancies covered in this Section fall under Group D (assembly buildings) from the point of view of fire safety classification. size of the building.6. corridor. inside temperature shall be 25. 5.1 Lighting .support through-porcelain connectors housed in a junction box. Reference may also be made to SP : 7-19837 on guidelines for fire protection of buildings.note of while deciding the location of substation: i) Stage Automatic sprinkler Automatic fireii) Auditoria. 5.6.4. alarm system canteen and storage b) Buildings without a stage but no permanent seating arrangement c) All other structures designed for assembly 5.

the control-room shall be situated in a convenient position. The various possibilities of switching each fittings shall be kept in view while designing the lighting circuits. Therefore.1 Emergency Supply . the lighting operator shall have a good view of the stage in order to be able to follow the performance. Gross Area in m2/ Person 0.1. 14 of the Code. dimmer-control equipment may be required. 7. 7. However.This shall be as follows: Occupancy. the design of the lifts shall take into account the following recommendations: a) Occupant load.3 G r o u p C o n t r o l --The lighting in the auditorium shall be suitably combined into control groups to facilitate group switching. suitable standby generator set shall be installed. projectors. System .2 Depending on the total capacity required for-standby supply for the occupancy. are required for illumination.Installation 7.6 failure of main’ supply shall be provided.4 Audio-Visual of amplifying and sound distribution systems shall conform. 6. a great number of spotlights. 7.See also Part 2 of the Code. In the special case of stage lighting control. including portable light sources. etc. MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS 7. border lights. Assembly halls with fixed or loose seats and dance floors Without seating facilities including dining rooms 1.5 b) Passenger handling capacity and car speed . The location of the standby supply shall preferably be on the ground level away from the auditorium so that noise from the generator reaching the audience could be minimised.As given in Part 3/Set 2. 7. sufficient number of emergency lights fed from independent source or sources. TESTING OF INSTALLATION 6. The changeover of supply arrangements should be reliable and easy to operate.1. with the provision for automatic switching-on in case of 126 NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE .1 The various tests on the installation shall be carried out as laid down in Part l/Set IO of the Code.3 Lifts and Escalators -The general rules laid down in Part I /Set 14 of the Code shall apply. Occupant Load./ Set .1 In all recreational and assembly buildings. For same lighting schemes.6. 7.2 Stage Lighting -On the stage of a theatre.5.to the guidelines contained in Part I.

in medical establishments. b) The electrical resistance of the skin. clay. operating preparation room. steam.1 Anaesthetic Room . by signal transmission lines) between the rooms of such a group exists. Bl’ILDlNGS 127 . NOTE .6 Endoscopic Room . FOREWORD 2. performed under anaesthesia.5 Deliver. 8 Hemoclial~~sis R o o m ---. slime. 1 . 1 .SECTION 4 MEDICAL ESTABLISHMENTS 0. in which medical equipment and utensils are sterilized. T E R M I N O L O G Y 2. This Section is based on the following considerations: The patient may not be in a condition’ to react normally to the effects of hazardous events. not spatially connected to a medically used room.\drorherap. 2.ATlONS IN NON-INDI’STRIAI. the breakdown of which may cause a dangerous situation.1. NOTE . 2 .1.4 Central Sterilization Room .Room. operating plaster room and surgeries.* Room . with contrast media.A central monitoring room is considered to be part of a Room Group. Examples o f a p p l i e d procedures are measurement o f a c t i o n p o t e n t i a l s o f t h e haemodynamics of the heart. which is normally an important protection against harmful electric currents is bypassed in certain examinations or treatments. Examples of such methods are therapeutic treatments with water. 2. This Section is also applicable to rooms for veterinary medicine and dental practice. in water* Swimming pools for general use and normal bath-rooms are not considered as hydrotherap!. 2. massage thermotherapy and thermothcrap!. brine with gases. Room in . sand. brine. 1 .Anaesthetic room comprises for instance the actual operating theatre. i n j e c t i o n o f c o n t r a s t a g e n t s o r application of pacemakers.Room in which the output signals of several patient monitors are displayed. 2 .1. 2. laryngoscopic. 7 H e a r t Catheterizarion Rooter -~. drawing of blood samples. call for special treatment. *General and safety requirements for electrical equipn nt . etc.0 In addition to the definitions contained in Part I/Set 2 of the Code the following shall apply.1. In the preparation of this Section considerable assistance has also been derived from IEC 62A (Secretariat) 55 ‘Requirements for electrical installations in medical practice’ issued by the International Electrotechnical Commission.a medical establishment intended to connect patients to medical electrical equipment in order to detoxicate their blood.3 Central Monitoring Room . bronchoscopic. where flammable atmosphere exists.2 A n g i o g r a p h i c E x a m i n a t i o n R o o m Room intended for displaying arteries or veins. if a conductive connectlon (for example. methods are E x a m p l e s o f endoscopic cystoscopic.2 Safety requirements for electrical equipmen! used in medical practice are covered in IS : 8607 (in Parts)*. gastroscopic and similar methods. Additional safety provisions in the electrical installations of medically used rooms and medical establishments are covered in this Section of the Code. inhalation therapy. 0.v Roonr -. 2.Koom in n hich patients are treated by hydrotherapeutlc mcthodh. and d) Specific locations in medical establishments d Electric and magnetic interference may disturb certain medical examinations or treatments. These are enumerated in 4. 9 H.3 The basic aspects of the safety philosophy for installations in hospitals have been standardized at the IEC Level.Room in which the actual birth takes place.R o o m intended for the examination or treatment of the heart using catheters. rooms ‘With o r wIthout addfitl\cr c) Medical electrical equipment may often be used to support or substitute vital body functions. multidisciplinary hospital in big cities. several units functioning simultaneously with a variety of support services to cater to the needs of doctors and patients. The latter type will have 2. if necessary.1. mud.1 This Section of the Code applies to’ the electrical installations. 1. water with gases. electrotherapy in water*. PART 3 ELECTRICAL INSTAI. 2 . stored or computed.1 Hospitals in the country vary in size from simple premises used for medical purposes in villages to a wekquip’ped.I. 2.d in medical practice (Parts I to 3). SCOPE 1.Medically used room in which general inhalation anaesthetics are intended to be administered. 0.1 Rooms 0.1.Room intended for application of endoscopic methods for the examination of organs through natural or artificial orifices.

liable to inadvertent disconnection. if required. such as X-ray equipment.28 Ward ..19 Operating Recover.1. etc) of human beings or animals.3 Zone G .1. means of radiography or fluoroscopy or by the use of radio-active isotopes or for other diagnostic purposes. by administering anaesthetics.rture Mixture of a flammble anaesthetic vapour with oxygen or with nitrous oxide in such a concentration that ignitign may occur under specified conditions.Room in which utensils required for an operation are sterilized. monitoring.Room 2. Room .R o o m in which patients are connected for the purpose of intensive examination.1 I Intensi~~e E. by their designated medical purpose or by intcrconnectcd medical electrical equipment.Room in which bed patients are monitored independently of an operation by means of electromedical equipment. Room . Body actions (for example.Room in which the patient under observation recovers from the influence of anaesthesia.subject to a high rate of deterioration.10 Intcwsi\v Care Room . electromedicai measuring or monitoring devices. Such a room belong. or . but not for the purpose of several simultaneously to treatment.I4 Medical Estahlishmenr -. 2. 2.2. Used intended to be used for medical. 2. NOI1 Such a room helong~ IO the operating a n d I\ u~uall! \patiall) connected to I I room group 2.1 OFlantntahle Anaesthetic A t m o s p h e r e Mixture of a flammable anaesthetic vapour and or a vapour of a flammable disinfection or cleaning agent with air in such a concentrStion that ignition may occur under specified conditions.12 Intett.1. or in any other medical establishment. gamma radiation or corpuscular radiation or by the use of radio-active isotopes.1 .4 Zone M -~ Volume in a medically used room in which small quantities of flammable anaesthetic atmospheres of flammable N A T I O N A L E L E C T R I C A L COL)E 2. 128 .2. treatment. 2.Room in which patients are prepared for an operation. 2.nt enclosure where ieakage may occur because such parts are: ..R o o m intended for the use of ionizing radiation to obtain therapeutic effects on the surface of the body or in internal organs by means of Xradiation.R o o m i n w h i c h diagnostic or therapeutic procedures are performed on the urogenital tract using electromedical equipment. if necessary using anaesthetics or analgesics. treatment or monitoring of persons or animals.16 Minor Surgical Thearre . 2. 2. heart circulation. respiration) may be stimulated. 2 F l a m m a b l e Anaeslheric Mi.R o o m i n which plaster of Paris or similar dressings are applied while anaesthesia is maintained. guided or used including the surroundings of a completely or partly enclosed equipment or equipment part up to a distance of 5 cm from parts of the equipme. such an enclosure \ and possibly the surroundings of it (subject to possible leakage) up to a distance of 5 cm from said enclosure or part of it is regarded as a Zone G.1. 2.2.Room intended for the use of ionizing radiation for display of internal structures of the body by.Medically used room or room group in which patients are accommodated’for the duration of their stay in a hospital.Volume in a medically used room in which continuously or temporarily small quantities of flammable anaesthetic mixtures may be produced. .21 Operating Thearre . 2.2 Zones of Risk --(see also Appendix A).l. using electromedical equipment. Group of medically 2.1.I5 Medicall. to the operaring room group NoIt a n d I\ . NOT k Such a room IS usually very close room group but not necessarily part of it.ramination R o o m . 2.23 Ph.1.1. IO the operating 2. Nork Such a room belongs 10 the operating room group and is spatially connected to it. Body actions may be stimulated if required.Room in which minor operations are performed on ambulant or non-ambulant patients. 2 .1113 Lahour R o o m .1.. 2.1.Establishment for medical care (examination.1. 2. endoscopic equipment and highfrequency surgery equipment.si\y Monitoring Room R o o m i n which operated patients are monitored.1.1. 2 .vsiotherapj.24 Radiological Diagnostic Room .1. 2.1 .parlally connected IO i t . 2.2.1. nursing. transport.25 Radiologkal Therapy R o o m .Room in which patients are treated by physiotherapeutic methods. 2.26 R o o m G r o u p used rooms linked with each other in their function.1.R o o m i n w h i c h patients are prepared (waiting) for delivery.Room in which surgical operations are performed.unprotected and liable to be broken. 2.20 Operating Sterilization Room .\. dental or veterinary examination. Nort Such a room belongs 10 the operating room group and is spatially connected IO It. R o o m .27 Urolog.22 Operating Wash Room . Where the leakage occurs into another enclosure which is not sufficiently (naturally or forcedly) ventilated and enrichment of the leaking mixture may occur.18 Operating Preparation Room . Room . for example.17 Operating Plaster Room -.1. 2.Room in which medical staff at an operation can wash for disinfection purposes.

I n s t r u m e n t m e a s u r i n g t h e o h m i c resistance between the monitored isolated circuit and earth providing an alarm when the value of this resistance becomes less than a given limit. connected. Resislance Moniroring Dellice . F o r t h e purpose of installations falling under the scope of this section.6 I n s u l a t i o n M o n i t o r i n g D e v i c e Instrument indicating the occurrence of an insulation fault from a live part of an isolated electrical supply system to the protective conductor of the installation concerned. Moniror hazard current . Fauh hazard curren! . 2.Voltage not exceeding a nominal value of 25 V ac or up to and including 60 V dc or peak valee at rated supply voltage on the transformer or convertor between conductors is an earth-free circuit isolated from the supply mains by a medical safety extra-low voltage transformer or by a convertor with separate windings.vpira1. 2. which is used for housing treating persons s u f f e r i n g from physical limitations because of health. The following hazard currents are recognized: Tolal hazard current . between simultaneously accessible parts. age. connected.3.group of buildings which is used for the custody and care of persons.9 M e d i c a l Safe07 Extra. 4. 2 .3. the characteristics given below apply.1 The electrical installations covered in this section are those in buildings inten.Hazard current of an isolated system with all supplied equipment. A Zone M may be caused by leakage of a flammable anaesthetic mixture from a Zone G or by the application of flammable disinfection or cleaning agents. G E N E R A L C H A R A C T E R I S T I C S O F MEDICAL ESTABLISHMENTS 4.anaestneucs with air may occur. for example. including the line isolation monitor.3.3.3 Special Terms 2. Cusrodial In.Value of a residual current causing a protective device to operate under specified conditions.1 Environment ~~~ The following environmental factors shall apply to hospitals: PART 3 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN NON-INDIbTRIAI. engine driven generator).12 Touch Volrage during an insulation fault.2 Essenrial Circuir ~.10 Operaring Residual Current . Voltage appearing. such as children -(excluding schools).3. 2.s~i~utions .Circuit for supply of equipment which is kept in operation during power failure.isolated conductor and earth. 2.ment in order to minimize the a) Ho. This also includes infirmeries. 2.3 Generalor Se. 7 I n s u l a t i o n . 2.3. orphanages. 8 M e d i c a l I s o l a t i n g Tran.A n y a r e a up t o I. Where a Zone M is caused by leakage. NOTE ~ T h i s c u r r e n t i s e x p r e s s e d in milliampere\.ded for the following purposes: 2. 3 . 2. Bl:ILDINGS I29 . it comprises the space srrounding the leakage area of a Zone G up to a distance of 25 cm from the leakage point 2.Hazard current of an isolated system with all supplied equipment.3. CLAGSIFICATION 3. . sanatoria and nursing homes. 4.LoHv V o l t a g e (Mselv) .This includes any building or.11 Patient Environmen! .1 Equipotenrial Bonding . 2 . except the line isolation monitor. NOTE Provisions f o r s u p p l y o f such arcuat wparatcl! f r o m t h e r e m a i n d e r o f t h e electrical lnbtallation arc prcwnr likelihood of discontinuity of supply in case of a failure tb earth in the isolated power source or in equipment connected to it.Electrical connection intended to bring exposed conductive parts or extraneous col’ductive parts to the same or approximately the hame potential. convalescent homes.Self-contained energy convertor including all essential components to Supply electrical power (for example. etc.4 H a z a r d Currenr .3. injury or disease. mental hospitals.Hazard current of the line isolation monitor.yfijrmer -Electrical equipment used in medical practice intended to supply isolated power to medical electrical equip. 3. convalescents and the aged.5 Insularion I m p e d a n c e M o n i t o r i n g Device .3.3.5 m distance from the intended location of the paticnl in which intentional or unintehtional contact between patient and equipment or some other person touching the equipment can occur (sre Appendix H).A device measuring the ac impedance at mains frequency from either of the conductors of an isolated circuit to earth and predicting the hazard current that will flow when an earth fault occurs and providing an alarm when a preset value of that current is exceeded.Total current for a giveh set of connections in an isolated power system that would flow through a low impedance if it were connected between either.v a n d Sonaloria This includes any building or group of buildings. home for the a g e d a n d i n f i r m . of the C o d e .0 General guidelines on the assessment of characteristics of installations in buildings are g i v e n i n Part I/Set X. 3 . 2.

operation thcatre.wc~ P a r t 1 St2 X ol the Code) cl Restriction of the potential equalization d) If more than one patlent is present in an‘ a r e a . that could lead to excessive currents through the patient.Environmen: (1) Presence of fcci~. Ail accessible extraneous conductive parts in the zone shall be connected to this potential equalization bar.0 General 5. During the application of equipment with direct contact to the patient. etc.t. Restriction of voltage differences by supplementary equipotential bonding. operations and matntenance staff Persons adequately advised or supervised by skilled persons Contact of persons with earth potential Persons do not in usual condttions make contact with extraneom conductive part\ or stand on conductmg surfaces b) Conditions of evacuation during emergency Nature of process or stored materials Difficult condttionr Apphes in general to of evacuation ho\pual\ and stmtlar buildings. some parts of the installation may be present in the patient’s environment. at least a potential equalized zone around the patient shall be provided with a patient centre bonding bar to which the protective and functional earth conductors of the equipment are connected. Since a reduction of such a voltage drop by the application of increased cross-sectional areas of protective conductors is usually impractical. irrebpectivc of denbtty of occupation Fire or risk M a n y locarton\ rn hospnal butldtngs tn gcncral uould fall under category B E I of no stgnificant fire or explosion risk. protective conductors and protective devices to restrict continuous voltage differences. 5. casualit) mcdtcine store. For this purpose a combination of earthing of equipment and potential equalization in the installation seems to provide the best solution. sanatoria. X-Ray block fall under BE 2 and BE 3 (. solid Characteristics (2) The quantity or nature of dust or foreign solid bodies is not significant The quantity and nature of corrosive or polluting substances is not significant Remarks (3) - 5.\i.0.2 Generally a power supply system including a separated protective conductor is required (TN-S-system).irc. orphanages. must be avoided.0 In the context of this Section ‘installation’ means any combination of interconnected electrical equipment within a given space or location intended to supply power to electrical equipment used in medical practice. connection 01 lhc Iarious p o t e n t i a l equalization ccnIrc\ to ‘a central potential equali/nrion hu4har.~tcrn 01 the po\\er s u p p l y f o r t h e gl\cn . 5.0. E L E C T R I C A L CODE I30 . zone to the /one around one patient.1 As such. where the occupants are not in command of all their physical and intellectual abihties Applies to areas such as building substations. nursing homes.such a system is that in the case of an insulation fault in circuits directly connected to supply mains. spcctfic locations like. w h i c h s h o u l d prcferahl! he connected to the protective earth >!.tctic:tll! around one operation table or around one bed in an intensive care room. where potential differences. depending upon the nature of the examinations or treatments performed: a) A d d i t i o n a l requirements concerninp. In its completed lorm the equipotential sAl-Ios. Seismic effect and lightning - Depends on the location of the building 4.0. meaning pi-. the fault current may cause a considerable voltage drop over the protective earth conductor of the relevant circuit. In addition the following provisions may be required. SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS 5. available solutions are the reduction of the duration of fault currents to earth by special devices or the application of a power supply which is isolated from earth. A disadvantage of.The following aspects of utilization shall apply: Utili:arion (1) Capabthty o f persons Characrerrtrtrs (2) Children in locations intended for their occupation Handicapped Remarks (3) Applies to child-care homes. laboratories in hospitals) will be categorized as in Part l/Set 8 Mechanical stress Impact and vibration of low severity. etc Applies to hospitals in general. Presence of corrosive or polluting substances Locations where some chemical products are handled (for example.2 Utilization .

general wards. The device may consist of rechargeable batteries possibly combined with convertors or special generating sets.1.bonding network may consist partly of fixed and permanently installed bonding and partly of a number of separate bondings which are made when the equipment is set up near the patient.The use of TN-C-S system (in which the PEnconductor may carry current in normal condition) can cause safety hazards for the patients and interfere with the function of medical electrical equipment. consulting room). anti-static precautions and careful layout of the installation. h) Prevention of ignitions and tire in rooms where flammable anaesthetics or flammable cleaning or disinfection agents are used by ventilation. etc. SUPPLY CHARACTERISTICS AND PARAMETERS 6. 4 Restriction of the duration of transient voltage difference by the application of residual current operated protective devices (earth leakage circuit-breakers). (b) and (c) may be massage rooms.4 A typical example of an installation in a hospital is given in Appendix C. Connections shall be made to the -following parts by bonding conductors : 5.2. usually a diesel-powered generator.1. 1 .1 Circuit Installation Measures for Safety Provisions -(See Table I. The necessary terminals for these bonding conne**ions should be present on equipment and in the installation.0. The power supply is taken over by these devices in a short time. ‘b) earthing systems of the electric power distribution system. Provision P. 5.3 Guidance on the application of the provisions are given in Table 2. BUILDINGS 131 PART 3 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN NON-INDUSTRjAL . 6 .1 Proper coordination shall be ensured between the architect. l3) Monitoring of a first insulation fault to earth in an IT-system (the secondary side of an isolating transformer) with sufficiently high impedance to earth. need not be complied with if: a) a room is not intended for the use of medical electrical equipment.1. building contractor and the electrical engineer or the various aspects of installation design. 6. co1 3. equipment as life-supporting equipment and operating room lamps. 5.1 All buildings in the hospital area which contain medically used rooms shall have a TN-S. or c) only medical electrical equipment is used which is internally powered or of protection Class II.4 A main equipotential bonding with a main earthing bar shall be provided near the main service entrance.1. j) Safety supply system for major parts of the hospital. r) Continuity of power supply to certain equipment in the case of a first insulation fault to earth and restriction of transient voltage differences by application of isolating transformers.1. T-T or IT power system.1. shall be applicable for all medically used rooms. 6. shall be applicable to all buildings containing medically used r o o m s . Suppression of electroma netic interference achieved by the layout o fg the building and wiring a n d p r o v i s i o n o f s c r e e n i n g arrangements. 2 .2 Provision PC.1. 2 P r o t e c t i v e c o n d u c t o r s inside a medically used room shall be insulated: their insulation shall be coloured green-yellow (see Part I 1 Set 4 of the Code). data processing equipment. where medical electrical equipment is not used. The necessary special features of installations shall be ascertained beforehand with reference to Table 2. The rooms mentioned under (a). Recommendations for essential cirouits to be connected to it. 6. 5. 6.2. doctor’s examining room (office..) 6.1. d) the conductive water supply line. Other requirements of this Section.1 Provision PO : General 6.3 Exposed c o n d u c t i v e p a r t s o f equipment being part of the electrical installation used in the same room shall be connected to a common protective conductor.1.0 Exchange of Information 6.1 Safety Provisinw $1.2. k) Special safety supply system for critical 6.1 The conventional touch voltage limit (LIL) is fixed at 25 V ac. or b) patients do not come intentionally in contact with medical electrical equipment during 4 lightning-conductor.2 Provision PI : Medical TN-S system 6. diagnosis or treatment. Limits for magnetic fields of mains frequency are necessary tor a number of sensitive measurements.1. c) the central heating system. signal transmission lines.1 S a f e t y measureS a r e d i v i d e d i n t o a number of provisions as given in Table I. N O T E. The conventional touch voltage limit (UL) is fixed at 50 V ac.

TABLE I SAFETY PROVISIONS (Cbusr 5.1.1) PllovlsloNs (1) PO PI S P RINCIPAL R~QUIRHUIENT~ (2) Dupm~f touch voltages ratricted to 8 As I?0 but 8dditiorully : touch volt8ga in p8tient environment restricted to 8 s8fe limit As PI but 8dditiotully : Resist8nce between extmn&us conductive parts md the protective conductor bus b8r of the room not exceeding 0.1 fl INSTALLATION Msluurn (9 TN-S, m or IT system Addition81 to p0 : Supply system with additional requirements for protective cuthing. etc Additiorul to PI : Suppkmentrry quipotenti8l bonding

I

As P, or Pz : Meuurement neccas8ry. A s PI or Pz but 8ddition8Uy : Potenti difference between expo&d conductive p8rts, rtion possibly neccssuy exttmneous aDnductiw p8rts md the protective conductor bus brr not exceeding t0 mV in normal condition (WC Note b&w)

corrective

p1 A P6

As PI or A. Addition81 protection ryinst ckctric shock by ,limit8tion of dironnccting time Continuity of the timins su ply m8intllined in cue of 8 rurt insuktion P rult to earth and currents to euth restricted Reduction of f8ult currents 8nd touch volt8ges in case of 8 f8ult in ths b8sic insuktion Prevention of dangerous touch voltages in norm81 condition rnd in singk f8ult condition (WC Note below) No interruption of the power sup ly of the or essential circuits of the hospit8l P more th8n 15 seconds N? interruption of ,the power supply of \;e-ss%po$mg qurpment for more th8n No in~rruption of the power supply of the oper8tmg kmp for more thur 0.5 seconds Prevention of cxpbsions. fue and ekctrostatic c barges

Additions1 to PI or P2 : Residual current oper8ted protective device Addition81 to PI, 4, or Pa : kol8ted supply system with isol8tion monitoring Additional to P, or P2 : Medical isolating transformer supplying one individually piece of equipment Additioilal to PI or P2 : Supply with medical S8fCty. extra low voltage spfety supply system

P7

G E

El

Special safety supply system

4
A. I ~

Special s8fety supply system for operating lamp Measures concerning explosion and fire hazards Layout of building nnd installation, scmning

No excessive interference from ekctric and
nugnetic folds

NOW - Normal condirlon means .without any fault’ in the installation. TABLE 2 EXAMPLES OF APPLICATION OF SAFETY PROVISIONS (Clausr 5. I .3) SL Ms0ICAL.Lv USED R00M P~~TE~w~E MEASURES , P./A Pa (4) 0 X 0 x X x X X 0 P, (3) M w8sh M M M * I S AFETY SUPPLY SYSTEM h E XPLOSIONS M EASURES AND F I R E AGAWST EM FIELDS

.

P4
(5)

Ps

P6
(6)

A
(7) (8) 0 0 0 0 0 0

GE
(9) xx x x x x 0

EI

El

A
(13)

I
(14)

(0
I. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

(2)
Murage room Operating room w8rd general Delivery room ECG. room

(lo) (11) (12)

x

0

0 X

EEG, Q4G M room

Endoscopic

M X

0 (Conrinued)

132

NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE

TABLE 2 EXAMPLES OF APPLlCATlON OF SAFETY PROVISIONS-Conrd SL No. MEDICALLY USED RoOM PROTECTIVE MEWIRES SAFEN SUPPLY SYSTEM E XPLOSIONS U EAWRES AND F IRE A GAINST EM F IELDS A (13) I 04)

p.1 PI

S
(4) 0 X 0 X

P3

P.

6
(7) 0 0

P6

Pl
(9) 0 0 0 0

GE

El

(1)

(2)

(3) M M M M

(5)

7. Examination or tratmcnt room 8. hbour room 9 . Opcmting rtixiliition room 10. Urology room (not
being an operating theotre)

(6) X X X X X

(8)

(10) X X X X X

(11)

& (12) 0

0

0

I I.

Radiological diagnostic and therapy

M

X

0

room, other than mentioned under SI No. 20 and 24 12. Hydrotherapy
room 13. Physiotherapy room

M U

X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X

X X X X X
Xl Xl Xl X,
0 X X X X X X X X X X X X X

0’

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X
X X X X X X X X 0 X 0 X X X X X X X X 0 X
0 0

14. Anaesthetic room 15. Operating theatre 16. Operating preparation room 17. 18. 19.
20. 21. Operating plaster room Operating recovery room Outpatient operating theatre

U U
U

0 X X
0

X X X X X

U U U U U
M U U
M M

X

XI X,

X X X X
0

Heart catheterization room Intensive care room Intensive examination room Intensive monitoring room Angiographic examination room Hemodialysis room Central monitoring room (see Note)

X 0 0 0 0 X 0

XI
Xl

22. 23. 24. 25. 26.

X
Xl XI Xl XI

X
0

0

0

N OTE - Only if such a room is part of a medical room group and therefore m\talled III the same way as an intensive monitoring room. Central momtoring room having no conductive connection 10 the medically used room (for example. by use ol isolating coupling devices for \~gnal tran\m~\von) ma) hc ln\talled ab non-mcdlcally used room (provl,lon PU only).
Explanation: M = X= X, = 0 = Mandatory measure. Recommended measure As X, but only lor equlpmenr de\crlhed III 6 . 1 . 6 . 7 . AdditIonal measure. ma! he con\ldered desirable.

e) the conductive parts of the waste water Ilne: f, the conductive parts of the gas supply; and g) t h e s t r u c t u r a l m e t a l f r a m e w o r k o f t h e building, if applicable.

Main euuipotential bonding conductors shall

have cross:se&tional areas not-less than half the c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l a r e a of the largest p r o t e c t i v e
c o n d u c t o r o f t h e i n s t a l l a t i o n , -subjict to a

minimum of 6 mm?. The cross-sectional area need
BUILDINGS 133

PART 3 ELECTRICAL INSTAI.I.ATIONS IN NON-INDIISTRIAL

not, however, exceed 25 mm* if the bonding conductor is of copper or a cro~s-s&ctional area affording equivalent current-carrying capacity in other metals. 6.1.2.5 Each medically used room or room group shall have its own protective conductor bus bar. which should have adequate .mechanical and electciCal properties and resistance against corrosion. This bus bar may be located in the relevant power distribution box. The leads connected to terminals of such a protective conductor bar shall be identified and shall be similarly designated on . drawings of the installation system. 6.1.2.6 The impedance (Z) between the protective conductor bar and each connected protective conductor contact in wall sockets or terminals should not exceed 0.2 n. if the rated current of the overcurrent protective device is 16 A or less. In case of a rated current exceeding I6 A the impedance should be calculated using the formula: Z+ fl, in all cases Z shall not exceed.0.2 0.

- 2.5 mm2 if mechanical protection is provided, and - 4 mm2 i.f mechanical protection is n o t
provided. 6.1.28 It may be necessary to run the protective conductor separate from the phase conductors. in order lo avoid measuring probkms when recording bioelectric potentials. P2 : Supplemenrary 6.1 .3 Provision Equiporenrial Bonding 6.1.3.1 In order to minimize the touch voltage, all extraneous conductive parts shall be connected lo the system of protective conductors. An equipotential conductor bar shall be prqvided. It should be located near the protective conductor bar (see aho 6.1.2.5). A combined protective conductor and equipotential bonding bar may be used, if all conductors are clearly marked according to 6.1.2.5 and 6.133 (e). 6.1.3.2 Connections shall be provided from the- equitiotential bonding bar to extraneous conductive parts, such as pipes for fresh water. heating. gases. vacuum and other parts with a &onductive surface area larger than 0.02 rn? or a linear dimension exceeding 20 cm. or smaller parts that may be grasped by hand. Additionally the foilowing requirements supply:

. I

where I, = rated current of overcurrent protective device in amperes.
The measurement of the protective conductor impedance should be performed with an ac current not less than IO A and not exceeding 25 A from a’source of current with a no-load voltage not exceeding 6 V. for a period of at least 5 seconds.
Non --

a) Such connections need not be made to:
I) Extraneous conductive parts inside o f walls (for example structural metal frame work of buildings) having no direct connection to any accessible conductive part inside the room. and 2) conductive parts in a non-conductive enclosure.

a r e a o f the 6.1.2.7 The cross-sectional protective conductor shall be not less than the appropriate value shown in Table 3.
TABLE 3 CROSS-SECTIONAL AREA OF CONDUCTORS
CRCKS-SEUIONAL A R E A OF PIME COND~UW S. mm’ MISIMI!M CROSS-SM.TIONAL AR E A O F TllE CORRESWNDING PROTWTIVE CONMKTOR. PE. mm?

b) In locations where the position of the
patient can be predetermined this provision may be restricted to extraneous conductive parts within the patient environment (see Appendix B)

Sd 16

c) In operating theatres. intensive care rooms,
heart catheterization rooms and rooms intended for the recording of bioelectrical actiol potentials all parts should be connected to the equipotential bonding bar via direct and separate conductors. 6.1.33 The following requirements shall be fulfilled:

16 < S G 35 s > 35

; -r

N O T E - If the application of this table produces norm standard si7es. conductors having the nearest standard crosssectional area are to be used.

The values in Table 3 are valid only if the protective conductor is made of the same metal as the phase conductors. If this is not so. the crosssectional area of the protective conductor is to be determined in a manner which produces a conductance equivalent to that which results from the application of Table 3. The cross-sectional area of every protective conductor which does not form part of the supply cable or cable enclosure shall be, in any case, not less than: 134

a)

T h e i m p e d a n c e betwe’en e x t r a n e o u s conductive parts and the equipotential bonding bar shall not exceed 0.1 fI.

I

N OTE - The measurement of this impedance should be performed with a current not less thin IO A and not exceeding 25 A during not less than 5 seconds from a current source with a no-load potential not,exceeding 6 V ac.

b)

All equipotential bonding conductors shall be insulated. the insulation being coloured green/ yellow.
NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE

NorI. lnbulation of the equipotential bonding cqnduclor4 IS necessary. lo avoid loops by contact and 10 avoid picking up of stray currents.

b) d

insulated so that it is not possible to touch them unintentionally, and provided with isolating joints at those places where they enter and leave the room.

cl Equipotcntial

conductors between permanently installed extraneous conductive parts and the equipotential bonding bar shall have a cross-sectional area of not less than -4 mm’ copper or copper equivalent.

Exposed conductive parts of permanently installed equipment may be isolated from the conductive building construction. 6.1.5 Provision PJ : Application tif ResidualCurrent Prohrive Devices 6.1.5.1 The use of a residual-current protective device is not r&ognized as a sole means of protection and does not obviate the need to apply the provisions P I and Pz. 6.1.5.2 Each room or each room group shall be provided with at least one residual-current protective device. 6.1.5.3 A residual-current protective device shall have a standard rated operating residualcurrent I A N < 30 mA. 6.1.5.4 A medical isolating transfbrmer and the circuits supplied,from it shall not be protected by a residual-current -protective device. 6.1.5.5 Electrical equipment such as general lighting luminaries. installed more than 2.5 m above floor level need not bc protected by a residual-current protective device. 6.1.5.6 Fixed and permanently installed electromedical e q u i p m e n t .wit h a p o w e r consumption requiring an overcurrent protective device of more than 63 A rated value may be connected to the supply mains by use of a residual-current protective device with I A N d 300 mA’. 6 . 1 . 6 Pro\isiou P5 : Metlicul IT-S,wem 6.1.6.0 The use of a medical IT-system for the supply, of medically used rooms for example operatmg theatres. may be desirable for different reasons :

4 The equipotential bonding bar. if any,
should have adequate mechanical and electrical properties. and resistance against corrosion.

e) T h e c o n d u c t o r s c o n n e c t e d t o t h e
equipotential bonding bar shall be marked and shall be similarly designated on drawings of the installation system. A separate protective conductor bar and an equipotential bonding bar in a medically used room or in a room group shall be interconnected with a conductor having a cross-sectional area of not less than 16 mm? copper or its equivalent (see also 6.1.3.1). An adequate number of equipotential bonding terminals other than these for protective conductor contacts or pins of socket outlets should be provided iq each room for the connection of an additional protect& conductor of equipment or for reasons of functional earthing of equipment. 6 . 1 . 4 Pro\si.siorl PJ : R e s t r i c t i o n of Touch Voltage irr Roon~ Equipped ,fiw Direct Cardiac Application 6.1.4.1 The continuous current through a resistance of I 000 R connected between the equipotential bonding bar and any exposed conductive part as well as any extraneous conductive part in the patient environment shall not exceed IO PA in normal condition for frequencies from dc to I kH7. For a description of patient environment. see Appendix B. Where the measuring device has an impedance and a frequency characteristics as given in Appendix D, the current may also be indicated as a continuous voltage with a limit of IO mV between the parts mentioned above. - During the test it is assumed that fixed and permanently installed medical electrical equipment is operating. -- ‘Normal conbitions* means ‘without airy fault in the installation and in the medical electrical equipment’.
N OTE -- To comply with this requirement it pay be
necessary lo apply one or more of the following methods:

a) A medical IT-system increases the reliability
of power supply in areas where an interruption of power supply may cause a halard to patient or user;

b) A medical IT-system reduces an earth fault
current to a low value and thus also reduces the touch voltage across a protective conductor through which this earth fault current may flow;

cl A medical IT-system reduces leakage
currents of equipment to a low value. where the medical IT-system i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y symmetrical to earth. It is necessary to keep the impedance to earth of the medical IT-system as high as possible. This may be achieved by: I) restriction of the physical dimensions of t\he medical isolating transformer. 135

Extraneous* conductive parts may be: a) connected to the equipotential bonding bar by a conductor of a large cross-sectional area in order to reduce the voltage drop accross sueh a conductor.
PART 3 ELECTRICAL INSTAI.LATIOP;S

IN NON-INDUSTRIAL Bl;ILDINCS

4

restriction of the system supplied by this transformer,

checking the response of the monitor to a fault condition as described in 6.1.6.4.

3) restriction of the number of medical electrical equipment connected to such a system, and 4) high internal impedance to ‘earth of the iinsulation monitoring device connected to such a circuit. If the primary reason for the use of medical ITsystem is the reliability of the power supply, it is not possible to define for such a system a hazard current and an insulation resistance monitoring device should be used. If,on the other hand the restriction of leakage current of equipment is the main reason for the use of the medical IT-system. an insulation impedance monitoring device should be used. 6.1.6.1 For each room or each room group at least one fixed and permanently installed medical isolating transformer shall be provided. 6.1.6.2 A medical isolating transformer shall be protected against short circuit and overload. In case of a short circuit or a double earth fault in parts of opposite polarity of the medical ITsystem the defective system shall be disconnected by the relevant overcurrent protective device. If more than one item of equipment can be connected to the same secondary winding of the transformer. at least two separately protected circuits should be provided for reasons of continuity of supply. 6.1.63 Overcurrent protective devices shall be easily accessible and shall be marked to indicate the protected circuit. 6.1.6.4 An insulation monitoring device shall be provided to indicate a fault of the insulation to earth of a live part of the medical IT-system. 6.1.6.5 Fixed and permanently installed equipment with a rated power input of more than 5 kVA and all X-ray equipment (even with a rated ower input of less than 5 LVA) shall be protected 1 y provision Pd. Electrical equipment such as general lighting, more than 2.5 m above floor level. may be connected directly to the sup’ply mains. 6.1.6.6 General requiremenrs ./or insulorion mohiroring devices - A separate insulation resistance or impedance monitoring device shall be provided for each secondary system. It shall comply with the requirements given below: a) It shall not be possible to render such a device inoperative by a switch. It shall indicate visibly and audibly if the resistance or impedance of the insulation falls below the value given Gn 6.1.6.7 and 6.1.6.8. The arrangement may be provided with a stopbutton for the audible indication only.

cl The visible indication mentioned in (a) of
the insulation monitoring device shall be visible in the monitored room or room group.

d)

The insulation monitoring device should be connected symmetrically to the secondary circuit of the transformer.

6. I .6.7 lnsulorion resi.wonc*e monitoring device-The ac resistance of ,an insulation resistance monitoring device shall be at least 100 kR The measuring voltage of the monitoring device shall be dc exceeding 25 V. and the measuring current (in case of a short circuit of an cxtcrnal conductor to earth) shall not exceed I mA. The alarm shall operate if the resistance bctwccn the monitored isolated circuit and earth is 50 kfI or less. setting to a higher value is recommended. impedance m o n i t o r i n g 6. I .6.8 lnsulolion device - An insulation impedance monitoring device shall give readings calibrated in total hazard current with the value of 2 mA near the centre of the meter scale. The device shall not fail to alarm for total hazard currents in excess of 2 mA. In no case. however. shall the alarm be activated until the fault hazard current exceeds 0.7 mA.
N O T E - T h e v a l u e s o f 2 mA or 0.7 mA a r e b a s e d o n practical experience with I10 IO I20 V power supplies. For a 220-240 V power supply it may be necessary IO in’crease these values to 4 mA and 1.4 mA because of the higher leakage current of equipment.

During the checking of the response of the monitor to a fault condition the impedance between the medical IT-system and earth shall not decrease. 6. I .7 Pro vision Pf. : Medical Elecrricol Seporor ion lndividuol

6.1.7.0 Individual electrical separation of a circuit is intended to prevent shock currents through contact with exposed conductive parts Which muy be energized by a fault in the basic insulation. 6.1.7.1 The source of supply. shall be a medical isolating transformer. 6.1.7.2 Only one item of equipment shall be connected to one source of supply. 6.1.73 The voltage of the secondary circuit shall not exceed 250 V. 6.1.7.4 Live parts of the separated circuit shall not be connected at any point to any other circuit or to earth. 6.1.75 To avoid the risk of a fault to earth, particular attention shall be paid to the insulation of such circuits from earth. especially for flexible cables and cords.
NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE

b) A test button shall be provided to enable 136

1.1. 6. c) extraneous conductive parts except that.1. 6.2 The main supply. all locks should be keyed alike. etc.4 Service Lines 6.2 Wiring 6. individually or collectively.of interruption of power supply.6 Live parts of circuits at medical safety extra-low voltage shall be electrically separated from other circuits. conductors shall preferably be brought into the building underground to reduce the possibility .7.2.8. Arrangements shall ensure electrical separation not less than required between the input and output of a medical safety extra-low voltage transformer.4 Inside the wards only silent type waH mounted switches should be used to reduce noise.6 In corridors and spaces accessible to public provisions shall be made for lighted signs.2. or b) protective conductors or exposed conductive parts of another system. conductors. cannot attain a voltage exceeding medtcal safety extra-low voltage.8. In particular. auxiliary switches and any part of a circuit with . The lighting points shall be so grouped so that minimum lighting may be switched on during night time.1.2. 6. or where electrical equipment is inherently required to be connected to extraneous conductive parts. 6. 6.3 Circuit-breakers are preferred to switchfuse units in power and lighting feeders. 6.2.1 Medical safety extra-low voltage shall not exceed 25 V ac or 60 V dc peak value. one of the following arrangements is required: a) Medical safety extra-low voltage circuit conductors shall be enclosed in a nonmetallic sheath additional to their basic insulation. 6.1.2 A supply transformer for medical safety extra-low voltage shall comply with relevant Indian Standards.6. electrotherapy. electrocardiograph.oltagc.Sec I I of the Code shall apply. shall either be physically separated from those of any other circuit or where this is impracticable. All conductors shall be physically separated from those of other circuits. 6. for the highest voltage present. 6. 6.I higher \.1. d Where circuits at different voltages a r e contained in a multi-conductor cable or other grouping of conductors.7.8.1.8.8.7 Medical safety extra-low voltage circuit conductors. b) Conductors of circuits at different voltages shall he separated by an earthed metallic screen or an earthed metallic sheath.2. 6.2 All panel boards and switchboards shall preferably be of dead front type. a) earth.8 Pt-m*isiorl P.8.1 The general provisions laid down in IS : 806l-1976* shall apply. diathermy. PART 3 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN NON-INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS 137 . electrical separation not less than that provided between the input and output windings of a medical safety extra-low voltage transformer shall be provided between the live parts of electrical equipment such as relays. medical safety extra-low voltage circuits shall be insulated.1. it is ensured that those parts.8. 6.2.In he above arranBcments.7. enclosed in metal cabinet. Advjce of equipment manufacturers shall also be sought in their installation. 6.1.8. 6. 6. 6.83 A source of medical safety extra-low voltage other than .a transformer shall have at least the same separation and insulation to other circuits and earth as required for the transformer under 6. basr-insulation of any conducto-r should comply only with the requimments for the voltage of the circuit of which :t is a part.5 Separate circuits shall be provided for Xray.1.2.6 Flexible cables and cords shall be visible throughout any part of their length where they are liable to mechanical damage. 6. *Code of practice for design. installation and maintenance of service lines up IO and including 650 V. 6.1 The general design of wiring shall conform to Part I /Set I I of the Code.8 Plugs and socket-outlets shall comply with the following requirements: a) Supply systems ot different voltages or different kinds or nature shall not have interchangeable plugs and sockets.3 Feeders-The general provisions laid down in Part I .4 Live parts at medical safety extra-low voltage shall not be connected to live parts or protective conductors forming part of other circuits or to earth.4.7 Special convenience outlets in corridors spaced about I2 m apart are desirable for portable treatment equipment and cleaning machines.1.4.2. and b) Socket-outlets shall not have a protective conductor contact.1. : Medical Sqfkts Errra-Low Vu/rage ( M S E L V ) 6. Where locked cabinets are provided. Switchboard and panel boards shall be installed in non-hazardous locations. 6.5 Exposed conductive parts shall not intentionally be connected to: NOTI+.

6. . The wiring for fire-fighting systems shall be segregated *National Building Code. These measures include mainly the use of antistatic flooring. the fire-fighting pump motors are generally large and they draw heavy current.haII be electrically conducting and shall be connected to the protective earth busbar. The gas-flow shall not be directed towards such electrical components.. Restricted paging system arrangement with sound alarm/ indicators in the duty rooms/nurses rooms shall be made.6 System Protection 6.6. -6. Sufficient care shall be taken to ensure that the supply to such motors is maintained properly.OGeneral. The effectiveness of a ventilation:system may be subjected to National Regulations. see Appendix B of SP : 7-1983*. Electrical wiring shall only be allowed to be run in a .~XI.We.6. Reference should be made to SP : 7-1983* for guidelines for fire-protection of buildings. TARLE 4 POWER REQUIREMENT PART OF EL~C:CTRICAL INSTALLATION from other wiring. such as oxygen or nitrous oxide if in the relevant circuit the p. &. the diversity factor for different electrical appliances and installations shall be considered.3 For guidelines on selection of fire detectors.The design of power supply for hospital and similar buildings shall take into account the concentration of power demand for the various electrical loads. besides fire-fighting equipment manually operated electrical fire alarm system and automatic firealarm system shall be provided.A~7~:’ Power R EQUIREMENT (2) Pcrcclit 5 (1) Lgtrting.of a suction system on anaesthesia equipment assists in reducing llammable concentrations of flammable anaesthetic mixtures in the patient environment. a shortcircuit of these leads or a short-circuit of one lead with a metal duct or pipeline shall not result in a temperature which may cause ignition. 6.dtttoning Sterilizer kKdv Ekctromcdical installations and other loads (3) 4 6.fo. For guidance.7 Fire-Protection .ro~nta\h~ospitals.2 The location and layout of building substation shall conform to the general rules laid down in Part 2 of the Code.1 Provision A : Explosion and Fire Protection 7.Bof su station eauipment will e required.Where electrical equipment contains pipes or tubes of combustion supporting gases. Emergency and standby -power-supply needs of hospital buildings shall also be taken into account in designing the building substation.common enclosure. and similar buildings) fire-safety classification point of view. The main supply point shall be located in the main building of the hospital.~N D. special measures to avoid ignitions and fire are necessary.roduct of the no-load voltage in volts and the short-circuit current in ahtperes does not exceed IO. The additional rules given below shall apply.t i g h t s e p a r a t i o n s. 6. for example in a common conduit for channel. such as oxygen or nitrous oxide. the anaesthetists working-place and the operating table.6. 6. Table 4 giv. 6.5.es reference values of power requirement and drversity factor for the different parts in a hospital installation.5 Euilding Substation 65. If the requirements in (c) cannot be. I3g e) Where electrical leads are close to a pipeline guiding ignitable gases or oxygen.1 Explosion Protection : General a) When the administration of flammable anaesthetic atmospheres or flammable anaesthetics or flammable cleaning and/or disinfection agents with air or oxygen and nitrous oxide is intended. For high-rise buildings.6. REQUIREMENTS 7. Effective ventilation and the application . If the load demand is high voltaT high 2 * * sugPlY at aceommrr X:.The general rules for protection for safety laid down in Part I of the Code shall apply.5.6. the following additional requirements apply: 4 Gas outlets shall be located at least 20 cm away from electrical components which.to reduce risk of damage to them in the case of fire.1. NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE b) . b) cl P~. in normal use or in case of a fault. C2 (custodial institution) and C3 (panel institutions . FOR HAZARDOUS LOCATIONS IN HOSPlTALS ADDITIONAL 7.2 In hospitals and similar buildings. T h e g a s . fulfilled gas-tight separation shall be provided between the electrical wiring and the tubes for gases. with tubes for combustion supporting gases.1 The type of buildings covered in this section fall under Group Cl (hospitals and sanatoria). could generate sparks.1 While calculatin the power requirement.0 General.

2 Air-Conditioning . However.’ BUILDING SERVICES (SQQ Part 3iSec 2 of the Code) 2oot 25 *Care shall be taken to screen all bright light and areas from view of patients in bed.5 .1.These shall be as follows: T. 5. 8. despatch 4.2. (2) a) Receptioo and waiting !i? I50 loo IS0 I6 13. pressing. Where antistatic floors are used in cotijunction with non-antistatic floors marking should be provided. tSpecial local lighting required over kitchen equipment. 8.3. 7. Hospitals ILLUMINATION LIMITING GLARE INDEX (4) 4 Requirements on construction. d) Laboratories e) Radiology department 1) Casualty and outpatient department g) Stairs. washing.The outline dimensions of . 8. lighting fittings and the general lighting design together with the power requirement shall be planned based on the recommended values of illumination and glare index given in Table 5. corridors h) Dispensaries Doctors S Surgeries a) Consulting rooms b) Corridors c) Sight testing (acuity) wall charts and near vision types bundries/ Dry-Ck=aning Works a) Receiving. the occupant load expressed . a r e under consideration. qf Floors Car Speed Served mfsec 13-20 I(ft 4-5 - Above I. Allocation of equipment of the categories AP or APG. switches. to zones of risk in operating theatres or other anaesthetic rooms. drying b) Dry-cleaning.4 Car Speed . I.75 0.3 If floors of low resistance (< 50 kR) are used.’ hospitals lifts shall conform to those laid down in Table 3 of IS : 3534-l976* 8.The fact that during the lifetime of the floor the resistance may change should be taken into consideration. Provisions Ps and/or Ps shall be used to ‘effectively limit the effects of fault currents.2.IS gross area in m* per person. Provision shall be made to induct fresh air to avoid entry of explosive gases from one room ‘to another.2.2 Antistatic Floor 7.3. 8.1 Lighting 8. e) Mains plug connections.1 Antistatic floors shall be used in rooms where zones of risk occur. Hospital passenger No. sorting.3 O c c u p a n t L o a d . which should be described in the application code. rooms b) Wards i) General ii) Beds c) Operating thcatrcs/ Dental surgeries i) General ii) Tables/chairs 7. I) SL BUlLDtNCS Zones of risk exist only when flammable anaesthetics or flammable cleaning and/or disinfection agents are used. marking and documentation of medical electrical equipment of category AP or APG are given in IS : 8607 (Part I)-1978*. power distribution boxes and similar devices.3. while that of PVC floors decreases with time. 8.25 Hospital bed Ilfts Short travel lifts in small hospitals Normal Long travel lifts in general hospitals OK5 *Outline dimensions. are given in TARLE S R E C O M M E N D E D VALUES OF ILLU- MINATION AND LIMITING GLARE INDEX (Clouw 8. The choice of lamps. (1) I. bulk machine work c) Ironing.1 The general rules laid down in Part I /Set -14 of the Code shall apply. Kirchens ( Sgial lighting) 300 I: :: I50 70 450 200 200 300 25 25 25 7. . mending. for electric lifts (firsr rivision). which may cause ignition shall be kept outside zones of risk. 8.3 Lifts 8.0.3.pe qf Lift .The-provisions of Part I Set I4 of the Code shall apply. spotting.2 Di&nsions . Guide for contrdl of undesirable static electricity. No.For the types o f ‘Gldings covered in this Section.1 The general rules laid down in Part I/Set I4 of the Code shall apply. N O T E . shall be 15.5 to 0.d Limits of zones of risk Appendix A. PART 3 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN NON-INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS I39 . the design of lifts in hospitals and similar buildings shall be made taking into account the criteria given below *General and safety requirements for electrical equipmenl used in medical practice: Part I General. The resistance of teraz7o floors increases.2 The resistance of an antistatic floor shall not exceed 25 MR at any time during the lifetime of the floor when measured according to IS : 7689-1974t.

Return to normal power supply should be delayed.3 Essential circuits shall provide facilities for charging batteries of a special safety supply system.2 It shall be possible to resume operation of equipment for maintaining important body functions.2. marked. For diesel-generators the requirements of 10. Short Break 10. 10.d socket outlets shall be marked clearly as such.2 Provisions EI and EI : Special Safety Supply 10.2.4 Where not all socket outlets in a medically used room are connectled to the special safety supply system the c0nnecte.A special safety supply system shall automatically take over the load within I5 seconds after a failure of the power supply at the medical establishment containing life-supporting equipment.1 The various tests on the installation shall be elapsed during which the system voltage has dropped below 90 V of the nominal value. 10.5 Position . 10.4 Operation of a safety supply system shall not impair the function of protective measures.2 Operation of a special safety supply system shall not impair the function of protective measures. and 10.1 Provision GE : Standby and Safety Supply System medical for systems 10.8 shall apply.l* Supp!~* System.1. For diesel-generators the delay should be at least 30 minutes.2 Operation of at least one operating lamp shall be resumed after a switchover time not exceeding 0.2. in particular breathing equipment.ple.2 Provision EZ : Special Sqfety Supp!~ System.1.1. 9. 10.1.1. 10. 10.1. life support and basic hospital operation during the time the normal electrical service is interrupted (see also Appendix E).6 An example of safety supply systems of a hospital is given in Appendix F 10.6 may be connected to it.2. 9. There shall be sufficient space near the landing door for easy movement of stretcher/trolley.2. STANDBY. e) Testing of the general safety supply system.1.2 The initial testing of the installation shall-also include: a) Testing of the effectiveness of protective measures (provisions PO to P7). 10.1.5 second and operartion shall be maintained tor at least 3 hours.2.3. 10.2.9 To prevent simultaneous damage. or equipment for resuscitation. 10. for exam. via a-battery with inverter or via a motor driven generator. 10. Medium Break 10. At least the load which require continuity of supply shall be connected to the special supply system.3.83.2.2..2.2. 4 Testing of the resistance of antistatic floors.1.1 Electrical establishments shall comprise essential circuits capable. 4 Testing of the insulation resistance between live conductors and earth in each separately fused circuit. TESTING OF INSTALLATION 9.1.1 . 10. 10.5 All parts of essential circuits shall be 10. of supplying a limited amount of lighting and power service which is considered essential for safety.7 A safety supply system shall be capable of automatically taking over the load of essential circuits in the event of a failure of the normal power supply. Hospital bed lifts shall be situated conveniently near the ward and operating theatre enterances. SAFETY AND SPECIAL SAFETY SUPPLY SYSTEM 10. b) Testing of the resistance of protective conductors and of the qquipotential bonding.1.23 Common Recommendations for the Provisions EI and Ez.1 A special safety supply system shall automatically take over the load within 0.8 The taking-over procedure shall not start earlier than after a period of 2 seconds has 10. 0 Testing. NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE . 10. the main feeders for the safety supply system shall be segregated from the normal system wherever possible.1 The rated power of the source of a special safety supply system shall not be less than required by the connected functions.5 second after a failure of the power supply at the operating lamp.1. of the special safety supply system. and shall be completed within 15 seconds after the starting of the taking-over procedure.2.1.It is convenient to position the hospital passenger lifts near the staircases. Systeq carried out as laid down in Part I /Set IO of the Code.1 Provision EI : Special Sqfet.1. 10.2 All medical establishments containing lifelsupporting equipment shall be provided with a safety supply system.3 Where the rating of the special safety supply system issufficient the circuits of a medical IT-system according to 6.1. within I5 seconds and to maintain operation for a period of 3 hours subsequently.

3 Voltage deviations under normal conditions shall be less than IO percent for periods of time exceeding 5 seconds. so that the special safety supply system batteries can be charged even during a failure of the normal power supply. NOTE .3. This applies also to the isolating transformer of provision Ps.1 Normally such fields exist only where short-wave diathermy or surgical diathermy 141 PART 3 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN NON-INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS . 11. for . Suggested minimum distances are: Conductor CrossSectional Area Distance.3 The rooms listed in 11.1 cannot be applied and ECG and EEG monitoring is to be undertaken. so that physical damage to the cables connecting the source to the distribution point is unlikelv. 11.m 6 m 29 m d) catheterization rooms.2.3. etc). and subsequently to rechange during 6 hours after which it shall be possible to discharge once more for 3 hours under the conditions mentioned above. 0 operating theatres.2. 11.10. to the equipotential bonding system.EEG recording. If such metal shielding is applied it should be connected to protective earth at one point only. the distances may have to be substantially larger.0 Powerful radio frequency fields may cause interference in sensitive electromedical equipment. c) intensive care and monitoring rooms. floor and ceiling of the rooms concerned should be screened by means of metal shielding of cables or by metal conduits for cables and wiring. 10.1.8 The charging device shall be designed so that.2.1 Measures Against AC Interference 11.starting from the fully charged conditions.3.3.2 Sufficient distance should be provided when installing units with strong stray magnetic fields such as transformers and motors.1 should not have large power cables passing through or adjacent to them. The distance should be 3 m or more. 11.9 It’ shall be possible to supply .3 Measures Against Interference Caused by Mains-Induced Magnetic Fields 11. have a negligible external field if _the load is correctly distributed between phase or between phase and neutral but in practice faults between neutral and earth or incorrectly distributed loads between lines and neutral.4. those on the ceiling of: the room immediately below the examination room are the ones most likely to cause interference. it is recommended to shield the room or a part of the room against electric fields by installing a room screening within the wall structure. and kakage currents will cause alternating magnetic fields’in the vicinity of power cables. will. cause magnetic interference and the place for the examination of patients. b) intensive examination rooms. MEASURES AGAINST INTERFERENCE: PROVISION I 11.2. In some cases it may be necessary to remove ballasts of a certain type from the lighting fitting and to mount them at sufficient distance. ECG.3 Where adequate measures according to 11. N OTE 2 -The values apply only to twisted cables.2 Metal enclosures or parts of enclosures of fixed. W h e n bar systems or separated single cables are used.Ballasts incorporated in fluorescent lamp fittings generate an alternating magnetic field.3.3.3. e) angiographic examination rooms. 10. for ECG recording. N OTE--.It is recommended to provide additionally a total load indicator in each room connected to the same special safety supply system. if possible close to the relevant distribution point. 11.2. Min IO to 70 mm2 95 to I85 mm2 240 mm2 N OTE I -Cables. 10.2.. In practice the following values of magnetic. and 2 X lO’T.4. either 3.. field strength have been found to be sufficiently low to avoid magnetic interferance: 4 X lO’T. 10.the charging circuit of a special safetv supply system from the safety supply system.1 The electrical wiring on both sides of or inside walls. 11.1 In rooms where measurements of bioelectric potentials are performed measures against interference in the room and in the surrounding area should be effected if such interference may cause incorrect measurements.2.7 Automatic means shall be provided to keep batteries optimally charged.3.3. Such rooms are: a) rooms intended for measurement of bioelectric potentials (EEG.5 The special safety supply ‘system source shall be located outside the medically used rooms.2 Measures Against Interference Caused by Mains-Induced Electric Fields 11.2. 11. 10.4 Frequency deviations shall be less than I percent for periods of time exceeding 5 seconds. 10. and permanently installed electrical equipment of Class 11 and Ill (such as of lighting fittings) should be connected.2.1 It is recommended to provide sufficient distance between electrical components and equipment which may. it is possible to discharge continuously during 3 hours at nominal output.6 Operation of the special safety supply system shall be indicated by visual means in all rooms concerned. 11. and single phase or three phase.2. i 1.3.4 Measures Against Interference from Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Fields 11.

0 Electrical call and signal system when provided in hospitals should comply with the requirements given in 12.It is recommended that electrtcal call and signal system should be provided in all hospitals so that patients may receive prompt servia and the doctors.1 Call Systems 12. message to the doctor for that particular bed. nurses and attendants may work more efficiently.1 Nrirses’ Cd Sysrem . the nurse presses the resetting button which puts the whole equipment to the original condition.control panel operator sends. Appropriate measures according to 11. second for ‘i?lurse Present’. 11. 12. 12. third for ‘Setting Combination’ and fourth for ‘Call for Doctor’.1.1. Two types of systems are recommended: a) A simple one-way’signal system which connects the bed side call stations with a signal at the nurses’ station.5 Electric Heating Cables 11.T h e nurses c a l l system should be a wired electrical system whereby patients may signal for a nurse from the bed site. Each indicating panel should have a number of small lamps according to the number of beds.1. clinics on which doctors’ numbers can be sounded or the flasher type which indicates the doctors’. 12.51 Electric heating cables of any type should not be used in rooms where’ bioelectric potentials are recorded. that the electric and magnetic fields will interfere with the recording of bioelectric potentials. admintstrators. nurses’ station to indicate the direction from which the call came are desirable for the latter arrangement. The’ telephone operator may set the board to flash as many as three doctors’ numbers automatically in rotation.1.2 Doctors Paging Sysrem . NOTE . 12.consists of a keyboard and flasher at the telephone switchboard. At each bed there could be 4 push buttons.2.5. untility room and floor pantry of the nursing unit.1. il. The NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 12.rmy equipment with a low modulation ~ . b) A central control panel should be set up preferably on the ground floor incorporating a set of indicating panels according to the number of wards. The following are the important call and signal system: . After reaching the bed site the nurse presses the ‘Nurse Present’ button which gives an indication to operator at the central control panel that the nurse is available near the particular bed. The flasher system. If ‘the measures described here are not sufficiently effective it may be necessary to use sensitive equipment with a screened room.i. N~TE-T~~ construction of such a screened room should be entrusted to a s cialist.which the call orginated.1. When any patient presses the push button the indication is at the central control room from where intimation to nurses can be sent. *<2. An attenuation of 40 dB over the frequency range I5” kHz to 30 MHz is considered to be 0 adequate. heads of departments and their assistants and engineers. Additional w measures are t* inclusion of r. and ’ c) In-and-out register. The signal at the nurses station may be in the form of an annunciator with a buzzer or a single light with a buzzer. The simplest measure against such interference is to locate uipment’which causes it kell away from areas “xere sensitive equipment is used.1.f. It simultaneously lights a dome light over the door of the room_from_. Two or more lights in the ceiling’of the corridor at the 142 . The same number of numerals at least three. These switches when operating will give an indication at the central control panel from where intimation to nurse can be sent. Nois . this system should include all the features described in 12. The number appear on annunciators located in all sections of the corridors.1. It does not apply to removable appliances which may be mounted on the surface of walls. rejection circuits in sensitive equrpment and the use of short-wave c&!~. These flashers may also be used for other general calls such as ‘fire’ with a red ‘F’ and buzzer. For maximum benefit and service. suitable pull cord switches shall be provided inside bath and water-closet. a) Nurses call. If the patient needs further help of a doctor then the nurse again presses the fourth push button and the central. After attending the patient.Due to the construction of such heating cables it is very likety.3 should be taken.this may consist of loudspeakers located throughout the hospital. should be used for each doctor so that a burnt out lamp may be located.1 These paging systems could be used for calling interns.2 Nurses call system may also be of the intercommunicating type with a microphone and loudspeaker at the bed connected to the nurses’ station.7. The loudspeaker and other audible calls should not be used as they may disturb the patients and attendants.equipment is used and close to transmitting aerials used for such purposes as staff location and amb(ulance communications.l to 12. MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS 12.. numbers.. ‘Calling Nurses’. The patient can signal for a nurse or speak to her and receive an answer.1 for the one-way signal system in addition to the intercommunicating features.1.2 and 11. b) Doctors’ paging. First for.1 For emergency call of nurse by the patient when he/she is inside a bath or watercloset.0 The following requirement applies to electric heating cables embedded in or attached to surfaces in buildings.1.

1 The list of other special circuits in installations in hospitals are given below: a) Closed-circuit television in surgery department (for teaching purposes). INSTALI. as well as in the operating and delivery rooms. on which all staff doctor.2 The concealed wiring and switch-socket outlets in the operation theatres shall be kept at a minimum height of 1. record rooms and diet kitchens. The register consists of a board.\I.< TRIC’. housekeeper. offices. kitchen. The general guidance provided in Part I iSec I4 of the Code shall apply. Clocks in operating and delivery rooms should have sweep second hands. heads of departments and doctors may congregate. 12. 12. laboratory and engineers’ office and such other areas where the calls may not disturb the patients.3 VHF Paging System -This system consists of a low powered transmitting station from which calls are broadcast throughout the hospital to miniature receiving sets which the doctors and others may carry in their pockets. should have clocks at nurses’ stations. that is. any ty.The doctors’*inand-out register permits the doctor to register ‘IN’ and ‘OUT’ with the minimum of effort and delay. concealed wiring should be provided to avoid risk of contamination. and d) Luminous signs.2. operates a switch opposite his name which indicates whether or not he is in the building. staff dining room.ATIONS IN NON-INDl:STRIAL BlMJ.At all special and important beds.4 Other Special Installations 12. telepholie jacks should be installed so that a telephone may be plugged in any time. at one or more entrances. doctors’ rooms. operating and delivering suites.4 In-and-Out Register .1. assistants.1. 1 2 . nurses’ station. it is recommended to install register system with a board at two or more entrances and at the telephone switchboard.2. b) Television sets in wards. to reduce the bacteria count. These may be connected on a d i a l s y s t e m w h i c h p e r m i t s i n t e r n a l communication through the hospital switchboard without the assistance of the operato. upon entering or leaving. The main office buzzers may be connected through a selector switch so that serial rooms or sections may be called by one button. The room called can answer by pushing a b u t t o n w h i c h r e g i s t e r s o n a n annunciator in the office.0 Interconnecting telephones should be provided for all heads of departments.2.flasher call system has its shortcomings as the individual may fail to see the numbers when flashed.l-.1 Except in very small hospitals. Such a system should include a recall feature which consists of a flasher unit.DINCS 143 . The clocks should be of the recessed type. 12. telephone switchboard. controlled at the telephone switchboard. and attracts the attention of doctor upon entering or leaving the building. 12. 12. laundry. 12. Call back systems are used for nurses’ and interns’ bedrooms: With such system the nurses and interns can be awakened. ultraviolet rays or sterile ray lamps in ceilings of operating and delivery rooms around the operating light. called for duty. f’AR1 3 b:l. will actuate a flashing light at the doctors’ name on all register boards which indicates there is a massage for the doctors. The switch controls a light at or back of the name on all boards connected in the system. preferably with a narrow frame. in doctors’ lounge.4. dining room and boiler room. This flasher unit.1. cl Short-wave. having a motor driven interruptor. 3 C l o c k s ~~ Electric clock system whet? provided.4.pe of general wiring may be acceptable. or called to the telephone by push-buttons in the office which operate buzzers in the rooms. In other places. main lobby. 12. For this reason the flasher system should be supplemented with loudspeakers at points where interns.5 m from the floor as anaesthetic gases are heavier than air and gravitate to the floor.1 In case of operation theatre and rooms where surgical operations and dressing is done.2 Telephones 12.

3. Additional Zone M due to use of flammable disinfection and/or cleaning agents. Ventilation syste’m. Anaesthesia apparatus. 2. Ceiling outlet with sockets for electric power. vacuum and exhaust ventilation system for medical electrical equipment. Operation lamp. 9. I I. 4.APPENDIX A (Clauses 2. 7. Exhaust system for anaesthesia gases. 5. Equipment.2 and 7.1) ZONE OF RISK IN THE OPERATING THEATRE WHEN USING FLAMMABLE ANAESTHETIC MIXTURES OF ANAESTHETIC GASES AND CLEANING AGENTS ZONE G ZONE M Legend I. 8.1. Operating table. Foot switch. IO. . 6. Exhaust ventilation system. gases (for example. oxygen). Parts unprotected and likely to the broken. 144 NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE .

‘\ a.1.1 1.4) PATIENT ENVIRONMENT / / / /-----------.3. 6.1.A P P E N D I X B (Clauses 2. I \ \ I \ \ \ l \ --.2(b) and 6.__ 1 0 2 0 w--w* / .I’ A’ OPERATION TABLE MEDICAL ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT PART 3 ELECTRICAL INSrALLATIONS IN NON-INDUSTRIAL BUlLDINGS 145' .3.

Earth electrode 19. IO. Main distribution board 2 7 13. Main earthing bar 14.system for Operation Theatre 9. Lightning protective system 20.APPENDIX (Clause 5.outlet 12. Socket . Joint Water meter 1? Gas meter 17: Waste water 18. L = = EC PE Phase conductors Neutral conductors = Bonding conductor = Protective conductor NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 146 . Insulation monitoring device .4) C EXAMPLE OF AN ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION IN A MEDICAL ESTABLISHMENT a L e g e n d Heating popes :: Water supply Gas supply Distribution board 5. . From public electric power system L2. General ward Hospital bed Heating and water pipes 8: Medical IT. Medical tsolatmg transtormer 1 I.1.

enclosure connected to the protective conductor bar) Alarm device for the insulation monitoring device (example) Operating tabte (electrically driven) 17.4.1. Stopbutton for buzzer 31.window-frame Metal cabinet for instruments Metal washing-basin and water supply Ceiling stand with outlets for gas supply Ceiling stand with mains socket outlets (with terminals for equipotential bonding. 10: 1':: 13. Residual-current protective device 22. Green 28. 6. Testbutton = Protective conductor = Equipotential bonding L.-.APPENDIX D (Clause 6. Ampere meter for special safety supply system 19. El Central heating Metal.. 4: 5.1) SCHEMATIC PRES E NT A T I O N 0~ PROTECTIVE CONDUCTORS AND EQUIPOTENTIAL BONDING IN OPERATING THEATRES.: Operation Warning . Sterilizer 21. 98. Protective conductor bar 23. Lz. Buzzer 30. X-ray equipment 20. L3 = Phase conductors = Neutral conductor N 147 PART 3 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN NON-INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS . Operating lamp 18. 16. t: L3 PE . Feeder from the main service entrance (main :. EZ Special safety supply system. 15.. 14. Equipotential conductor bar Terminals for equipotential bonding :. Red 29. distribution board) Distribution of the floor Operating thea!re distribution panel Safety supply system Medical isolating transformer Insulation monitoring device Special safety supply system.. 7.---i !P j’ Legend 1.

Interruption of normal electrical service in medical establishments may cause hazardous situations. that is. TABLE 6 EMERGENCY ( C/OUSP E-I . etc. for a relatively short time if the mains supply or the safety supply system fails or the switch-over time cannot be tolerated. at entrances and exits. 1.LIGHTING E-l. and the crItIcal working areas in the delivery room and recovery rooms. for example. Safety lighting should also be provided in public waiting spaces. Even in these areas. In some medically used rooms a special safety supply system should be provided additionally. It supplies life supporting equipment and the operating table lighting for 3 hours only. E-l. E-l. GENERAL E-0. Suites Delivery rooms area area area area Grade Grade Grade Grade Grade A B A A C Crltical working area Grade A Grade B Other nursing areas Circulating areas Grade C Awidenr and fher~enc~~ Deparrmmrs Operating theatres Critical working area Grade A Critical working area Grade A lntenslve care General working areas Grade B rooms Circulating areas Grade C Our-Parlmr L~epartnwnt Operating theatres Treatment rooms Consulting rooms Pathological department E-1. External emergency lighting will normally be restricted to the accident and emergency entrance areas. Therefore.2 No general recommendations can be made for the emergency lighting arrsngements for stairs and corridors as needs will differ considerably according to the design and size of the hospital. In some instances. depending on the importance and nature of the work..4) LIGHTING D EPARTMENT OR ARkA LO<‘ATION GRADt OF LIGIITING Major Operating Sires Operating theatre Critical working Operating theatre General working Anaesthetic rooms General working General working Post operative Circulating areas Intensive care room Deliver. and in corridors used by members of the public. and Priority is given to all aspects ensuring safe working conditions in medically used rooms.nts. CODE .3 Three grades of emergency lighting are suggested.1 This appendix contains recommendations for the design of the safety supply system in medical establishme. E-1. for about half the normal standard. however. As a general guide. operating table lighting in operating suites.which require a higher standard of lighting. The safety supply system is intended to supply electrical energy for a longer period of time to essential circuits of the medical establishment if the mains supply fails by external causes.1 Essential lighting requirements will vary considerably in different locations. the degree and quality of emergency lighting should be approximately equal to that of the normal lighting. ESSENTIAL SERVICES . to enable essential activities to be carried out.APPENDIX E (Clause JO. I) SAFETY SUPPLY SYSTEMS E-O. Levels for Grades A. trolleys. Emergency lighting may be needed in areas not mentioned in the table. B and C are under consideration. normal supply condition& b) Grade B example. c) Grade C safety lighting of a m&h reduced standard but sufficient to allow the free movement of persons. sufficient properly reduced stanqard of lighting. namely: a) Grade A lighting of intensity and quality equal or nearly equal to that provided under 148 Critical working area Grade A General working areas Grade B General working areas Grade B Circulating areas Grade C Essential working areas Blood bank Transfusion laboratory Grade B Grade A Grade A Diagnostic X-ray department General working area Grade H (where portable X-ray machines may be used) Circulation areas Grade C Treatment areas Public circulatmg areas Dispensing areas Laboratory Grade A Grade C Grade B Grade B Radiotherapy department Pharmacy (Conrrnued) NATIONAL ELECTRICAL. considerable reduction in the general lighting may be acceptable. it is necessary to provide for continuity of power supply for vital services at all times.4 Table 6 is intended as a general guide. safety lighting should be provided to enable essential movement of staff and patients to be carried out in reasonable safety. Ample socket-outlets connected to essential circuits should be available to enable portable lighting fittings to be used for any tasks outside the critical working area. ambulance staff. etc.

essential for clinical reasons.2 Socket outlets’in operating rooms for the connection of X-ray . rocking beds. to enable either of the plants to be connected to the emergency service. where the number of beds exceeds 4.should be supplied from an essential circuit. &by Core Units General working Nurseries Psychiatric wards General working Treatment rooms General working General working Other nursing areas Grade B Grade B Grade A Grade C (nightlighting) All All All All All Cenrrol Sterile Sup&l General working area Grade B Deperrmenr Elepphone Exhnges Essential working area Grade B Operattws Robm Li/rS Lift cars Entrance and efiit of elevators General Circulating A rea3 Public entrances and exits Corridors and staircases forming recognized means of escape Corridors and circulating spaces of deep planned designs Assemb!v Areas Assembly rooms and associated exits Public waiting space Plant rooms housing essential plant Kitchens Grade A Grade A Grade B Ail 2 2 sockets outlets for wards containing I to 4 beds and. should be provided. artificial kidney machines.4 Blood banks and other clinical refrigerators are usually equipped with temperature retaining facilities which will satisfactorily sefeguard against power failures of several hours’ duration.4) D EPARTMENT L OCATION OR TABLE 7 SOCKET-OUTLETS IN ESSENTIAL CIRCUITS (Clause E-2.1 Socket-outlets should be so distributed that in each area where essential equipment will be used. E-2.6 Safety supply systems for facilities for ventilation and air-conditioning purposes will usually apply only to plants which serve areas which are entirely dependent on mechanical ventilation and have no facilities for natural ventilation or where mechanical ventilation services are.7 Any mains-energized alarm and control circuits should be so arranged that they are 149 Essential working areas Grade B E-2. thus ensuring air supplies of approximately 50 percent of the normal rate. they shall be supplied from an essential circuit. pro rata. and to simplify installation. Special baby care units Special. ESSENTIAL CIRCUITSSOCKET-OUTLETS E-2. Nevertheless. respirators. Where ventilation requirements are met by duplicate plants it will usually only be necessary for one of the plants to be supplied from the emergency source. however. E-2. E-2. ( Ckruw E-I .3 Electrical services. socket-outlets connected to at least two separate sub-circuits are available. E-2.5 Motors of surgical suction plant should be connected to an essential circuit. etc. It is desirable that the motors should be so arranged that once they are switched on they will restart automatically. Table 7 is intended as a general guide. Operating suites Grade B Grade B Intensive care room and operating rooms in accident and emergency department Delivery rooms Post-anaesthetic recovery rooms Intensive therapy units Radiological diagnostic room Ward accommodation set aside for patients dependent on electrically driven equipment.equipment for fluoroscopy . including automatic controls. The recommendation that all sockets. E-2. Grade C _~ Working area Grade C Grade B E-2. PART 3 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN NON-INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS . I) NUMBER O F SOCKET O UTLETS CONNEVTED TO E SSENT IAL Cm-rrm (see N OTE) All All AREA G RADE OF L IGHTING Grade A DEPARTMENT Wurd Areas Intensive therapy units intensive nursing area Other nursing areas Nurses’ station or duty room area area area area. which are essential for the safe operation of sterilizing equipment in operating theatre and the central sterile supply department should be supplied from an essential circuit. following an interruption of supply. for example.TABLE 6 EMERGENCY LIGHTING-Conrd. Pathology laboratories - Wards where essential equipment such as suction apparatus will be used Grade C Grade C Grade C No~t -~ It is reasonable to assume that only essential equtpment ~111 be used in these areas during periods of power failure.are connected to the Essentral Circuits provide the most convenient choice of sockets outlets at any time. Changeover switches.

PARTS OF ESSENTIAL CIRCUITS E-3.4 Telephone exchange equipment.6 Communication equipment should be connected to essential circuits. These lifts will be regarded as emergency or fire lifts. E-3.1 peep-freeze refrigerators and food storage refrigerators will normally operate within a temperature range of .be fed from essentia! circuits. E-3. E-3.8 Emergency supplies for computers should be examined in each case. It may be desirable for one deep-freeze refrigerator at each hospital to be supplied from the essential circuits where this can be conveniently arranged. E-2.7 All boiler house supplies should .8 In biochemical laboratories and in the pharmacy about 50 percent of the normal load should be supplied from essential circuits. E-3. Under normal supply conditions the emergency lifts only will be connected to the essential circuit of the installation.automatically connected to the safety supply system in the event of a power failure. all refrigerators should be supplied from an essential circuit. Suitable manually-operated switching arrangements should be provided to enable the general safety supply system to be switched from the emergency lift to each of the other lifts in turn to eliminate the possibility of occupants being trapped in the lifts during power failures.2 3 ° C a n d b e fitted with a temperature alarm device to give a warning when the refrigerator temperature approaches the upper safety limit.1 0 t o .3 Where electrically operated pumps are used to maintain essential water supplies (including that for fire fighting purposes) it will be nec’essary to make suitable arrangements for the pumps to be connected to the safety supply system.2 In milk kitchen. E-3. is usually energized from float charged batteries having sufficient capacity for at least 24 hours normal working. E-3. E-3.5 Where lifts are provided for the movement of patients it is desirable that one lift in each separate section of the hospital should be so arranged that it is normally connected to the essential circuits of the installation having automatic changeover facilities. 150 NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE . E-3. and should be suitably indicated by markings at each landing.

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calls for an electrical installation in a h o t e l w i t h i n c r e a s e d sophistication. inns.1 Hotels lodging or rooming houses are of a 3.1.2 The electrical needs of a hotel depend on the type and extent of facilities being provided and the rating of the hotel:The system design would in general be identical with that of any other large building. F O R E W O R D wide variety. For the purposes of installations falling under the scope of this Section.1 The following environmental factors apply to Hotels: Environmenr (1) Characrerisrics (2) Remarks (3) a) Lodging or Rooming Houses - These include any building or group of buildings in which separate sleeping accommodation for a total of not more than 15 persons on either transient or permanent basis with or without dining facilities. coupled with the demand by guests for a variety of comforts. Increasing competition in the hotel industry as such. GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF INSTALLATIONS 4. u) Illuminated signs. is provided. j) Restaurants and bars. n-4 Telephones. these specific requirements form part of this section of the Code. and v) Emergency system. Offices. ranging from simple dormitory type accommodation for guests. TERMINOLOGY 2. SCOPE 1. say sports buildings. but without cooking facilities for individuals. h) Swimming pool and filtration plants. For editorial convenience.SECTION 5 HOTELS 0.-who are primarily transient such as hotels. 2.1 Environment 4. 3. where only a common bath is provided with no facility for dining/kitchen to the sophisticated star hotels. b) Hotels -These include any building or group of buildings in which sleeping accommodation is provided with or without dining facilities for hire to more than 15 persons.1 The electrical installations covered in this Section are those in buildings intended for the following purposes: 4 b) cl 4 4 r) Supply intake. 4 Channelized music. Banquet halls and conference facilities.0 General guidelines on the assessment of characteristics of installations in buildings are given in Part I /Set 8 of the Code. g) Health club. display lights and decorative illuminations. Laundry. Presence of water Probability of pre.1 This Section of the Code covers requirements for electrical installations in buildings such as hotels and lodging houses. Kitchen. restaurant? other than those forming part of a large hotel are treated as assembly buildings and are covered in Part 3/Set 3 of the Code. Cold Storage. the actual power requirement expressed in terms of per-unit area or per guest room. Ventilation and exhaust systems. the characteristics defined below generally apply. N O T E . CLASSIFICATION 3.Majority of locations in hotels. the definitions given in Part I /Set 2 of the Code shall apply. clubs and motels. P) 4) r) s) Service lifts and passenger lifts. N OTE -The above is. sence of water Traces of water negligible appearing for short periods are dried rapidly by good ventilation rn NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE . Mam distribution centre.1 Forthe purposes of this section. 1. 0. t) Gardens and parking lots and illumination systems therein.For the purpose of this Code. Fire protection and alarm systems. 4. distinct from single or two family private dwellings which are covered in Part’3/Sec I of the Code. ki Interior lighting. These requirements also apply to swimming pools in other occupancies.2 The electrical installations in hotels covered in this Section include the following services: 0. 4. 03 Specific requirements for installations in swimming pool are covered in Appendix A to this section.

.1.) Whether telephone and TV facilities are by the sea or industrial zones. SUPPLY CHARACTERISTICS AND PARAMETERS 5.1 The following aspects of utilization shall apply: Utilizarion (1) Capability of persons Characreri. nouses evacuation auring parlon. the interior decor normally includes false ceiling.2 Utilization 4. DepepJs on the location of the building. layout of hot water pipe-line be obtained. Corridors and staircases shall be provided with sufficient socket-outlets for floor cleaning appliances. ducting.1.2.. 5. per.ri>tirs Remarks (3) indentified in other sections. 5.1 Proper coordination shall be ensured between the architect.5.1. 4 Whether central air-conditioning system is intended.v/ic:r (2) Ordinary. layout of air handling units. These shall be connected in a circuit separate from the circuits for the guest rooms. etc. If so.Applies lo lodging Condition of . 5. false ceiling and chilled water lines should be obtained.I\ well as in areas s u c h a s k i t c h e n . foreign solid bodies Presence of corrosive or polluting substances The. uninstrutted persons Persons adequately advised or supervised by skllled persons Re:nurk. layout of fire-fighting installation should be obtained. However.5 Socket-outlets trtltl I’llcp\ 5. 5. Mechanical stresses Seismic effect and lightning Impact and vibration of low severity. laundr!. Wires shall not be laid under carpets.5. lamps and appliances.s (3) A major proportion of occupants in Hotels Applies lo areas. carpets and curtains.2 The branch circuit calculations shall be done as laid down in Part 3/Set I of the Code. e t c . They shall be run at skirting level and encased for mechanical protection.1.as manent and total swimming pools *covering by water Possibility of Presence of . easy conditlons of evacuemergency ation.0. information shall be obtained on the following services : Possibility of jets Applies 10 gardens of water from any direction. For such reception. C. Duplex or other suitable outlets should be provided as required in the offices and work places for fans.communication networks. 5. The socketoutlets shall preferably have covers.1. to reduce the need for altcr:\tlonh and extensions of wiring after the hotel building is completed. If so. for ‘special cases such as for . such as building substation and for operating and maintenance staff Contact of persons with earth potential Persons in nonconducting situations Low. quantity or nature of dust or foreign solid bodies is not significant The quantity and For hotels. in each room. special aerials and BUILDINGS 153 4. use of a central radio receiving system wired with multi-channels piped music system to each room is recommended so t h a t t h e occupa?t m a y c h o o s e o n e o f t h e broadcasts. as well as special loads encountered in hotel building shall be taken into account. High density occupation difficult conditions of evacuation Nature of processed or stored material No significant risk Contamination risks due to presence of unprotected food srulfs Applies to kitchens Large hotels. fan coil units.1 The general provisions for th-c design of wiring of branch circuits shall conl‘orm to those laid down in Part l/Set I I of the Code. The specific demands of the lighting. If so.ir~~ll-hoards -The provisions of Part I Set I I 01 the C o d e s h a l l apply.1. t h e recommenda!ion of the manufacturer shall apply. layout of the telephone installation and TV circuits should be obtained. If so. situated b) Whether centrally controlled fire-fighting is intended. other cateaorization applies (see Part i/Set 8 of the Cede) nature of corrosive or polluting substances not significant d) Whether centrally heated hot water system is intended.0 Exchange of Information 5. such as by drawing the wires in metallic conduits and not run in open.1.4 Panel Boards and S\c. intended.0 These should hc pro\lded in all places where plug-in service I\ I~hcl! to be required. building contractor and the electrical engineer on the various aspects of installation design. . appliance and motor loads. 5. high-rise buildings.Locations suctr.Environmenr (1) Chara. In addition to the general aspects which require coordination and PART 3 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN NON-INDUSTRIAL .3 In hotel buildings.1 If provided. Any wiring laid above the false ceiling should be adequately protected. density occu. fire-alarm system. 5.1 Branch Circuits 5.

2 For lodging and rooming houses of 3 storeys and above. lobby 2. to prevent access to any unauthorized ~son. toilets and utility rooms for use of appliances.for major lbads like central airconditionlng. 7. 150 300 100 150 Reception and Dining Lounges rooms accounts (tables) .1. dances.1. lighting of main building and other essential. 5. 10. The choice of lighting fittings and general lighting design shall be together with power requirements planned based on the recommended values of illumination and limiting values of glare index given in Table 1. kitchens.1. etc Writing Corridors Stairs Laundries Kitchens tablks bed 100 200 300 6. installation and of service lines up to and including 650 V. 5.6.3 In bathrooms. swimming pool.6. 5. (1) BUILDING “ILLuhfb NATION (3) hlx laid (2) LIMITING GLARE INDEX (4) 1. fashion exhibition or concerts. The accommodation for substation equipment as well as for main distribution panel shall be properly enclosed so as. laundry. Heavy duty sockets should also be provided in pantries. provided.2 Feeders — the general provisions laid down in Pan 3/See 11 of the Code shall apply.4 Lighting in banquet halls shall be given special consideration in view of its multipurpose utility such as fairs. besides fire fighting equipment. heads.4. 70 100 — 200 200 70 100 100 150 to 300 25 25 — — — 22 is the Goods/ passenger lifts Cloakrooms/ Bathrooms Shops/stores toilets N6TE — The lighting of some of these locations determined primarily by aesthetic considerations and ubovc viilues should be taken as a guide only. the lights should be mounted at head level on both sides of the mirror. loads. Entrance halls.eption is poor but in general the aerial buht in the set may be adequate. conferences.5.1. Reference should ti made to SP :7-19831 1’ guidelines for fire protection or of buildings. They should be of the 3-pin type. shows. 5.1 Genera/ — The general rules for protection “for safety laid down in Part 1/ Sec 7 of the Code shall a ply. Sufficient number of controlled socket-outlet circu’its sha~l be combined in a switching station from which the entire hall shall be visible. manually operated electric fire-alarm system shall be *Code of practice for design. EL 9. with a floor area more than 200 m~ with central corridor and rooms on either side. it shall be possible to switch the general lighting not only from the entrance but also -from the bedside (see aho 7.6.4.2 In guest bedrooms. 5. suitably rated with one-pin earthed.1.5. Care shall be taken to ensure that there is no gla[e.4 Building Substation 5.1 The general rules laid down in Part I /%c 14 of the Code shall apply. 3.6 Building Services 5. 12.6. !1. 5.2 The supply line should preferably be brought into the building underground to reduce the possibility of interruption of power supply. 13. Both manually operated and automatic fire-alarm systems shall be provided in large fiotels.5 System Protection 5.1 Lighling 5. tNational Building Code. NATIONAL ELE~RICAL CODE 154 .2). 5.related wiring are required.5. It shall be provided with proper ventilation and lighting arrangement. Adequate plug-in sockets at proper locations should be provided in banquet halls and other meeting places for flood lights and other appliances.4. — — — Bedrooms: a) General b) Dressing tables.6. The main distribution equipment of the hotel shall preferably be located next to the substation. 4. 5. kitchen. 5.1 H the load demand is high which requires supply at voltage above 650 V a separate indoor accommodation. Separate feeders shall be provided ~. 5. as near the main load centre of fhe hotel as possible shall & provided to accommodate switchgear equipment of supply undertaking and Indoor/outdoor accommodation for the transformers.2 Special convenience outlets in corridors at suitable locations are desirable for use o f portable equipment such as floor cleaning appliances. 14. Aerial outlets at rooms are reauired for ttortable radios in arqas and buildings’ where re. 5. TABLE 1 RECOMMENDED VALUES OF AND GLARE INDEX ILLUMINATION FOR HOTELS SL No. maintenance 5.3 Service Lines— The general provisions down in IS :806”1-1976* shall apply.

6. it is advisable to have at least two lifts side by side at the main entrance. staircases and other circulation areas shall be connected to emergency supply.5 gross area in m2 per person is recommended. an occupant load of 12.6.This shall be as follows : Occupancy Passenger lifts for low and medium class lodging houses Hotels Floors Served Car Speed m/s 0. 7. Two types of systems are recommended : a) A simple one-watt signal system which connects the room side call sfatims with a s i g n a l a t t h e a t t e n d a n t s t a t i o n . the design of lifts shall take into account the following recommendations. The signal at the attendant station may be in the form of an annunciator with a bu77er or a light with a buzzer. a large standby power supply usually a diesel driven generating set could be used to partly or entirely supply the loads in the hotel. A part of the lighting in each room. see Appendix A of Part 3/Set I of the Code. Emergency lighting shall be confined to essential areas.3.4.1 Occupant load . telephones may be required to be provided. Swimming pool (see Appendix A). 5. and Cold storage.4 Emergency Supply . and 4-5 0. e) Banquet halls. cdrridor.3 L. TESTING OF INSTALLATION 6. b) c) d) e) Lighting in banquet halls.1. These may be connected on a dial system which permits internal communication through the hotel switchboard without the assistance of the operator.5-0.3. lt simultaneously lights a dome light over the door of the room from which the call is originated.6. 7.attending the customer.6. 5. The following locations may be provided with clocks: a) Guest rooms.6. the attendant presses the resetting button which puts the whole equipment to the original condition. f) Kitchen.3.6. c) Telephone switchboard. and one lift at different sections of the building for intercommunication. d) Dining room.6 For particular requirements’ foi locations containing a bathtub or shower basin. 7. be set up preferably on the ground floor incorporating a set of indicating panels according to the number of wings.75 g) Restaurant and bar rooms.5 In designing outdoor lighting installations.4 For hotel buildings.5.1 The various tests on the installation shall be carried out as laid down in Part l/Set IO of the Code.3 Clock Systems. 7. However. it is desirable to have at least a battery of two lifts at convenient points of a building.1 In the event of a failure of supply. 7.The general provisions for clock systems shall conform to those laid down in Part 1 /Set 14. 5.6. If this is not possible.1 Call System -The general provisions for electrical bells and call system shall conform to those laid down in Part I /Set I4 of the Code.4.s b) A central control panel shall.3 Car speed. 7.2 Passenger handling capacity . and the standby power supply shall feed essential and safety installations in the hotel.For internal communicatiofi. 6. 7. 7. Each indicating panel should have a set of small lamps according to the number of rooms. 5. The call system should be a wired electrical system whereby customer may signal for attendance from his room.2 Part of the kitchen.. Parallel telephones may be provided in the bedrooms.2 Air-condirioning --. Fire-fighting system. a) TV sets at main assembly areas and in guest rooms.For hotel buildings.The provisions of Part l/Set 14 of the Code shall apply. b) Main lobby. care shall be taken to ensure that disturbing glare does not reach the rooms of the guest’s.The passenger handling capacity expressed in percent of the estimated population that has ‘to be handled in the 5 minute peak period shall be 5 percent for hotel buildings.3.6.3. At all the rooms. After.0 The general rules laid down in Part I / Set 14 of the Code shall apply.(see a/so Part 2 of the Code). storage and refrigeration rooms in the hotel shall also be supplied by the emergency supply.5 Other Special Installations -The list of such installations is given below: 5. telephone jacks shall be installed so that a telephone may be plugged in any time at any convenient location.$ts and Escalarors 5.2 Telephones . 5. MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS 7. 155 PART 3 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN NON-INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS .

1.1 Reference is drawn to Fig.A P P E N D I X A (Clauses 0.3 and 7. 4 supplied individually by an isolating transformer.is limited by a vertical plane 2 m from the rim of the basin by the floor or the surface expected to be occupied by persons and the horizontal plane 2. WIRING SYSTEMS A-5. A-5. starting blocks or a chute. NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE . Zone 2 : IP X 2 for inside swimming pools.1 Where safety extra-low voltage is used. IP X 4 for outside swimming pools.6) PARTICULAR REQUIREMENTS FOR SWIMMING POOL A-l. CLASSIFICATION OF ZONES A-2.Where the pool contains diving boards. In Zone 2 socketoutlets are permitted only if they are either : Zone 2 . A-2. Zone I comprises the zone limited by a vertical plane situated 1.50 m from the former.2 All extraneous conductive parts in Zones 0. Electrical equipment shall have at least the following degrees of protection: Zone 0 : IP X 8 Zone 1: IPX4 Zone 0 -is the interior of the basin.2 Junction boxes are not permitted in Zones 0 and 1.1 This appendix applies to the basins of swimming pools and paddling pools and their surrounding zones where susceptibility to electric shock is likely to be increased by the reduction of body resistance and contact with earth potential. A-5. A-4. A-3.1 In zones 0 and 1 wiring systems shall be limited to those necessary to the supply of appliances situated in those zones. 1 and 2 shall be bonded with protective conductors of all exposed conductive parts situated in these Zones.3 In Zones 0 and 1 no switchgear and accessory shall be installed. whatever the nominal voltage.50 m above the floor or surface.50. spring boards and starting blocks. or cl protected by a residual current protective device. or b) supplied by safety extra low voltage. SELECTION OF EQUIPMENT A-4. A-3. A-5.1. spring boards. In Zone 2.50 m above the highest surface expected to be occupied by the persons.is limited by the vertical plane external to Zone 1 and a parallel plane 1. they are permitted provided they have the necessary degree of protection as given in A-4. by the floor or surface expected to be occupied by persons and the horizontal plane 2. or insulation capable or withstanding a test voltage of 500 V for I minute. SCOPE A-l. N OTE . protection against direct contact shall be provided by barriers or enclosures affording at least a protection of IP2X. 1 and 2.50 m above the floor of the surface. PROTECTION FOR SAFETY A-3. and by the horizontal plane 2. m around the diving boards. and Zone 1 .

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b) Main -substation and satelite substations.4 It is to be noted that a sports stadia should preferably be designed for use for other purposes as well. The type of building shall therefore be classified as follows: a) Based on Type of Building: i) Indoor stadia ii) Outdoor stadia : Stadia meant for use in daylight Stadia meant for use during night under artificial lighting b) Based on Type of Game/Sport i) Single game spprts hall/stadia. hospitals. this Section of the Code has been set aside to cover such of those specific requirements applicable to sports buildings from the electrical engineering point of view.5.1. e) Communication facilities (telephbne.r amusements as well. c) Based on utilit_v i) Stadia meant for games only. especially those of the indoor type are meant for staging a variety of games which between themselves require varying standards of lighting levels.2 for classification from lighting consideration. indoor and outdoor. such as the staging of cultural events and this aspect shall be borne in mind while designing the electrical needs of the complex so as to ensure optimum utilization of the facilities.1 This Section of the Code covers requirements for electrical installations in sports buildings and stadia.SECTION 6 SPORTS BUILDINGS 0. 2. shall however conform to the special requirements of this Section.where audience may not normally be present. Taking note of the f&t that the type of buildings and their needs for the purposes of sports and games would be quite differqnt between them.1 Reference should be made to 5.2 Several stadia. telegraph. radio and press facilities). SCOPE 1. 3. It is recommended that assistance of experts shall be sought in the design of the installation at the early stages itself: 1.apply.3 In indoor stadia where large number of people congregate it is essential to inbuild adequate fire precautioris from the point of view of safety. if any. ii) Stadia/halls meant for training and passtime -. that are unique to the type of use to which it is put. d) Based on Audience-factor i) Stadia/halls meant for exhibition purposes-where groups of people congregate. 0. 4 Electrification of restaurant. clubs. data processing TV. telex. In a way the electrical power needs and the external influences in a sports building are quite identical to those for theatres and other multipurpose buildings for cultural events excepting that for international events exacting standards of services and flexibility had to be provided in a multipurpose sports stadia. 0.1(a) to (d) above. only broad guidelines are outlined in this Section.1 The buildings for the purposes of conducting 3. such as -for staging special or cultural events. offices and other support structures. A large sports complex may include the following subunits: a) Supply intake/voltage of supply. 159 f) PART 3 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN NON-INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS . 3. Sports complexes not basically meant for exhibition purposes. Fire protection services. 0.5 With the advent of sophisticated stadia in the country as well as keeljing in view the accent on sports. The design of illumination system in a sports building therefore requires consultations with a specialist and the guidelines provided in this Section are purely recommendatory in nature in this respect. ii) Multigames hall/stadia. 0.1. ii) Multipurpose stadia for oth&. c) Central control room/ switch rooms. TERMINOLOGY 2 . NOTE ~ Classification d(i) includes stadia meait for staging tournaments and events and d(ii) includes games halls in educational institutions and the like where normally no exhibition is intended. F O R E W O R D sports and games are characterized by the criteria that large number of people congregate. and not likely to be utilized for other purposes. Assessing the need for adequate strength of a standby supply for essential services requires special considerations.1 The design and erection of e l e c t r i c a l installation in a sports building have to take into account a multitude of factors. CLASSIFICATION OF SPORTS BUILDINGS 3. 0.2 The electrical installation needs in sports buildings would therefore be governed by the type of use indicated in 3. t h e definitions given in Part I/Set 2 of the Code shall ~-. health. 1 F o r t h e purpdses o f t h i s S e c t i o n .

layout. sive of polluting substances Outdoor stadia. etc.0 Exchange of Information AND Presence of water Submersion. Stadia and games cbmplexes situated by the sea or industrial zones require special consideration.1 Proper coordination shall be ensured between the architect building contractor and . SUPPLY PARAMETERS 5.Locations such as sibility of perma. For the purposes of installations falling under the scope of this Section. In sports stadia the sportsmen and spectators fall under this category. In addition to the genera1 aspects which require coordination and identified in other sections. sed or playing area. Indirect exposure Installations suppto lightning.0 Genera1 guidelines on the assessment of characteristics of installations in buildings are given in Part 1 /Set 8 of the Code. lake fountains (if any).Training halls and pation.the electrical engineer on the various aspects of the installation design. pumps. 0 Requirements. exposure of equipment is present. etc.1 bar.Existence of fire.1 The following aspects of utilization shall apply: Utilization (1) Characteristics (2) Remarks (3) _i) Audio systems.swimming pools nent and total where electrical covering by equipment is perwater manently and totally covered with water under pressure greater than 0. ducting. capacity of diesel engine generating sets for standby supply. 1. However. Capability of persons Uninstructed persons. 4. restaurants. Direct exposure Lighting towers in or hazard from outdoor stadia. b) In case of indoor stadia.0. easy con. Covers category d(ii) (see 3. 4. whether air-condi- Lightning Negligible. etc. stored material CHARACTERISTICS 5. locations.. etc. e) Locations of substations. microphone outlets. from supply arrangements exists.2.0~ density occu. distribution boards. service routes. the following data shall specifically be obtained: 4 The total electric power needs of the stadium including the standby power arrangements. pos. In case of outdoor stadium.2 Utilization 4. k) Dewatering arrangements.1 Environment 4. of audio-communication NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE . electrical operating areas are accessible to instructed persons only. transformers. Nature of proces. uninterrupted power supply requirements. GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SPORTS BUILDINGS 4. sewage disposal. Presence of forThe quantity or Indoor stadia. etc. the characteristics given below shall apply. system envisaged.Due to furniture and false floor for risks. water supply systems. Covers majority of cases. air-handling units.1) type of installations. public address/security. switchrooms. diffi*cult conditions of bition purposes evacuation.g) External electrification ot gardens and parking lots. ml Gas/oil arrangements for sports flame if required.1. 160 c) Details of fire fighting system/fire alarm d) Details of water supply arrangements. and n) Miscellaneous requirements for power- socket. 4. the capacity and locations of main plants. storm water drainage. voltage stabilisers. supply system including uninterrupted power requirements. the covered portions like offices. which will decide the voltage of supply. number of substations and their preferred locations. lied by overhead where hazard lines.1 The following environmental factors apply to sports buildings: Environment (1) Characteristics (2) Remarks (3) Conditions of evacuation in an emergency. h) Emergency electric. ation. 5. -Large multipurpose High density stadia for exhioccupation. e i g n s o l i d b o d i e s nature of dust or foreign solid bodies is not significant Presence of dust in significant quantity Presence of corro. score-boards. switchgear. are to be air-conditioned or not and their details as above. tioning is required and if so. route of chilled water lines.the like where ditions of evacupeople do not congregate.Negligible. sewage disposals and the pump capacities.

single-phase or three-phase star or delta. These shall be of weather-pro0 P type. gas/oil requirements for flame and their controls. etc.1 The Utility shall be consulted as to the type of service available. manual or automatic. The need for special convenience outlets shall be considered for services enumerated in 3. etc. 5. In Zase of air-conditioning. 5. centralized clock system. tirealarm system. intercom stations.3.3 Building Sdbstation 5.1 The electrical needs of sports stadia may vary from 30 kVA to 1 000 kVA. telecommunication. the provisions of Part 3/Set 3 of the Code shall apply. car park.2(e).. l&e1 of illumination required for various stages like training. Usually HV supply is used for large multipurpose stadia where power demand is in excess of 500 LVA.of luminaires and conduit/ cable installations for various services. inter-stadia communication facilities.3.2 The following drawings are recommended to be prepared before commencing the installations work: g) Details of score-boards -that is whether to avoid temporary wiring in electrical central control room.2.For small stadia] halls. It is preferable PART 3 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN NON-INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS . the location of lighting luminaires. chilled water piping routes. type of light source.3 m from the floor exce t in field/arena.1.The provision of Part I /Set 1 I of the Code shall apply. The design of substation shall conform to the requirements specified in Part 2 of the Code. etc’.2 Wiring installations for general purpose lighting and ventilation needs of the sports buildings shall conform to the requirements laid down in Part 1 /Set I of the Code. In large stadia. and their power needs. systems.1 The general rules as laid down for other large assembly buildings (see Part 3/Set 3) and as laid down in Part I of the Code shall . 5. etc. 5. it is preferable to have individual branch. 5. fire service call.2 Outdoor floodlighting installations can be made with either overhead or underground distribution feeders. 5. voltage stability. microphone outlets. wireless paging system. In smaller installations. etc. 5. This shall be prepared in coordination with civil and structural engineers. restaurants.1t5. public announcement. water supply.4 Socket-outlets and Plugs . ducts/grill layout. TV (black and white dr colour) coverage. Whenever floodlight luminaires of more than I 000 W are installed. the areas covered by the services shall be segregated into zones and the subdistribution and distribution boards shall be so arranged and marked keeping in view their accessibility in times of need. 5. j) Requirements of lighting. Junction boxes shall be installed near the luminaires from which connection to the light source may be taken by flexible conduits.3 Some installations may justify a separate transformer on each pole of the floodlighting tower with primary wiring to each tower.3 The underground system shall either be cables directly buried or cables in conduits. whether primary or secondary. speaker outlets. sewage and fire fighting systems.1 Branch Circuits 51. This .1.2 Feeders 5. circuits to each of the luminaires after considering the economic aspects. etc. it may be more economical to reduce the number of transformers by serving 161 4 Single line diagram for electrical distribution. the underground system is more desirable where large playing areas are involved. computer-aided results information. etc. From the pqint of view of appearance and minimum interference. h) Special requirements of press. according to the size of the Installation.system for the stadium which includes public address system. b) Complete layout drawings indicating type and mounting .2. k) Requirements for power outlets. games federations. ml Other micellaneous items like electrification of ancillary buildings in the sports complex. car calling system. and 0 Site plan ‘indicating the location of pump houses for storm water drains. All electrical operating areas. path way and external electrification. with the proposed source and route of power supply.apply. fountain lighting system. 5. d) e) Layout of public address system envisaged. c) Wiring diagrams showing &itching sequence of luminaires. 5. Utility socket outlets shall be provided at a height of about 0.. radio.3 Panel Boards and Switchboards . etc. etc. in playing arena and field. and control rooms shall preferably be segregated from public routes for the sporting events.0. TV. layout of pln.2. 5. ambulance call.2 The main substation for a sports building shall prefereably be located in such a place that does not interfere with the movement of people congregating.3.1.will help maintenance work to be carried out without disturbing the positioning of the lighting fittings.

4 For buildings staging national or international sport events. basketball.5. the background brightness. During the shifting of sight.0 The general rules for the protection of safety laid down in Part I/Set 7 of the Code shall apply.4 System Protection 5. arena. bowling. Ma:rually operated firealarm systems.5 Building Services 5.1 Special design .5 Miscellaneous considerations for lighting cl High intensity discharge lamps . the nature of sports shall be divided as follows: a) Aerial sports (sports Badminton. F i r e Derecrion System Automatic sprinkler and alarm system. Colour recording calls for more NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 162 . A horizontal illumination in excess of 300 lux is considered adequate for operation of black and white TV and film recording.1 Lighting 5. ctc 5. remote mounting of .3.1 Sports buildings are classified as ‘assembly buildings’ (Group D) from fire-safety point of view (see SP : 7-1983*). for less than 1000 persons.for example tennis. 5.4. Besides fire fighting equipment fire-detection and extinguishing system. it is necessary to connect lamps on alternate phases of supply to avoid flicker on rapidly moving objects. include. Automatic firealarm system.4 Sekction of light sources . shall be provided as recommended below: Description dig halls for over 5 000 persons. 5. community centre halls and other multipurpose areas. trampoline and a varietv of indoor sports. 5. Same as above.5. billiards. etc. the objects of regard are not fixed. squash. field houses.4.1. Small indoor games halls for less than 300 persons.These are a) Observers have no fixed visual axis or field of view. Grandstands. b) Fluorescent lamps . it shall be ascertained whether duplicate power supply would be required together with its capacity.1. bowling. overvoltage operation can be used to advantage especially as in sports installations.Advantageous where mounting heights are low and short projection distances are acceptable . swimming and boxing. a) While selecting and installing high intensity discharge or fluorescent lamps in multipurpose stadia.3 Levels of illumination . b) While the game is in play.1.several locations from a single transformer through secondary wiring.5. tennis and part or whole) volleyball. For the purposes of lighting design. of sport play into general areas for more than one sport and areas for particular sport. even the ceiling and luminaires are likely to come into the line of vision. and the loads it is intended to serve.0 The general rules laid down in Part I I Set I4 of the Code shall apply.5. For sports events. c) It is important for observers to be able to estimate accurately the object velocity and trajectory. hockey.Where necessary. stadia for outdoor gathering. health clubs. the recommended values of illumination are as given in Table I.features . Small halls. especially m large stadia require considerations of not only the objects to be seen. However. gymnasiums.5. occupancy Same as above.. 5. the lighting systems are used for less than 500 h a year. 5. The following shall be taken Into account: characterized by long life and high luman efficiency.2 For’ the purposes of artificial lighting design.1. where colour rendition is important.For sports lighting. the following light sources are advantageous together with the considerations indicated against each: a) Incandescent lamps (including tungsten halogen) . areas General gymanasiums.5.1. which are aerial in handball. it is recommended to divide the location *National Building Code.For some representative types of sport. b) Efforts shall be required to coordinate the lighting design for sports events with the illumination requirements for TV or film coverage. but the observer’s location in the grandstand as well. Where a quite surroundmg is required in order to avoid ballast hum. in offices and automatic firealarm system in rtndia.Design of sports lighting.1.ballasts shall be considered.5. control room. mitchinc room. use of fluorescent mercury lamps is recommended. etc. 5. Automatic firealarm system. b) Low level (games which are close to the ground level) Archery. 5. indoor with or without fixed seats corridors for about I 000 persons. and mostly moving in a three-dimensional space. Automatic sprinkler. the inherent time delay for full glow when first energized or when there is power interruption may necessitate use of incandescent lighting system to provide emergency standby illumination in spectator areas. 5. fencing.

1 0 0 0 0 s p e c t a t o r s .Reference shall be made to the provisions in Part I iSec 14 of the Code.The general provisions for the installation of public address systems shall be as laid down in Part l/Set 14 of the Code. Guidelines of the manufacturer shall be adhered to. requiring specific power supply. This would call for special wiring systems with sychronizing systems. MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS 7. The technical requirements for these systems concerning voltage and frequency stability are very high.The various communication needs of a large stadia is normally met with by electronic equipment centrally controlled. over 15-30 m minimum distance.For football. Colour filming may also need lamps having correlated colour temperature of between 3 000 K to 7 000 K. stringent requirements. and other installation conditions.delay for the sound from the loudspeakers to reach different sections of the audience would be significant. unifgrm illumination shall be provided at ground level as well as vertically for 15 m above ground.1.4 Clock System .t of 540 320 540 220 NOTE 1 .2 Control Room . For film/TV coverage. iii) Requirement of lighting for tournaments with film and TV coverage. and iii) Effective aperture. after considering thefollowing factors as well: i) Separate switching for lighting outside the stadia. IV Gymnasiums Matches General exercising Hockey (field) Racing Bicycle Horse Rifle (outdoor) T a r g e t s Firing point Range Swimming a ) /r&or Exhibirion Underwater* b) Our&or E.3) SP O R T (I) Archery Target Shootinn line Badminton Basketball Billiards (on table) Boxing and wresthng Fo~(a”. over 30 m minimum distance.TABLE 1 RECOMMENDED VALUES OF ILLUMINATION (Clause 5.spectators.The power requirements for such equipment would depend on the type of equipment to be installed. 6. In order that the installed flux is not wasted the walls of the pool basin shall be given a high reflectance surface finish. *Levels recommended are for incandescent lamps.yo6’. 540 220 320 540 540 540 1 100 540 320 220 540 320 220 320 220 540 (vertical) 1 IO 54 540 100 W/m’ of surface area 220 60 .5. as well as the potential seating capacity of the stand.1 Electrical Audio Systems .khihirion Underwater* Tennis (lawn) Indoor Outdoor Table tennis Volleyball 9 Camera senitivity. The following classification is therefore described: Class 1 . the effect of time . 7.3 L[fts and Escalators-The general rules laid down in Part I/Set 14 of the Code shall apply. 7.3 Electrical/Electronic Score Board .5. Class III ~~ 5 0 0 0 .2 Air-conditioning 552.5. These shall be considered before designing the electrical services of the same. For discharge lamps W/m’ would be reduced depending upon the efficiency of light source.1 The various tests on the installation shall be carried out as laid down in Part I /Set IO of the Code. 7. 2 . o v e r I O m m i n i m u m distance. Class 11 ~~ 10 000-30 000 spectators. and iv) Separate switching for playing arenas. of lighting for training purpose.1 The requirements for air-conditioning and ventilation as laid down in Part I /Set 14 of the Code shall apply.Group switching of luminaires is recommended to have maximum energy saving. TESTING OF INSTALLATION 6. (see NOTES I and 2) :I. ii) Exposure time. 7.“1.1 5 m minimum distance. In large grandstand stadia. data on the following shall be necessary: PART 3 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN NON-INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS 163 . C l a s s I V -~ 5 000 .30 000 spectators.. ii) Requirement. c) Grouu switching .It is generally conceded that the distance between the spectators and the play is primary consideration for football. This shall be avoided in taking proper precautions in the design of electrical audio systems. 5. o v e r I O . 5. NOT.

etc. TERMINOLOGY 2. ventilation. 5. fl L. call bell system. Care shall be taken to provide adequate and where necessary.5 The voltage of supply and location of energy meters (especially in multistoreyed buildings meant for residential purposes) shall be agreed to between the utility and the owner of the building.1 The detailed requirements of the owner shall be assessed at the planning stage. 2 of the Code shall apply.0 The general characteristics of buildings depending on the type of occupancy are assessed NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE.4 While designing the electrical services. SCOPE 1. battery. h) Clock system.6 The telephone authorities shall be consulted for the requirements of space for accommodating the distribution equipment. EXCHANGE OF INFORMATION 4.2 The requirements specified here are in addition to those specified in respective sections of the Code. Spaces for accommodating the distribution and metering equipment of utility should be accordingly provided for by coordinating with the architect and licensee. 4 Internal wiring for lighting. independent spaces for the equipment for electrical services for different functions. and j) CCTV. pumps. the electrical design engineer. I. 4. fans and other outlets and the position for their switch controls to take care of functional utility and flexibility.2 In drafting the requirements of electrical installations in various occupancies it was felt that a separate compendium giving the specific requirements applicable to multistoreyed buildings should be brougnt out. etc. note shall also be taken of the nature of occupancy of the high-rise buildings and a judicious choice of alternative features shall be made. 1.1 This Appendix is intended to cover specific r e q u i r e m e n t s for electrical installations in multistoreyed buildings. b) Distribution of electric power.2 It is necessary that right at the planning stages. While on the one hand. on his part had to ensure that the fire hazards from the use of electric power is kept to the lowest possible limit.. e) Fire safety.ightning protection. 4. The locations of control panel and indication panel shall be decided in consultation with the owner. due consideration should be given for conservation of energy. 4.APPENDIX TO PART 3 SPECIFIC REQUIREMENTS FOR ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN MULTISTOREYED BUILDINGS O. For editorial convenience. 4. 164 . the civil design aspects are more stringent for high-rise buildings than for buildings of low heights.1 The design and construction of electrical installations in multistoreyed buildings call for special attention to details pertaining to fire-safety of the occupancy. blowers. outlets for appliances. 3. power and control wiring for special equipments like lifts. 2. t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f s p a c e f o r accommodating the distribution equipment for the various electrical services and openings required in slabs for vertical risers for such services are assessed and incorporated in drawings in due coordination with the architect and structural designer. for the telephone services. Part 1 /Sec. 0. Coordination with the architect is required in evolving suitable layout of lights.8 Runs of roof conductors and down conductors for lightning protection shall be coordinated with the architects of the building. 4 Telephone wiring. The requirements as laid down in Part I/Set I5 of the Code shall be complied with. 4.3 In applying the provisions of this Appendix. the definitions given in Section 2.7 The local fire brigade authorities shall be consulted in the matter of system layout for fire detection and alarm systems to comply with local bye-laws. cl Generators for standby electric supply. 0.1 For the purposes of this Appendix. SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS 3. 4. 4. such details have been stated in this Appendix where the major non-industrial occupancies have been covered.FOREWORD 0.1 Special considerations shall have to be given in respect of the following requirements for the electrical installations in multistoreyed buildings: g) Common antenna system.3 Multistoreyed buildings are usually in framed design. ASSESSMENT OF CHARACTERISTICS OF MULTISTOREYED BUILDINGS 5. 4. and are specifically applicable for buildings more than 15 m in height.

based on the guidelines given in relevant sections of the Code. 165 PART 3 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN NON-INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS . 6.1. a tank of RCC construction of capacity capable of accommodating entire oil of the transformers shall be provided at a lower level to collect the oil from the catch-pit in case of emergency.2. fire alarm. 6. Distribution system component should be selected to satisfy the same.1.1 Building Substation 6.the t y p e o f o c c u p a n c y . Where the oil capacity exceeds 2 000 litres.2. c) Air-conditioning/evaporative cooling/ heat4 Water supply pumps. security. shall be protected by an automatic high velocity water spray system. 6. they may be protected by carbon dioxide or BCF ( b r o m o c h l o r o d i f l u r o m e t h a n e ) o r BTM (bromotrifluro methane) fixed installation system.1 In multisloreyed buildings where large number of people gather (for example office buildings).0 Load Assessment and Equipment Selection parts of ttie. ing services. t h e e l e c t r i c a l installation engineer shall specifically take note of characteristics BD2.2 A substation or a switch-station with apparatus having .2 Distribution System 6. 6. 6. the basement.2 Suitable demand factors and diversity factors shall be applied depending on the operational and functional requirements. it may be desirable that cables feeding adjacent floors are interconnected for use when distribution cables in either of the floors fail.4 In case the transformers are housed in the basements. and Outdoor and security lighting. 6. 6. 6.1 The provisions contained in Part 2 of the Code shall apply.1 The electrical load shall be assessed considering the following: a) Lighting and power loads. DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER 6. Each floor shall have a changeover switch for connection to either of the two mains.0 Capacity and number of system components and the electrical distibution layout should be decided considering the likely future requirements.2. Adequate spare capacity should be provided for every component in the distribution system.1. etc. etc. fire pumps. A curb (sill) of a suitable height shall be provided at the entrance in order to prevent the flow of oil from a ruptured transformer into other _. If transformers are housed in the building below the ground level.1 For the purposes of rnultistoreyed buildings in addition to other external influences depending o n . if housed in basement.re shall be at least two rising mains located in separate shafts.6 Oil-filled transformers shall not be housed on any floor above the ground floor.1. The entrance to the room shall ‘be provided with a fire-resisting door of 2-hour fire rating. The switchgears shall be housed in a room separated from the transformer bays by a fire-resisting wall with fire resistance of not less than 4 hours. 6. 6.more than 2 000 litres of oil shall not ordinarily be located in the basemlnt where proper oil drainage arrangements cannot be provided. The pipe connecting the catch-pit to the tank shall be of non-combustible construction and shall be provided with a flame-arrester [see LS : 10028 (Part 2)-19811. The transformer may be exempted from such protection if their individual oil capacity i’s less than 5 000 litres.0. r) g) Electric lifts. The anticipated increase in lpad shali also be given due consideration.7 Soak pit of approved design shall be provided where the aggregate oil capacity of the apparatus does not exceed 2 000 litres. The room shall necessarily be at the periphery of. totally segregated from other areas of the basements by 4-hour fire-resisting wall/ walls with an access directly from outside. The choice between cables and metal rising mains for distribution of power should be done depending on the load and the number of floors to be fed.1. together with those given in Part I/Set 8. BD4 and CB2 given in Table I of Part I /Set 8 of the Code. 6.2 When cables are used for distribution to different floors. d Fire fighting pumps. b) Special loads of equipments as in laboratories. grade of service desired and economics.1. 6. 6.0. 5.3 It is essential to provide independent feeders for installations such as fire lift.1. data processing areas.5 When housed at ground floor level.3 The transformer. The distribution equipments shall be selected by adopting. the. basement. 6. it/they shall be cut off from the other portion of premises by fire-resisting walls of 4-hour fire resistance.2. they shall necessarily be in the first basement in a separate fire-resisting room of 4-hour rating.0.3 The fault level at the point of commencement of supply should be obtained from the licencee and fault levels at salient points in the distribution system assessed. preferably from outside. Direct access to the transformer mom shall be provided. hodpitals. 6. standard ratings.

6.6. 6.4.10 Medium and low voltage wiring runuihg in shafts. group contol of fluorescent lights. 6. the same should preferably be at ground floor level of the multistoreyed building itself. e) Transformer hum (and noise and vibration from diesel generating sets where provided as part of the substation). Easy maintainability from common areas like lobbies.1 The following aspects shall be considered in deciding the location of electric substation for mdtistoreyed buildings: 6. 6. 6. and g) In the cases of certain high rise buildings.4.4. telephones. such as room air-conditioners. of switchboards.4 Wiring Installation 6.2 The vertical distribution mains should be located considering the following aspects: 4 Proximity to load centre. cl Avoidance of flooding by rain water.2.412 If the utility agree to provide meters on upper floors.mains. inter-corn lines. including all fixtures used for its suspension. by horizontal runs df wiring.4.6 The electric distribution cables/ wiring shall be laid in a separate duct.4. etc.2 Normally aluminium conductor is used for wiring cables. 63 Siting OT Distribution Equipment 6. service and alternative supply cables. 6. gas pipes or any other service line shall not be laid in the duct for electric cables. shall have 660 V grade insulation. as far as possible. corridors. if any. control circuits. Meter rooms on upper floors shall not open into staircase enclosures and shall be ventilated directly to open air outside. above false ceiling. oil soak pits (for large transformers) and entry of utility’s cable(s). the utility’s cables shall be segregated from consumers’ cable by providing a partition in the duct. etc. submain wiring to the flats/apartments shall be independent for each flat/apartment. b) Ventilation. The duct shall be sealed at every alternative floor with noncombustible materials having the same fire resistance as that of the duct. The false ceiling. 6. telephone lines. 6. Low’ and medium voltage wiring running in shaft and in false ceiling shall run in separate conduits.4. but copper conductor may be required for fire-alarm.4. Master switches controlling essential service circuits shall be clearly labelled.4. and Feasibility to provide distribution switchboa& in individual floors vertically one over the other. sanitary/airconditioning shafts.1 The electrical wiring shall be carried out in conformity with Part I /Set I I of the Code. near the load centre. r) Where a separate building for substation is not possible.4. and within false ceiling shall run in metal conduit. 166 . staircases and corridor lighting and blowers for pressurising system shall be provided directly from the main switchgear pane1 and these circuits shall be laid in separate conduit pipes. water coolers. 6.4. lifts.5 All switchgear equipment used for maindistribution in multistoreyed buildings shall be metal enclosed. Woodwork shall not be used for the construction.4 In the case of residential buildings.411 An independent and well-ventilated service robm shall be provided on the ground floor with direct access from outside or from the corridor for the purpose of termination of electric supply from the licensees. areas like toilets. \\ NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE a) Easy access for purpose of movement of equipment in and out of the substation including fire fighting vehicles.9 The inspection panel doors and any other opening in the shaft shall be provided with airtight fire doors having the fire resistance of not less than 1 hour.7 Water . 4 Feasibility of provision of cable ducts (keeping in view the bending radius of the cable). shall be of noncombustible material.8 Separate circuits for water pumps.2. the conductor sizes shall be suitably designed to keep the voltage drop within limits (see Part I /Set I I of the Code).3. 6. water coolers.5 Twin earthing leads of adequate size shall be provided along the vertical runs of rising mains. c) Avoiding crossing of expansion joint. etc. so that fire in one circuit will not affect the others. the substation should be located.3. 4 Avoiding proximity to water bound. In the case of a complex with a number of buildings. etc. The doors provided for the service room shall have fire resistance of not less than 2 hours. In such cases. 6.4 The type and capacity of control switches shall be selected to suit the loading. Any 230 V wiring for lighting or other services. 6. non-inflammable cooling medium shall be used for substation equipment from the point of view of fire safety. 6. provision of substation at intermediate floors may be necessary for case of distribution.3 Where excessively long lengths of wiring runs are inevitable to suit the building layout. b) Avoiding excess lengths of wiring for final circuits and points.

6. 4 Fire alarm control panel. d) First-aid fire fighting appliances.3 Suitable provisions should be made for cable entry and spaces for distribution components.1 Consideration in respect of the following provisions is necessary from fire safety point of view: a) Fire detectors and alarm system.1. from fire safety consideration% and f) Provision for pressurisation of stairwells. However. lift lobbies.15 Suitable arrangements shall be made by installing double throw switches to ensure that the lighting installed in the staircase and the corridor does not get connected to two sources of supply simultaneously. such building does not constitute hazard to the safety of the adjacent property or the occupants of the building itself.1 All buildings with heights of more than 15 m shall be equipped with manually operated electrical fire alarm (MOEFA) system and automatic fire alarm system. f-l Obstruction light(s). 9. ied 9. etc. if any. entrance hall. lift shafts. 9. 6.l The following loads shall be fed from the standby generating set. b) Fire fighting a r r a n g e m e n t s .14 Staircase and corridor lighting shall also be connected to alternative supply as defined in 7. The mechanism of operation of the call boxes shall pceferably be without any moving parts.3 The following specific guidelines shall be kept in view. The . FIRE SAFETY 9. etc. Double throw switch shall be installed in the service room for terminating the standby supply. it shall be of an approved type. m in height may beexempted from the installation of automatic fire alarm system provided the local fire brigade is suitably equipped for dealihg with fire above I5 m height and in the opinion of the Authority. For assembly institutional buildings of height less than 24 m. common toilets.16 Emergency lights shall be provided in the staircase/corridor. 8. substation.call boxes shall conform to the following : The location of call . the conduit runs for telephone wiring should be designed in consultation with telephone department. e) Security lighting. provisions for wiring for the same may also be made. 9. 8. namely corridors.1 Manually operated electrical fire alarm system shall be installed in a building with one or more call boxes located at each floor.4. g) Water supply pump. It should be of MCB type of switch so as to avoid replacement of fuse in case of crisis. smoke extraction and damper systems. Where telephone wiring is intended to be taken on any other method. 167 PART 3 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN NON-INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS . e) Construction of lift shafts. 8. the alternative source of supply may be provided by battery continuously trickle charged from the electric mains.4. 9. c) ‘Fire lift. cable and rising main shafts.boxes shall be decided after taking into consideration the floor plan with a view to ensuring that one or the other call box shall be readily accessible to all occupants of the floor without having to travel more than 22.3.64. to enable continuity of supply in the event of failure of mains : a) Lighting in common areas. *National Buikiing Code.5 m. apartment and office buildings between 15 m and 24.4 Where the layout of intercom telephones is known in advance. b) The call boxes shall be of the ‘break-glass’ type where the call is transmitted automatically to the control room without any other action on the part of the person operating the call box.1 On the basis of assessment of demand of direct telephones and PBX lines. c) Fire fighting pump. However.4. where any moving part is incorporated in the design of the call box. PROVISION OF STANDBY GENERATING S E T 7. staircases.1 for buildings exceeding 24 m in height. at.13 The staircase and corridor lighting shall be on separate circuits and shall be independently connected so as it could be operated by one switch installation on the ground floor easily accessible to fire fighting staff. any time irrespective of the position of the individual control of the light points. fobbies. and h) Any other functional and critical loads.-1983* shall be applicable in respect of theabove aspects. TELEPHONE WIRING SYSTEM 8. 8.3. b) Fire lift.2 Provisions contained in Part I/Set 14 of the Code and SP : 7. this should be coordinated with the architect and the telephone department. lobbies. . ventilation and flooring in battery rooms should be designed in accordance with the guidelines in Part 2 of the Code. 7. etc. Any regulations of fire safety by 1 al municipal/fire authorities shall also be camp?c with.2 Lighting. 6.

For guidelines for selection of tire detection reference may be made to relevant Indian Standard. the Code.2 The installation of call boxes in hostels aod such other places where these are likely to be misused.3.so that there shail be no malfunctioning of the call box. 10. but the application of each type is limited and has to be carefully considered in relation to the type of risk and the structural features of the. e) The call boxes shall be so installed that they do not obstruct the exit-ways and yet their location can eastly be noticed from either direction. The circuit shall also include one or more batteries with a capacity of 48 hours normal working at full load. The battery shall be arranged to be continuously tricklecharged from the electric mains. Location of call boxes in dwelling units shall preferably be inside the building.Several types of tire detectors are available in the market.1. building where they are to be installed. shall as far as possible be avoided. c) All call boxes shah be wired in a closed circuit to a control panel in the control room in accordance with good practice so located that the floor number/zone where the call box is actuated is clearly indicated on the control panel. N OTE I . d) The call boxes shall be arranged to sound one or more sounders so as to ensure that all appropriate occupants of the desired floor(s) shall be warned whenever any call _ box is actuated. The circuit may be connected to alternative source of electric supply. NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE . 1 Provisions of lightning protection of multistoreyed buildings shall be made in conformity with Part I /Set I5 of. 9. The base of the call box shall be at a height of I m from the floor level. LIGHTING PROTECTION 1 0 . N OTE 2 -No automatic detector shall be requtred in any room or portion of building which is equipped with an approved installation of automatic sprinklers.

NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE PART 4 .

As in the Original Standard. this Page is Intentionally Left Blank .

4 Locations in industrial buildings which are by their nature hazardous.1 Electrical networks in industrial buildings serve the urpose of distributing the required power to the consuming points where it is usedP a multitude of purposes or in the. it is hoped-would help identify the specific nature of each industry and the locations therein. 0. ensuring at the same time P protection to human life and loss of property by fire.5 In clause 3 of this Part. The needs of such systems would depend on the type and nature of the industrial works. Part 7 of the Code). 0.FOREWORD 0.PART 4 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS O. an attempt has been made to classify industrial installations depending on the specified eriteria therein. Such special rules for hazardous areas are covered. 0. power’ factor compensation assumes special importance. Keeping in view the tariff structures as also the economic necessity of conserving power to the maximum extent. 0. The design of electrical installation in industrial premises is therefore more complicated than those in non-industrial buildings. ull limitations in a simple and economic manner. Such a classification. The network layout should also facilitate easy maintenance and fault localisation. . assisting the design engineer in the choice of equipment and methods. require special treatment in respect of design .2 Industrial installation has to take care of load requirements and sup ly. industry. in Part 7 of the Code and these shall be complied with in addition to the general rules specified in this Part 4 (see also Appendix D.3 A particular feature of electrical installations in industrial buildings is the reliability of supply to essential operations for which .of electrical installations therein.standby and emergency supply sources/networks had to be designed.

2 Classification Based on Power Consumption 3. fabricated. motor cars. 1. 2. NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE . C L A S S I F I C A T I O N O F I N D U S T R I A L 3. foundries. BUILDINGS 2. tube making. 172 TABLE 1 CLASSIFICATION BASED ON POWER CONSUMPTION D ESCRIPTION * (1) Light industries Average industries A VERAGE P OWER R EQUIREMENT (2) kVA up to 50 EXAMPLES (3) Hosiery.0 Industrial buildings by definition include any building or part of buildjng or structure.1 Classification Based on Fire Safety 3. pottery. industries are classified based on three criteria as given in 3.Includes any building in which the contents or industrial processes or operations conducted therein are liable to give rise to a fire which will burn with extreme rapidity or from which poisonous fumes or explosions are to be feared in the event of fire. tailoring and jewellery Machinery. chemical factories. distilleries. furniture. tobacco. etc. *Terminology based on IS : 732 (Part 2)-1982 Code of Practice for electrical wiring installations: Part 2 Design and Construction (second revision). for design and construction of electrical installations in industrial buildings. Such installations including such high hazard locations in Group G classification shall comply with the special rules of Part 7 of the Code. pumping stations. includes Group J buildings for such locations where storage.2 Loads within the industrial site could be divided depending on their nature and size.3 Classification Based on Pollution .classification given in Table 2 shall be referred to. structural steel works. 3. boilers. N OTE -. electrical manufacturing and textile (see N OTE below) Heavy electrical equipment. canteen annexe. etc. for example. medical facilities. such as office buildings. assembly plants. rolling mills.(Under consideration). for which requirements stipulated in the relevant sections of Part 3 of the Code apply. manufacture or processing of highly combustible or explosive materials or products are being carried out.2 This Part does not cover specific areas in industrial sites. chemical plants. refineries.2. engine fitting. the definitions 3. manufactured or processed.1.1. saw mills. 3.1 This Part of the Code covers the guidelines cl Subdivision G-3-Buildings used for high hazard industries . SCOPE 1. glass.Buildings used for moderate hazard industries . 3. electrical loads of varying requirements are to be met. For the purpose of this part. given in Part l/Set 2 of the Code shall apply. TERMINOLOGY 3.Includes any building in which the contents or industrial processes of operations conducted therein are liable to give rise to a fire which will burn with moderate rapidity and give off a considerable volume of smoke but from which neither toxic fumes nor explosions are to be feared in the event of fire. assembled. dry cleaning plants.2 Examples .“:g 5a up tQ Heavy industries Above 2 000 N O T E.1 Industrial buildings are classified into Group G from the fire safety point of view in SP 7 : 1983*.Average factory installations are set apart from heavy industries in that the former has no coriditions requiring specialized or exceptional treatment. Buildings under Group G are further subdivided as follows: a) Subdivision G-l-Buildings used for low hazard industries . laboratories. steel plants. the.SP 7 : 1983.1. fumes or smoke. workshops.1 Industrial buildings are also classified depending on the quantum of electric power requirements for its services as given in Table I.2.3.Includes any building in which the contents are of such low combustibility and the industrial processes or operations conducted therein are of such a nature that there are no possibilities for any self-propagating fire to occur and the only consequent danger to life and property may arise’ from panic. workers rest rooms. or fire from some external source. aircraft. etc “. dairies. light pressings. handling. Industrial installations are of various types and in a single industrial site. in which products or materials of all kinds and properties are stored. steel works.See Appendix A.3 This Part also does not cover locations in industrial sites that are by nature hazardous for which the provisions of Part 7 of the Code apply. 3. shipbuilding and repairing. locomotives. b) Subdivision G-2. *National Building Code.1 to’ 3.1 Far the purpose of this Part. For guidance. factories for metal extraction from ores. 1.

For negligible. raw material industry) Tool making Press shop Machine shop Welding shop pollution arises due to abrasive. cement works where the I Repair shop. etc tion to corrosive or polluting chemical substances being used or produced 2 0. For the purposes of installations falling under the scope of this Part.2) Characlerisrics (2) Remarks (3) polluting substances SRotiPs T Y P E OF LOAD EXAMPLES POWER F ACTOR (4: 0.7 Continuous pollution Machanical stress Impact/vibration of medium severity Impact/vibration of high severity Chemical works Usual industrial conditions Industrial installations subject to severe conditions Depends on the location of the buildings 3 Heat treatment shop.4 0.0 Gineral guidelines on the assessment of characteristics of installations in buildings are given in Part I of the Code. the characteristics given below shall apply.Closed operating areas nical knowledge and sufficient experience (engineers and technicians) Presence of water Presence of water Depends on the location. or further details ossibilities of Pree falling drops see Part l/Set 8 of the Code or sprays Presence of foreign solid bodies Depends on the These conditions location.1. easy conditions of evacuations applies to buildings of normal or low height (Continued) 173 Presence of corro.2 Utilization 4.6 0. wires. chemical works.Enviyymenr TABLE 2 LOAD GROUPS IN INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS (Clause 3.boilers and tanks roundings and for whom the possibibility of interupting contact is limited Conditions of evacuation Low density occu.1 The following environmental factors shall apply to industrial installations: Environmenr (1) Characrerisrics (2) Remarks (3) Persons with tech.2. Majority of persons adequately aduttlising the indu‘svised or supertrial installations vised by skilled are in this category. insulati?g.This category pation.9 Seismic effect and lightning - 4. steel works.2. However persons (operatmg and maintenance staffl specific zones or operations involving uninstructed persons shall also be kept in view 4. but varying loads and with peak load at different times (for example metal working industry) Loads having very high power requirement in conjunction with smaller loads of negligible size compared to the total load (for example. For include possibifurther details lities of presence of foreign solid see Part I/%X 8 bodies of various of the Code sizes likely to affect electrical equipment (such as tools.boiler rooms.6 0. spinndistributed over ing mill. weavthe whole area ing mill and loaded constantly during the working day (precision mechantcal engineering) Loads fairly evenly distributed over the whole area. conductive parts either numerous or stand on con.1 Environment 4. Small and large loads fairly evenly automatic lathe. rolling mills 0. Capability of persons lnsttatcted persons.Negligible pollusive tion (Conrinued) PART 4 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS . workshop. etc) Contact of persons with earth potential Persons are frequently in touch Locations with extraneous conwith extraneous ducting parts.1 The following aspects of utilization shall apply: Ulilizarion (1) Characrerisbcs (2) Remarks (3) 4. or conductmg ducts Intermittent or Factory laboratories accidental subjec. dust.6 Atmospheric where the presence of corrosive the sea.or large area ducting surfaces Persons are in Metallic surroundpermanent contact ings such as with metallic sur. GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS 4.

however it may often be found desirabte to avoid cable joints and connect the transformer directly to the switchgear placed on either side of the transformer. 4. It would also be desirable to locate the LV switchgear directly above the transformer. a separate indoor accommodation. The transformer could be connected to the switchgear by cables for small loads.1. etc or storcessin age o F flammable materials. should be considered. For oil-filled transformer. paper risks. and the transformers are located . 5.1 .0 General 5.An assessment shall also be made of the frequency and quality of maintenance the installation shall be receiving (see Part I /Set 8 of the Code).0.2 All electrical apparatus shall be suitable for the voltage and frequency of supply available.supplies to other consumers permitting the use of large size motors. a bus-trunking arrangement may be desirable. For an outdoor substation general guidelines as given in Part 2 of the Code shall apply. 5. welding plant.JMgtio Nature of processed or stored materials Charatgrdics Remarks (3) Existance of fire.1.1.3 4. For bringing the supply into the factory building.factories. however. The relative economy attainable by use of medium or high voltage 174 CODE .3 In case of connected load of 100 kVA and above. an assessment shall also be made of any characteristics of equipment like’ly to have harmful effects upon other equipme.0.The arrangement of the electrical system in industrial plants and the selection of electrical equipment depends largely on the type of manufacturing process. the economics of electrical distribution at high voltage from the main substation to other subsidiary transformer substations or to certain items of plant.0 The general requirements for substation installations given in Part 2 of the Code shall apply in addition to those given below. 5. SUPPLY CHARACTERISTICS AND PARAMETERS 5. however. where manufacture.4 In very large industrial buildings where heavy electric demands occur at scattered locations.1.5 In order to ensure the reliability and safety expected of industrial substations.1 If the load demand is high. such as large motors.Wood-working shop.l.1.4 Maintainability . it may be considered desirable to locate the transformer also inside 1 the room. 5. textile mills. These trunkings should. should be provided to house the switchgear equipment. 4 Better control .4 Localion qf and SHitchgear .hydrocarbon point materials stores including presence of explosive dust distribution and high voltage plant is a matter for expert judgement and individual assessment in the light of experience by a professionally qualified electrical engineer. c) Elimination of interference with . it is desirable to have circuit-breakers as the main switching e l e m e n t s o n b o t h s i d e s o f t h e transformer. 5. transformers being oil-filled apparatus. as close as possible to the main load centre. It shall be provided with proper ventilation and lighting.nt or other services (SCP Part I /Set 8 of the Code). special means should be available for remote operation of t h e m a i n switches/circuit-Breakers i n a n emergency created by explosion/fire in the transformers. a separate substation should be set up. including presence of dust Processing or stor. However. etc. where load currents are less than 100 A on high voltage side and 600 A o n low voltage side. The accommodation for substation equipment as well as for main distribution panel shall be properly chosen so as to prevent access by any unauthorised person.3 In cases where the load currents are very high.of voltage regulation and 5. are preferably located outdoors while the associated switchgear is located in a room of the building ne%t to the transformers.1. be straight.2 The supply conductors should preferably be brought into the building underground to reduce the possibility of interruption of power supply.6 F o r s m a l l s u b s t a t i o n s up to 1 6 0 0 kVA/ I I kV capacity. 5. and also as short as possible on economic grounds. Though the use of high vohage s u p p l y e n t a i l s t h e provision of space ahd the capital cost of providing a suitable transformer substation on the consumer’s premises. and more constant supply voltage. 5~0.just outside the building. switches and fuses may also be used for this purpose. which requires supply at voltages above 650 V.A s p e r convent\onal prictice.Oil refineries. the relative advantage of high voltage three-phase supply should be considered.0. as far as possible.1 Industrial Substations 5. etc. Transfbrnlers 5. it is also possible to locate NATIONAL ELECTRICAL Compatibility . furnaces. the following advantages are gained: 4 Advantage in tariff.1. For reasons of safety. pro. age of low-tlash. 5. b) More effective earth fault protection for heavy current circuits. 5.In industrial installations. the greatest possible reliability of supply and adequate reserve of electrical capacity are the most important factors to avoid interruption of supply.

5. the transformer shall be of the non-flammable synthetic oil type (these oils need care in handling). laid overhead/direct in the ground. wood dust. bedded and armoured cable. dust. b) Fire/explosion hazards.2. be located in separate control rooms to ensure: a) adequate protection against weather elemknts like heat.3 Adequate passageways shall be allowed so that access to all switchboards for operation and maintenance is available. H RC type fuses will normally afford adequate protection for main circuits. 5.2 In every layout.3 Main Distribution 5. and b) protection against entry of factory material like cotton. corrosion.1 From the main receiving station. 175 PART 4 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS . or 4 X L P E i n s u l a t e d . in order to ensure effective earth fault protection. b) Floor mounted distribution boards. 5. 5 . T h i s y i e l d s considerable economies in cost. d) Easy identification.2 Distribution of Power 5. without separate rooms. In suchlcases. power is taken to the loads. use shall preferably be made of: 4 metal-sheathed. 5. and when capacitors are to be installed advice of capacitor and switchgear manufacturers shall be sought. c) In installations other than those referred to in (a) and (b) or where overloading of circuits may be considered unlikely to occur. Woodwork shall not be used for mounting off switchboards. served with PVC. Distribution is done on HV or LV depending on the quantum of load to be transferred. In such cases.3:s Certain applications may necessitate location of the switchboards on the factory floor itself. and on other similar factors.4 Switchboards should.2. fuse switch or switch fuse units shall be used or fuses with switches forming part of the mean switchboard shall be used: 5. 5.0 All switchgear equipment used in industrial installations shall be metal enclosed. 5. or through further load centre substations as would be the case with bigger installations.2 It may be necessary to provide for connection of capacitors for power-factor correction.2. Distribution is possible through one of the following: a) Wall-mounted distribution boards. furnaces or other heavy electrical equipment is installed.3.2. and e) Fault localisation. installed overhead/underground. however.1 For power distribution from a substation or main switchboard to a number of separate buildings. b) Where large electric motors. 5.2. c) Accessibility for repair/checking. arm’oured and PVC-sheathed cable installed overhead/ underground.3. it may be necessary to protect main circuits with circuit-breakers operated by earth leakage trips.3. distance to be covered. 5. without a separate r o o m . 7 I s o l a t i o n qf Switchgear . 1 . and d) Overhead bus bar system with tap-off holes. or cl PVC-insulated. The choice between alternative types of equipment may be influenced by the following considerations: a) In certain installations where supply is from remote transformer substations. the main circuits shall be protected by metal-clad circuit-breakers or contactors of air-break or oil-immersed type fitted with suitable instantaneous and time delay over current devices together with earth leakage and back-up protection where necessary. or fuses or switchfuse units mounted on the main switchboards. and against entry of excessive dust or corrosive gases. served. Where necessary the control rooms should be designed to avoid wide fluctuations in ambient temperature. Where means for isolating main circuits’is required. either directly as in the case of small factories.2. Reference should be made to the same for guidance regarding isolation depending on the type of supply system.3. specific care shall be taken for: a) Human safety.going circuits forming main distribution system may be effected by means of circuit-breakers. etc. or b) mineral-insulated metal-sheathed cable. the typical circuits and the recommended location ot lsolatlng switches-in such circuits are illustrated in IS : 732 (Part 2)-1982*.2. Sufficient additional space shall be provided for anticipated future extensions. etc.2. preferably.3. c) Local fuse distribution boards. water during cleaning.2.1 lsolation and protection of out. *Code of practice for electrical wiring installations: Part 2 Design and construction (second revision). the switchboards shall be specifically designed and protected against hazards mentioned above.the substation at the load centre.3. armoured and PVC- sheathed cable installed overhead/underground.3 Switchgear 5.For installations where the system voltage exceeds 650 V.

place of a three-wire sub-main previously installed.8 Final subcircuits for lighting shall be so arranged that all the lighting points for a given area are fed from more than one final subcircuit. and clearly identified. as a precaution against accidents. consideration shall be given to the replacement of local distribution boards by overhead bus-bar or cable systems. requirements in Section 2 of IS : 732 (Part 2)-1982*. 5. unless the maximum current.9 In some installations.10 Individual sub-mains shall be installed to suppl’)~ passenger and goods lifts from the main or sub-main switchgear. In this case earth continuity conductor shall be bonded to each section of ducts or trunking to provide permanancy of the electrical continuity of the joints of the ducts. 5.4. the socket outlets shall be so selected as to obviate inadvertent wrong connections. The marker should necessarily indicate the voltage level. of the motor i_s less than 20 percent of the total rating of all the ways of the distribution boards.3.4.2 Cables at different voltage levels should be laid with adequate separation. Where the supply is taken from such a distribution board.6 Earthing in Industrial Premises 5.4 Subcircuits 5.4. to which subcircuit are connected through fused plugs in tapping boxes wherever required.4.1.4 In industrial installations. The wiring system available for general use are Ii&ted in Appendix B.3.6 In industrial premises.3. cables may be conveniently run or perforated metal cable trays.5. including the starting and accelerating current. and the lift manufacturer shall be consulted as to the appropriate rating of cables to be employed. 5. a neutral conductor may preferably be provided in all submain circuits even when there is no immediate requirement for the supply of single-phase circuits. These shall be of metal clad type.4.1 In 3-phase distribution systems.0 The subcircuit wiring shall conform in general to the.4. motors and all other parts made of metal shall be bonded together and connected to an efficient earth sy~ Em.7 Where non-luminous heating appliance is to be used.4. starters.5 Selection of Wiring Systems -The selection of a wiring system to be adopted in a factory depends upon the factors enumerated in part 1 /Set 11 of the Code. socket outlets of rating 30 A and above shall be provided with interlocked type switch. 3-phase and neutral socket outlets shall be provided with earth terminal either of pin type or scrapping type in *Code of practice for clcctrical wiring installations: Part 2 Design and construction (zcw~rtl rrlGiotl).1. cable sheaths. 5. 5. fluff.4. Cables laid unde’rground or at low working levels. for example. The cable routes where buried should be properly identified by route markers. with sufficient additional space to provide for anticipated future extensions. 5. distribution fuse boards. Cables at voltages above 1 000 V should be laid at the lowest level in trenches. Control devices are often designed for connection between one phase and neutral and considerable extra cost may be involved if a fourwire sub-main has to be installed i?. pilot lamps shall be arranged to indicate when the circuit is live.0 In factories and workshops all metal conduits. 5.4. corrosive elements being taken into account in conjunction with the protective coverings available.4. The electricity regulations made under the Fa tories Act require that adequate precautions NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 176 . or should be adequately protected against mechanical damage.1 Cables shall not be laid in the same trench or alongside a water main.6. Alternatively. 5. switchgear. trunking. moisture and temperature conditions. 5. 5. b) protection against corrosion. 5. it may be economical and convenient to install wiring in ducts or trunking. keeping in view the particular circumstances of each ciiht having regard to: a) location. and at the highest level on walls. keeping in view the requirements of human safety.5 Where more than one distribution system is necessary. nature of the c) occupancy of the building. 5. the branch distribution boards shall be totally segregated for single phase wiring. In workshops and factories where alterations and additions are frequent. The supply to small hoists and service lifts shall not be taken from a distribution board controlling final sub-circuits for lighting. liability to mechanical damage and the possibility of corrosion. and d) presence of dust. the motor circuit shall be clearly labelled.4. structural conditions. 5.se of ringcircuit system of wiring is usually advantageous from the point of view of providing an adequate member of outlets. 5.3 In machine shops and factories w h e r e alterations i n layout may repeatedly occur. Selection from a group of alternative systems shall be made in accordance with Appendix B. by the use of conduits. where demand presents sufficient diversity. should either be with armouring. the u. In industrial installations. addition to the main pins required for the purpose.2 Cable trenches shall be made. 5.2.

5 Earth leakage protection .4 Earthing of Electrically! Driven Machine Tools. provided the minimum size of earth-continuity conductors is not less than 1. 5. controlling a larger part of the installation.6. the tough rubber or PVC sheathed cables may be used in which case they shall incorporate an earthcontinuity conductor.2.shall be taken to prevent non-current-carrying metal work of the installation from becoming electrically charged. 5.5.6.6.6.2. etc. The size of earth-continuity conductors to be used along with aluminium current-carrying conductors should be calculated on the basis of equivalent size of the copper current-carrying conductors.5 mm2 for aluminium and need not be greater than 70 mm2 for copper and 120 mm2 for aluminium. However. 5. metal conduits cannot be used as earth-continuity conductor on account of corrosion.5 mm2 for copper and 2. 5. shall be included in the bonding. The strip or conductor shall be securely fastened to the bed plate by means of a. cables.3.2 Earth-continuity conductors and earth wires contained in the -cables .0 Portable appliances and tools having reinforced or double insulation need not be earthed. 5. may be used in industrial premises.2.3 Earthing of Portable Appliances and 5.Irrespective of’ the size or type of machine tools.2 It shall be ascertained that the fixed wiring at the appliance inlet terminals has been done correctly and in accordance with relevant Indian Standard. they may be equal to the size of the current carrying conductors with which they are used. 5.6.3. the circuits may be 5. With a good earth electrode.2 Earth Continuity Conductor the earth-continuity conductors should be correlated with the size of the current carrying conductors.6.6.3. Tools 5.3. where by nature of the process. overload protective devices may be used as earth leakage protective device.4 Flexible conduits shall not be used as earth-continuity conductors.1 Earth Electrodes. bolt.4 No twisted or taped joints shall be used in earth wires.1 All components of electric arc welding equipment shall be effectively bonded and connected to earth. the bed plate of the machine shall be earthed by means of a strip or conductor of cross-sectional area not less than 6. Some degree of discrimination may. 177 PART 4 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS . having one or more substations.6. PVC and tough rubber sheathed cables the sizes of the earth-continuity conductors shall be in accordance with relevant Indian Standard.For flexible 5. As regards the sizes of galvanized iron and steel earth-continuity conductors. as the generator is not connected electrically to a motor and therefore the welding circuit is electrically separate from the supply ctrcuit including the earth.6.6.3. the sizes of earth-continuity conductors should not be less than half of the largest current-carrying conductor. it is recommended to parallel all earth-continuity system. 5.6.5 Additional security may be obtained by arranging the earth-continuity conductor in the flexible cable between the socket outlet and the portable appliance in the form of a loop through which a light circulating current provided by a small low-voltage transformer is passed when the appliance is in use. IO mm? if of aluminium.5 Earthing of Electric Arc Equipment Welding 5.6.6.1 Good electrical continuity between the body of a portable appliance and the earthcontinuity conductor shall always be maintained. Any discontinuity in this loop will interrupt the circulating current and can thus be caused to operate a relay and disconnect the supply from the portable appliance. if used.3 A single pole switch shall not be connected in the earth conductor.1 Earth-continuity conductors and earth wires not contained in the cables -The size of relieved of the thermal and mechanical socks associated with the ‘clearance of heavy faults.6. 5.5 mm? if of copper. 5.Any of the earth electrodes as mentioned in Part I of the Code except cable sheath. so that earth faults on smaller subsidiary circuits protected by fuses have time to clear and prevent the opening of the circuit-breaker. be introduced with advantage by providing the delay in the operation of an earth-leakage trip. 5. 5.2.3. and I6 mm’ if of galvanized iron or steel.6. in certain cases. In addition to the advantage of sensitivity gained by such methods. In larger installations. 5.6.Use of earth leakage protection shall be made where greater sensitivity than provided by overcurrent protection is’ necessary.6. that is.6.5. A separate earth wire shallFe p’rovided either inside or outside the flexible conduits which shall be connected by means of earth clips to the earth system at one end and to the equipment at the other end. the size of the earth-continuity conductors should be equal to the size of the currentsarrying conductors and for metal sheathed. The transformers and separate regulators forming multioperator sets and capacitors for power factor correction.2. 5.3 Conduits may be used as ‘earthcontinuity conductors provided they are permanently and securely connected to the earth system.2 All terminals on the output side of a motor generator set shall be insulated from the car case and control panel.

6 If necessary. 5. which for welding purpose are double wound. The ratings and settihgs of fuses and the protective devices shall be co-ordinated so as to afford selectivity in operation where necessary. At 30 MHz. When leakage current attains a certain set maximum it becomes necessary to take 178 NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE . Provision shall also be made for control of general lighting and other emergency services through separate main circuits and distribution boards from the power circuits. 7. EMERGENCY/STANDBY POWER SUPPLIES 6. the main circuit fuSe shall normally blow in the event of a short-circuit or earth fa’ult occurring on a subcircuit. for example.2 When an oscilloscope is being used to examine the wave-form of a high frequency source. when an oscilloscope is being used on a circuit where the negative is above earth potential and also connected to its metallic case. the earth conductor being connected to it at several points.6. ihe earthing of the oscilloscope is not possible.6. 7. and the protective apparatus shall be capable of interrupting any short-circuit current. 7. high’ frequency and mains frequency coreless induction furnaces. for higher level either cartridge or HRC fuses shall be used.6. 6.2 Fire-safety Requirements 7. In single phase sets this terminal shall be connected to one end of the secondary winding and in case of three-phase sets this shall be connected to the neutral point of the secondary winding. However.6. the circuit-breakers shall operate earlier than the HRC fuse.5.1.1 Any industrial electronic apparatus which derives its supply from two-pin plugs incorporates small capacitors connected between the supply and the metal case of the instfument to cut down interference. In such a case it is recommended to mount the equipment ori a large sheet of copper or copper gauze. 6 .1 The provisions of Part 2 of the Code shall apply. The metal of the furnace charge is earthed by electrodes connected at the bottom Of the charge.shall be provided. that may occur. 5. 5.3 In case of transformer sets.5.4 Dielectric loss heating equipment work at frequencies between IO MHz to 60 MHz according to its use.6. the earth detection circuit gibing a continuous review of the conditions for the furnace lining. This capacitor shall be securely earthed. for example. and the furnace coils are connected to the mains supply but are unearthed.1 Besides fire fighting equipment. the following fire detection and extinguishing systems are recommended for industrial buildings: a) Buildings for low hazard industries .5. 5 . A relay is connected by a detection circuit which itself is earthed to the coils. This is due to the presence o f s t a n d i n g w a v e s o n t h e e a r t h conductors which besides being dangerous can result in energy being radiated to the detriment of communication services.1 Protection of Circuits 7. 7. 6 Earrhing qf Apparatus Industrial Electronic _~ the furance out of service and to re-line. but for smaller overloads within the breaking capacity of the circuitbreakers. in the event of short circuits exceeding the breaking capacity of the circuit: breakers.1.1. or where HRC fuses are used for protection of main circuits and circuit-breakers for the protection of subcircuits derived therefrom.1.1.6.5 In case where direct earthing may prdve harmful rather than provide safety.6.1 Appropriate protection shall be provided at switchboards and distribution boards for all circuits and subcircuits against overcurrent and earth faults. 7.6. 5.5.Not required 5.4 If rcwirable type fuses are used to protect subcircuits derived form a main circuit protected by HRC type fuses. the oscilloscope shall be earthed by a conductor entirely separate from that used by the source of high frequency power.6.2 Where circuit-breakers are used for protection pf a main circuit and of the subcircuits derived therefrom. 5.3 Where HRC type fuses are used for backup protection of circuit-breakers. These should not be directly earthed. a quarter wavelength is nearly 250 cm and an earth wire of this length or odd multiples of it is capable of being at earth potential at one end but several hundred volts at the other end. 7. an ‘earth and work’ terminal. The use of rewirable fuses is restricted to the circuits with short-circuit level of 4 kA. The object is to prevent dangerous break-through of hot metal through the furnace lining.3 High frequency induction heating apparatus shall be earthed by means of separate earth wire by as direct a route as possible. SYSTEM PROTECTION 7.6.6. independent source of supply for emergency service in particular installations may be provided.0 The earthing of these apparatus shall follow normal practice but attention shall be paid to the points discussed below. Precautions shall be taken that in such a case the oscilloscope is suitably protected from other apparatus. 7. the H RC fuses shall operate earlier than the circuit-breakers.1. without danger.6. discrimination in operation may be achieved by adjusting the protective devices of the sub-main circuit-breakers to operate at lower current settings and shorter timelag than the main circuit-breaker. special precautions are necessary.6. although discrimination may be achieved in respect of overload currents.

1 ‘The provisions of Part 1 /Set 17 of the Code ‘shall apply. MISCELLANEOUS/SPECIAL PROVISIONS 9. PART 4 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS 179 . tCode of practice for industrial lighting. Physical hazards exist in many manufacturing processes.0 Industrial lighting encompasses seeing tasks. $Nationa’l Building Code. 9. 8 . b) Induction furnaces.2 The location of lifts in factories. and 0 Microwave heating. electro-heat installations such as: 7. warehouses and similar buildings should be planned to suit the progressive movement of goods through the buildings having regard to the nature of processes carried out.2. The selection of electrical equipment shall be such that they are suitable to meet the conditions involved.b) Buildings for moderate i) Area up to 750 m* ii) Area above 750 m* hazard industries: Automatic ‘firealarm system Automatic sprinkler or automatic fire alarm system a) Occupant load-the occupant load expressed in terms of gross area in m*/person shall be 10 for industrial buildings. *Code of practice for fire safety of buildings (general): Electrical installations. Where it is impossible to avoid extreme environmental conditions. The speed of many manufacturing operations might alsd be hampered due to poor lighting.1 Equipment for Lighting -The choice of light sources and luminaries shall be governed by the guidelines given in IS : 6665-19727.f.1.2. b) Car-speed.1. The specific needs of individual locations reqliiring these services in each factory shall be ascertained in consultation with the concerned personnel before designing the electrical system. 8. Specific control methods are also given for some industries therein. lighting should be suitable for adequate visibility. 9. 8.3. The placing of a lift in a fume or dust laden atmosphere. etc. 9.1 The general rules laid down in Part 1 /Set 14 of the Code shall apply regarding lift installations. T h e recommended values of illumination and limiting va!ues of glare index are given in Appendix D for guidance. See Appendix E. tSafety requirements in electro-heat installations. Heating and Ventilation 8.2 Safety in Electra-Heat .3 Power Factor Compensation heating. Reference should be made to the guidelines given in SP : 7-1983:. operating conditions and economy. lighting contribute to the utmost as’ a safety factor in preventing accidents.IS : 6665-19727. therefore. Appendix C covers specific requirements for fire safety for representative industries.Reference should be made to IS : 7689-1974* r e g a r d i n g recommendations for controlling static electricity generated incidentally by processes in industries which may pose a hazard or inconvenience. Installations lndustrial process include in many instances.These shall be as follows: Normal load carrying lifts-2-2.1 The electrical installation meant for the services such as air-conditioning heating and ventilation in industrial buildings shall conform to the requirements given in Part 1 /Set 14 of the Code.for goods Ilfts . the design of lifts in industrial buildings shall1 take into account the following requirements: 4 Arc furnaces. The general considerations for design of lighting in industrial areas are enumerated in .3 Lifts ‘8.3. However:. d) Medium and high frequency induction e) Infra-red radiatum heating appliances. railway slidings. c) Appliances for direct and indirect resistance heating. heating and dielectric heating appliances. r. For safety requirements in such ‘electro-heat installations referrence shall be made to IS : 9080 ( P a r t s 1 to IV)t.2 Air-conditioning. With each of the various visual task conditions.5 m/s Lifts serving many floors -1 m/s 8.1 Lighting 8.2 Reference is also drawn to 1s : 16461961* regarding rules and regulations relating to electrical installations from the point of fire safety.1 Control of Static Electricity . *Guide for the control of undesirable static electricity. BUILDXNC SERVlCES 8. position of loading platform. For specific guidance for installations covered by this part. 8. or where it may be ‘exposed to extreme temperatures shall be avoided.3. 9.

APPENDIX (Clause 3.2) A-l.l: a) Low Hazard tndustries Abrasive manufacturing premises Aerated water factories Agarbatti manufacturing premises Aluminium copper and zinc factories Asbestos steam packing and lagging manufacturers Battery manufacturers Bone mills Breweries Canning factories Carbon dioxide plants Cardamom factories Cement factories Cement and/or asbestos or concrete products manufacturing premises Ceramic and crockery factories Clay works Clock and watch manufacturing premises Confectionery manufacturers Electric generating houses E l e c t r i c l a m p s a n d fluorescent t u b e manufacturers Electronic goods manufacturing premises Electroplating workshops Engineering workshops Fruit products and condiment factories Gold thread factories/gilding factories Glass factories Gum and glue factories Ice candy and ice cream manufacturing premises Ice factories Ink factories (excluding printing inks) Milm pasteurising plants and dairy farms Mica products manufacturing premises Potteries/tiles and brick works Rice mills Refractoriesiworks and firebrick kilns Salt crushing factories and refineries Silicate (other than sodium silicate) factories Soap and.1 . The following is a representative list of industries classified according to the degree of fire hazard enumerated in 3. factories Essential oil distillation plants Flour mills Garment makers Ghee manufacturing premises Ginning and pressing factories Grains and/or seeds disintegrating factories Grease manufacturing works Hat and topee factories Hosiery factories Incandescent gas mantle manufacturers Jute mills and jute presses Mineral oil blending and processing works Mutton tallow manufacturers Manure and/or fertilizer works (blending. mixing and granulating only) Mattresses and pillow making premises Oxygen plants Paper mills Pencil factories Plastic goods manufacturers Printing press premises Pulverising and crushing mills (hazardous materials) Rice mills Rope factories Rubber goods manufacturers Sheliac factories Spray painting works Starch factories Synthetic fibre manufacturing premises Tea factories Thermal power stations Tobacco (chewing). kimam and pan NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE b) Moderate Hazard Arecanut/ betelnut factories Atta and cereal grinding premises Bakeries and/or biscuit factories Beedi factories Book binders and paper cutting premises Book sellers and stationers’ shops Boot and shoe factories and other leather 180 . detergent factories Sugar candy manufacturers Sugar factories Tanneries Tea colouring factories Umbrella factories Vermicelli factories Wire drawing works A EXAMPLES OF INDUSTRIES BASED ON FIRE-SAFETY goods factories Boat builders and ship repairing docks Button factories Candle works Canvas sheet manufacturers Cardboard box manufacturers Carbon paper manufacturing premises Carpet and durries factories Carpenter’s workshops Camphor boiling premises Cashew nut factories (using open fire) Gnmng and pressing factories Cloth processing works Coffee curing premises Coffee roasting and grinding works mixing a n d / o r b l e n d i n g Colouridyes factories Coir factories Cork factories Cork stopper and other cork products manufacturing premises Collieries Chemical manufacturers Cotton mills Dyeing and dry cleaning works Electric wire and cable manufacturing premises EnameJ. I . zarda.

h) Rubber-insulated braided and compounded insulated NOTE.Incombustible insulated trunking and ducts provide an alternative and where these are used a bare copper or copper-alloy earth-continuity conductor may be required. say. L Rubber-insulated lead-alloy-sheathed cables incorporating an earth continuity conductor. manufacturers Surgical cotton manufacturers Tar distilleries Tar felt manufacturing premises Tarpauplin and canvas proofing factories Timber and woodworkers’ premises Tin printers (where more than 50 percent of floor area is occupied as engineering workshop this may be taken as moderate hazard risk) Terpentino distilleries Tyre retreading and resoling factories Woodmeal manufacturers APPENDIX ( Clause 5.Where a lead-sheathed cable has plumbed joints a separate earth-continuity conductor may not be required. b) Tough rubber-sheathed or PVC-sheathed cables protected as necessary against mechanical damage. fodder and bhoosa (chaff) pressing’ factories Match factories Oil mills Oil extraction plants Oil and leather cloth factories Paint (including nitrocellulose paints) and varnish factories Petrochemical plants Plywood factories Printing ink manufacturers Resin and lamp black manufacturers Rubber substitute. C) High Hazard Acetylene plants Alcohol distillers Aluminium and magnesium powder plants B i t u m i n i s h e d p a p e r / hessian cloth manufacturing premises Bobbin factories Cinematograph film production studies Calcium carbide plants Cotton waste factories Coal/coke/charcoal ball and briquettes factories Celluloid goods manufacturers Cigarette filter manufacturers Cotton seed cleaning or deliniting premises Duplicating and stencil paper manufacturers Fertilizer plants Explosive manufacturers Fireworks factories Foam plastics and foam rubber goods manufacturers Grass. insulated cables laid around a galvanized steel catenary wire. hay. N OTE . 4 Rubber-insulated braided and compounded or PVC-insulated cable installed in heavygauge screwed conduit. NOTE .musalu making premises Tobacco grinding and crushing and snuff manufacturing premises Tobacco’ curing and redrying factories Tobacco pressmg works Upholsterers Weaving factories Wooilen mills Wool cleaning/pressing factories Yam gassing plants. k) Mineral-insulated metal-sheathed cable with or without protective shearhing with suitable watertight glands. braided overall or otherwise protected to withstand corrosive conditions where necessary. N O T E.or other insulated conduit and provided with a bare copper or copper-alloy earth-continuity conductor as necessary. ?ART 4 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS 181 . WIRING SYSTEMS FOR GENERAL B SELECTION OF WIRING SYSTEMS APPLICATIdN 4 Bare solid or tubular conductors supported on insulators in metal or incombustible structural ducts or chases (main connections). or PVC-insulated cable installed on cleats.-. protected as necessary against mechanical damage and corrosion.Polythene-insulated PVC-sheathed cable provides an alternative having the advantage of high insulation-resistance. Rubber-insulated braided and compounded or PVC-insulated cable installed in PVC.The use of galvanized conduit and PVC- 3 4 Rubber-insulated braided’ and compounded eS or PVC-insulated cable installed in lightgauge steel conduit with lug grip. with appropriate protection where cable passes through floors or walls. or rubber-insulated aluminium-sheathed cable. Rubber-insulated braided and compounded or PVC-insulated cable installed in metal trunking or ducts. g) Grid suspension wiring system comprising rubber-insulated or PVC. buried in plaster or installed in concrete ducts.5) B-1. cable is to be preferred where the situation may be damp or long hfe is required.

(n). unless it is of type conforming with wiring system (1) and shall not be permitted in locations: i) Where wiring height is less than 2. Rubber-insulated braided and compounded or PVC-insulated cable installed in galvanized solid-drawn screwed conduit with flameproof couplings and inspection fittings. ii) They are exposed to corrosive vapours. Same as in case of wiring system (d). NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE B-2. following locations unless the cable is of (P) and (v) PVC-sheathed type. The barriers shall be at least 50 mm in thickness and of the same height as of cable trench. Trunking or ducting systems for cables above (c) ground shall not be used where: i) They are exposed to physical damage. B-4. The cables shall be carried through holes in the barriers. Itad-or aluminium- e) Tough rubber-sheathed or PVC-sheathed g) Varnished-cambric insulated. steel tape or wire armoured cable or PVC-insulated steel tape or wire armoured and PVC-sheathed cable with cleat or hook suspensions. iii) In concealed spaces of combustible construction. sheathed cable or PVC-insulated and PVCsheathed cable. nium-sheathed cable or PVC-insulated and PVC-sheathed cable. or iv) in concealed places. iv) The combined cross-sectional area of all conductors or cables shall not as far as possible exceed 40 percenl of the internal cross-sectional area of the trench. or v) In concealed spaces. l e a d .5 m above working floor level. ci) Armoured cables shall not be permitted. teak battens by screws of corrosion-resisting material. Varnished cambric insulated cables without metal sheath should be used only for short connections on switchboards and the like in dry situations. b) Paper-insulated. iii) Where atmosphere is likely to -contain flammable gases or vapours. B-2) tb) and (g) If the ducts are in the form of under floor trenches then the following provisions should be observed: i) Cables shall preferably be so mounted on insulated racks or other supports as to be at least 75 mm above the bottom. lead-alloy sheathed or aluminium-sheathed. or v) Where conductor operates at voltage above 650 V. ii) Top of trenches shall be covered with chequered plates or concrete slabs. h) Rubber-insulated. NOTL -. ADDITIONAL WIRING SYSTEMS PARTICULARLY SUITABLE FOR USE IN FACTORIES AND THE LIKE a) Paper-insulated. in (m). served and impregnated cable or PVC-insulated and steel tape or wire armoured and PVC-sheathed cable buried directly in the ground or used in special conditions.o r a l u m i n i u m - sheathed cable with steel wire or tape armour as necessary. Ordinary steel conduits shall not be permitted in areas where flammable vapour may be present. c) Paper-insulated lead or lead-alloy or alumi- d) Paper.1 Even though guidance may be taken from the selection chart (Table 3) for wiring systems. unless protected against mechanical damage. and v) The cable trenches shall be kept ‘free from accumulation of water. the following restrictions to their use apply: 182 . iii) where wet processes are carried out. ii) Where ambient temperature is likely to be above 55°C at sometime or other durmg the year. steel wire armoured. (h) and fs) These systems should only be permitted for voltage below 250 V and that too only if use of such system is essential. lead-alloy-sheathed or aluminium-sheathed. ii) where exposed to corrosive vappurs. cable mounted on insulating non-hygroscopic cleats affixed to treated. SELECTION OF WIRING SYSTEMS FOR FACTORIES B-3. This system shall not be permitted in locations: i) where exposed to severe physical damage. dusts and waste materials. rubber-insulated. steel tape or wire armoured.1 Wiring systems suitable for installations in different categories of factories are given i n Table 3.i n s u l a t e d . lead-alloy or aluminium-sheathed cable. such as Monel metal or phosphor-bronze. It shall be permitted only where voltage is below 650 V and in locations where the atmosphere is unlikely to contain any flammable vapours or gases. SPECIAL RESTRICTIONS B-4. Wiring System (see Restrictions B-l. Same as in case of wiring system (d). N O T E. and battery rooms. and so installed as to be protected against mechanical damage. mounted on porcelain or hardwood cleats or in trenches or ducts. B-3. and shall not be permitted in locations exposed to corrosive fumes or vapour. iv) Where atmosphere is likely to contain flammable gases or vapours.ml P a p e r . installed in underground earthenware ducts or metal pipes. which shall be made good thereof to prevent the passage of tire beyond the barriers. it is recommended that trenches of more than I 000 cm2crosssectional area be divided by incombustible barriers at intervals not exceeding 45 m. iii) In case of long trenches.Precautions should be taken against the drainage of oil and in certain instances cables of the non-draining type are required. tough rubber-sheathed cable. iv) Where wet processes are carried out.

shall comply with are evolved Part VII of the Code IS . Average Factory 7 2nd Choice Choice (2) (3) a k i . 2nd Ye : i g V (1) Main distribution at medium or low voltage 2nd Choice (7) P V 2nd Choice (9) . lap air for variable ment shall be speed motor taken flamqproof in gas breaking. ISS MOTORS O THER E Q U I P M E N T (1) J&e spinning and (2) (3) (4) F ITTINGS (5) MISCELLANEOUS (6) Sup ly shall be at < 4SO V in jute godowns IS : 3836 weavmg. Equip.2. I) S EC T I O N O F INSTALLATION .2) T+PE O F C REQUIREMENTS FOR FIRE SAFETY IN SPECIFIC INDUSTRIES INDUSTRY R E F. Lighting fittings of enclosed type All current carrying parts. from outside the smgemg rooms. the ‘cooling dust-tight. b.v see B-l and B-2.ising building. 4 r L Y Sub-main distribution lo local distribution boards a C : P V h f ff P V f S b q r k t Sub-circuit wiring C C f f V N O T E- f k V g b h j C f s k t For description of a.5. man made Ji bres or any grouping of these Places where paints and varnishes are stored or processed Machines for singeing yarn shall be protected lo ensure that heating elements are not switched on while yarn is stationary IS : 9109 Provisions shall be made for switching off the whole factory at more than one control point. carpet making factories Cotton ginning cotton seed delintering and pressing factories Plants making viscose rayon yarn or staple fibre or both IS : 2726 All motors shall All equipment be totally enclosed shall be metal type and in wet clad. 183 PART 4 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS . APPENDIX (Clause 7. G g C ATEGORY Heavy Industry OF FACTORY Chemical industry _ 1st Choice (8) S Light industry 1st Choice (6) 5 k r C I St Choice (4) a k qt a C f k P r :: j Factories InvolvinG?e (10) k . Stop motion rooms devices provided on frames snail be dust-tight Wiring in steel conduits.ing fittings at willowing. dust-tight locations shall be drip-proof -do- Li hting fittings s 1 all be dusttight All equipment in Vapour-proof lighting fittings the Xanthation area and finished in areas where disulphide plant corrosive gases ...3079 Totally enclosed Dust-tight lightMetal clad and type. waste opening..1 a n d Bf4. c. mixing. blow and ra. jute rope.TABLE 3 SELECTION CHART FOR WIRING SYSTEMS FOR INSTALLATIONS IN FACTORIES ( C l a u s e s 5. contacts liable for corrosion shall be cadmium plated Textile mills using cotton. cotton waste regenerated cellulose.

exit roads.T YPE OF IN D U S T R Y (1) R E F. Flexible lighting pendants or portable lamps not allowed Electrical heaters shall be metal cased.1. upholsteries and other wood working shops. A clearanoe of not less than 75 cm to be provided from highest stacking level. as also equipment. Only conduits. flammable sheathed cable. duits mineral insulated. dustproof (see Part 7 of the Code) OTHER EQUIPMENT (4) All equipment of the enclosed type FITTINGS (5) Wiring in steel conduits. magnesium and their alloys are processed or used Coal.ing troughs and other control aquipment shall be dust proof type. copper outside godown or aluminium where fibrous goods. internal factory roads 114 - NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE . General factor areas: a) Canteens b) Cloakroom. Plywood hardwood. fire works to be ositioned not bePow 45 cm or explosives are stored below roof.Q I AVERAGE ILLUMINATION lux I50 100 100 20 L IMITING G LARE IN D E X I. main entrances.. wood flour. coach and body build works. powders of aluminium. armoured or mineral insulated type ‘of wiring - Use of flexible cables to be kept_ to the minimum IS : 4886 Where. totally enclosed. therein for power generation cole or briquette making Tea factories IS : 3595 Lighting fittings shall be dusttight. practicable. Flexible connection to the stacker through rubber compound sheathed trailing cable with hard cord braiding Screwed steel cbn. nitroLighting fittings cellulose. outdoor storage sites formmg part of industrtal complexes or others: cold storage buildings IS : 3594 Driving motors for overhead cranes totally . corridors.All control equipment switches. Temperature of eqqipment IO’C ovq normal working . furni.IS ture factories. 1% (2) IS : 4226 MOTORS (3) Motors shall be flameproof dustprotected (see Part 7 of the Code) Totally enclosed. switch and socket shall be watertight. etc : 6329 Motors shall be totally enclosed or pipe ventilated All equipment shall be dust-tight and where spray painting is done shall comply with Part 7 of the Code APPENDIX (Clause 8. For mains operated electrical stackers. insulation boards. totally enclosed type Fan motors of dryers and wither. immersion type or totally enclosed low temperature type with external surface below 92°C Saw mills. flameproof. enclosed All switchgear equipment metal enclosed.1) D RECQMMENDED VALUES OF ILLUMINATION AND LIMITING VALUES OF G&ARE INDEX-INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS SL No. warehouses. etc.’ c) Entrances. Factory outdoor areas: Stockyards. Enclosed lighting fittings h’t IsCELLANEOUS (6) -do- Factories where. car parks. wood wool. stairs 2. liquids. pulverising mills. INDMTRIAL RtItLotNGs AND PRO~‘ESSE.temperature allowed Godowns.

TSupplementary local hghtlng may be requtred lor gauge lasses and instrument panels. tufting. Chocolate’ and confectionery factories: a) Mixing.B the light. assembly of very small precision mechanisms. blocking and in laying Boot and shoe factories: a) Sorting and grading b) Clicking and closing. inspection c) Maintenance and repairs (Hangers) Assembly shops: a) Rough work. values. hemming. setting pattern. :: 22 8. winnowing. inspection. $pecial attention should be paid to the colour quality o. sorting. b) Binding and folding. punching and stitching. packing iii Special lighting 450 :: :E 300 450 200 450 450 :: - II.I% 3. bean cleaning. stationery driers. feeding. 13. mechanical crystalizing bleaching. etc b) Preparation: kettle areas. radio and telephone equipment. cowling welding. Canning and preserving factories: a) Inspection of beans. 5. dicing. fat extraction. sub-assembly. electrolytic cells b) Controls. for example. wrapping. rice. cream making c) Hand decorating. engine assembly. boiling tanks. mechanical cleaning. screw fastening. preparatory operations c) Cutting table and presses. filtration plants. inspection Ceramics -see pottery and clay products Chemical works: a) Hand furnaces. evaporators. a) General working areas b) Brewhouse. percolators. extractors. I NDUSTRIAL B UILDINGS AND PROCFSSE~ OVERAGE LIMITING ~LIUMINATION lux Aircraft factories and mainmnance hangers: a) Stock parts productions b) Drilling. 20 to 25 w 20 50 7. assembly of heavy machinery b) Medium work. bottling and canning plants c) Bottle inspection IO. for example. trimming c) Canned and bottled goods: retorts d) High speed labelling lines e) Can inspection Carpet factories: a) Winding. instruments Bakeries: a) Mixing and make-up rooms. PART 4 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS 185 . for example. gauges. stitching d) Bottom stock preparation. mechanical driers. blending. wing sections. etc c) Control rooms: i) Vertical control panels ii) Control desks 14. crushing and refining. typewriter and office machinery-assembly d) Very fine work. finishing e) Shoe rooms Breweries and distilleries: I 000: 700 IO00 :3 100 GLARE INDEX 450 300 25 25 300 IS0 300 700 I &lo* 25 28 25 22 I9 4. boiling b) Chocolate husking. machined parts. barley. - IS0 w 200 to 300 300 28 - 28 :: *Opiical aids should be used’ where necessary. 25 :: - 12. :: 22 2s 25 - 9. final assembly. mending.Designing. :: - 6. cutting. miscellaneous machines c) Finishing. :. fringing c) Weaving. milling. riveting. topping. for example. beaming b). nitrators. wrapping rooms b) Decorating and icing Boiler houses (industrial): a) Coal and ash handling b) Boiler rooms: i) Boiler fronts and operating areas ii) Other areas c) Outdoor plants: i) Catwalks ii) Platforms Bookbinding: a) Pasting. sheet aluminium layout and template work. vehicle body assembly c) Fine work. stationery or gravity crystalizers. oven rooms. lasting and bottoming. frame assembly. jacquard and cutting.

boiler and turbine decks h) Transformers and outdoor switchgear 22.SI. Die sinking: a) General b) Fine 19. NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE .g: 200 100 70 to loo 100 70 70 to loo 25 I9 I9 . Electricity generating stations: Outdoor locations a) Coal unloading areas b) Coal storage areas c) Conveyors d) Fuel oil delivery headers e) Oil storage tanks f) Catwalks g) Ptatforms. switchgear and transformer chambers c) Boiler houses (including operating floors) platforms. tSupplementaty local lighting may be required for gauge glasses and instrument panels. I NDUSTRIAL B UILDING S AND P ROCESSES AVERAGE ILLUMINAT!~N IUX L IMITING G LARE I NDEX 15. Collieries (surface buildings): a) Coal preparation plant: i) Working areas ii) Other areas. Engraving: a) Hand b) Machine (see Die sinking) 4502 :z :z 450 1000 I 500 450 1000 I 500 I50 :: I50 lo0 I50 I50 100 2001 Special lighti. coal conveyors.. Dye works: a) Reception. No. feeders. conveyer gantries. junction towers g) Control rooms: i) Vertical control panels ii) Control desks iii) Rear of control panels iv) Switch houses h) Nuclear reactors and steam raising plants: i) Reactor areas. Dairies: a General working areas bf Bottle inspection c) Bottle filling 18. battery rooms. preciprtators. ‘grey’ perching b) Wet processes c) Dry processes d) Dyers’ offices ‘e) Final perching 20. Clothing factories: a) Matching-up b) Cutting sewing: i) Light ii) Medium iii) Dark iv) Pressing c) Inspection: i) Light ii) Medium iii) Dark d) Hand tailoring: ~’ i) Light ii)dedium iii) Dark 16. pulverizers. soot and slag blowers d) Boiler house and turbine house e) Basements f) Conveyor houses. blowers auxiliary generators. :: 25 200 lo :z I50 I50 I50 I50 200 _ 1000 I9 - l 186 Spectal attention should be paid to the colour quality of the light. boilers. galleries ii) Gas circulator days iii) Reactor charge/discharge face 2 I. I9 :: 22 22 I9 I9 I9 I9 I9 I9 25 25 IE 750 lW 2w .. Electricity generating stations: Indoor locations a) Turbine halls b) Auxiliary equipment. iii) Picking belts iv) Winding houses b) Lamp rooms: i) Main areas ii) Repair sections iii) Weigh cabine c) Fan houses 17.

: 29. ‘Go’ and ‘No-go’ gauges. flanging. for example. pouncing. inspection Garages: a) Parking areas (interior) b) Washing and polishing. counting. cutting out. braiding. 300 300 450 I :g 700 450 I50 300 ‘700 :z$ 22 :: 22 I9 I9 I9 34. gauging and inspection of small intricate parts e) Minute work. \ PART 1 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS 187 . rough checking of stock parts. bending.SL No. INDUSTRIAL B UILDINGS AND ‘PROCESSES hllTlNG G LARE INDEX Farm buildings (dairies) a) Boiler houses b) Milk rooms c) Washing and sterilizing rooms d) Stables e) Milking parlours Flour mills: a) Roller. precision mechanisms. water gas plants. calibrated scales. coke screening and coke handling plants (indoor) b) Governor. grinding. pressing. 30 to 50. 7oot 28 28 :: I9 I9 I9 22 :: 22 31. sub-assemblies c) Fine work. forming (blowing. radio and telecommunicat. for example. knjtfing. decorating. and hand finishing. dark e) Linking or running-on Inspection shops (Engineering) a) Rough work. liglit. medium. sizing. pouring. refining forming. tSupplementary local lighting and optical aids should be used where necessary :Optical aids should be used where necessary. silvermg) e) Brilliant cutting f) Inspection: i) General ii) Fine L Glove mating: a) Pressing. cleaning. instruments d) Very fine work. booster and exhaustor houses c) Open type plants: i) Catwalks ii) Platforms Gauge and tool rooms: General Glass works and processes: a) Furnace rooms. etching. finishing ironing. oil gas plants. greasing. cutting b) Sowing: i) Light ii) Medium iii) Dark Hat making a) Stiffening. purifier. compressor. pits c) Repairs Gas works: a) Retort houses. shaking out. very small instruments 150 300 I50 - u 25 25 25 28 24. I50 300 28 25 21. 26. toughening d) Finishing (bevelling. sifting and packing floors b) Wetting tables Forges: General Foundries: a) Charging floors. 23. for example.ion equipment. b) Sewing: i) Light ii) Medium iii) Dark Hosiery and knitwear: a) Circular and flat knitting machines universal winders. polishing. 30. folding and pressing b) Lock stitch and overlocking machines: i) Light ii) Medium iii) Dark c) Mending d) Examining. 1:: 300 :i 25 28. tumbling cleaning. rough moulding and rough core making b) Fine moulding and core making. 25. 28 25 *Supplementary local lighting should be used at important points. purifiers. sorting. 100 :. for example. etc b) Medium work. annealing lehrs b) Mixing rooms. meter. drawing. for example. 32. general servicing. rolling) c) Cutting to size. I50 22 iii 700 :: 22 33.

spraying and finishing c) Fine painting. preparation plants. Paint shops and spraying booths: a) Dipping. scarfing sewing c) Grading and matching 41. mixing and drying. drying. setting Laboratories and test rooms a) General laboratories. splitting and strafing SL I NDUSTRIAL B UILDINGS AND Pttoc~~!im AVERAGE ILLUMINATION IUX LI M I T I N G G LARE I N D E X 28 150 200 300 Special lighting 28 28 _ 36. cold strip mills. sterilizing and washing. medium buffing and olishing c) Fine bench and machine work.Leather working a) Pressing and glazing b) Cutting. NA’FIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 188 . mills motors rooms. medium grinding. spraying and finishing d) Retouching and matching Paper-works: a) Paper and board making: i) Machine houses. tableting. 44.No. . works a) Marshalling and outdoor stockyards b) Stairs. granulating. polishing. P automatic machines. tinning. sheet and plate finishing. 200 300 25 22 46. tanning. ordinary painting. loading docks c) Slab yards. 40. cutting. galvanizing. trimming ii) Inspection and sorting (over hauling) b) Paper converting processes: i) Corrugated board. calendering pulp mills. . cartons. despatch b) Drycleaning bulk machine work c) Fine h&d ironing. iiz :: 25 28 28 22 22 I9 28 25 300 I50 200 39. ironing (calendering). machine and roll shops f) Plate inspection g) Tinplate inspection Jewellery and watchmaking a) Fitte processes b) Minute processes c) Gem cutting. labelling. melting shops. staking. coating and laminating processes ii) Associated printing Pharmaceuticals and fine chemicals works: a) Raw material storage b) Control laboratories and testing c) Pharmaceuticals manufacturing: grinding. picking and cleaning lines.gw ays! basement< quarries. chassis assembly.g: I Soot 300 450 I9 IO I9 I9 38. cap ing. balance rooms b) Electrical and instrument laboratories Laundries and drycleaning works a) Receiving. car assembly b) Final inspection c) Trim shops. inspection mending. body sub-assemblies. rough grinding. 200 W 28 I9 25 :: 300 % *Optical aids should be used where necessary. containers and paper sack manufacture. spotting Leather dressing a) Vats. washing. inspection d) Fine chemical manuPacture: i) Plant processing ii) Fine chemical ftnishing :: 25 I9 mt 45. 35. gan. Iron and steel. me fine buffing and polishing Motor vehicle plants a) General sub-assemblies. pump hauses d) Mould preparation. rolling and wtre_mills. :: 25 43. body assembly d) Spray booths Paint works a) General automatic processes b) Special batch mixing c) Colour matching 450 700 1000* 700 300 450 300 450 200 450 700’ I50 300 450 22 42. fleshing and stuffing b) Finishing. . cutting. preparation of solutions and filling. cleaning. cartoning and wrapping. sorting. ordinary automatic machines. . ingot stripping soaking pits. Machine and fitting shops a) Rough bench and machine work b) Medium bench and machine work. blast furnace working areas. *Special attention to colour quality of light may be neassary. finishing. power blower houses e) Slab inspection andsonditioning. stretching. firing rough spraying b) Rubbing. mechanical plants. pressing.

Structural steel fabrication plants: a) General b) Marking off 55. granules making. polishing 3) Cementing 48. winding. glycerine evaporation and distillation. plodding: i) General areas ii) Control panels. hand and machine casting ii) Front assembly. fine counts light iii) Plain ‘grey’ cloth Cloth inspection -. cleaning. glazing. moulding. washing. -z 200 300 200 I50 Special lighting :: :: 25 25 _. continuous indoor soap making. soap milling. pressing. etching. firing b) Enamelling. cutting and drying. spreading. pressing. dressing and dyeing. electroplating. Textile mills’ (cotton or linen): Bale breaking. spinning. Rubber processing: a) Fabric preparation creels b) Dipping. Printing works: a) Type foundries: i) Matrix making. wrapping and packing. masking ii) Finishing. machines d) Edible products processing ‘and packing 54. finishing. backing ii) Moulding. spinning (fine counts) Healding (drawing-in) Weaving i) Patterned cloths. buffing. slashing. Sheet metal works: a) Benchwork. machining. iv) Proof reading d Electrotyping: i) Block-making. colouring. roving. 28 I9 :ii :ii 450 300 200 300 200 300 700* 200 I50 200 25 22 :: I9 I9 :: 25 25 I9 2 25 25 5 200 Special lighting 25 I50 200 to 300 :: :: I50 200 to 300 200 to :E! I50 u 25 I50 300 25 25 - I. injection iii) Sheet fabrication: I) Shaping 2) Trimming. blowing. plants: i) General areas ii) Control panels b) Batch or continuous soap cooling. burnishing b) Final buffing and polishing 49. dressing type. stamping. I9 - -*Special attention should be paid to the colour quality of the light. Pottery and clay products: a) Grinding. kiln rooms. routing d) Photo-engraving: i) Block-making. Soap factories: a) Kettle houses and ancillaries. punching shearing. filling and packing granules: i) General areas ii) Control panels. trimming. Plastics works: a) Manufacture (see Chemical works) b) Processing: i) Calendering. filter pressing. slubbing. granules storage and handling. I N D U S T R I A L . sorting b) Printing plants: i) Machine composition. fine counts dark ii) Patterned cloths.St. polishing. extrusion ii) Moulding-compression. routing e) Colour printing: Inspection area 5 I. doubling (fancy). heckling. BUILDINGS AND PROCESSES AV E R A G E ILL~~~~NA~!oN IUX LIMITING GLARE INDEX 47. No. key equipment c) Soap stamping. spinning (ordinary counts). PART 4 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS . I50 450. compounding calendars c) Tyre and tube making 52. folding b) Sheet inspection 53. Plating shops: a) Vat and baths. scribing. imposing stones ii) Presses iii) Composing room . cabling Warping. moulding. carding. decorating 50.

twlstmg Healding (drawing-in) e) Weaving: i) Fine worsteds ii) Medium worsteds. radio valves 63. loading bays b) Small material. winding. warping. Woodworking shops: a) Rough sawing and bench work b) ‘Sizing. fine sanding and finishing Iii 150 I50 2”: 25 28 25 22 19 22 300 700 150 I50 :E :: *Special attention should be paid to the Solour quality of the light. 198 NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE . jacquard carpet looms. veneering. planning. brushing. Textile mills (jute): a) Weaving. cop winding b) Yarn calender 59. flat._ d) Very fine soldering and spot welding. instruments. raising. tSpecial attention should be paid to the colour quality of the light in all processing areas. carbonizing. quality slashing: i) Light thread ii) Dark thread d) Warping e) Healding (drawing-in) f) W. for example. carding. Textile mills (woollen): a) Scouring. brazing and spot welding. pressing. Upholstering. AND PROCESSES A VERAGE ILLUMINATION lux L IMITING G L A R E INDEX 56. furniture and vehicles 61. coliditioning or setting of twist b) Spinning c) Winding. cropping Spinning. preparing. rough sanding.IN D U S T R I A L B UILDINGS l%. rewinding and coning. spinning. and bench work. radio set assembly . combing (white). domestic hardware c) Fine soldering and spot welding. racks c) Packing and despatch 62. fugitive tinting. Tobacco factories All processes 60. back-washing. for example. medium machine. combing (coloured). gilhng. cooperage c) Fine bench and machine work.. rough spot welding b) Medium soldering. 2z* 200 I50 3001 300 25 25 22 22 58. Warehouses and bulk stores: a) Large material. fine woollens iii) Heavy woollens r) Burling and mending Lx) Perching: i) Grey ii) Final 25 25 25 :: 19 I9 I50 iOO 450 700 700 450 :z 25 25 25 - dc. tentering. teasing. drying. twisting. Textile mills (silk or synthetics): a) Soaking. roving.eaving g) Inspection 57. crabbing and blowing b) Blending. for example. Welding and soldering: a) Gas and arc welding. gluing.

29.5 4. the natural power factor for some three phase electrical installations are given E POWER FACTOR IN INDUSTRIAL INSTALLATIONS in Table 4. The recommended capacitor ratings at rated voltage.2 G.59 to 0.87 to 0.5 4 5 6 8. (2) Flour mills Gas works Textile mills Oil mill Woollen mills Potteries Cigarette manufacturing Cotton press Foundries Tiles and mosaic Structural engineermg Chemicals Municipal pumping stations Oil terminals Telephone exchange Rolling mills Irrigation pumps to 0.86 to 0. 30.5 :: 33 42 50 RA T I N G I 000 rev min (4) I.5 9 Ii.58 0. 24. NOTI: 2 The capacitive current supplied bv condenser\ directl! connected acre\\ Induction motor terminal\ should not exceed the magnetising current of the induciion motors. 25.80 0.77 0.60 0.57 0.75 to 0.69 to 0. 15.5 9 10.80 to 0.The reference to speed of motor ha\ been made 51ncc the manufacturer\ pro\ idc inlnrmat~on on that bawls.48 0.5 II 13 IS 2j 29 35 4x 60 6X 500 re\ min (7) 2.7 22. No. 34.7 7.61 0.5 3 4 5 s II No~I.83 0.63 0.5 I2 IX i3 2x 38 47 55 2.5 5.66 0.51 0.53 0. 32.5 2. TYPE OF IN S T A L L A T I O N N ATIIRAI. 12.: IO. PO W E R FACTOR (3) 0.68 to to to to to to to 0.5 6 9 IO I6 21 26 36 45 53 IN kVAR tom Moron Srttn * 750 600 rev min rev min (5) (6) 2 3.68 0.75 0. 27. 5. T YPE OF IN S T A L L A T I O N NATI’HAL.76 Or78 0.73 to 0. 20.72 to 0.5 7.68 to 0.65 0.87 0.51 0.58 0.25 3. 13. 26.5 4 5.5 4.80 to 0. 31.60 0. then he may install the calculated capacitor LVAR a\ a \cparate cltcult with its independent controlgear.86 0.63 0.75 0. 6. 14.65 0.7 5.e the power factor bqond a \aIuc which ih limited b! con\idcration\ 01 magnetising kVAR of the motor as stated in Note 2.70 0.5 Il. TABLE 4 POWER FACTOR FOR THREE PHASE ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS SL No (1) :: 3. 21. PART 4 E L E C T R I C A L I N S T A L L A T I O N S I N INDUSTRIAL B U I L D I N G S I91 .75 St.70 T A B L E 5 C A P A C I T O R R A T I N G S AT RATED VOLTAGE R ATED OI’TPIT OF MOTORS (11 kW 2. POWtR FACTOR (3) 0. . 28. to guard ‘against c\cc\\ tramlent torque\ and o\cr\olt+!c\. 22.5 3.61 0. 4. 16. for direct connection to ac induction motor in industries are given in Table 5.60 0.5 6.92 to 0.80 0. I I. 12. 17.I . 23.APPENDIX (C/uuse 9) The general guidelines for power factor compensation is giver in Part I /Set 17 of the Code.64 0. NOTE 3 Should a consumer desire to impBo. 19.48 0.61 0.65 0. 7.5 37 57 I:: 150 I87 CAPA(.ITOR I 3 000 rev min (2) I 500 rev min (3) I 2 3 4 5 6 .87 0.72 0. For guidance. 33.5 :: 32 40 55 67 76 i 2.72 0.52 (2) Cold storage and fisheries Cinemas Metal pressing Confectionery Dyeing and printing (textile) Plastic moulding Film studios Newspapers Heavy engineering works Rubber extrusion and moulding Pharmaceuticals Oil and paint manufacturing Silk mills Biscuit factory Printing press Food products Laundries (1) 18.57 0.74 to 0.59 0.

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NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE P A R T 5 .

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electric power in outdoor installations is normally utilized for specific purposes such as. For convenience. temporary and permanent. Part 5 of the Code has been set aside to deal with installations erected outdoor. open cast mines). this duration is defined as not exceeding six months. Temporary installations are those which are erected to serve for a small duration of time after which. be noted that small outdoor locations around building installations (example.1 As compared to the various types of indoor installations covered in other parts of the Code. however. and keeping other aspects of safety provisions in view. In addition. In the case of the latter.PART 5 OUTDOOR INSTALLATIONS 0. 0. they are dealt With separately in Section I. This part basically deals-with two types of outdoor installations. 0. 0. . . lighting or for meeting the needs of heavy machinery (example.they are meant to be dismantled. Merence should be made to relevant parts of the Code. For requirements pertaining to this. gardens around hotel installations or storage yards in industries) do not fall under the scope of Part 5. the duties would be more onerous than those normally encountered in indoor situations. installations for lighting of public thoroughfares are permanent in nature.being exposed to moderate to heavy environmental conditions.F 0 R E W 0 R Da 0. namely.3 Even though.4 It may. outdoor installations ati distinct in nature by virtue of their.2 Keeping the above in view. Permanent outdoor installations are those which are generally ‘in use for longer periods of time. thereby calling for special considerations in their design.

housing for one or more lamps.6 S e r v i c e R o a d . flood lighting of routes and structures of architectural importance.3 The requirements given in this Section are.1 One of the most common forms of permanent outdoor installations is the public lighting installations intehded for lighting of public thoroughfares.\. 1.A longitudinal space dividing a dual carriageway. Sj’stenl -.1. 1 . SCOPE 1. NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE . 3 Carriage.r cesigning on efficient and economical lighting Installation. 2. 2. 1. it has been found necessary to lay down guidelines fo. 0.1. sited in a manner concordant with this distribution.) 2.A way for the passage of vehicular traffic over which such traffic may lawfully pass. shopping enclaves.SECTION 1 PUBLIC LIGHTING INSTALLATIONS 0.That portion of a road reserved exclusively for pedestrians.1).1 This Section of the Code covers requirements of public lighting installations in order to provide guidance to those concerned with the preparation of public lighting schemes.2 This Section deals onl with electric lightin sources and does not inclu Je gas or other types o f lighting.The vertical distance between the centre of the luminaire and the surface of the carriage (see Fig.11 Rqfuge -.1.1 Terms Relating to Highways 2. With the availability of variety of light sources for such insfallations and the need for proper illumination of a variety of traffic routes and city centres.2 This Section of the Code is intended to cover general principles governing the lighting of public thoroughfares and to lay down recommendations on the quantity and quality of lighting to be provided.2. by the name of the characteristic light dis!ribution. as far as p r a c t i c a b l e a l i g n e d w i t h [he recommendations of the International Commission on Illumination (CIE) modified to suit the local conditions and regulations.v . etc. the following terms together with those provided in IS : 1885 (Part 16: Set 2)-1968* shall apply. each reserved for traffic in one direction only. cut-off. FOREWORD 0.12 Kerb .3 Luminuire .A border of stone.I.A subsidiary road between a principal road and buildings or properties facing thereon and connected only at selected points with the principal road. 2.3 This Section also does not cover exterior lighting installations. TERMINOLOGY 2.A. diffuser or enclosure associated with the lamp(s).6 Mounting Height . l Electrotechnical vocabulary : Part 16 Lighting.9 Verie . 0. 1.4 Outreach . 2. 2. 2 . for example. 7 Cjxcle Truck . 2. forming part of the highway and substantially at the same level as the carriageway. Section 2 General illumination lighting fittings and lighting for traffic and signalling.A strip of highway adjacent to and level with the main carriageway to provide an opportunity for vehicles to leave the carriageway in an emergency.1 Lighting Installation -The whole of the equipment provided for lighting the highway comprising the lamps. 2. 8 FOO~N~U.A n array of 2. concrete or other rigid material formed at the edge of a carriageway. (Lighting systems are commonly designated. .2 Lighting luminaires having a characteristic light distribution. their installation and maintenance.1. luminaires.A way or part of a highway for use by pedal cycles only. which have to be taken into account in planning a lighting installation. 2.2. 1 .2.1).10 Shoulder . comprising a body and any refractor. 2.1).1.1. 2.0 For the purpose of this Section. means of support and electrical and other auxiliaries.T h a t p o r t i o n o f a highway intended primarily for vehicular traffic.2 Terms Relating to Lighting Installation 2.The distance measured horizontally between the centre of the column or wall face and the centre of a luminaire (see Fig. etc.5 Central Reserve . such& those which apply for parks. 2. 2.The unpaved area flanking a carriageway.2. semicut-off.other t h a n t h e s u r f a c i n g o f t h e carriageway.4 D u a l Curriugewu.1 High\csj.a\* . 2 . The actual details of design would entirely depend on the local circumstances.A raised p l a t f o r m o r a guarded area so sited in the carriageway as to divide the streams of traffic and to provide a safety area for pedestrians.1.1. 196 2.2 Lu~wt All those physical features of a h i g h w a y . reflector. 2 .2.1.5 Overhung -The distance measured horizontally between the centre of a luminaire mounted on a bracket and the adjacent edge of the carriageway (see Fig.2. 2.A layout of the separated carriageways. 1 .

T~:. 2. The unit of 2.(. 23.3. illumination is the lumen per square metre (lux). IS intensity per unit projected area of a surface.I(. nor the distance between successive luminaires on the same side of the carriageway. along the centre line of the carriageway. the luminance in this direction is l/D candelas per unit area. width. measured along the centre line of the carriageway. ‘the distance is measured. NOTES In a staggered arrangement.all the points corresponding to those directions in which the luminous intensity is the same or a plane projection of this curie. which is on the other side of the carriage. I).14 Beam -. Direction) -T The ratio of an actual intensity from the luminaire (in a particular direction) to the mean hemispherical inrensity. than 90 percent of the maximum intensity. DIMENSIOSS I’\HT 5 0I’TI)OOH I\S’I \ I I \‘UIOUS .vmmetrical) Distribution . 2.11 Geometry (of a Lighting System) . 3 L u m i n o u s Intensitv -The q u a n t i t y which describes the light-giving power of a luminaire in any particular direction. 2.KIS.2 Lower Hemispherical Flux or Dotinward Flux-The luminous flux emitted by a luminaire in all directions below the horizontal. staggered. 2. 2.3. overhang and arrangement. (This is the average intensity in the lower hemisphere. between successive luminaires in an installation (see Fig.3. 1).The ratio of the maximum intensity to the mean hemispherical intensity of the light emitted below the horizontal.The portion of the light output of the luminaire contained by the solid angle subtended at the effective centre of the luminaire .The attribute of visual sensation according to which an area appears to emit more or less light.~K:\(. mounting height. but no intensity less.2.The distribution of luminous intensity from a luminaire in various directions in space. N OTE .is the visual sensation which correlates approximately with the photometric quantity ‘luminance’.13 1ntensit.10 Axial Non-axial) Distribution .28 (2 7r ).MISAIRI:S: CII.16 Isocandela Curve -. 2.5 Luminance (at a Point of Surface and in a Given -Direction).4 Illuhination . The unit of the luminous flux is the lumen (lm).8 Light Distribution . The usual unit is the candela per square metre (cd/ mz).2. 2. the candela (cd): 2.The inter-related linear dimensions and characteristics of the system.3.A distribution of luminous intensity which is substantially symmetrical (conversely asymmetrical) about the vertical axis of the luminaire.3.‘ntensitv .The downward.riPution I in w h i c h t h e dlrections o f m a x i m u m l u m i n o u s intensity lie (do not lie) in vertical planes substantially parallel to the axis of the carriageway. 1 SITING OF I. surface per unit area. opposite.The distance between kerb lines measured at right angles to the length of the carriageway (see Fig. (Converse 2.l.A curve traced on an imaginary sphere with a source at its centre and joining. its projection on a plane perpendicular to the given direction) has an area D.8 Span -That part of the highway lying between successive luminaires in an installation. containing the maximum intensity. 3 . It is some time called brightness. If a very small portion of a surface has an intensity I candelas in a particular direction and its orthogonal projection (that is.12 Mean Hemispherical .3.3.An assymmetrical dist. It is not the distance measured on the diagonal joining them.2.2. 2. flux divided by 6. 2. The unit of luminous intensity is.2.1 Luminous Nux .7 Spacing -The distance.3.3.T h e l u m i n o u s f l u x incident on a.3.7 Light Output-The luminous flux emitted by a luminaire. namely the spacing. IV7 Location of columns h = Mounting height of luminaires d = Width of the carriage way p = Outreach s = Overhang c = Clearance 0= F I G.15 Beam Centre.6 Luminosity . 2. ‘2.9 Width of Carriagewav .The lumil. 2.2. 2. axial. 2.3 Photometric Terms 2.10 Arrangement --The pattern according to which luminaires are sited on plan.) Ratio (in a Particular 2..A direction midway between the directions for which the intensity is 90 percent of the maximum in a vertical plane through the maximum and on a conical surface through the maximum.9 Svmmetrical (Converse As.3.The light given by a light source or a luminaire or receivtd by a surface irrespective of the directions in which it is distributed. 2 .11 Peak Intensity Ratio .I.3.Luminosity. between a Juminaire on one side of the carriageway and the next luminaire.3. for example.3.

Luminaire 2.Lumina’ire with all its accessories such as ballasts. Roads with special requirements (see NOTE 3). dispersive surround or other enclosure which may be associated with the source in order to modify the light distribution in a desired man&r and protect the light s o u r c e from weather conditions and insects and/or for the sake of appearance.For the purposes of this Section.2 Cut-off employing the techmque used for concealing lamps and surfaces of high luminance from direct view in order to reduce glare. railways: docks and navigable waterways. arterial roads . However integrally with the body of the luminaire. Group E also includes important shopping streets. 3. where special lighting requirements are to be met in addition to compliance with general principles. Secondary roads-Roads which do not require lighting up to Group A standard. bridges and elevated roads (see NOTE 2). reflector.5 Post Top Luminaire . character of the street (whether a shopping area or a ring-road in non-built-up area).4.Lummaire with arrangement for mounting the same svmmetrically on the top of the coloumn. 2. from good engineering point of view as well as economy should take into account all the relevant factors. 4. N OTE 3 -Grouo F includes roads in the vicinitv of aerodromes. starters.A housing for a light source or sources.2 Roads in Residential Areas. promenados and such other places which are the focus of special activities after dark. roads are classified as given in Table I. bridges are classified short or long when their lengths are less than or greater than 60 metres. etc. suth as the presence of factories. Subgroup BZ C D E F G NOTE I . shopping streets. Centres.4. the existence of lumps. speed and composition of the traffic using them.2 Types of Roads .. Other main roads with considerable mixed traffic like main city streets. 3. brightness and other lighting characteristic the source.Luminaire 2. 2. igriiters. CLASSIFICATION 3. _ Luminaire .The aim of public lighting 198 Subgroup A I Subgroup A2 B Subgroup BI Secondary roads of considerable traffic such as principal local traffic routes. Town and city centres and areas of civic importance (see NOTE 2).0 Ideally. 2.4. These are roads not included in Groups’A and B.17 Isocandela Diagram . together with any refractor.. a high standard of lighting is advisable on all roads. both from the points of view of traffic safety and comfort.T h e principle aim of public lighting along roads in residential areas (Group C) is to provide light along the stretch of carriage way and footpath for safety and comfort of road users mainly the pedestrians. places of public resort. boulevards. Residential and unclassified roads. wherein description bf terms are given for guidance.. GENERAL PRINeIPLES 4.T h e m a i n consideration while designing the lighting in city centres (Group E) :Is proper illumination of footpaths for pedestrians. 4.1. Curve . 4.4 Terms Relating to Luminaires iight A TABLE 1 ROAD CLASSIFICATION GROUP (as in IS : 1944) D ESCRIPTION (1) (2) Main Roads : Very important routes with rapid and dense traffic where safety. N OTE 2 --Such areas are set apart in view of the fact that their standard of lighting is different from and higher than that described for other groups. aesthetic considerations. Grade separated junctions. the properties of the carriageway surface.3.1 Aims of Public Lighting Installations 4. Towards this end consideration has to be given while designing the lighting on road junctior)s and pedestrian crossings so that these can be easily identified by the drivers.etc.Curve of 2. 2. capaciters. besides the comfort of NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE .3 R o a d s i n Cit. It is left to the local engineer to decide upon the category of the lighting for the given road.4. Tunnels (roads underground).2. The system of lighting.1.1 Main Roads . Secondary roads with comparatively light traffic. along main roads bridges and flyovers (Groups A.4 Integral Luminaire . B and Dj is to permit users of the roads at night to move about with greatest possible safety and comfort so that the traffic capacity of the road at night is as much equal to that planned for day time as possible.3. consideration has to be given to ensure that the lighting is soft and does not cause glare.For the purposes of lighting installations.2 is based on volume.1. Further amplification of the types of thoroughfares can be had from Appendix A.An array of isocandela curves.1 Street Lighting Luminaire .4. bends or long straight stretches and overhanging trees. speed of traffic and comfort to drivers are the only consideration. etc.18 Polar distribution using polar co-ordinates.1 The classification of lighting installations in public thoroughfares given in 3. 3.3 Semi-out-off employing the techmque for concealing lamps and surfaces of high luminance from direct view in order to reAuce glare but to a lesser degree than cut-off luminaire. Luminaire .

T h e level of luminance should be adequate to provide visibility which guarantee for the user a maximum of safety and sufficient visual comfort. The following principles are considered essential [see also IS : 1944 (Parts I & 2)-1970*]. any factor which tends to increase contrast should be exploited. Also care is required to easily identify flow of traffic and road deviders.The driver of the 4.A good visual guidance is required especially in long stretches of the road and even ‘ m o r e o n c o m p l i c a t e d intersections.This provides visual comfort for the driver. and d) The optical guidance.2. including the bright luminaires. 4.3. acceptable level. of roads in the vicinity of airports is to ensure that under no circumstances. with the present state of technique and the knowledge of reflection properties of road surfaces. roundabouts. 4.the drivers. . However. Mith Special Requirements 4.2.24 Glare and Visual Comfort -Glare in public lighting is generally caused b y t h e luminaires.4 V i s u a l G u i d a n c e . d) Good seeing condition by silhouette vision.2 Layout for Flyovers.2.Separate considerations are required to be given for each of the following: b) Between any obstacles which may be present and the background against which it appears. Reference may be made to 7.2 Principles of Vision in Public Lighting 4. 1 Leve1. islands. e) Continuity and uniformity of lighting. height above normal ground level and the width of the low level roads. 4. b) The uniformity of luminance.These are as follows : a) Visibility of the whole of the road and its details such as entry of side-roads. traffic signs. Good contrast should always be produced: a) Between the carriageway and all objects which indicate its boundaries: and *Code of practice for lighting of public thoroughfares yirsr re\Vsion). b) Visual guidance on the alignment of the road.3 Visibility . which may interfere with his judgement.structuraI design 199 b) Rail~~a~~s and Docks . 4. Most of the long range guidance is offered by the luminaires. 4. DESIGN 5. roundabouts. Also the lamps should not cause glare to the pilot either while taking off or more specifically while landing.3.2 Visual Field qf the Driver-The visual ~. spacing and column heights are governed by the road-width and the classification of the roads.1 regarding illumination values to be provided on the road surfaces.2. c) Clear visibility of objects in time.1 Requirements qf Drivers . advertisement signs or road direction signs. etc.4 Roads (Group F) . and f) General or special lighting of signs. comprises.s qf L u m i n a n c e . 5. and c) The sky. railway is required to observe a number of signals along the tracks in the course of his work. It is obvious that it is the road surface luminance rather than the illumination level which provides for an accurate measure of the effective light in a street lighting installation. etc. PART 5 OUTDOOR IkTALLATlONS . 5..3 Criteria of Quality 4. Other factors that can lead to glare are presence of undersirable large surface of high reflection factor. excessively bright shop windows.1 Layout for Roads-The design. etc.2 Uniformity of Luminance . The spacing may be governed by the.3. it is in practice the requirements of the drivers which are more stringent. including signs. Similar considerations are applicable to navigators in the vicinity of docks. 4 Airports ~ The tn main consideratton designing lighting. 4. since the characteristics of the obstacles may vary over a very wide range.The phenomenon of visibility is directly related to contrast. 4 .The design and column heights for flyovers are governed by the layout of flyovers. 3 .3 Limitation of Glare . 4. the calculation and measurement of luminance are likely to present difficulties. 4. in order of a) The carriageway. c) The limitation of glare.1.3. specular surfaces.It is required to control the glare due to luminaires at a value which keeps the visual d&omfort below a. It is necessary that none of the street lamps cause either glare to the driver or is mistaken by the driver for track signals.et_~~a~~gt~~p~~t~~~e. Typical layouts for various road width are given in Table 2. b) The surrounds to the road.0 The following four factors contribute to the fundamental criteria of quality of public lighting : a) The level of illuminance.0 Though public lighting has to satisfy both drivers and pedestrians. would a pilot mistake the stretch of the road as airport landing strip at night time.

L6 TO 9 m L9 TO 12m 2B s I’ w-m _-- __________ ----------- ------------ 6 -__________ ----------- ----------- Ll2 T O 2Om 2c h8 TO 206 2D ~--------~ c~-------cI _ _____w_____ A _ _ _ _ -‘c- 35 _____________________--_______ __----------.O F I G.ECI.RICAL CODE 200 .& -w-ec . 2 S TANDARD L AYOUTS FOR R OADS (Cormi) NATIONAL EL.

3A to 3D. These columns may be installed on the traffic islands located at the junctions.0 H 3. 2c 2c 28 2B 28 ‘28 2c 9 9 9 9 Y 9 7 7 3. 5. _ . < 20 m 1~ < 20 m : 4-z: 3B) r: < 10 m l2 < 10 m 11 < 10 m F I G.. I’he layout of typical flyovers is given in Fig. recommended with layout 5. 2.2. column heights and .a~-_. 53. 2 .L_---_____--_____-_----___2F S = Spacing between columns F I G.0 H 3. = z~YL-_-_~-c_-_-~= z--z= = --w--e s Q.2.Spacing of the junction columns should be 50 to 75 percent of the normal spacing of.5 H 12 A2 BI 82 C B2 C C 3c 3A) II < 10 m 3D 3C) IO < .0.0 H 2.0 H 2.5-3. 0 = Location of columns R OADS 2 STANDARD L AYOUTS FOR ( SIX A LTERNATIVES ) of the flyovers.5 H 3. e-m _-- ‘p-. column heights and spacing for various road widths on flyover are given in the Table 3.2 The layouts with recommended arrangements.spacing for various road widths of low level road are given in Table 4.5 H 3.H.OO .5 H 2c. SPACING s (5) .5 H 2SH 2.1 The level of illumination of the junction should be substantially different from the nearby ‘2 .-Q _ -9.CO L U M N H EIGHT FIG.3 Junctiods .--_ _ _ a----a-_-_xc . columns on the main roads.-. 5.1 The arrangements.H (1) m 24 18-20 (2) Al A2 Al A2 BI (3) (4) m 9-14 9 9-14 9 E 2D 2c 2%o~H 2.~~~2 ~-_-z_--_~--_ = = 92-_= .TE A 1 ___-_-___--I_-._ Le. 2 3D) IO < I.I 12 r TABLE 2 CLASSIFICATION OF ROADS AND RECOMMENDED ARRANGEMENT OF COLUMNS W IDTH OF C ARRIAGE WAY CROUP MENT AS IN A R R A N G E . 3 S T A N D A R D LAYOUTS FOR F L Y O V E R S ( FOUR A L T E R N A T I V E S) 201 PART 5 OllTDOOR INSTALLATIONS .-.0 H 3.-_________ -- mm -or= = = a =.

(3) 3c 38 3A (‘4: m 9 9 9 SPACING b) Juncfion of IWO m a j o r r o a d s . OF GROUP MENT A R R A N G E . I b) Change in height c$ column: . roads.5 H 2. TABLE 4 RECOMMENDED ARRANGEMENT OF COLUMNS ON FLYOVERS (LOW LEVEL ROADS) IClause 5.TABLE -3 RECOMMENDED ARRANGEMENT OF COLUMNS ON FLYOVERS. 4A to 4C. Typical layout of such junctions a1.T h e s e & 2-2.In case this scheme is adopted the level of illuminations should be 150 percent of that of the roads.2. 0 = Location of columns 4 S I M P L E T w o RO A D J U N C T I O N S ( TH R E E A L T E R N A T I V E S ) 202 NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE .1_ e-v---- GROuP (2) A R R A N G E .5 H 1.H 2 H .5 H 4A Over 2C D IO to 20 up lo IO : :“D 9 14 9 3A *Above low level road.2) CARRIAGEWAY (1) In W IDTH OF 1.3. 4B TABLE 5 RECOMMENDED VARIATION IN HEIGHT OF COLUMNS OF JUNCTIONS H EIGHT ON OF COLIJMNS ROADS m 7 9 14 R ECOMMENDED HEIGHT OF C OLUMNS AT JUNCTIONS m 9 14 High mast c) Change .2.COLUMN MENT AS IN H E I G H T* FIG. SP A C I N G (S) 2._r-mm-* 9 D *Above the flyover road level.5 H 2..1) CARRIAGEWAY (1) In 12 W IDTH The design would depend upon existence of traffic islands at the junctions. be illuminated by locating the columns in such configuration that the iunction is noticed by fast moving traffic. (3) (Z m .. (Cluuse 5._______.2 The different types of junctions commonly encountered are discussed below in details as they require special consideration : 4 S i m p l e tM)o road juncrion -This type of junction should.CO L U M N AS IN H E I G H T * FIG. the junction could be lit by HPSV lamps or vice versa 5.The size of columns adopted at the junction should be higher than those adopted on roads. The junctions may be lighted by either of the following methods : __-_-__-_ 4 Higher level of illumination ._____ --.in the colour of the light source In case the main road is lit by HPMV lamps.. (2) D D junctions would generally’ be proiided with traffic island at suitable locations to regulate 7-! __-___.e shown in Fig. Recommended sizes are given in Table 5. F I G.:_.

6A to 6C. the colour a n d i n t e n s i t y . 8A or conventional lighiing as in Fig.0 Multiple road junctions with roundabouts are much easier to design as a definite central roundabout is available to locate the columns. 5 J UNCTION O F T w o MA J O R R O A D S ( THREE A L T E R N A T I V E S ) 203 .. 5..on all the roads. Two types of roundabouts are discussed below..T h e lighting of these could be advantageously achieved by use of high mast as given in Fig. if the junctions are too wide or.2 The aviation authority may have a specific interest in the pattern of the layout.ds which have gardens or other construction which would be obstruction to line of vision of traffic . b) lslan.. a) Islands which are clear or have on1. the islands do not permit planting of poles within the desired spacing. therefore.. 8B and 8C. 5.. At such junctions invariably entry for traffic may not be permitted. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ -s -7 i 3 n 0 0 u 5c 0 = Location of columns F I G. the width of the various roads and most important.W h e n a proposed road lighting scheme is within 5 km of the boundary of an aerodrome it is essential that appropriate aviation authority is consulted regarding any restrictions and precautions to be observed that may be necessary. PART 5 OUTDOOR INSTALLATIONS . be kept in view while designing lighting scheme in the vicinity of the aerodromes: a) The light provided in the vicinity of an aerodrome shall be properly screened so as -to avoid any glare which may otherwise endanger safety of an aircraft arriving and departing from an aerodrome. 5A to SC.. the mounting height.4. the traffic islands design would change from location to location. Typical layout of such junctions are shown in Fig. 5..flow of traffic.5. 7C and 7D.5.The lighting of these could be either by semi-high mast as in Fig.. Typical layout of such junctions are shown in Fig. The lighting columns could be located in the islands to advantage. 7A and 7B or semi-high mast lighting as in Fig. special considerations are required. c) Mtiltiple road junctions -The lighting of multiple road junction would depend upon the geographical layout of the roads. The following points should.5 Road Lighting in the Vicinity of Aerodrome 5. the traffic conditions..1 General Requirements -. distribution of iight emmitted above the horizontal so that lighting installation does not present anv danger to the air navigation..v parking l o t s . Similarly. Special consideration will have to be given to the design of lighting of such junction. However..4 Roundabouts 5.

0 = Location of Columns 6D FIG.'~ MULTIPLE R OAD J UNCTIONS ( FOUR ALTERNATIVES) 204 NATIONAL ELEtXRICAL CODE .6 C .

MAST LUMINAIRES F I G.HI G H . SE M I .MA S T LU~INAIRES I N R O U N D A B O U T S ( FO U R A L T E R N A T I V E S ) PART 5 OUTDOOR INSTALLATIONS 205 . 7 US E OF HI G H M A S T .

SE M I .MAST OR C ONVENTIONAL L I G H T I N G R O U N D A B O U T S ( THREE A L T E R N A T I V E S) NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 206 . 8C 8 IN U SE OF.\ SEMI-HIGH MAST LUMINAIRES ~SEbll-HIGH MAST LUMINAIRES 1 I i a a I F I G.

2D is not recommended.1. If these cannot be avoided by re-siting. c) It is particularly important to ensure that lighting of the road cannot ever be confused with the ground lighting of the flight paths by the pilots.These -lamps have higher luminous efficiency and longer life than mixed incandescent and mercury lamps. 1 Requireyenrs . c) Dimensions of the light sources. They are suitable for installations where colour appearance and colour rendering are important and where large multiplelamp luminaires are acceptable. c) High pressure mercury vapour lamps with clear or fluorescent bulbs. docks and navigable waterways. 5. They are sometimes used for residential streets when initial cost is to be kept low. This may necessitate careful selection of light SOUXCC. Following conditions should be ensured : i) In case roads are not parallel to landing strips.1. These are suitable for installations where colour rendering is less important and where high powers are needed. 6. if possible. 3 C o l o u r --~ Where any form of road lighting is emploved there is a risk of confusion with signal light. and d) Colour characteristics. They are not usually employed in traffic routes.5 Screening ~~ In all cases where screening of a light source is required this should preferably PART 5 OUTDOOR INSTAI.6 Siring -.In lighting for roads in the vicinity of railways.1.The position of individual light source on the road may fall in line with signal lights and even when fairly remote may mask them or make them difficult to recognize or may hamper the vision because of glare.4 Tubular fluorescent lamps -.1. High pressure mercury vapour lamps with fluorescent bulbs are suitable for installations where colour appearance and colour rendering are important.These lamps may sometimes be employed in modernizing an installation to obtain higher levels without the need for ballasts required for discharge lamps.6. siting of luminaires or the use of appropriate screened luminaire at certain points arid heights.T h e requirements are likely to apply in all places where roads are so located that their lighting installation may affect the operation of railways.For new 6.2 Consultafions --. e) Sodium vapour lamps.1. 5 .* 5.1 The sources normally used in public lighting are : a) Incandescent lamps.113 High pressure mercur>> vapour lamp3 (HPMV) .2 Mixed incandescent and mercur. Docks and Navigable Waterways 5.1 .I. d) Tubular fluorescent lamps.b) Lights mounted on the electric poles: pylones shall not cause an obstruction to the arriving and departing aircraft from an aerodrome in terms of obstacle limitation specified by the airport authorities.These lamps have high luminous efficiency and long life.v lamps .1 . b) Mixed incandescent and high pressure mercury vapour lamps.. and 8) High pressure sodium vapour lamps lamps .1 Incandescenr installations the employment of incandescent lamps is very limited in practice. b) Economy (determined by lumens/watt and life). but local conditions vary so widely that it is not possible to lay down any rigid code applicable to all circumstances.6. It is essential that prior consultation is made with the appropriate authorities regarding any special provision that may be necessary.6 Road Lighting in Vicinity of Railways.1.6. These provisions should be met in a way that is mutually acceptable so that they may be incorporated at the design stage. f-l Mercury-halide lamps. 56.0 G e n e r a l . it may be necessary to employ screening to obviate the interference even though the colour of the light source is not objectionable. 6. ii) In case roads are parallel to landing strips. river or canal) and if the lighting is single sided. on the waterside. 1) Uniform design and spacing of columns is not recommended. 6. 6 . following 5 .6. because of the colour of the light source may iriterfere with the proper recognition of signal svstem. docks and navigable waterways.0 The choice of source for public lighting is guided by the following considerations : a) Luminous flux. 6 . 2) Arrangement of mounting columns on opposite as in Fig. The choice between high pressure 207 .1 Electric Light Sources 6.1.If the road is bordered by water (lake.ATIONS be achieved by means of properly designed luminaires and not by addition of unsightly screens to normal luminaires. it is essential that this interference is avoided. 6. 6. 5. 5.4 Glare and Masking. SELECTION OF EQUIPMENT 6. it is recommended that the columns be sited. no lighting should be provided on the stretch of road near the landing strip..

1. k. The intensity at the horizontal should not exceed IO cd per I 000 Im of flux from the light sources and the intensity at 80° is of the order of 30 cd per 1 000 Im. the maximum intensity may vary but should be below 65’. and 4 Nature and power of the source or sources. 8) Resistance to atmospheric conditions. d) Whether the luminaire Is open or closed type. The principal advantage of the cut-off system is the reduction of glare and its use is favoured under the following conditions : 4 Matt carriageway surfaces. c) Light output ratio. one essential characteristic of luminaires the choice of which directly influences the quality of the lighting. but should not nevertheless exceed I 000 cd.2.2.2 Luminaires 6. e) Semi-cut-off integral. e) Resistance to heat.3 Non-cur-@ luminaire . 6. In the choice of the luminaire the following points should be considered : light distribution are considered according to the degree of glare which is acceptable : a) Post top integral luminaires. f) Non-cut-off tubular luminatres. cl Presence of large trees.mercury vapour fl*uorescent lamps and fluorescent tubes is in general determined by local considerations of aesthetics and cost of installation. Non-cut-off luminaires are permissible on/J. b) Nature of the optical arrangements and the light distribution which they provide. b) Buildings close to carriageway. the general form of its distribution curves of luminous intensity pai%icularly in directions near the usual directions of vision.These lamps are improved versions of HPMV lamps and having very much higher efficiencies in the order of 80 Im/W c o m b i n e d w i t h g o o d ’ c o l o u r characteristics. 6. It is also particularly suitable under foggy conditions. There is.6 Mercur)) h.A luminaire whose luminous intensity in directions making an angle equal to or greater than 80” from the downward vertical is not reduced materially and the intensity of which at the horizontal may exceed the values specified for the semi-cut-off distribution. selected according to the relative importance of the above mentioned factors.1 The following three fundamental forms of 208 NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE . especially those of architectural interest. f-l Few intersections and obstructions. e) Slight humps.1. b) Absence of buildings.2 Semi-cut-of luminaire -. 6.1. j) Presence or absence of auxiliaries.A luminaire whose light distribution is characterized by a less severe reduction in the intensity in the region 80” to 90”. The principal advantage of the semi-cut-off system is a greater flexibility in siting. bridges.A luminaire whose light distribution is characterized by a rapid reduction of luminous intensity in the region between 80” and the horizontal. h) Ease of installation and maintenance. and c) Many intersections and obstructions. however.1.0 The luminaire has double role of protecting the light source from the weather and redistributing the luminous flux of the source.5 Sodium vapour lamps --The use of s o d i u m l a m p s i s convenient when colour rendering is not important and when a high luminous efficiency is desired. and exposed to wind pressure. and its use is favoured under the following conditions : a) Smooth carriageway surfaces. lide lamps .7 High pressure sodium vapour lamps These lamps are improved versions of sodium vapour with efficiency of the order of to 100 Imi W with colour rendering satisfactory and of dimensions suited to fittings of small size and accurate light control.1. soiling and corrosion.1. Their colour is sometimes useful to provide visual guidance. The direction of.1. 6. b) Post top non-integral luminaires.2. The direction of the maximum intensity may vary but should be below 75”.2. k) Fixing arrangements.hen a certain amount qf glare may be accepted and when the luminaires are @-large size *Subject to a maximum value of I 000 cd whatever is the luminous flux emitted.1 Cut-c![f luminarie . 6.1. The intensity at the horizontal should not exceed 50 cd per I 000 Im of flux from the light sources! and the intensity at 80’ is of the order of 1 000 cd per I 000 lm.insects. d) Cut-off non-integral luminaires.2. and g) Flood-lighting luminaires. d) Long straight sections. that is. 6. 6. c) Cut-off integral luminaires. f-l Protection against collection of dust and . 6.1. but the attention of lighting designers may be drawn to the fact that the most economical i_nstallation can be achieved only by the choice of the most suitable luminait‘e. the weight and area The influence of all these factors varies according to local circumstances and it is difficult to recommend one solution rather than another.

In certain cases they have some advantages in increasing the illumination of facades. which may be justified by the character of the road\ and by the presence of facades. the cut-off qualities of the luminaires and in certain situations (for example. etc. roundabouts. Several criteria may not be satisfied for want of data such as characteristics of surface.3 0. NOII 3 Mounting heights less than 7. Recommendations are made on the various components of design of public lighting installations and those require detailed calculations of the level and uniformity of illumination on the road surface and of glare. lux 2.4 Inclination -.5 Cut-off = 3 Semi-cut-off = 3.1 All’ lamps and luminaires and other fittings used in public lighting installations shall conform to the relevant Indian Standards. 7. switching. though for a detailed guidance reference should be made to the relevant part of IS : 1944*. Type of lumlnaire Cut-off Semi-cut-of1 9-10 : Semi-cut-off Cut-off or Semi-cut-off Non-cut-off 7.clnd of reduced brightness.1 The electrical design aspects of public lighting lighting and those are enumerated for guidance in various parts of IS : 1944*. F and (Ii lighting are under consideration.1. should be 6. but also economic considerations giving allowance for cost of electrical control units.9 Cut-off or Semi-cut-off Non-cut-off 7.2. should be employed with care.1. when there are roads at several levels.1.4 0. 8. etc) this inclination may lead to unexpected glare. average illumination ratio 3 Transverse variation of illumination.3.2) SI No (1) D~SC. NOTE ~ Recommendations for Groups C.RIPTIO~: (2) GROI’P A l (3) 30 GROUP AND B ROADS A2 GROI‘P BI GKOI‘P HZ (6) 4 (4) I5 (5) 8 I Average Ifvel of illumination on road surface.2 Tables 6 to 8 give a summary of recommendations on the various types of thoroughfares.4 0. etc. bends.1.1 Several factors contribute to good public temporary trial installation of a few luminaires on a stretch of road to be lighted. III Group A lighting. particularly in certain directions. m 6. TABLE 6 LIGHTING INSTALLATION IN GROUP A (Clauses 4. *Code of practice for lighting in public thoroughfares. 8. the level and uniformity of illumination shall be as high as possible and the glare strictly Nor1 2 In Group B lighting. POWER INSTALLATION REQUIREMENTS 8. An upward inclination which is generally called for reasons of aesthetics. These shall be used as ready reckoners.1 Lamps and Luminaires 8. cable ducts.5 .5 m are undesirable except in special cases. greater tolerances on uniformity and glare arc admitted. P A R T 5 0l:TDOOR INSTALLATIONS 209 .1 and 7.5 Non-cut-off = 4 No1t I reduced.Attention given to the inclination of luminaires.3 33 33 20 20 Cut-off 4. Too great an inclination of. 7. GUIDELINES FOR SPECIFIC LOCATIONS 7. To get some idea of the extent to which the installation would perform. Mounting height. it may be preferable to make a installations not only take into account the i!lumination principles.5-9 5. such as lighting of residential roads or road\ bordered by trees. Ratio minimum. Maximum spacing of luminaire height ratio 9-10 Cut-off = 3 Semi-cut-off = 3.the luminaire may modify. percent 0.

Bridges i) Short bridges (> 60m) 30 0. v) Foot-bridges I) Illumination. 8. For roads under groups A I. each stretch of road shall . Auxiliary terminals of these contactors could provide facility of return indication in case of 210 . lux 2) Average level of illuminance (subways).2.ong bridges (> 60m) Iii) Bridges of historical importance iv) Parapet lighting: Mountmg height. _tux C. A2 and D. verminproof. separate mains shall be laid for group control of lamps on these roads. B and D.2. The street lighting cables shall be terminated ia separate junction boxes or street lighting pillars. B and D.4 Underground cables of suitable sizes should be utilized for the purpose of control. lux 4 6 Special considerations apply Q IO Not greater than I Not greater than I2 Tubular fluorescent lamps. NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE *Code of practice for lighting of public thoroughfares: Part 1 General prmclple>. m 4 ) Luminaires i v ) Public. For roads under groups A. 8. i) Main squares [see IS : 1944 (Part 6)1981’]: I) Average level of illumination. preferably emanating frop two separate street lighting pillars. 9.2) IN TABLE 8 LIGHTING INSTALLATIONS IN GROUP E ROADS (Clause 7 . m 3) Luminaire 4) Light sources ii) Lighting by tigh-mast lighting I) Minimum service level value (lux) 2) Uniformity ratio $ Sd\L 3) Height of masts.1 Underground cables shall be laid for power supply !o the street lamps. 2 ) DESGZIPTION (1) A.3 in case of roads in groups A. dustproof. 8. the cables shall preferably be terminated into the column .2 The cable circuits for each section of the roads shall be so designed as to prevent important section of the roads from being completely off in case of a fault on the underground cables.yeB IS Floodlight luminaires on high masts 11) L. The contactor circuits shall be provided with externally mounted switches for local manual operation.2 Cables 8. m Choice of lamps : 1944 (Part 5)-19Xlt I) Average level of illuminance (surface of footbridge). Part L Lighting of main roads firs1 revision) tCode of’ practice for lighting of public thoroughfares: Part 5 Lighting of grade separated junctions.s i il) Pedtwrial p recinc’ts I ) Average horizontal illuminance (footway level). The recommended sifes of the cables for various installatidn are shown in Table 9.2. m i i ) Sho/IL>inR srree/. As in IS : 1944 ( P a r t s I & 2)-l970* IO-12 cut-off HPMV or HPSV lamps 5-6 Special considerations Not less than 20 see IS : 1944 ( P a r t s I & 2)-1970’ Normal street lighting techniques with minor adjustments [.\ee IS : 1944 (Part 5)-19X1+] . or a section of it does not become completely dark. Iux 2) Luminalres preferred IO 20 50 R EMARKS (2) 20 IO-15 Special consideratlohs.TABLE 7 LIGHTING INSTALLATIONS GROUP D ROADS (Cbuse 7. the lamps shall be divided into at least two circuits in such a way that in case of fault on one circuit the entire junction.s (above grotind) I) Average hoti/-ontal illuminance. bridges and elevated road (Group D). lux 2) Mounting height. HPSV lamps or other linear sources of luminance weatherproof. lux 2) Average horizontal illuminancc (under canopies). lux 3) Mounting height. m 4) Choice of luminaire B.s/ promenar1e. m Separation between rows of lighting.iunction boxes by looping rather than ‘T’ joints.4 R EMARKS (2) D ESCRIPTION (1) A. EIevored Roads I) General lighting 2) Choice of luminaire Similar to heavy traffic road\ Cut-off Not less than 6 supervisory remote control. A typical street lighting pillar with control circuit is shown in Fig.be lit by two independent circuits. Grade Separared Junctions i) Lighting by conventional street lighting technique Complex junctions: I) General principles 2) Mounting height. robust *Code of practice for lighting of public thoroughfares: Part 6 Lighting of town and city centres and areas of civic importance (Group E). The pillars shall be provided with electrically operated contactors of suitable current rating. c’ar parh. 8.2. For junctions also.

This may be achieved by injecting audio frequency impulse through suitable power supply network and installing suitable sensors at control points.street lights may be either through overhead wires 01 underground cables. The control could then be utilized to switch off the lamps instantaneously on demand by civil deferice authoriries. C) A”: BI 82 c D 3-phase. b) 8.3 Power Supply .It should be possible to instail pre-programmed electronic micro-processors. use of telephone cables) to give control impulse to group control points. 8. This could be achieved by either of the following schemes: 8.In case ripple control is adopted. b) 4 UHF Control .Electronic relays respond- a) Special Re/aj% C o n t r o l . 4-tore 3-phase. The photoelectric switch shall be mounted so as to be free from the glare caused by head-lights of motor vehicles and protected from the weather.4. the entire area could be switched off by ripple control impulse. 4-core Single phase. ripple control equipment could be used with suitable sensing devices at the control points.o or more lamps. The contactors shall be controlled by electrically operated switches mounted for external manuali local operation. In case overhead wires are employed these should also be specially for street lighting purposes. rt-core 3-phase. each controlled either PART J 0l:TDOOR 211 . Special relays operated by normal supply or electronic impulses may be provided. with one year seasonal variations. M u l t i p l e L a m p Luminaire5 --. Ripple Control -.4. B and D. In case of necessity. b) b) Ripple Control.TABLE 9 RECOMMENDED TYPES AND SIZES OF CABLES R OAD G R O U P (1) SIZE OF CAHLES (2) T YPE OF CAHl. The supply to lamps on roads under groups A. a) voltage Control -. where complete black-out is not practicable. The time switches may be manually spring wound or electrically operated. This could be programmed to switch off on demand by a pre-determined control frequency signal.4 Control of Street Lighting Installations 8. These could be installed for each individual lamp. In case of discharge lamps this scheme would not be suitable.In case special control cables are not available. 8. brown-out could be effected by switching off alternate lamqs and complete black-out by switching off all the lamps. 8. Following schemes for remote control are recommended: 4 Remote Control .2. 4-tore Electronic Control Suitches . However.q-phase.The contactors may. Even in such cases.2 Automatic* Control .4 BroMsn-out Control .ES mm? 16-25 16-25 16-25 IO-25 IO-25 16-25 (3) to prevent their being affected by variations in supply frequency.This Photoelectric achieved by installing suitably mounted photoelect&c switches near the control points. 4-tore Single phase.The supply to the . these would need to be regulated from time to time due to seasonal variations.Brown-out . it would be possible to programme alternate (or any other combination) lamps to respond to specified ripple control signals.5 The junction boxes with suitable sized contactors with independent fuses shall be provided for each phase. should preferably be by underground cables laid specially for street lighting purposes.This could be advanta- a) may be control . 4-core 3-phase.1 The contactors may be provided with additional circuitry for remote/automatic control. This scheme enables return indication of the operation by auxiliary contacts of the contactors. ing to predetermined control frequency could be installed at each switching point. alternately.3 Black-out Control .Black-out control may be required to be adopted in case of war in vulnerable areas.itc*hes .control is necessary in vulnerable cities with heavy vehicular traffic at the time of war. complete black-out would be necessary at the time of possible air raids. Following alternatives for brown-out control are recommended: 8.-On main roads the luminaires adopted could have tw. Applying reduced voltage to such lamps would automatically reduce the illumination to any desired level.Special control cables are laid (alternatively. When the need arises.4.The local electrically operated contractors may be controlled through time switches. With suitable design these could also be utilised to switch off unwanted lights after peak traffic hours are over. The fqllowing controls are recommended. T i m e SM.T h i s m a y b e achieved by special control cables laid up to the street lighting pillar. 3-phase. Ripple Control-. In case of electrical operation the time switches should be of electricallywound mechanically-operated variety so as INSTALLATIONS geously adopted in areas where the source of lighting is filament lamp.4. be controlled automatically by use of auto-control devices.

d) Replacement qf Lamps -.1 Aesthetics-The aesthetics of a lighting installation are principally judged by day. Firstly. though could not be achieved on short notice is recommended in case of prolonged operations. an attractive or at least a non-disturbing daytime appearance which harmonizes well with the surroundings is. the unit formed by the luminaire and its support should be considered. In case of necessity. the time. therefore. MISCELLANEOUS CONSIDERATIONS 9. either one or two phases could be switched off. of great importance. the lighting installation serves no useful ! purpose. PILLAR-ccmfd. 212 NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE . town and village has its own character 9. or alternately alternate lamps be switched off by suitable ripple control signals. There are no simple or universal rules for aesthetically satisfactory design and layout since every city.by different phase or by separate ripple control signals. Secondly. Half of / CANOPY HINGE / HANDLE WELDED TO DOOR \ CDOUEILE HINGED DOORS / L O C K 9A Street Lighting Pillar F I G. the wattage of the lamps could be reduced by replacing the same with lower wattage lamps. are aesthetic. Aesthetic considerations should relate to the unit formed by the luminaire and its support and the situation in which it is placed. 9 A T Y P I C A L S T R E E T LIGHTIN‘~. This. the siting of the luminaires in the scene may lead to even if the luminaires unpleasant effects themselves considered in isolation.In case of prolonged brown-out operations.

9 A TYPICAL S TREET L IGHTING PILLAR-CO&.FUSEWAYS FUSEWAYS FUSEWAYS I CONTACTOR 1 9B Inside Layout K 5 N 11 CD a m K IL 8 L2 L3 9C Typical Contactor. PART 5 OUTDOOR INSTALLATIONS 213 .Wiring (Manual) F I G.

I n exceptional cases a smaller clearance may be used. The points of general application are: 9. Ther6 is evidence to suggest that the number of such collisions decreases with the increase of distance of the column from the edge of the carriageway. NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE . Columns and surroundings: Size and type of luminaire. Arrays of luminaires. and e) Assembly of column.A motor vehicle involved in an accident frequently leaves the carriageway and the probabijity of this happening increases with the speed of the vehicle.2 Lighting Columns as Hazards .5 m. Normally the clearance between column and carriageway should be at least 1. If the vehicle collides with a lighting column the severity of injuries to the occupants is likely to be increased. a) b) cl 4 Design and siting. bracket and luminaire. the column s h o u l d b e s i t e d b e h i n d t h e footway. Where there is a footway close to the carriageway. Form of bracket. 9 A T Y P I C A L S TREET L I G H T I N G P I L L A R and what may look well in one place may be in&ngruous in another.ROTARY SWITCH (EXTERNAL) ROTARY SWITCH ( INTERNAL 1 ‘r’ RELAY 9D Typical Wiring for Remote/ Auto Control F I G. n 8) Material and colour.

I) TLRM (1) Road Street Dts(. Service road Footway Cycle track Ring road P A R T 5 0I:TDOOR INSTAI. or part of a road. TYPF: OF R O A D A general term denoting any public way for purposes of vehicular traffic A road which has become partly or wholly defined by buildings along one or both frontages A road reserved for’motor trafiic. for example: ~~ not dual-carriageway __ not fully access-controlled _~ not all intersections grade-separated Road usable by all traffic (including pedestrians and cyclists) Used to distinguish other roads from motorways. A main route in the through communication system of a country A road which has. and with a high proportion of heavy goods vehicles in the traffic stream Street with frontages comprising a high proportion of shops or other premises which may be lit at night and with heavy pedestrian (and possibly pedal cycle) traffic Street with the majority of froritages comprising private houses A link between the radial or ring roads and the local access streets Street giving direct access to buildings and land with a minimum of through traffic A subsidiary road. a lesser traffic value than that of a major road A road round an urban area enabling traffic tc avoid the urban centre Radial road A road providing direct communication between the centre of an urban area and the outer districts Street with frontages comprising a high proportion of commercial premises (usually unlit at night). reserved for use only by bicycles Commercial street Motorway Shopping street Express road Residential street Collector road Distributor road Local street All purpose road Trunk road! Major road Minor road. usually pirallel to the major road. or IO which is assigned.ATIONS . Roads of this type should have two or several separate and one-way carriageways ’ A road similar to. and giving access to premises That portion of a road reserved exclusively for pedestrians A way. in particular.APPENDIX (Clause 3. accessible only from interchanges and on which.KIP7loh o t T Y P E (2) KOAD TERM (1) A TERMINOLOGY FOR ROAD TYPES OF DESCRIPTION p2. but lacking some feature of a motorway.I. stopping and parking are prohibited.

construction site equipment.form to the requirements in Part S/&c 3 of the Code.1 The temporary outdoor electrical installations covered in this Section are those intended for the following purposes: a) Temporary Installations for Durations not Exceeding6 Months -Outdoor installations ‘open to sky or partially covered. SCOPE 1. NATE . En\ironnWnr (1) CLASSIFICATION Characterrrsrics (2) Remarks (3) External lighting fittings.for Durations not 4. etc 3. and the general guidelines for outdoor installations under heavy conditions from the point of view of selection and use of equipment given in Part S/Set 3 shall also be referred to.1 Temporary Installations (Outdook) . imperative to lay down the necessary precautions to be observed for such installations from the point of view of safety.Construction site irstallatlons arc thobe which include sites where the following are carried out: a) Construction of new building. the following definitions in addition to those given i n Part I /Set 2 of the Code shall apply. The construction site installations are also characterised by frequent modifications.0 For the purposes of this Section. the guidelines specified in this Section shall be applicable for longer durations subject to fresh inspection and tests with the prior app!oval of the supply authority (see a/so 8. It may be noted that this section basically intends to lay down additional safety measures to be adopted in the design of temporary installations.These include fairly larg loads such as for exhibitions. NOTE ~ Exhibition or fair site lighting installations of the permanent type shall conform to the requirements specified in Part 5 Set I of the Code. extension or demohlion of existing buildings: and c) Public engineering works. erected in the vicinity of construction sites solely for the purposes of supplying the electrical Presence of water Possibility of splashes from any direction Possibility of jets Temporary installaof water in any tions in parts direction Partial or total covering by water Presence of foreign Presence of small objects solid bodies Presence of dust in significant quantity Impact High severity Construction. 0.In special cases. FOREWORD 0. It is. N OTE I -Construction site installations for very long periods of times. S u c h i n s t a l l a t i o n s a r e g e n e r a l l y unprotected from environmental hazards as compared to installations in buildings. religious and other public function.These include temparary installations which cater to loads for the purposes of marriages.SECTION 2 TEMPORARY OUTDOOR INSTALLATIONS 0.2 The major risks in the use of power in such installation arise from short circuit resulting in fire accidents and exposure to live wire resulting in shock. alternation. Installations .s -. Installations . 1.0 General guidelines on the assessment of characteristics of installations in buildings are given in Part I /Set 8 of the Code. reception.1 Electrical installations are often required to be designed and erected for use for short periods of time ranging from a few hours to few months alld are connected to the supply source in open ground.An NOTE 2 -. 0. fairs. 2.for Durations not Exceeding 45 Da. cl Temporary.temporary use. demolition sites needs of building construction work such as lighting and power loads. 2./or Durations not Exceeding 7 Dajcy ~ These include installations site of temporary nature intended for a week long public function or outdoor lighting installations of buildings and parts in view of festival and other reasons. intended to be used for a temporary period not exceeding 6 months. where the equipment are quite similar to those in heavy conditions shall con. therefore.3 Temporary installations covered in this section are enumerated in 3 and are classified based on the duration of their existence in use.3). Exceeding 24 Hours .1 The following environmental factors shall apply to temporary outdoor installations: electrical installation open to sky or partially covered. the characteristics defined below generally apply. 216 N A T I O N A L ELEaRICAL C O D E .1 Environment 4. For the purposes of installations falling under the scope of this section.b. TERMINOLOGY 2. 3. GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF TEMPORARY INSTALLATIONS 4.1 This section of the Code covers the requirements for outdoor electrical installations bf .1. etc. 1. 4 Temporarll Installations . b) Works of repair. etc. b) Temporary.

The power supply authority’s line should be brought up to the substation in a separate enclosure. of overhead power lines: Part I kV. cabinet or distribution board shall consist of only components belonging to one and the same installation except for circuits for standby supplies. in particular.2 Utilization 4. 6.1.tant to clearly differentiate them. Such as wooden cloth structures in tents Structures which are weak or .1 Temporary. c’ircuses. tCode of practice for design. All the circuits supplied from the same point of supply comprise one installation and it is impoy. tents The nature of construction materials used in temporary installations may be combustible.inSide pation.1. conductors.1 The following factors of utilization apply: Uiilization (1) Capability of persons Characteristics (2) Uninstructed persons Remarks (3) Majority of occupants say in an exhibition circus fairs Instructed persons Asy. in 6. then the ‘supporting poles. laree oublic gatherings. ADDITIONAL REQUIREMENTS FOR TEMPORARY OUTDOOR INSTALLATIONS Presence of flora! No harmful mould growth hazard Presence of fauna Hazard from fauna (insects. Section I Design. such a s building sites are similar to those used in surface mining applications. etc conditions of evacuation Nature of processed Construciion o f structure Fire risk Combustible Shamianahs. references shall be. signalling or control. installation shall in general conform to the requirements stipulated in the relevant Section of Part I of the Code. Lightning 4. demolitions sites equipmrnt. b) A HV feeder and step-down transformer. Additional requirements are giver. 6.In case the loads at construction sites or to exhibitions. small animals) Solar radiation Solar radiation of hbrmful intensity and/or duration Depends on the location of the installation Hazard from exposure of equipment Generally applicable for installations located outdoors Seismic effects 6. tRe suppP y intake arrangements could be through either of the following: a) A HV feeder. The substation site shall be so selected that it is as close to the load centre as possible. Section 2 Installation and installation and maintenance Lines op to and including I I installation and maintenance Lines up to and including II maintenance. GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR TEMPORARY OUTDOOR INSTALLATIONS 5. of overhead power lines: Part I kV. including fixed or mobile power generators.subject to movement such as tents. If overhead line is laid up to the temporary substation.1 Supply Intake Arrangements 6.1 Commissioning of Substation . are large and the power supply authority has no network in the vicinity of the temporary installation that could be utilized then it would be necessary to establish a temporary substation where the switchgear and transformer can be installed.p&es to operating adequately advised or supervised by skilled persons Contact of persons with earth potential Conditions of evacuation during emergency Frequent Construction sites Low density occupation easy conditions of evacuation Small gatherings. removable partitions etc Structural design flexible or unstable 5. made to the guidelines contained in Part S/Set 3 of the Code. in respect of wiring of circuits. a smgle distribution point.0 The type of outdoor itMallations will depend on the magnitude and duration of the installation.2. etc. In case supply at voltages above 650 V *Code of practice for design. insulation and the method of stringing the conductors and the mechanical strength of the line as a whole shall conform to the relevant provisions of IS : 5613 (Part I /Set I)-1970* and IS : 5613 (Part l/Set 2)197lt.Environment (1) Vibrations Chorocteristics (2) Medium severity Remorks (3) Constructions. One construction site may be served by several sources of supply. difiicult an enclosure. c) A service line at voltages below 250 V.2 If the equipment used in temporary and provisional places of work in the open. Depending on the availability of s are ca acity. etc. of the existing distribution system. such as for marri. ages and similar functions Hieh densitv bccu. location and installation of PART 5 OUTQOOR INSTALLATIONS 217 .Circus. 5. or d) A tapping form one of the existing serviceconnection. birds. materials of the line.

For main circuits.3 The main switch shall be installed on a firm and vertfcal surface.2.1. preferably laid underground.2 Subcircuit 6. which can withstand the mechanical vibrations created at the installation site as well as the wind pressure at the location. cables shall be used.2.2.9 In cities.1. 6.6 The cable shall be laid either underground or supported in the air.is required.1 A device shall be provided on the incoming cable to each supply unit and each distribution unit for switching and isolating. The main switch shall be installed in an enclosure or a wooden cupboard and as close to the metering point as possible (see also 6. When laid underground. Precautions shall be taken to ensure that this cable when laid underground is done so with the same meticulous care as is done for a permanent installation.3 The enclosure or the which the main-switch is installed that the equipment within shall be the environmental conditions (see cupboard in shall be such unaffected by 4. circuses.2.1(a) especially outside cities and town bare conductors are permitted. purposes described under 3.5 The main switches shall be located at a height not exceeding 1.1.1. An independent earthing shall be established inside the installation premises.1).1). 6. they shall be cleated along the walls of structures with proper saddles. The incoming and outgoing cable/wires of the main switch shall be firmly supported so that cable and wire ends connected to the main switch shall not be subjected to any mechanical force. Only in the case of load for purposes mentioned under 3.2. b) mixed wiring. depending upon whether they are single phase or 3 phase circuits. it shall be supported on rigid poles. partly underground and In such an event.1. 6. then: 6. 6.4 There shall be adequate ventilation in the room where main switches are installed and there shall be operational space around the switch in accordance with good practice. the cables shall either be cleated with saddles of proper sire along the walls of a permanent structure if available.1.1. it is advisable to wire up the installation with insulated wires including for main circuits in open compounds or running along or across roads.2.1. shall be laid at a depth of 900 mm.1.2. etc. 6. The switches shall be mounted on a firm support and shall be at a height between I ‘m and 2 m from the floor level. it shall be laid in whole or split pipes. 6. 6.1.4 The main switch on the installation shall be connected to the point of supply by means of an armoured cable and the termination of this cable shall be adequately protected from rain water. 6.2 Control of Circuits 6.1 At the origin of each installation a unit containing the main controlgear and the principal protective device shall be provided. 4 mixed wiring o f i n s u l a t e d a n d b a r e conductor .1. the cable 218 6. if the premises where temporary electric supply required is isolated.1. In case overhead wires are used in the installation they should conform to the relevant Indian Standards mentioned in 6. 6.1. The switch room shall be accessible at any time of the day or night to authorised persons. The height of the cable shall not be less than 2 m when run inside the compound and at least 5 m when run along or across road.1.2.2 Power Distribution 6. 6. and partly overhead may be used. 6.2 Means of emergency switching shall be provided on the supply to all current using equipment on which it may be necessary to disconnect all live conductors in order to remove a hazard.1.2. the rating shall be decided taking the environmental conditions into account. or alternatively. 6. a suitable enclosure to install the switchgear and the metering arrangement shall also be erected.28 The supply intake point shall be placed outside the periphery of area which is accessible to the general public. bare conductors shall not be used. 6.1 Main Circuit 6. In case the cable passes underneath the passages.2. 6.7 In selecting the equipment and cables. With this type of arrangement it shall be possible to switch off the supply at the intake point or at the distribution point.1(b). The subcircuit switch shall be so spaced that there shall be a minimum clear distance of 60 mm “--tween the NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE .10 For temporary installations in cities and towns for. bricks and earth for providing mechanical protection. covered with sand.2.2 The main switch shall be adequately protected from ingress of water.1.2. Alternatively.2. at exhibitions.5 m so as to be accessible in emergencies.2. the outgoing end of the main switch shall be connected to busbar of adequate size and various subcircuits shall be connected to this busbar through double or triple pole switches.2.2. towns and thickly populated localities. When laid overground.overhead wiring.1.11 In cities and towns.i.2.2. (c) and (d). the underground part of the installation and the overhead part of the installation shall separately conform to the requirements as mentioned in this Section.2.1 On large temporary installations like those on construction sites. transmitted to it from any portion of the cables and wires. Crossing of the road shall preferably be avoided.1.

at a place where it is safe from atmospheric conditions.2. 8. For local earthing. the guidelines specified in this Section shall be applicable subject to fresh inspection and tests as above. exhibitions. The Icad wires connected to the subcircuits switches shall be suitably supported on wall with clips and shall not be left hanging. At the point of supply the load on the neutral shall not be more than 20 percent of the computed value of the load in the phases. The earth continuity wire shall be a single core insulated wire and shall be connected to the locab earth plate and taken along the cable connecting the supply intake point and the mainswitch on the installation.2.2 The various tests on the installation shall be carried out as laid down in Part I /Set IO of the Code. 6. In construction sites.2 Temporary supply is generally used at public places and for public functions and. so as to properly test the installation and find the loads in different subcircuits.1(a).2.3 When the specified duration of use of the installation as defined in 2.23 The distribution boards the subcircuits shall be at an accessible height but not less than I m. the distribution board shall be placed in a cubicle. shall get their duplicate earth connection from the earth continuity busbar on the sub-distribution board. etc.2. therefore.2. PROTECTION AND SAFETY 7. an independent earth continuity wire stiall be used. prior approval of the supply authority.2.2. (b) and (c) shall be ready at least 24 hours prior to connection of supply.1 The installation as a whole shall be protected against overload.5 A broken bulb of a lamp in a series circuit is a risk and therefore series lamps shall not be strung or hung at heights less than 3 metres. Wherever armoured cables are used.6 Installation at construction sites The enttre area where the temporary supply will be used. In a 3 phase circuit the loads on the 3 phases shall be balanced. 6. short circuit and earth leakage by suitable protective devices. extreme care shah be taken to ensure that there is no risk of any type of hazard either from electrical shock or fire.6. The distribution boards shall be fixed on firm supports or on pole firmly planted in the ground. On this drawing different points where various from appliances/equipment are intended to be used. 6.4 Ta ed joints shall not be used at heights less t Ran 3 m. The ronnection from this earth continuity wire shall be taken to various subdistribution boards and terminated on a busbar. sockets and fixed appliances shall be protected from rain by enclosing these in cubicles. with the. All switches.2 For local earthing the earth electrode shall be burried near the supply intake point. All appliances and equipment connected to subdistribution board. then a drawing may also be given to the electric supply authority. If such a place is not available. TESTING AND COMMISSIONING 8. 7. A defective series lamp shall not be allowed to remain in its position and shall be immediately removed.2. may also be indicated.2 Ihe outgoing wires from the subcircuit \\+itches inside the enclosure shall be cleated firmly on wooden battens’ or taken through cc)nduits which are fixed by means of. The taped joints shall be properly supported and preferably clamped on either side of the joint so that the joint is not subject to a strain. suitable fire extinguishers shall be kept at the supply intake point and near the main switch of the installation.2.1 Supply to all temporary installations should be connected by a specific date for the user and therefore the installation work meant for types of installations in 3. the armouring shall be connected to earthing arrangement of Power Supply Authority. 6. 7. Spans more than 2 m shall have guide wire support. In the case of installation described’ in 3.3 Earthing 6. Subcircuit distribution board shall be installed.2.3. shall be indicated beforehand and in case the electric supply is required at construction site for pipe lines. 8. PART 5 OUTDOOR INSTALLATIONS 219 . 6. For large public functions.1 is required to be extended beyond the stipulated period of 6 months. For series lights used f o r decorative purposes no taped joint shall be used. 6. 8.1 All appliances and equipment on temporary installation shall be connected to a system of duplicate earthing one of the Power Supply Authority and one local. Socket outlet shall either be protected by residual current devices having operating current not exceeding 30 mA or be supplied by safety extra-low voltage or electrical separation of circuit each socket outlet being supplied by a separate transformer.3.2.2. No flammable material shall be stored near the service intake point or the operational area of electrical equipment or appliances.saddles to the masonry wall or wooden partition wall.1(c) there should be a period of at least 6 hours after compl&ion of the work and prior to connecting supply for the purpose of testing the installation and visual inspection. protection of persons against indirect contact shall be assured by automatic disconnection of supply appropriate to the system of earthing.

1. e) Loading stations. means alterations. draglines. 9 Power generating and distribution systems. SCOPE 1.operations. c) Mobile conveyor bridges. SECTION 3A GENERAL 1. 9 Floating dredgers. removal of faults and testing. i n c l u d i n g t r i p p e r carriages. Area .4 In the preparation of this Section considerable assistance has been derived from IEC Publication 62 I ‘Electrical installations for outdoor sites under heavy conditions (including open-cast mines and quarries).FOREWORD 0. bucket-chain excavators. 2.5 Working Level (Bench).SECTION 3 PERMANENT OUTDOOR INSTALLATIONS O. 220 Nwt ~~ However this Section shall be applicable to building sites and earth-moving sites as far as the equipment used therein are similar to those used in surface mining application. d) M o b i l e c o n v e y o r s . issued by the International Electrotechnical Commission.3 Electrical Operating Area .An accessible only by the opening of a door or the removal of a barrier. 0.0 For the purpose of this Section. and I31 Mobile electric drills. as well as the special and arduous environmental. and h) Ancillaries. 2. signal supervisory and communication system.1 Operations (Electrical) . including hoppers and surge bins.4 Closed Electrical Operating Area . Servicing : which maintenance. The working level and/or working area may change location with the progress of . 2. The design and selection of equipment and components have to take into consideration the expected loading. This process includes: Operaring : which means. 2.2 This Section of the Code attempts to cover the general requirements applicable to equipment and auxiliaries for a variety of permanent outdoor site installations which are enumerated in 3. operating characteristics and cycle duty. 0. 2.2 Operating. the definitions given in Part I together with those given below shall apply: 2. d) Associated pumping and water supply systems. area 2.1 This Section of the Code covers requirements for permanent outdoor installations. e) Haulage trucks.3 The general characteristics of permanent outdoor installations are enumerated in 4. ditch bunker loaders.7 Transport Conveying System .A movable or stationary mechanical item of plant designed for NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE . livestock. switching. operational. 2. b) Secondary processing. controlling and supervision. shovels and other excavators. property and the proper functioning. The object of this Section is to set out the guiding principles so as to ensure the safety of persons.An area accessible only through the use of a tool or key.An area accessible to operating personnel in the normal performance of their duties. These machines are designed to be able to change location according to operational requirements. reclaimers. adjusting.2 This Section does not cover temporary and provisional places of work of durations less than 6 months for which reference shall be made to Part S/Set 2 of the Code. TERMINOLOGY 2. the area shall be clearly and visibly marked by appropriate signs. They include the following: a) Excavators. transportation and storage conditions. b) Spreaders and stackers.Winning and stacking machines are used in the process of uncovering or detaching materials from the earth’s surface or stacking such material. It is intended to provide necessary guidelines for such installations in this Section for the purposes of the practising engineers and the relevant authorities. etc. Jz) Control. for operations of equipment and machinery therein _ used for the purposes such as: a) Winning. 0.6 Winning and Stacking Machinery .The process of performing work through the controlled application of electrical power.1 Outdoor installations of the permanent nature require special treatment as compared to temporary installations of short durations (less than 6 months) primarily owing to the continucus exposure of the former installation and equipment forming part of it to heavy conditions of service at site.That part of an open-cut mine or quarry on which machinery and/or rolling stock are in operation. c) Transport conveying. namely: bucket-wheel excavators. The area shall be clearly and visibly marked by appropriate signs. stacking and primary processing.

An insulated cable specially designed to be frequently reeled on and off a cable drum or reeler mounted on a mobile machine. return current. They include the following: a) Belt conveyors.8 Primary Processing machinery necessary to prepare material won from the earth prior to its transport to the final processing or utilization areas.An insulated cable specially designed to be towed by a mobile machine.A device which causes a signal to be given in the event of reduced insulation resistance to earth.20 Insulation Monitoring and Warning Device .Conductors (which may be rails) used for carrying the. 2.An insulated cable that may be moved from time to time according to the operation without necessarily following the movements of the machinery.26 Overhead Collector Wire . 3. T Y P E S O F P E R M A N E N T O U T D O O R INSTALLATIONS 3.27 Overhead Distribution Line (Feeder) . Machinery .An apparatus or assembly of apparatus which is too heavy to be portable.19 Earthable Point .29 Safety Circuits and Devices .23 Trailing Cable . 2.That point of the power system. 3.An electric line having bare conductors used for supplying vehicles (for example. No’rE Cables are net included as part of apparatus. by means of a collector. 2. NOTIl-he earthable point may be the neutral point depending on the type of power system.An electrically powered vehicle usually operating on rubber tyres used for transport of materials and which may have a self.11 Portable Apparatus . 2. 2. 2.Any 2. 2. which would be connected to earth if the system were to be earthed.14 Haulage Truck . locomotives) by means of a collector or pantograph. Depending on the site conditions and the nature of the operation involved.15 Movable System 2 i4 railway Railway system which is designed to be tiovable to another location without dismantling.24 Overhead Traction (Trolley) Wire . iron-ore. 2 . etc.28 Return Conductors . b) Cham conveyors.0 The types of permanent outdoor installations covered by this Section are given in 3.13 Movable Apparatus. 2.C o n t a i n e d P o w e r S u p p l y . N OTE . 2.An electric line used for supplying moving machinery. of the transformer and/or generator.An electrical installation in which the generation and utilization plants are not housed within the same structure. 221 2.An interconnecting electric line between distribution substation and load point.1.An apparatus or assembly of apparatus which is permanently installed in a determined place and which is not normally moved during or between periods of use.An apparatus or assembly of apparatus which is too heavy to br portable but which is capable of being moved without discontinuity of electric power during use. PART 5 OlJTDOOR INSTALLATlONS .18 Exposed Conductive Part -A conductive part which can be touched readily and which normally is not live but which may become live under fault conditions.9 Secondary Processing Machinery . 2.17 External Power Supply .22 Drum Cable -. 2. 2. 2.1 cannot be made uniformly applicable to all such installations. 2. for example.Any machinery necessary to process at a point remote from the open cut or quarry.25 Overhead Distribution Traction Line (Feeder) ‘-~~ An line having electric bare conductors used for the interconnecting line between the power source and traction wire. a judicious estimate has to be made of the environmental factors that influence the performance of.the conveying of materials continuously from one location to another. but which is moved between periods of use. 2.12 Mobile Apparatus .Circuits and devices designed to prevent danger to personnel or livestock and damage to plant in the event of abnormal or unintentional operation. etc. such as a reclaimer.--Typical. 2.contained or external power supply.1 The following are the types of permanent outdoor install. 2.An electrical installation in which the generation and utilization plants are housed within the same structure. with its electric power source disconnected. operating handles.An open air sire for the extraction of materials or minerals such as coal. bauxite. 2. c) Bucket conveyors. 2. and f) Hydraulic conveyors systems.ations covered by this Section: a) Open-cuf or Open-cast Mine .10 Fixed Apparatus .21 Movable Distribution Cable . 1 6 S e l f . exposed conductive parts are walls of enclosures.An apparatus or assembly of apparatus intended to be normally held in the hand during use and which can be carried by ‘a person. material won from the earth. The general characteristics and service conditions enumerated in 4. d) Paddle or scraper conveyors.the installation. e) Screw conveyors.

Supply frequency variations. Necessity for special measures may be decided in consultation with ail concerned.5 Operating Conditions . etc. b) they are totally enclosed. blocking of ventilation ducts. transportation and storage conditions: 4. 5. jetty’s.. coils.0. stators. hostile environment. moisture. GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF PERMANENT OUTDOOR INSTALIJATIONS 4.0.1 Some of these conditions. railway yards. SECTION 3B EQUIPMENT A N D AUXILIARIES 5. installation and maintenance so that the electrical equipment or apparatus is procured to suit those conditions.The electrical specifications of ail components shall be not less than that required by the relevant Indian Standard.6 Site Conditions . container terminal.1 E x c h a n g e qf Information . b) Quarry .4 Protection -.0.0 General 5. Insecure powrt supply and transients.N OTE ~ Underground mines are excluded from the scope of this Section. should be gathered by the engineers responsible for their procurement.An open air site for the extraction of materials such as limestone. and c) diy type transformers including cooling NAT-IONAL ELECTRICAL CODE .1. including rodents or other small animals. operational. 5. passenger berths. the temperature of the exposed part shall not exceed the limits specified in Part 7 of t.1. 5.Components shall be installed so that design features such as cooling systems shall not be impaired by external factors such as position.or in expected fault conditions. and ml Ecological impact. etc).3 Materials ~ Materials used in component construction shall be appropriate f o r t h e environmental conditions. 5.2 Transfi~rmers . gravel. are listed below which may differ from their normal values: a) Altitude.1 Selection of Equipment and Ancillaries 5. etc.1 Rotating Machines . reversing or braking may be employed shall be so selected that they are capable of withstanding the expected stresses on parts such as rotor windings or cages. 5. Supply voltage variations. Airport Aprons .A yard with facilities for receiving classifying and dispatching railway roiling stock ( see also Section 3E).1. repair docks.Transformers shall be so selected that: ink areas.Before 222 4 the bracing of the core. 5. information regarding the duties. High or low humidity. operating characteristics and cyclic duty taking into consideration the protection required in special and arduous environmental.he Code. 5.2 Relevant Standards . 5. rotating machines shall be so located or guarded to prevent inadvertant contact with moving parts. RULES FOR EQUIPMENT A N D AUXILIARIES 5. gas. to the extent that the operations therin are identical with those described in 1.A defined area on a land aerodrome.0.0. siewing and angles of inclination (tilting and mounting) which may occur under expected operational conditions. intended to accommodate aircraft for the purposes of loading and unloading passengers. altitude. etc. internal leads and the tank of transformers on mobile and movable installations are capable of withstanding vibrations. location and installation conditions under which they would operate. deceleration. dust or liquid) is present in such quantity as to create a hazard and contact is possible between any exposed part of the component and the combustible material. r) g) Environment (dust. etc.0. mail or cargo.igned to meet such conditions as vibration. overspeed. b) c) d) e) Low and/or high ambient temperature.Protection shall be provided against damage and/or overheating during normal operation.7 Combustible Materials ~ If combustible material (for example. kS Localities prone to natural calamities.Components shall be des. atmosphere. refueiiing parking or maintenance. shafts and couplings. marine h) Flammable and/or explosive material/or j) Vermin.0. acceleration.0. 4.0 The design and the selection of components shall be on the basis of expected loading. 5.includes loading and unioad- ordering electrical equipment for outdoor sites. e) Railwyav Marshalling Yards .8 Noise Limitations ~ Consideration shall be given in the design to limit the noise level in accordance with local rules. stator end windings. However surface installations of underground mines are covered by this Section. cl Dockyards . clay. including temperature. wind pressure. atmosphere.Rotating machines used in applications where high acceleration.

e> Feedback supervision. and c) Protective in measures as specified 15 : 1 0 0 2 8 ( P a r t 2)-1982* for transformers with flammable cooling medium. In high voltage systems. 223 voltage. the current-carrying capacity should be based on the long time (for example. d) Protection against interaction between earthing systems of the input.1. 5. subject to the requirements of 5. PART S OUTDOOR INSTALLATIONS . short-circuit current and duration o f f a u l t . enable isolators to be locked.1.The following measures are recommended for switching devices for outdoor sites: a) Selection of proper design that no unintentional switching may be caused under expected operational and risk conditions. automatic movement of the mechanism. 5.5. elongation.1 Phase conductors . and fl Measures to limit harmonics.5 Protection against partial discharge -For flexible cables having nominal voltages greater than 4 000 V. b) Use of flame-retardant cooling medium. is not exceeded under expected short-circuit fault conditions. 5. Adequate precautions shall be taken to prevent spillage of the cooling medium causing pollution.1. For certain classes of movable distribution cables. 5. This may be achieved by either: 4 monitoring the protective conductor against increase in resistance by the use of pilot cores.4 Switching Devices --.Lvrs -. field gradient control).1. s h a l l c o n t a i n a protective conductor. lay. a) Protection against harmful effects of over- The protective conductor may be in the form of core(s) and/or screen(s). Suitable protective measures shall be applied to reduce the touch and step voltages.1. etc.5. and transient overvoltage conditions. output and control circuits. Where supplying cyclic loads. b) Ensuring.All multicore *Code of practice for selection.Selection of phase conductor size should take into consideration the expected load current.system are protected against harmful ingress of dust. considering the type of insulation.1. special measures shall be taken to guard against deterioration of the earthing circuit.53 Armouring as protective conductor Where : the cross-sectional area of a single composite strand of the armouring is greater than 6 mm2.1. the resistance between the semiconducting element and the protective conductor should be :ested to ensure that it is suitable to carry the prospective fault current.5.3 Static Converters ---. where required suitable means to cl Suitable labelling of switching devices which are not meant for interrupting load or fault currents. b) Protection against interference with commuc) Protection against spurious operation due to electrical coupling with other apparatus. form the protective conductor. nication or electrical control equipment.5. v o l t a g e d r o p a n d t h e mechanical strength required for the expected method of handling.Where cables are fitted with substantial longitudinal semiconducting layers for the purpose of providing a current path to the protective conductor in the event of a fault. Such measures may consist of a) metallic screens. 5.5.6 Semiconducting la.1. the metallic armouring of a movable distribution cable may be used as a protective conductor provided that the security against breakage of the armouring (taking irito account strength.1. or b) cables should be specially designed and used in accordance with the requirements of relevant Indian Standard whether or not they are used on a drum. The voltage drop should be calculated for both starting and maximum load conditions. the armouring may.2 Protective conductor . installation and maintenance of transftirmers: Part 2 Installation. high frequency monitoring or other means. The following additional protective measures are suggested from fire: a) Use of dry type transformers.The precautions are recommended: following cables of the movable distribution. and d) Suitable installation precautions to prevent hazards to personnel from electric areas.5. drum and trailing types.4 Limiting temperatures under short circuit -~ Cables shall be selected so as to ensure that the maximum allowable conductor temperature. 5. 5. (0 minutes) rms current expected. or b) substantial semiconductive elements in contact with the protective conductor. measures shall be provided to minimize internal partial discharge or to render such effects harmless (for example. 5.3.5 Cables 5. and provided that the armour conductivity is at least equal to that of a protective conductor of the required nominal cross-sectional area which would otherwise be required.1. where necessary. etc ) is at least equal to that of all the conductors.

13 Segregation of’ pobcler and control cores a) Single-cure cables Single-core cables which are installed in a common duct. When using single-core cables for alternating current circuits. cl Composire multicore cables on reeling drums . conduit or sleeving may be used for several circuits.5. 5.st lin7itation Where the normal mode of operation of the machine requires infrequent rotation through an arc of up to 360” in either direction. In cases where cables are handled only by tools. Where the normal mode of operation of the machine requires frequent rotation through an arc of up to 360’ in either direction. for either system.5. such insulation.s and/or atmouring fiw ~ahle. the only control core(s) which may be included in a multicore cable. NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE . Suitable supplementary identification may also be used. shall not be used where fatigue may occur. and that excessive bending and compressing are avoided. and b) For cables rated at above I 000 V. 5 . pilot. protrc. drum cable and trailing cable shall be tested by the cable manufacturer for partial discharge. control and supervisory cores shall have such cores insulated from all other conducting elements of the cable. in which the protective conductor is insulated. all conductors of a given circuit shall follow the same magnetic path to neutralire the resultant magnetic flux.1.5. in which . the pilot.1. or outer taping.Multicore cable which contain power. 5.1. 3) Cables operating at above I 000 V in an earthed system shall have metallic screens separating the power cores from the pilot core(s). 1 . 9 P a r t i a l dischar~qe pet~fowiance F o r cables rated at above 4 000 V each production length (minimum length I50 m) of movable distribution cable. these means o f special insulated requirements shall apply only for voltages above 4 000 v.5.wreen. Cables having extruded metallic sheaths.11 Pwar cable tbl. conduit or sleeving.10 T e r m i n a t i o n s o f ’ fle. both power and control. for example. ratios may be reduced to 25 and 50 times respectively.1.5. 2) Cables operating at above I 000 V in an unearthed system shall have either metallic screens or individual conductive rubber screens separating the power cores from the pilot core(s). control or supervisory cores shall be insulated to a voltage level equal to that of the power cores.1. the distance between the clamping supports of the cable shall be not less than 100 times the largest cable diameter in the cable run. 5.1. 000 V shall have pilot. Multicore cables containing power and control cores shall comply with the following requirement as appropriate: 1) Any cable containing pilot.ahks Flexible cables shall be terminated in such a way that their ends are not under stress or under tension effects. 5 .5. shall be the earth continuity check pilot. they shall have metallic screens and:‘dr armouring or shall be provided with conducting elastomeric screens of substantial cross-sectional area and so placed as to limit the touch and step voltages that may arise in the event of a cable fault. both power and control. All such cables (except bare earthing conductors) shall be insulated for the maximum voltage applied to any cable in the duct.tiL~cJ 5.Cables may be laid directly on or in the ground provided that tte outer sheath is designed for the operating 224 conditions.the protective conductor is insulated. shall be distinctly and indelibly colourcd green and yellow also see Part I : Set 4 of the Code over its whole length so that in any I5 mm length one of these colours shall cover at least 30 percent and not more than 70 percent of the surface.1 Plo~~ision (?f .s aho\v I 000 I/‘~ Where flexible cables are handled manuaily while energized.8 Identification of cwnd~rc~tor Unless o t h e r w i s k required.rihle c.i. the following applies: a) For cables rated at ap to and iticluding I 000 V. the distance between the clamping supports of the cable shall be not less than 50 times the largest cable diameter in the cable run. the other colour covering the remainder of the surface. Where cables designed specially for this purpose are used. control or supervisory cores may be used for reeling drum applications. due to vibration. such insulation or outer taping shall at least be identified at each end by the green yellow colour combination applied in accordance with the foregoing paragraph.5. cables with lead alloy or aluminium sheaths or mineral-insulated metal-sheathed cables. the above. For voltages above I 000 V. b) Mlrlticore cables -~ For voltages up to and including I 000 V. multicore cables may be used for several circuits. control or supervisory cores separated from power cores by conductive rubber screens if on an unearthed system or metallic screens if on an earthed system. frequent handling or ground movement. and 4) Cables operating at up to and including I. Alternatively.12 Sheathing. 5.

or by other means. For unearthed control delrices.1.1.14 Separation of cables in racks Where power and control cables.1. tray or duct. 6. as enumerated in Part I /Set 7 of the Code are applicable for outdoor installations of permanent nature covered by the scope of this Section.1. measures shall be taken to limit the leakage and capacitance --currents that they shall not exceed 70 percent of the drop-out currents. NATE 2 -Tables I and 2 take into consideration the fact that the system voltage may vary up to 20 percent from the rated operating voltage. 5. size and arrangement. opening of enciosurrs. SECTION 3C PROTECTION FOR SAFETY 6.1. 5.5(a) or (b). voltage. opening or withdrawal without the use of a key . these shall: a) necessitate the use of key or tool.or tool necessitates previous switching off of all live parts. GENERAL RULES .1.Tables I and 2 may be used to indicate clearance distances between conductors and earth in a TN or TT system by using the phase-to-earth.2 Use qf bolted plug/socket connectors bolted connections . The additional requirements applicable for permanent outdoor installations are given in the following clauses.6 Cable Connectors Where plug and socket connectors are used at voltages above 1 000 V. and eight times the cable diameter for cables which are constructed in accordance with 5.1 Protection Against Direct Contact 6.). etc.15 Bending radius for jlexible cables over 2. 6. and c) fail-safe principles with solid state switching devices. minimum bending radius for flexible cables during installation and handling in service is six times the cable diameter for cable not constructed in accordance with 5. 6. or fire. they shall have sufficient stability and durability to resist the strains and -stresses likely to occur in outdoor conditions.Any safety circuits shall incorporate fail-safe principle PART 5 OUTDOOR INSTALLATIONS as far as reasonably possible.1.1. 5. 5. b) proving function operation principle.8 Safety Circuits and Safety Devices . the socket while the’circuit is energized. b) The provision of protective conductor monitoring by means of either a pilot core.6. and taking into account their nature.r both of the following: 4 The provision of isolating switches which are interlocked with the plug/socket so as to prevent connection or disconnection while the circuit is energized and to prevent switching the circuit when the plug/socket connection is incomplete. The measures shall consist of one o.5.1.5.1. measures shall be taken to prevent the plug from being engaged with. by high frequency monitoring.5(a) or (b.1. diffeient voltage levels in the same area nor extreme environmental conditiorq.1. or b) involve provision of an interlocking device such that the removal. an insulation monitoring device shall also be provided for safety. interlocking is not required provided suitable and adequate operational procedures are implemented.13 Barriers and enclosures shall be firmly secured in place.Where and bolted plug/sdcket connectors or bolted connections are used. multicore ar?d single-core are used on a common rack. For unearthed control circuits.4 Where access to the install&ion is necessary by removal of barriers.1.1 Use of plug/socket connectors - N OTE 4 -These minimum clearance distances in Tables I and 2 do not take into consideration such factors as creepage distances. 5.5. The measures under (b) are intended as a safety feature and should not be used for normal isolation purposes.s no hazard to personnel created by automatic restarting.FOR PROTECTION IN OUTDOOR INSTALLATIONS 6.subject to the voltage limitations given in (b) above provided that the cable is specially designed for such reeling duty.1.5.2 All live parts shall be inside enclosures or behind barriers providing at least the degrees of protection’ in accordance with Table 3.1 Complete Protection by Means of Barriers or Enclosures 6. the degree -of mutual interference shall be considered.6.1 The minimum electrical clehrances in air between field installed bare conductors and between such conductors and earthed paris (such as barriers and enclosures) Shall.1. NATE I -These tables need not apply within electrical apparatus wiring devices or manufactured assemblies nor when the installation is covered by other sections of the Code.be in accordance with Tables I or 2. Some of the principles suggested are: a) closed circuit principle.5 mm diameter-The recommended 5. etc.1. 6.1. or 225 . or disengaged from.7 Control Circuits and Control Devices Control circuits and control devices shall not automatically reset after tripping unless resetting of the control device either does not cause automatic restarting of the device or there i.0 The general rules for protection for electrical installation inside buildings. 5. N OTE 3 .

Additional protection may be required for protection .ostn EL E C T R I C A L OP~HATISG AR E A S (4) (3) Partial protection IP IX* if UG 660 V or no simaltaneously accessible parts at different voltages are situated within arm’s path Complete protection IP2X if CJ> 660 V or IWX if U > 660 V for top surfaces or barriers or enclosnres which are readily accessible This applies in particular to those parts of enclosures which might serve as a standing surface See Note I 50 < I/G 1 000 V Complete protection IP2X* or IP4X for top surfaces or barriers or enclosures which are readily accessible. I : I . N OTE 3 . from contact with moving parts or to prevent ingress of so Id foreign bodies.1. up *For electrical operating areas and closed electrical operating areas. 226 NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE . mm 1 40 3 65 6 90 IO 115 20 21s 30 325 45 520 60 700 110 I loo 950 Minimum distance for instal40 lations protected against overvoltages or connected to cables. As used in the present standard.The use of floor plug and socket connector is not precluded but such sockets shall be covered when not in use. the voltage bands in the above table may be increased In the ratio of to I 500 V and above.1) Maximum rms value of rated operating voltage.In the case of dc voltages.For details on IP classifications. the IP classification is intended to specify only the degree of protection required to protect persons from contact with live /! arts . see IS : 2147-1962 ‘Design of protection provided by enclosures for low voltage switchgear controlgear’. namely. I.1. OP E R A T I N G AREAS W ITHIN C~.2) VOLTAGE WITIII~: OP E R A T I N G A R E A S (21 B AND ( A C ) (1) WITHIK ELECTHIC.AI.1. 45 520 60 700 110 I 100 150 I 550 220 2200 . by means of protective barriers or handrails. I ) Maximum rms value of rated operating voltage. mm IO 150 20 21s 30 325. NATE 2 . protection equivalent to IPIX is also considered to be achieved by placing out of reach or by the interposition of obstacles. kV Minimum distance for installations subject to overvoltages.IS0 160 270 380 520 950 1 350 I 850 TABLE 3 MINIMUM PROTECTION AGAINST DIREKT CONTACT BY BARRIERS OR ENCLOSURES (APPLICABLE TO LIVE PARTS ONLY) (Clauses 6. I. mm Minimum distance for installations protected against overvoltages or connected to cables.TABLE I CLEARANCE DISTANCES FOR INDOOR INSTALLATIONS (Clause 6.S. This applies in particular to those parts of enclosures which might serve as a standing surface See Note I No protection IPOX if L1<6m V Partial protection IPOX* if u > 660 V or no simultaneously accessible parts at different voltages are situated within arm’s reach See Note I LI>loooV Complete protection IPSX within arm’s reach Complete protection IPSX within arm’s reach Partial protectiofi IPIX* Partial protection IPZX Partial protection IP 1 X* beyond arm’s reach beyond arm’s reach U = rated voltage of the installation between lines NOTE I . for example. such as dust. kV Minimum distance for installations subject to overvoltages.1. mm 60 70 90 160 270 380 520 TABLE 2 CLEARANCE DISTANCES FOR OUTDOOR INSTALLATIONS (Clause 6.

8.1.2 Fire protection . which may result ir.1. cables.1 -Effect on voltage levels .2 QJ. 7. SECTION 3D REQUIREMENTS FOR INSTALLATIONS 7. opening or withdrawal without the use of a key or tool is attempted. 7.The following recommendations apply to drives with a periodic or cyclic duty as well as to certain other drives with a continuous duty. 1 . 7.Under .1. shall be taken into consideration to ensure the safety of personnel and equipment. damage or the malfunction of equipment.2 Supp(v systems -The effect of load fluctuations on the supply system shall be considered.Under 7.1. etc. shall take into consideration the starting requirements and cyclic nature of the load. termination boxes. limit switches.1 M o u n t i n g qf’ Components .1 S.2 Partial Protection by Placing Live Parts Out qf Reach -see Table 3.the power generation systems shall meet the requirements of motor starting.Consideration should be given to the need for special and/or additio. vulcanizing transformer<.1.2 Protection Against Indirect Contact 6.1.nal fire protection due to the fuels used [see 51. etc. rms load and frequency stability. Mobile and Movable 7.1.I.8.l.c) ensure automatic disconnection when removal.It is important that the equipment manufacturer and user mutually understand whether the voltage specified is under no-load or full load conditions. 7. limit switches. 7.ATIONS 7. Where the equipment is required to operate under. Stacking and Primary Processing Machinery 7.1. etc) where the protective conductor is not monitored nor visible. 7. 7. 7.Overload and short-circuit protection for transformers.3 Partial Protection by the Provision of Obstacles .. 7 . the normal mounting bolt or screw connection is adequate.I.1.1.The effects of equipment starting and of the duty cycle on voltage levels.4 S.S Electric consideration.In the case of an IT system. regeneration. power source from within the machine. t o off’hoartl eyiiip~)t~‘tIt When power 1s suppiled to off-board nroh~lt~ ..1 .1. This is also applicable for the mounting of all types of electrical equipment in cubicles. an insulation monitoring device is not required for power circuits which are supplied by a. etc. 9 .In IT systems.1.1 The provisions of Part I /Set 7 of the Code shall apply.7. a visible main equipotential bonding conductor shall be provided between such auxiliary equipment and plant. For protection requirements see 6. sockets. 7. or the combination of supply system and motor design characteristics is such as to permit automatic re-energization.7 Drives ~-.2. special protective connections to the structural parts of the installation are not required if the connecting surfaces between the electrical equipment housing and structural parts provide an adequate conducting area. motor starting.8. 6. etc.see Table 3.1.1.For the mounting of motors. 3 E a r t h i n g .4 Supplr.1. peak load.1 A Insrrlation Monitoring Devices for Vulcanizing Heating Platens . 7.\stems -. 7. insulation monitoring devices are not required for vulcanizing heating platens where the power circuit is supplied from a transformer having electrically isolated windings.2 . 6.1. PART 5 0l:TDOOR INSTAl.7.1 $\. REQUIREMENTS FOR PERMANENT OUTDOOR INSTALLATIONS 7. In such cases. automatic reclosing or transferring devices should not be used in the power distribution system unless such device has sufficient time delay to allow motor disconnection. o r m o v a b l e i t e m s o f equipment and there is no external supply. 6.2 Overcurrent protection --.corrosive atmospheric conditions or extreme vibrating conditions.3 Insulation Monitoring Device jar IT S.83 Automatic reclosing or transferring Where regeneration may delay the oneration of undervoitage devices. and inherent ac motor oscillations due to transient load changes.The supply system shall meet the requirements of cyclic or periodic loads.1. such equipment need not be connected to the general mass of the earth..1. the device is fitted with ‘out of step’ protection. Hand Lamps .9.9. taking account any restrictions imposed by the electricity supplier. such as by a transformer having electrical isolated windings or by a generator or storage battery.6 Electric consideration.1 Winning.~tem design . Equipment .For mobile and movable off-board auxiliary equipment (such as welding equipment.f’Board Auxiliary.ind movable equipment conditions given in 7. a separate protective conductor shall be connected to motors.stem design . 7.1..trl‘ 2P? Tools .8 External Pok’er Supply Systems 7.When the supply of electrical energy is self-contained within stationary.9.9 Self-Contained Power S_vstems 7. mobile.stem voltage .

Where synchronous motors are used to drive loads which may be regenerative. 7.3 are applicable. For example. contactor. b) Automatic field excitation controi .1. When mechanically latched control devices are used and re-energization following loss of supply power would endanger personnel or equipment. shunt tripping devices may be used providing the tripping device and its stored energy tripping supply are monitored and regularly maintained.2 Synchronous motor control controls shall be of a type in which the contacts are opened by a positive mechanical action and can only be reclosed by a further mechanical action. 221 NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE . each group may operate in single or multiple circuits. ensuring that safety of personnel and equipment is not endangered by inadvertant operation of control devices.The devices described in the following paragraphs shall not be used for purposes of isolation or immobilisation to allow work to be carried out on parts which would otherwise be electrically energized or moving: a) Stop control circuits -The circuits of stop control and of other safety protection devices should be as simple.Disconnection of power or other equally effective means shall be provided for stopping the drive under emergency conditions.guarded against madvertant access. The emergency device may use remote control systems.1. fluctuations-The effect of shock. shunt tripping systems may be used providing the above-mentioned conditions are maintained. c) Locking of stop controls .1 Shock.8. Where several circuits are divided the respective contact elements shall be connected in series. The stop arranged as series tripping system.1 .3 Stop control .1. vibration or voltage fluctuations on control devices shall be taken into consideration.Where required. unless start-up alarms are used. A number of emergency devices may be arranged in groups.A stop control shall be located near each start control. provided special measures for the safety of personnel and equipment have been implemented.1. reliable and direct acting as is practical.2 Emergency. 7. an automatic field excitation control is recommended. The device shall also be tripped on operation of protective devices.Under consideration. provided that such means otherwise comply with the intent of 7. conditions given in 7. providing at least the same protective measures as for the above devices are applied to ensure positive and reliable operations.11. Emergency stopping can be accomplished by means other than disconnection of power. provision shall be made to guard against unauthorized starting. The power disconnect device may be a remotely operated power manually or circuit-breaker.11.13 Provision for Supply Isolation . d) Pullwlire stop controls .1. except for lift call control.12. etc. the control system shall permit operation from only one nominated location at any one time.4 tnterlocking of start controls Where equipment can be started from more than one location.11. the equipment is in sight from all starting locations. automatic motor field removal on disconnection is required. However. separate means of isolation may be provided for control circuits. for example. Emergency devices may be arranged to operate simultaneously in a number of different circuits. 7.1.12 Emergency? Stopping and Emergency Devices 7. means shall be provided to trip the motor starting switch or incoming line switch upon loss of power supply. Acceptable methods include locking of stop controls in the ‘off position or ensuring that only the person operating the stop control has access to the start control. means shall be provided to automatically trip the latched control device on loss of supply p’ower.10 Cable Tvpes . b) Location of stop controls . which may remain energized after disconnection of power circuits.1 .1. 7. when rotation converters are used. However. Frequency sensitive devices are recommended. However. c) Power toss protection . 7. devices . 7.Where synchronous motors are used to drive any part of the installation.1 Emergency stopping .1.12. When automatic reclosing or transferring devices are used in the distribution system. disconnection of the external excitation is permitted if protection against selfexcitation is provided. 7. 7.11.1.A means of mains supply isolation shall be provided to isolate the power circuits from the equipment or parts thereof mclusive of control and motor circuits. Additional stop controls may be provided. or the equipment is . audio-frequency of timemultiplex operations. the simultaneous existence of two or more faults within the remote controls system need not be expected. However.1.Where the cutout devices are actuated remotely they will be a) Automatic field removal .rated by a pullwire shall be arranged so that a pull on the wire in any direction will stop the controlled equipment.applicable.11 Control Circuits and Control Devices vibration and voltage 7.11.Stop controls ope.3.Where synchronous motors are used to drive periodic or cyclic loads.

3. an equipotential bonding conductor shall be provided to the electrical equipment unless the structural parts of the conveyor are mechanically fastened and/ or electrically bonded together.3 @F-hoard Equiiwlent .3. 7. and c) Equipotential bonding is provided. 7.4. On very long conveyor systems.1.4. by ensuring that all metallic parts are linked together. 7.riliar~~ Movable 7. c) initiate b r a k i n g t o stop the conveyor iti safe time.for IT S.3 Transport Conveyor Systevs 7.the protective measures against indirect contact.3. NOTE Manually operated stop controls may also provide the function of an emergency stop.1.s e e 7.3. such as by sensors.3. provided that the conveyor upstream of the zone is proved to be unloaded..3. however.2 Eyuipotential Bonding Conductor and Mobile and t.1 Stopping sequence -.see 7.1 General . D e v i c e s . b) Personnel do not have access down the well.4.9.~ cables .see 7.Well TIpe Pumps 7. such structures and frames shall be considered as extraneous conductive parts and shall be included as part of the whole plant in the design of . they shall be located not more than 15 m from any accessible point along the conveyor. restarting shall be initiated manually. NOTE ~. 7.1. bonding .3.O p e r a t i o n m a y 7.Under Lamps . ClJrldlcl~til~it~~ (!f Structural d) prevent run-back. and cl personnel do not have access down the well.3. 7.Electrically initiated explosive devices should not be stored or used in the vicinity of such installations as hazards may exist due to fault currents flowing in the ground when syslems continue to operate following the first earth fault.4 Pumping and Water Supply Systems 7. that is.1.1.8. b) the conductivity of the metallic riser (stand pipe) and the connections (couplings) shall be at least equal to the conductivity of the protective conductor which would otherwise be necessary.1 . All accessible points along the pullwire operated stop control are considered as stop controls.1 Mounting cJf Components -see 7. Where individual stop controls are used. no protection conductor is required between the motor and the protective conductor connected directly to the fixed iiser provided that: a) the supply cable is terminated close to the well head. 7.9..The devices described in the following clauses shall not be used for purposes of isolation or immobilisation to allow work to be carried out on parts which would o t h e r w i s e b e electricatly e’nergized or moving.3.3.An 7. the operation of a stop control within one stop zone need not stop all upstream conveyors beyond that zone.l Risers as protective condustors ~- consideration. and a) An IT system is used.4.for Monitoring 7. 7.Under Where a continuous metallic riser pipe is fitted between the motor and the well head.4 Insulation Monitoring Device .3 E q u i p o t e n t i a l equipotential bonding conductor shall be installed between the main earth terminals of the supply 229 .10 S t o p p i n g of Dokwhill Con\vJws Under consideration.The operation of a s t o p control on a conveyor shall stop that conveyor and: a) aI1 upstream conveyors to a controlled loading point.2 Poccvr consideration.2 Continued operation after .Where semiconductive sheaths. Parts .Under 7. the first ‘earth fault only when all of the followmg condltions are met: fbu/t.8. 7.1 Deep.first earth continue after.4. metallic screens or armouring are suspended from structures or frames of movable conveyors. Stop controls shall be accessible from any side of a conveyor to which there is access.7.Under consideration. Au.3. It is recommended that stop controls be located at the head and tail ends of a conveyor and that pullwire stop controls be used along the length of the conveyor.8 Cables without cables 7.6 Electric Hand Hand Tools .1. 7.S t o p controls shall be provided.5 Insulation Vulcanizing Heating Platens . 7.7 Electric consideration.3.Where electrical equipment supplied at a voltage in excess of 50 V is mounted on a conveyor structure and the cable to the equipment does not include a protective conductor. The c6nductivity of the metallic structural parts of the conveyor and its fastenings shall be at least equal to that of the otherwise necessary equipotential bonding conductor.1. Although the stop control may be reset automatically. b) cause the material from all upstream conveyors to be diverted to an alternative route.2 Secondary Processing Machinery .3.9 Slop Controls -.2 Location of stop controls --.2.3.wenis .3. supp!.

Normally one hump handles I 000 to I 500 wagons per day. 8. Hump yards are those where shunting necks have shape of a camel hump.5 Pumps Other Than Deep-Well Types Under consideration.1.3 Each yard can be of any one of the three formations based on method of construction: a) Baloon or classification type. It is utilized for classification and sorting of loads.uemption from insulation monitoring device -. 8. 7. It is mostly suitable for metre gauge. The number of humps can be increased depending on the work-load.Under consideration.Yards with flat shunting neck d) e) A departure . are called flat yard.1 Lighting of Aircraft Aprons .3. classifying and despatching vehicles to their several destination. and c) Grid type. 7.0 General 8.A marshalling yard with facilities for receiving.4.3. 7. Shunting is done without engine.Protection shall be provided to disconnect the supply in the case of a double fault (phase-earth-phase). NOTL ~ A value of K.The provisions of relevant Indian Standards shall apply.13arci This is a yard in which loads are kept waiting for departure. 0.1. A sorting jlard This is a yard in which wagons are separated in station order and reformed into trains in special order to meet the requirements of the section ahead or any other special transportation requirements. and K is a multiplying factor.6 Power Supply Cables . 8. The equipotential bonding conductor shall be so dimensioned that the voltage drop between any two points (of resistance value I?) that may be contacted simultaneously shall not exceed 50 V. SECTION 3E ADDITIONAL GUIDELINES FOR SPECIFIC AREAS 8. ADDITIONAL GUIDELINES FOR INSTALLATIONS IN SPECIFIC AREAS 8. 7. in the case of circuit-breakers.is: R < -% ohms KX I.to 2. 8. b) A reception Jsard-. 8. so as to form them into trains and prepare them for correct marshalling.1 The classification in respect of yard area is based on the speed and intensity of traffic both vehicular and otherwise. their enclosures shall be connected to this bonding conpuctor. may be provided. NO~F Yards with grid type formatIon are reception-cwudespatch yards. 7.3. C) A class$cation j.ard -.4 E.0.5 is suggested for the time being. NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE . They also deal with traffic originating at or destined for centres.2 Guidance from relevant experts shall be t a k e n i n r e s p e c t of specific areas before installation work begins.and the well head(s).A yard in which the loads of incoming trains may stand clear of run’ning lines while waiting for their turn to be dealt with. That .5 Double line to earth faults .2 The railway yards are also classified into three main categories depending on their handling capacity and way of working: where 1.1. These yards are mechanized where wagon level crosses 2 500 wagons per day.7 Control Circuits and Control Devices ~ Under consideration. a) Gra\lit\* _\. b) Ladder type.3 Lighting Installations in Railway Marshalling Yards 8.Under b) Hump .2 times the releasing current for the instantaneous or short-time delay trip. 7. a) Multipurpose yard . Disconnection follows the second fault.An insulation monitoring device (or earth fault detector) is not necessary.A y a r d i n w h i c h trains are broken up on the different lines for the various directions or stations irrespective of station order. track levels in specified crest of 2. where the conductor shall be connected directly to the fixed riser. It.= 2. A device such as one which detects a change in neutral displacement on the occurrence of the first and second earth faults. 230 c) Flat .ard---. 8.llard ~~ Hump yard created by raising consideration.8 Safety Circuits and Safety Devices .dzals from 300 to 700 wagons per day. Where transformers are located at the well head.l.5 m height.1 The requirements given in Sections 3A to 3D are applicable to the specific areas described in this Section in so far as the operations are identical with those described.1 Classification 8.0.1.art/ A yard where natural gra- dient -is available.3.2 Lighting of Ports ‘and Harbours -The provisions of relevant Indian Standards shall apply.4.1. (in amperes) is the rated current of the power fuses or.

3.3.3.2 Different segments (functions) of yards are: a) classification yard ~-.3.2 lux Small yards 0. c) reception yard.2 Means shall be provided to control supply to group of towers with controlgear located in feeding substation/switching substat ion.3.3. d) despatch yard.1.4 Power Installation Requirements 8. 8.3. 8. b) sorting yard . Minimum size of cable shall be IO to 16mm? 4 core.4 For the purpose of illumination.3 Levels of illumination would depend on the type of marshalling yard.2 Selection 8.3.3. rather than ‘T’ joint. the recommended height of tower is 30 m.3.0 The source of . The contactors shall be controlled by electrically operated switch mounted for external manual local operation. King Points. The levels given below are recommendatory. 8. 8. 8.3. i) High pressure mercury vapour lamps. *Code of practice for installation and maintenance of paper insulated power cabies (up to and including 33 kV). along the track and across the tracks should be done in accordance with IS : 1255l983* b) L u m i n a i r e s . qf equipments a) Light sources . Each luminaire may be provided with 2 lamps of 400 W or I lamps of I 000 W.zone wise.Nood lighting types of luminaires are recommended for yard lighting installation. efc 5 lux 1. These are two in each hump yard.3. N OTE I King points are the first pair of points that the wagon meets after passing over the hump summit and these divide the hump yard into two portions. ii) High pressure sodium vapour lamps.5 lux 8.rovided with suitable sized contactors with independent fuses for each phase.electric supply shall be located at a suitable place nearest to the yard. Laying of cables in yard. and e) through goods yard. PART 5 OUTDOOR INSTALLATIONS 231 . Type Important yard Minimum Special Location Maximum Like Shunting Neck. most important locations are ‘king points’ and ‘queen points’ and order of priority for lighting is determined accordingly.4.3.4.1 The power supply to the towers shall be through underground armoured cables.The following sources of light a’re recommended for the purpose of yard lighting.8.4.1 For the purpose of designing the lighting system.2 lux IO lux 5 lux NOTE 2. 1. 8.Queen points are the second pair of points the wagon meets on either of the two diverging lines taking off from the king points and these divide the classification lines into four sub-portion.3.4. 8.station wise.4.3.4 The junction boxes shall be p.3 Design 8.3 The cables shall be preferably terminated on column junction boxes by looping joints.

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PART 6 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN AGRICULTURAL PREMISES O. the presense of livestock and other extraneous factors necessitate laying down specific requirements. and the use of electricity for certain essential purposes. Section 705. assistance has been derived from IEC Pub 3647-705 ‘Electrical installations in buildings.2 Installations in agricultural premises are different from those covered in other Sections of the Code in that the external influences on the electrical services are quite different from those encountered elsewhere. Even though the overall power requirements for such installations would be small. 0. it has been felt necessary to cover the requirements of such installation as a part of the Code. . Part 7 Requirements for special installations or location. 03 In the preparation of this draft. Agricultural and Horticultural premises. issued by the International Electrotechnical Commission.1 This Part of the Code is primarily intended for covering the specific requirements of electrical installations in agricultural premises which include premises where livestock are present and farm produce are handled or stored. With the increase in sophistication in organizing the farm output of the country.FOREWORD 0.

CLASSIFICATION 3. For example: Animal1 Bird Housing Sub-Classificarion Presence of water Possibility of splashes from any direction. Possibility of je:s of water from any direction Presence of dust Presence of foreign solid bodies in significant quantity Locations where equipment may be subjected to splashed water.1 Farm premises where livestock are not normally present and are those utilized solely for the purposes of handling or storing farm inputs and produce.1 For the purposes of this Part. stdres and stalls Presence of corro. GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF AGRICULTURAL PREMISES 4. sheepfolds. birds and small animals Presence of fauna. For the purpose of installations covered by this Part the conditions given below apply.2 Utitrzation . 3.The following conditions apply: Ulilization (1) Characteristics (2) Remarks (3) Electrical resistance of human body Contact of persons with earth potential Low resistance due to wet conditions Persons are frequently in touch with extraneous conductive parts or stand on conducting surfaces Low density occu.1. the definitions given in Part 1 /Set 2 of the Code shall apply. SCOPE 1.0 General guidelines on the assessment of general characteristics of buildings are given in Part I /Set 8.2 This part applies to premises where livestock are present.Farm 3. for e.1. TERMINOLOGY 2.dwellings or similar locations situated in these premises.g. external lighting fittings Locations where hose-water is used regularly Applies to barns.Special precautions pation difficult to be taken where conditions of animals are present evacuation High density occupation easy conditions of evacuation Layer House Poultry housing i Stationery Brooder House - Portable Conditions of evacuation during emergency Sheep folds (sheep and goats) I4ggeries Horse stables o equine houses Cattle housing Cattle sheds for average farmer (3 milch animals with their calves and pair of bullotks) Cattle sheds for rural milk producer (average of about 20 animals) Organized milk produces (130 animals) Large dairy farm (about 500 animals) Nature of processed or stored materials Building design Flammable mate.Examples of such premises are stables. 3. N OTE . piggeries.1 Installations in agricultural premises shall be broadly classified into: a) farm houses.1. b) Arid areas and high altitude areas. Harmful hazard present Electromagnetic influences Harmful presence of induced currents 4. etc. houses are Houses . stalls.a) Intermittent or Applies to locations in which livestock accidental subsive or polluting are present or fertijection to corsubstances rosive or pollu.1 Environment . and c) Heavy rainfall areas and high rainfall humidity areas.1.2.lizers or plant ting subsprotective products are stored or tances handled b) Continuously subjected to Presence of flora and/or mould growth Harmful hazard present Insects.2. and b) livestock houses.2 Livestock Houses .The following conditions generally apply: Environmen/ (1) Characrerisrics (2) Remarks (3) 2. cow houses. 4.1 This Part of the Code covers requirements for the fixed electrical installations in agricultural premises excluding . hen-houses.2 Livestock houses can also be classified depending on the type animal or bird housed.1 Livestock houses are further classified depending on the type of climatic conditions: a) Plain areas with moderate rainfall.1.Livestock houses are premises where livestock are present for long periods of time during the day (such as in a dairy farm) with or without associated farm units. 3. 4. I. 3.Barns rial including dust Propagation of fire is facilitated and risks due to structural movement of structures which are weak NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE * .

4.For the application of protective measure by safety extra-low voltage in locations in which hvestock are present or situated outside.5. b) Milk recording and testing room. shall.1 In sheepfolds.3 In meat houses and abbattoirs. 5. the rated operating residual current not exceeding 30 mA and as low ai practicable but avoiding nuisance tripping. F o r a c h i e v i n g p r o t e c t i o n by automatic disconnection of supply. 5. cl Flaying. the conventional voltage limit in locations in which livestock are present or situated’outside is (I.1 It is recommended to protect final subcircuits. sick shed.5 Cable couplers shall not be used in agricultural premises.4.4 System Protection 5.3. 5.3 Where long runs of cable must b c placed along the sides of buildings.2. a residual current protective device shall be installed having a rated residual operating current of OSA. f-l Laboratory. 5.4. wherever possible.4. e) Stores. it. the following sub-units are present: a) Sheds such as flock shed. 5.2 Wiring Systems 5. Devices for emergency electrical 237 PART 6 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN AGRICULTURAL PREMISES . and &a Office. Where electrical equipment is installed in livestock building.4 Cables 5.3. ati c) Shepherd house. 5.2. supplementary equipotential bonding shall connect all exposed conductive parts which can be touched by livestock and the protective conductor of the installation. and as high as practicable.2. be provided by the use of nonmetallic materials. dressing and washing.3. 5.2. 5. the following sub-units are present: a) Sheds for animals. protection against direct contact shall be provided by: a) barriers or enclosures affording at least the degree or protection IP 2X. b) Sheering and store room.1 information shall be exchanged among the people concerned on the electrical needs of the premises before installation work begins. b) Slaughter shed. SUPPLY CHARACTERISTICS AND PARAMETERS 5.irrhjng -.2.2.2 Where additional protection against mechanical damage to cables is required. 5. c) Utensils room.1.2. it shall be possible to isolate and control the buildings individually. N OTE -~ A metallic grill connected to the protective conductor laid in the floor is recommended (see Fig. d) Byproducts handhng. o r b) insulation capable of withstanding a test VOItage of 500 V for one minute.4.1.2 Protection Against Fire . the following subunits are firesent: a) Animal sheds before slaughter. etc.1 Protection Against Electric Shock .For fire safety purposes. Due considerations shall also be given to locations presenting fire-risks. they shall wherever possible be placed on the outside of the buildings.2. or b) in any position where access to it may be impeded by livestock.2 Where an installation serves more than one building. 5. 5. The minimum height above ground shall be 6 m.4 Where conductors or cables are carried overhead supported by buildings or by poles.3 Isolation and Slz. I).3 Means of access to all live parts of *switchgear and other fixed live parts where different nominal voltages exist shall be marked to indicate the voltages present. e) Inspection.conditions are also applicable to locations directly connected through extraneous conductive parts to the locations where livestocks are present. 5. 5. ram or buck shed. Due consideration shall be given to the evacuation of aliimals in case of emergency. 5. 5. and 0 Office.1 All cables shall be placed out of reach of livestock and clear of all vehicular movement. 5.Heaters used in the rearing and tending of livestock shall be secured or hung on a safe mounting so that an adequate spacing from both animals (risk of burns) and combustible materials (fire hazard) is assured. by residual current devices.2.4.3 Selection and Erection of Equipment Equipment shall be so selected that they suit the environmental conditions of use and shall be installed in such a way that their normal functioning is not affected by the external influences enumerated in 4.1. These .1 Main switchgear shall not be installed: a) within reach of livestock.2 In cattle housing. Each installation may have to cater to the services requii-ed in the subunits of the premises which depend on the type of agricultural premises as enumerated in 3. d) Ration room._ = 25 V.

9. ample artificial light and ventilation shall be provided by electrical means. BO N D I N G ON AG R I C U L T U R A L P R E M I S E S switching including emergency stopping shall not be installed within reach of livestock or in any position where access to them may be impeded by livestock. structural steel mat Tethering device 7: Automatic watering device 8. Milking apparatus Steel structure Protective earth conductor (PE) Earth electrode Busbar for equipotential bonding* Earth electrode for lightning protection Earth electrode for electric fences ‘Equlpotential bonding can also be achieved.3 shall be adhered to. 6. one row of bulbs in the centre shall be adequate. with a regular supply of fresh air and light.2 Abattoir . I EX A M P L E OF EQIIIPOTENTIAI. IW (GLS) or SW (fluorescent) 238 per bird or I W per 28-38 cm are considered adequate. For sheds of larger width two rows df lamps properly interspaced may be desirable. The light sources shall be hung at a height not less than 1. The guidelines given in 6. a temperature of not greater that1 iS”C would be required and air-conditioning may be required. 13. The overall intensity in every abattoir shall not be less than 200 lux throughout the slaughter hall and workroom and at places where meat inspection is carried out. account being taken of the condition likely. 4. in halls where meat or carcasses are hung. for example. Feeding apparatus :: 3. 5. to arise in the event of panic by livesfock.In large dairy farms. IO. 6. but in the case of the latter lack of proper ventilation or lighting loads to insanitation and discomfort to the livestock thereby leading to retarded growth. Il. The lamps shall be hung at/ a height not less than 2 m above floor level. FIG. without the busbar.A minimum of 14 hours day length shall be provided to the birds and artificial lighting shall be provided for the-same. For the purposes. For poultry sheds of 6 m width and below.1 to 6.- Earth. 6. The houses are required to be maintained’ reasonably cool in summer and warm in winter. In unrefrigerated work rooms. SERVICES IN AGRICULTURAL PERMISES 6. NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE . 6. the illumination shall be at least 500 lux. through direct interconnection of conductive parta. roof-lights shall be provided to give 50-200 lux of artificial lighting. conductor Sheet metal and foil partitions Water pipe Manure removal device Potential equali7ation.1 Poultry Housing .In meat houses and abattoirs.3 Farm Cattle Housing .8 m above floor. 15. 12. high mortality or poor fertility. 14.0 Farm houses and iivestock’houses do not in general require sophisticated electrical services.

8. such as in a dairy farm.2 Electric Fences -.emergency supply system is recommended.3 Circuits of wirings which are only occasionally used.ROVlSlONS 8. appropriate distances shall be observed to take account of induction currents. shall be fitted with a separate switch marked accordingly.7. during threshing time.ATIONS IN ACRICI:I:Fl’RAI. and b) for continuity of supply. MISCELLANEOUS P.1 For large scale livestock keeping. TESTING OF INSTALLATION 7.I.1 Before commissioning the installation shall be tested and inspected as given in Part l/See IO of the Code. PREMISES 239 . 8.Where electric fences are in *the vicinity of overhead lines. PART 6 ELECTRICAL INSTAI. Any earth electrode connected to the earth terminal of an electric lfence controller shall be separate from the earthing system of any other circuit and shall be situated outside the resistance area of any electrode used for protective earthing. a fast acting. it shall be essential to provide: a) a warning device for indicating failure of air circulation system. for example. etc. 8. falling lines.

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TiONAL E L E C T R I C A L C O D E PART 7 .

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that is. 0.1 Hazardous atmosphere is the atmosphere where any flammable gas or vapour in a concentration capable of ignition occurs.Hazardous areas can be limited in extant by constructlon measures. When ignited these may burn readily and with considerable explosive force when mixed with air in the appropriate proportions. Any area.2 Many liquids. environmental conditions in mines demand special consideration. 0. 0. This Part of the Code does not include provisions for installations in underground mines.PART 7 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN HAZARDOUS AREAS O. The requirements laid down herein are in addition to those specified in Part 4 of the Code. handled and stored are combustible. processed. 0. . The scope of this Part therefore includes installations in hazardous areas such as petroleum refineries and petrochemical and chemical industries. 0. walls or dams. gases and vapours which in industry are generated. by taking care in the layout of the installation. Some of these standards deal with particular construction techniques. sparks or hot surfaces produced either in normal operation or under specified fault conditions. N OTE -. important that sound engineering judgement should be exercised while applying these guidelines.3 This Part of the Code is intended to provide guidelines for electrical installations and equipment in locations where a hazardous atmosphere is likely to be present with a view to maximizing electrical safety. It is. Some examples of industrial locations which require application of the guidelines in this Part are given in Appendix D. 0. where during normal operations a hazardous atmosphere is likely to occur in sufficient quantity to constitute a hazard had to be treated in a special manner from the point of the design of electrical installation. it is frequently possible. These standards are listed in Appendix A. Ventilation or application of protective gas will reduce the probability of the presence of explosive gas atmosphere so that areas of greater hazard can be transformed to areas of lesser hazard or to nonhazardous areas.5 This Part includes generalized statements and recommendations on matters on which there are diverse opinions. others with aspects of standardization which are relevant to more than one techniques.6 While preparing this Part.7 As distinct from the hazardous areas in buildi& on the surface. to locate much of the equipment in less hazardous or nonhazardous areas and thus reduce the amount of spcciai equipment required. several standards for electrical equipment for explosive atmospheres have been referred to.4 It is recognized that when electrical equipment is to be installed in or near a hazardous area.FOREWORD 0. essential ignition sources include arcs. therefore. With regard to electrical installations.

2. the following definitions shall apply.15 Source of Release A source of release is a point or location from which a gas. combustion spreads throughout the unconsumed mixture.ardous area or a remotely hazardous area. w h e n mlxed with a i r In c e r t a i n 244 proportions. 2. 1 4 I g n i t i o n T e m p e r a t u r e ~~~ T-he l o w e s t temperature at which ignition occurs in a mixture of explosive gas and air when the m e t h o d specified in IS : 7X20-1975* is followed.I flnmmable \apour. 2. petroleum refineries and other similar areas where halard\ of explosion due to gases and vapours exist. 2. in addition tb those given in Part . 2. not apply to the areas in underground mines. 1. unloaded or otherwise handled.3l~~mmable Gas or Vapour .1 I Liquefied flammable Gas Flammable gas which. mist or liquid may be released into the atmosphere so that a hasardous atmosphere could be formed. with the requirements for industrial installatcon in nonhazardous areas laid down in Part 4 of the Code. A liquid capable of 2.12 Flash Point liquid gives 50 much vapour that this vapour. so as to form a ha. 1.I of the Code. gas or mist under an!’ foreseeable operating conditions. liquid and:or mist which can react continuously with atmospheric oxygen and which may therefore. 2.Adequate ventilation IS that which IS sufficient to prevent accumulations of significant quantities of gas-air mixtures in concentration over one-fourth of the lower flammable limit.1. These limits are called the ‘lower explosive limit’ (LEL) and the ‘upper explosive limit’ (UEL). sustain fire or explosion when such reaction is initiated by a suitable spark.T h e density of a gas or a vapour related to the density of air at the same prcssurc and the same temperature.3 Hazard -~ The presence. stored. forms an ignitable mixture and gives a momentary flash on application of a small pilot flame under specified conditions of test. 2. vapour. a flammable gas-air mixture.17 Unrestricted Release ~ A release (normal or abnormal) of flammable gas or vapour which cannot be diluted below the lower flammable limit. flame or hot surface.2 Flammable Gas-Air Mixture A mixture of flammable gas. 1 This Part of the Code covers recommendations for clcctrical installations in chemical industries.13 Boiling Point boiling at an ambient pressure ot lOI. the electrical installations in hazardous areas shall complv. 2. a halardous atmosphere is likely to occur.0 For the purpose of this Part.4 In any plant installation irrespective of size there may be numerous sources of ignition apart from those associated with electrical apparatus. under normal ambient pressures and tempet-atures. 2.. vapour. 2. 1. TERMINOLOGY 2.4 Hazardous (Flammable) Atmosphere .3 This Part does not apply to installations in hazardous areas having ignitable dusts and fibres.5 Hazardous Area ~ An area where during normal operations. This Part also doe:. The temperature at which the 2. unde’r atmospheric conditions.6 Ex losive (Flammable) Limits ~.9 Flammable I>iquid producing .7 Flammability Range -~ The range of gas or vapour mixtures with air between the flammable limits over which the gas mixtures are (i continuously explosive. which can be ignited by an electrical arc or spark.16 Restricted Release ~~ A release (normal or abnormal) of flammable gas or \‘apour which can be diluted below the lower flammable limit. of.Ga: or vapour . dispersed in air.20 Nonhazardous (Safe) Area . kPa.2 1 Electrical Apparatus for Hazardous Areas Electrical apparatus which will not ignite rhe *Methods of test for Ignition tempcraturc\. 2. 2. The ternpcrature of a liquid 2. and in which flammable gases and volatile liquids arc processed. SCOPE 1 .rardous atmosphere.19 Re’lative Density of Gas or Vapour -.18 A d e q u a t e Ventilation -. or the risk of presence.An atmosphere containing any flammable gas or vapour in a concentration capable of ignition.1 Flammable Material . vapour or mist with air. Precautions may be necessary to ensure safety but guidance on this aspect is outside the scope of this Part. 2.The extreme values P the concentration of a flammable gas or or vapour in air under atmospheric conditions.A flammable material is a gas. 2.2 In addition to the recommendations given in this Part. 2.10 Flammable Mist Droplets of flammable liquid. will form an ha/ardou~ atmosphere. 2. NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE . 2. 2. loaded.An area no part of which has within either a haT. is in gaseous state but which is handled in a liquid state under the applied conditions of pressure and ‘or temperature. 2 . when mixed with air. A adequately ventilated area could be naturally ventilated or artificially ventilated. in which after ignition.

25 Maximum Surface Temperature -The highest temperature attained under practical conditions of operation within the rating of the apparatus (and recognized overloads. b) The Chief Controllerate of Explosives. 2. Similarly consideration should be given to design and operation of process equipment to ensure that even when it is operating abnormally.1 In following the recommendations of this f’ire or explosion when the following three basic conditions are satisfied: a) Presence of sufficient quantity of a flammable gas or vapour.3 Testing . it is important that no modification to equipment or operating procedures are made without discussion with those responsible for the area classification.23 S a f e t y M e a s u r e s . Dhanbad. or b) eliminate the source of ignition.3 Where it is necessary to use electrical apparatus in an environment in which there may be a flammable atmosphere and it is not possible to: a) eliminate l i k e l i h o o d o f a f l a m m a b l e atmosphere occuring around the source of ignition. It is necessary to ensure that process equipment which has been subjected to maintenance shall be carefully checked during and after re-assembly to ensure that safety aspect or integrity of the original design has been maintained before it is returned to service. 3. Bihar. FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS 4. S T A T U T O R Y R E G U L A T I O N S 3.22 Ignition Capable Apparatus .in this regard are available at Central Mining Research Station (CMRS). its physical characteristics and the natural tendency of vapours to disperse in the a t m o s p h e r e s h a l l b e recognized. Nagpur (Maharashtra).26 Flame Arrester -~ A device for releasing gas from an enclosure in such a way that in case of an internal explosion there is no appreciable increase in internal pressure and the released gas will not ignite the surrounding flammable atmosphere. hot surfaces. 3.27 Inert Gas . 3. Flammable substances. PART 7 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN HAZARDOUS AREAS .4 In most practical situations where flammable materials are used it is difficult to ensure that a 245 Part. Bombay (M aharashtra). Once a plant has been classliied. Then . 2. and c) Occurrence of ignition.A gas which cannot be ignited when mixed. the various statutes and regulations in force in the country. Dhanbad (Bihar). applicable to the installation and use of electrical apparatus in hazardous areas shall be kept in view.measures should aim at reducing the likelihood of occurrence of either or both of the above factors SO that the likelihood of coincidence is SO small as to be negligible. if any.2 Attention is invited to the fact that the manufacture and use of equipment in hazardous areas is controlled by the statutory authorities listed below for the area of their jurisdiction: 4 The Directorate General of Mines Safety. 4.Apparatus which in normal operation produce sparks. Department of Explosives. 3. 4. associated therewith) by any part of any surface (internal or external) the exposure of which to a flammable atmosphere may involve a risk.Equipment to be installed in hazardous area have to be certified by a recognized testing authority.Measures taken to ensure that electrical apparatus cannot cause an explosion.Specific measures applied to electrical apparatus to prevent ignition of a surrounding flammable atmosphere by such apparatus.1 Flammable gases and vapours may cause a *Method of marking for identifying electrical equipment for explosive atmospheres. 4. and c) Vapour or flammable gas. b) Mixing of flammable gas or vapour with air or oxygen in the proportions required to produce an explosive or ignitable mixture.24 Type of Protection . 2.2 It is recommended that plants and installations in which flammable materials are handled or stored be so designed that the degree and extent of hazardous areas are kept to a minimum. 4. Facilities for testing .4 Marking of equipment shall confdrm to IS : 824l-l976*. In applying this principle to any potential hazard the quantity of the substance that might be liberated. the amount of flammable material released to the atmosphere is minimized in order to reduce the extent of the area made haz.surrounding flammable atmosphere in which it is used. and c) The Directorate General Factory Advice Services and Labour Institute. the potential release of which shall be considered in area classification of electrical installations (see 5) include the followings: a) Nonliquefiable gases. or a flame which can ignite a specific flammable mixture.ardous. 2. with a flammable gas or vapour in any concentration. Unauthorized action may invalidate the area classification. b) Liquefied petroleum gas. 2. 2.

NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE . and where movement may not. 5. Conversely where the likelihood of a flammable atmosphere is reduced.Where a substantial volume of gas or vapour is released into the atmosphere from. and may thereby ‘spread some distance horizontally and at a low level. a localised source. It does not deal with dusts since these material can be quiescant for long periods of time until they are disturbed into suspension by a suitable mechanism (ser also 1.2. It may also be difficult to ensure that the electrical apparatus will never give rise to a source of ignition. In the petroleum industry such a condition is rarely encountered except in confined spaces. 5. that is.1 Relative dertsirt* . the hazard is likely to occur at any time requiring fullest practicable application of measures Zone 0 Zone I An area in which a flammable atmosphere is likely to be present periodically or occasionally during normal operation Zone 2 An area in which Zone 2 is applicable to areas where hazard is unlikely and a flammable .2 Extent of Hazardous Area 5. therefore.1 The objective of the hazardous area classification is to ensure an adequately safe level of operation of electrical apparatus in flammable atmospheres using the fundamental concepts outlined in 4. Zone I or Zone 2. N OTE .Earlier. Some of these characteristics have a direct influence on the degree and extent of hazardous areas while the others affect the design of electrical equipment. 5. A vapour density greater than one.1 Area Classification .0 General 5. an area not classified as Zone 0.2. classified areas were called divisions. and f) ignition energy.The area classification is given in Table I. may be caused only by the atmospnere IS likely to occur in Hrghly improbable and simulnormal operation taneous occurrence of an arc or spark together with a and* if it does occur it will exist hazardous atmosphere arising out of failure of conditions for a short time of control.In process industries. Reliance is therefore placed on using electrical apparatus which has an extremely low likelihood of creating a source of ignition in situations where a flammable atmosphere has a high likelihood of occurring.1 Properties qf Flammable Materials 5. 5.3).1.nazardous atmosphere will never occur. 246 NOTE 2 -. b) flammable limits. such as the vapour space of closed process vessels. 5.By implication. e) ignition temperature. for the combustible indicates the gas or vapour will rise in a comparatively still atmosphere. a) relative density.1. a relative density less than one. lighter-than-air. d) volatility.be used. CLASSIFICATION OF HAZARDOUS AREAS 5. Any electrical apparatus must afford a degree of protection as near as practicable to absolute. any arc or spark would almost certainly lead to fire or explosion. c) flash point. that is. It presupposes only that any abnormal occurrence is rapidly dispersed so that possible contact with electrical apparatus is of minimum duratton Norc: I . or is present for long periods R EMARKS (3) This classification is applicable only where the harard will exist continuously. heavier-than-air.0.2 Flammable limits .1. In Zone I. the boundary between compounds which may be considered lighter-than-air is set at a relative vapour density of 0. be predicted without a detailed assessment. It is recommended to avoid installing electrical equipment in Zone 0 areas to the extent possible.2. This limit is chosen so as to provide a factor of safety for these compounds whose densities are close to that of air. NOTE 3 .This area classification deals only with risks due to combustible gases and vapours and combustible mists.75.0 A complete knowledge of the physical properties of the flammable*materials involved is essential for classifying a hazardous area. is deemed non-hazardous or safe and no special precautions are necessary. The latter effects will increase with compounds of greater relative vapour density. In Zone 0. Properties< of primary interest from an ignition standpoint are: TABLE I AREA CLASSIFICATION ZONES (1) DESCRIPTION (2) An area in which a flammable atmosphere is present continuously. The basis for hazardous area classification recognises the differing degrees of probability with which flammable atmospheres (explosive concentrations of combustible gas or vapour) may arise in installations in terms of both the frequency of occurrence and the probable duration of existence on each occasion.The lower the ‘lower flammable limit’ the larger may be the extent of the hazardous area. storage tanks or closed containers.2. indicates the gas or vapour will tend to sink. electrical apparatus which has an increased likelihood of becoming a source of ignition may .

8 Obstacles .Obstacles (for example.T h e e x t e n t o f hazardous area may increase with increasing rate of release of flammabie materiai. 5.A flammable 5. The lower the initial boiling point the greater the vapour pressure for a given liquid temperature and hence the greater concentration of vapour at the release source resulting in greater extent of hazardous area. they may limit the mo?ement of a cloud of an explosive gas atmosphere and thus may reduce the extent.2.2.2.ld ignition energy . there being little or no potential hazard at and below ground and greater potential hazard above ground.2. the release velocity increases above that which causes turbulent flow. Minor releases of flaimable material may be part of normal operation’ but leakage which entail repair or shut down are not part of normal operation.2. 5.3.2. the extent of hazardous area may be reduced. like those used for measurement and control of process variable.For lighter-than-air gases. baths.2. A very mild breeze may serve to extend the area in those directions to which vapours might normally be carried.2.Boiling point can be used for comparing the volatility of flammable liquids.2. 5.2.2. the extent of hazardous area may decrease if. Some examples of persistent risk points are as follows: a) Interior of pressure vessels and pipes containing gas-air mixtures.2. NOTE .Due to an improved ‘dilution for release of flammable gases.0 In cases where electrical apparatus. The extent may also be reduced by an improved arrangement of the ventilation system.2. a stronger breeze may so accelerate.Air currents may substantially alter the ‘outline of the limits of potential hazard.. N OTE .2. 5.2. the potential hazard decreases. 5. 5. It should be noted the liquid or vapour temperature after the release may be increased or decreased by the ambient temperature or other factors (for example. dykes.point .3 C o n c e n t r a t i o n of vapour .2.4 Volatility .2. On the other hand.[fecting Extent of Hazard 5.3 Internal Hazards 5.Elevated or depressed sources of release will alter the areas of potential hazard.For flammable liquids. 5.2.6 Air current .2. c) Free space immediately above open dipping.With an increased rate of ventilation. the concentration of the released vapour is related to the vapour pressure at the relevant maximum liquid temperature. *Classification for hazardous areas (other than mines) for electrical installations: Part I Areas having flammable gases and va pours (/irsr rr16ion). 5. etc. thoSe at ground are next most likely.Normal operation is the situation in which all plant equipment is operating within its design parameters. 247 PART 7 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN HAZARDOUS AREAS . seals relying on wetting by the fluid being pumped and other localized spillage points and of vapour exhausts and liquid outlets designed to discharge only on plant malfunction.3 F l a s h atmosphere cannot exist if the flash point is significantly above the relevant maximum temperature of the flammable liquid.1.2. 5.2. 5.1. the areas where potentially hazardous concentrations are most likely to be found are below ground. the opposite is true.7 Ventilation .0 In addition to the properties of tlammable materials involved. b) Free space above liquid level in tanks.2 Temperature ef process liquid .2. the equilibrium liquid temperature corresponding to saturated concentration at lower flammable limit should be compared with the relevant maximum liquid temperature. the dispersion of vapours that the extent of potentially hazardous area would be greatly reduced. The lower the flash point. . the more closely it approximates a flammable gas.2.2 Factors A.2. and as the height above ground increase. with constant release rate. vapours and/or mists in the air.hazardous area may increase with increasing temperature of process liquid provided the temperature is above the flash point. as certain halogenatcd hydrocarbons) do not possess a flash point although they are capable of producing a flammable atmosphere: in these cases. are connected directly to gas or a liquid process equipment.1. this may introduce additional source of internal and/or external release and consequently influence the external area classification. 5. 5. walls) may impede the ventilation and thus may enlarge the extent.4 Rate sf release. NOTE .Ignition temperature and ignition energy of a flammable gas or vapour are taken into account in the design of electrical apparatus for hazardous areas so that these dd not present an ignition risk. Examples of occasional risk points are the immediate vicinity of mechanical glands.5 Ignition temperature ar.Some liquids (such. and 4 Thi immediate vicinity of vapour exhausts and liquid outlets where these are designed to discharge as part of normal plant function.5 Release velocity -.The extent of a . following factors need to be considered for determining the degree and extent of hazardous areas while applying the guidelines given in IS : 5572 (Part I)-l978* 5. The rhore volatile a liquid and the lower its flash point.2.2.be the extent of the hazardous area. a hot surface). tk larger may.1 Risk points .9 For vapours released at or near ground level. However.

Specific guidelines for installations in hazardous locations are given in Appendix E. 248 NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE . Where adequate protection cannot be ensured. however. c) Storage tanks: i) Floating roof.1 Mechanical Slrength All apparatus shall be installed with due regard to the possibility of external mechanical damage.3 Portable and transportable apparatus shall be grounded with one of the cores of flexible cable for power supply.5.2 When apparatus in which the internal hazards arc comparable to Zone 2 is installed in a safe area’ or in Zone 2. provided that there is no normal release and that an abnormal release would be very infrequent and of a relatively short duration. cd. The earth continuity conductor and the metallic screen wherever provided for the flexible cable should be bonded to the appropriate metal-work of the apparatus and to earthing pin of the plug. because no oxygen is present. shall be used.3. Interconnection system with other buried metal scrviccs and/or earth terminations for equipment grounding for the purpose of equalizing the potential distribution in the ground should preferably be made below ground.2. the area classification would determine the actual hazard. *Specification for electrical equipment with type of protection ‘n’.anically and electrically by using adequate metallic fitting. 5 . 2 . the internal hazards determine the actual hazard condition. all utility and process pipelines should be bonded to a common conductor by means of earth bars or pipe clamps and connected to the earthing system at a point where the pipelines enter or leave the hazardous area except where conflicting with the requirements of cathodic protection. 5. This applies also when the abnormal release (when occurring) would be restricted.2.1. of a restricted normal release the internal hazards are comparable to those in a safe area.2.1 The hazards created inside the electrical apparatus by an internal release of flammable gas or vapour may be compared to the external area classification as follows: a ) Where pressurization with inert gas is appli- 6. 5. location. 6. Grounding conductors which shall not reach a hazardously high temperature due to the anticipated maximum earthfault current flowing. the internal hazards are comparable to the external hazards in Zone 2.rr rc~~Y. but when the same apparatus is installed in Zone I or Zone 0 the external hazards determine the actual hazard condition. 4 E. 6.2. and the portions of conductor which are likely to be corroded or damaged shall be well protected.2. SPECIFIC GUIDELINES FOR ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN HAZARDOUS AREAS 6. b) Where dilution with air is applied in case c) In all other types of protection.1 Earthing shall be in accordance with Part I /Set I2 of the Code.2. 6.1. a) Open-air situations (freely ventilated process area): i) Source of hazard located near ground level.1.1’ Zonrs of Ha:ard 5.2 Detailed guidelines.4. the abnormal release would be unrestricted. The connection between metal part to be grounded and the grounding conductor shall be made secure mech. for example.5 Earthing and bonding qf pipelines and pipe-racks ~ Unless adequately connected to earth elsewhere.2 Protection against lightning shall be provided in accordance with Part I /Set 15 of the Code. 6. b) Enclosed premises and surrounding area (process area with restricted ventilation).4 Efficient bonding should be installed where protection against stray currents or electrostatic charges is necessary.1.tion).1 General 6. and ii) Fixed roof tank with vent.2. on the above situations can be had from IS : 5572 (Part I)-1978*. the internal releases cannot create a flammable gas atmosphere.1 ‘The treatment of hazardous area.2.1.3. reference should be made to the impact t e s t r e q u i r e m e n t s a c c o r d i n g t o I S : 82b91976* for the apparatus before deciding on any additional measures such as the provision of guards for transparent parts. by. *<‘L\sification of hazardous areas (other than mines) for clcctrii‘al installations: Part I Areas having flammable gases a n d vapours (/ir.rtrn[ o. In addition. from the point of view of determining the extent of hazardous zones (and their classification) around the source of halard differ in the following broad situations: 6. When an apparatus in vvhich the internal hazards arc comparable to Zone I is insta!led in a Zone 0 hazardous area. When. and ii) Source of hazard above ground level. it is recommended that steel pipe racks in the process units and off-site areas should be earthed at every 25 m.2 Earthing and Bonding 6.1.4. the internal hazards are comparable to the hazards in Zone 0 and the abnormal relcasc is not relevant. When there is a normal release. The earthing conductors shall be sufficiently strong and thick.2.1. the internal hazards are comparable to the external hazards in Zone 2.

shall be a switch which breaks all poles.5.1 Screwed steel conduit systems are satisfactory. For (b) the following types of cables may be used in principle: 1) Lead-sheathed and armoured cable.1.1. 6.33 Protection and control apparatus shall be normally located in a non-hazardous area.2 Wiring Installation 6.1 It is essential that the severity and duration of faults internal or external to the electrical apparatus be limited by external means to values that can bc sustained by the apparatus without disruptive effect. 2) Plastics or rubber-sheathed steel screen protected or armoured cable. with advantage. may. E q u i p m e n t s h o u l d b e examined for mechanical faults. 6.2. The sheath of a metal-sheathed cable should not be used as the neutral conductor.1. 6. or both should be included in the protection of the portable and transportable apparatus. This applies equallv to single ptiase subcircuits. they should be frequently inspected. 6. intervals.2.1. with an outer protective sheath.1. 1 . 6. Where its installation in a potentially hazardous area cannot be avoided. 6.2 All circuits and apparatus in hazardous areas shall be provided with means to ensure disconnection quickly in the event of excessive overloads. in addition to’ overload/overcurrent and short-circuit protection. For intrinsically safe circuits.1.2. with sheath overall. However. cracked glasses.1.3 When the means of isolation is not immediately adjacent to the associated ap’paratus. an automatic earth-fault alarming device may be considered adequate. deterioration of cement.300 mm of copper or equivalent size of conductor in the case of aluminium conductors as specified in relevant Indian Standard. 6. and 5) Braided screen-protected flexible cables. 6. The diameter of each strand of the conductor shall be not less than 0. and which is provided with an appropriate type of protection against explosive hazards.for many situations but should not be 249 electrical equipment for hazardous atmospheres are effective unless the apparatus is operated within the limits indicated by its nameplate marking and is properly maintained according to the recommendations of appropriate Indian Standards. including the neutral.1. the neutral being isolated by a removable link. when located in a hazardous area. the switch shall break all poles.1 None of the protection techniques for 6.3. earth-leakage protection or earth monitoring. some protection will have to be afforded to such conductors primarily to prevent contact between conductors of intrinsically safe circuits and those of any other system.4 Isolarion 6 .1. such apparatus shou. 4) Mineral insulated metal sheathed cable. solid drawn or seamless conduits. In case of distribution systems with isolated neutral.1.1. Flexible cables are a potential source of hazard. be adopted as’ the earth-monitoring device.4.ld be provided with the appropriate type of protection.6. 1 All electrical circuits should be provided with an effective means of complete circuit isolation. including the neutral. together with the portable apparatus.4 Apart from sen-powered apparatus and handlamps. When the means of isolation is located in a non-hazardous area. the conductors should be protected against mechanical damage (see 6.4. Requirements tor the installation of general power systems’may not apply to the installation of apparatus and systems with type of protection ‘i’ (intrinsic safety). Unarmoured lead-covered cable is not acceptable.5 Operation and Maintenance 6. and b) cables which are otherwise suitably protected against mechanical damage. to avoid the possibility of arcing occurring at the point of contact or invasion of the intrinsically safe circuits by current arising from contact or electrostatic or electromagnetic induction. In addition.1.1. 4 . internal shortcircuit or earth-fault conditions.0 General.2 Care shall be taken when inspecting equipment in hazardous areas.5).5. slackened conduit joints and corrosion. there is normally no need to have special enclosures for the conductors.3 Automcrli” Ekclricai Proreclion 6.1 Factors Ajfecling Choice of Wiring Svsrem 6. circuits shall be made dead before removing covers. PART 7 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN HAZARDOUS AREAS . The means of isolation shall be capable of being locked in the ‘OFF’ position. effective provision should be made to prevent the restoration of supply to the apparatus while the risk of exposure of line conductors to a flammable gas-air mixture continues.2 The means of isolation. overcurrent. Such means of isolation should be provided for each item of electrical apparatus and/or each subcircuit. Electrical tests should be carried out at fixed. 3) Cables enclosed in a seamless aluminium sheath with or without armour. 6. Protection *of the circulating-current type which automatically cuts off the supply in the event of the earth continuity conductor becoming disconnected.Types of wiring and systems which may be used for installation in hazardous areas are: a) cables drawn into screwed.3.2.3.

E<l RIC‘At.2. vapours or liquids from one ar-ca to another. The cable u s e d t o c o n n e c t t h e o\.5 In Zone 0 areas only intrinsically hal’c circuits shall be installed and its uhe shall be kept to an unavoidable minimum.u~i bhcrc vibration might cause fracture or loosening of joints and where excessive stress may be imposed as a result of its rigidity or where corrosion or excessive internal condensation of moisture is likely to occm.1. it should be terminated outside the hazardous area and be fitted at or near the terminal pole with an effective surge-protection apparatus.2 Lead-sheathed and armoured cables arc suitable for underground installation. either d e l i b e r a t e o r accidental. Alternatively cable glands may be used for this purpose.1. pipes or trenches’ are used to accommodate cables.3 Where practicable. the hole pro\.2. vapours or liquids in trenches.ided for them should be made good with cement or similar incombustible material to the full thickness of the floor. the armouring.s area to another.or above ground or underground installation. complying with IS : 15S4 (Part I)-l976* with an cxt ruded plastic outer sheath may be used l.2.3 is unavoidable. and an) 250 . Such precautions may involve the sealing of trunking.2. wall.2. and the adequate ventilation or sand filling of trenches. 6. 6. Where the overhead line supplying a building f o r m i n g : I hazardous area is supported by the building.1 Correctly designed terminations complete with armour clamp\ shall be prokidcd for armoured cable\. c-ODE 6. 6. Conduit should not be used if it is likelv to be subjected to vibration.4 Where. the passage of any current will not give rise to incendive sparking or bring about a tedperature rise approaching the ignition temperature of the combustible gas.2. traverse 3 hazardous area in passing front one non-ha/ardou..2. l-he a r m o u r i n g s h o u l d b e carried into the clamps to pro\idc m e c h a n i c a l support to the cable and to ensure electrical continuity.2. plastic-insulated and armoured tclcphonc cables may be used. the earth electrodes for the surge-protection apparatus on the overhead line may be used for earthing the c a b l e s h e a t h o r taxing and for any lightning NATIONAL El. Alternatively. Leads h e a t h e d c a b l e s h o u l d be usal Hhcrc spillages may affect the intcgriti of the cable and or 3110~ migration of the liqujd through rhc c a b l e .3 PVC-insulated and armoured cable. c) l-he w i r i n g s h a l l b e \o made as to avoid electromagnetic or clcctro5tatic i n d u c t i o n from other cil-cuit(s). ducts and pipes. 6. 1 . conduit or cable\. 6. a n d t h e c o n n e c t i n g cable to the installation consequently is short.2 Where circuit:.2.junction of the cable with the installation and bonded to the earthing lead of any lightning protective system associated with the hazardous area. e q u i p m e n t o r pipework u s e d f o r c a r r y i n g combustible gases. 6. 6 . b) The wiring shall be so madc. Wiring\ of circuits which have been approved as intrlnsically safe may follow’ the requirements of generaI electrical wiring except that the following requirement\ shall -be obserced: a) The conditions of use laid down on the test certificate issued by the approving authorit) shall be observed. and e) A l u m i n i u m :trmouI-ed or sheathed cable shall not be used in Zone 0 areas.as to avoid contact with other circuits.6 Where trunking. the Iced sh(.erhead line with the installation in the hazardous area should comply with the recommendations for wiring systems in ha/ardous areas. conduit or sheathing of the cable should’ be bonded to the equipment or pipework in such a manner and at such intervals as to ensure that under the worst fault conditions. \houId bs a v o i d e d between apparatus. in the case of cable the insulation of the sheath may be sufficient to prevent danger. partition or ceiling. precautions should be taken to prevent the passage of combustible gases.Vhere cables or conduit pass through a f l o o r .2. the uiring in the hazardous arca should c o m p l y w i t h the rc‘quirt’mcntc of thih htandald. vapours or liquids. contact between components referred to in 6.2. 6. duets. partition or ceding.2. a common electrode may be used for this independent earth and for the lightning-protective system of the installation.2. Where such cable is Icad covcrcd and armoured.2. 6. SteelHire armour is: preferred for underground use.ith should bc plumbed or m e c h a n i c a l l y g r i p p e d a n d waled a n d t h e armouring should be carried O\CI the lcad joint. owing to particular circumstances.2. The casing. contact. 6. 50 that no space remains around the cable through which combustible gas liquid or vapour might spread. 2 . armouiing or sheathing and armouring should be electrically continuous and the end adjacent to the point of connection with the overhead line should be bonded to the earth electrode of the overhead line. If convenient. vapour or liquid which may be present.7 Where an overhead supply line is used for either power or telecommunication circuits.2. the casing or sheathing should be independently earthed as near as possible to the .2. In addition.mmunication c i r c u i t s . wall.5 ‘.2.1.2. 4 F o r telecc. and to prevent the collection of combustible gases. d) T h e w i r i n g \hiill be adequateI! p r o t e c t e d against mechanicai damage.

9 Unused cable entries in electrical apparatus should be closed with plugs suitable for the type of protection used. an additional approved seal or barrier shall be provided with an adequate drain between the seals in such a manner that leaks would be obvious.8 All joints in an assembly of conduit should be painted aftet assembly with moistureresisting paint to inhibit .3 The lengths of the screwed part of any conduit should be in accordance with the requirements of IS : 2148-1968:.10 Seals shall be provided within 450 mm where conduit run is terminated on the apparatus. in addition.23.3 Laying qf Conduits 6. cleated or otherwise attached to suitable supports which provide adequate mechanical protection. in concrete trenches. screwed and galvanized. coupling.11 Metal conduit containing no unions. Where discontinuities cannot be avoided. should be fitted with a stopper box at each point of connection with apparatus or fittings. or cable sheaths and armour.1 Cable systems include cables laid above ground or cables laid underground directly buried. 6.2. irrespective of size. The use of running couplings is not recommended but where it is impracticable to avoid their use.2. where practicable.2. 6. and that the total resistance of the earth-fault current path. measured from any point in the installation. that is.2. a stopper or sealing box or appropriate sealing device shall be inserted on the side remote from the hazardous area. 6.3. be provided with locknuts.4 Laving qf Cables 6. 6.3.2.23.3.9 Where a run of conduit.5 All screwed joints should be pulled up tight and should. in a run of conduit.3. etc. In view of the operating be uninterrupted. 6.3 All cables shall be provided with adequate mechanical protection. 6. PART 7 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS TN HAZARDOLIS AREAS . 6.protective system associated with the hazardous area.2.2. passes from a hazardous area to a nonhazardous area.2. independent of external connections. other than those of the inspection type. Cables shall be adequately supported throughout their length.2 Elbows of the solid type may be used for the immediate connection of conduit to apparatus. 6.2.7 Elbows or tees. :Specification for flameproof enclosures of electrical apparatus (/irsf revision). 6. NOTE -. 6. care being taken to avoid excessive pressure when clamp supports are used. There shall be no union. direct or indirect.13 Where there is a probability that any vapour or moisture in the air may he condensed into liquid within the conduit runs. 6.10 Where cable terminals are used in apparatus and accessories with the type of protection ‘e’ or ‘n’they shall be fixed in position so as to ensure maintenance of the creepage and clearance distances as specified in IS : 638l-1972* and IS : 8289-1976t. it is necessary to employ a joint other than a screwed coupler.3.6 Surface-mounted conduit should be supported by spacing saddles.2. box or fitting in the conduit between the sealing fittings and point at which the conduit leaves the hazardous locations. Rising cab!es should be clipped. having an exiernal diameter of more than 25 mm. 6.2.2.3. unless a self-contained’ assembly. is such as to prevent a dangerous rise of temperature or voltage from the passage of fault current. boxes or fittings that passes through a hazardous location with no fittings less than 300 mm beyond each boundary may not be sealed if the termination points of the unbroken conduit are in non-hazardous locations. 6. The types of the cable for use in hazardous areas shall be as specified in this Section. proper means shall be provided to prevent accumulation of or to permit drainage of such liquid periodically. that depend upon a single seal diaphram or tube to prevent process fluids from entering the electrical conduit system.2. attention is drawn to the necessity of ensuring that the resistance of all joints.It is important to ensure efficient earthing and bonding in a flameproof installation.3.3. conditions associated. the apparatus used for.2. boxes or sealing fittings. 251 *Specification for construction and testing of electrical apparatus with ty e of protection ‘e’.4 Where.4.the development of rust. with the use of flameproof apparatus. is such as to ensure reliable operation of the protection devices in all seasons. free from intermediate joints.4. continuous and therefore. either during installation or subsequently. factorymade assemblies should be used and the running coupling should be secured by locknuts.2. should maintain the type of protection used.2 Cable runs should.2. 6. Conduit.3.2. and all inspection fittings should be of the fiameproof type. 6. 6. has been certified.12 For process pumps. canned 6. couplings.3.2. connections for instruments. Horizontal cables may be carried on supports. certified unions approved for flame-proof purposes should be used.1 Conduits shall be solid-drawn or seamless. 6. or in cable ducts.2. including those in or hetwan flameproof enclosures and conduit. cable trays or through protective troughs or tubes.2.3.8 The wiring entry to the apparatus.4.2. should not be used except for the immediate connection of conduit to apparatus. +Specification. interconnection should be provided with the type of protection appropriate to the zone. for electrical equipment with type of protection ‘n’.2. 6.

10 Cable fittings for mineral insulated cables shall be suitable for use with the appropriate apparatus to which they are to be attached. and d) Plastic insulated cables equivalent to ordi. pipes or a r c u s e d t o accommodate cables.c ntItJ So1~Xrl.2. surge suppression devices should be fitted.4. should be provided at the points of entry of the flexible cable to the apparatus and plug.2 Datlgers Jwm e.2.7. Lapours or liquids in trenches.rtrancous c~nndwri~~e purrs It is impracticable to cover all possible systems in this case but the basic principles on which safety depends are the limitation of earth c u r r e n t s ( m a g n i t u d e a n d potentials on equalizing conductors).6.v 6. if ncccssary.2 Plugs and sockets shall be of the type that provides for connections to the earthing conductor of the tlexible cables.2. any contact with bare live parts other than intrinsically safe parts shall be prevented.6 Where trunking. vertical runs should be avoided. ducts. be provided with adequate means to prevent the transmission of flammable material into the non-hazardous area co:isidcration should also bc given to the treatment of cables against fire transmission.4. 6 .2.precent t h e passage of combustible gases. 6. the lead sheath should be plumbed or mechanically gripped and sealed and the armouring should be carried over the lead joint.4. should not be 252 NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE . b 6.2.2. trenches 6. precautions s h o u l d b c t a k e n t o ’ . 6 . 6.2. Use of screened cables are also permitted. thq s h o u l d b e s u i t a b l y explosionprotcctcd.9 Cable glands.2. nary tough rubber sheathed tlcxible cables. cl H e a v y t o u g h r u b b e r s h e a t h e d flexible cables. unless sheathed with a protective covering.2.2. 1 2 W h e r e t h e r e i s r i s k o f mineralinsulated cables being exposed to excessive v o l t a g e s s u c h a s i n d u c t i v e surges. 7 Protet. means should be provided to prevent sharp bending of the cable at both points of entry. 4 . 1 1 W h c r c elcctrol!. 6. In certain cases a warning label may be sufficient. Fittings should bc arranged for scaling the cable i n s u l a t i o n a n d b e pro\. Where such cables are load covered and armoured. 6. Where surge supprccsion devices are installed in hazardous areas. 2 . 2 . Lapours or liquids from one area to another. 6.tive Spark ing M e a s u r e s .4. inserted it shall make connection before or at the same time as the main contact arc made.2.f~om Datlgcrol:s 6.4. b) Ordinaq t o u g h pol!chloroprcnc shcathcd flexible cables.13 Aluminium sheathed cables. ducts and popes and the adequate ventilation or \and filling of trenches. 6.4. 6. 6.2. and particularly where such cables ma)’ be exposed to high temperature. Congideration should be giLen to the avoidance of frictignal contact N ith such cables.8’ Correctly designed complete with armour clamps shall be provided for armourcd cables.idcd w i t h m e a n s f o r ensuring adequate earth continuity. where used. 6 .5 The passage of cables from a hiTardous area to a non-hazardous area should. In addition. it should be kept clear of such surface or covered with a protective sheath. Those shall be of interlocked switch t)pc.7 Cables capable of tr-ansmitting gases or vapours through the core shall be sealed in the hazardous location in such a manner as to prevent passage of gases or vapours into a non-hazardous location. 6.4. preference should be given to non-draining cables.vposed and e. 4 .2.insulated cable may result from contact with walls or other surfaces to which the cable is attached.6.5 Pl1r. terminations 6. shall be flameproof type for flameproof enclosure and double-compre\sion type for enclosure having type of protection other than flameproof.1 Flexible cable of the types specified below may be used for connection between a fixed source of supply and the portable transportable apparatus through flatieproof plugs and sockets: a) Ordinaq t o u g h r u b b e r sheathed tlcxible cables.q. installed in contact with Lvalls o r f l o o r .. Such precautions may involve the scaling of trunking.2 An effective cable clamping device so designed as not to damage the insulation of the flexible cable. the armouring should be carried into the clamps to provide mechanicai support to the cable and to ensure electrical continuity.1 Plugs and sockets for installation in Zone 2 areas shall bc flameproof type. and to prc\ent the collection of combustible ga\es.tic c o r r o s i o n o f c o p p e r sheath of mineral . I he contacts of grounding conductor shall be mechanically and electrically of at least the same quality as the main contacts and when the plug i:. Where this requirement is not met by construction other precautions shall be taken.2.4.2. In the case of other types of paper-insulated armoured cables.5.1 Dangers jirom li\?e parts --. 2 .7.In order to avoid the formation of sparks liable to ignite the explosive gas atmosphere.6.5.4 Where paper-insulated armoured cables are used.

A power system of type TN-C (having combined neutral and protective functions in a single conductor throughout the system) is not allowed in hazardous areas. The conductance between metallic parts of structures ‘shall correspond to a cross section of at least IO mm’ of copper. 6.3.1. Where gases of different degrees of hazard exist in the same area. Enclosures need not be separately connected to the equipotential bonding system if they are secured to and are in metallic contact with structural parts or piping which are connected to the equipotential bonding system.2. or combined in a single conductor. an insulation monitoring device should be used to indicate the First earth fault. cl For an IT power system (neutral isolated from earth or earthed through impedance). 6.Guidance on permissible power systems is given below: a) If a Dower svstem with an earthed neutral is used: the tipi TN-S system with separate neutral (N) and protective conductor (PE) throughout the system is preferred.4 Cathodically protected metallic parts -.. For additional information.2 When the electrical apparatus does not have an internal release of flammable material.2. 6.To avoid dangerous sparking between metallic parts of structures. These construction requirements should ensure that the protection against explosion is not reduced when the apparatus is used in the specified conditions of service. However there are certain pieces of tiqui’pment. either by the monitoring device or by a residual current operated device. The bonding system may include normal protective conductors.3 Potential equalization . the actual hazard is a combination of the external and internal hazards and both must be taken into account when selecting an adequate type o protection.3 When the electrical apparatus has an internal release of flammable material.3.3.7. potential equaiization is always required for installations in Zone 0 and Zone I areas and may be necessary for installations in Zone 2 areas..1. when insulated flanges in connecting pipelines are used.5 The selected electrical apparatus shall be adequat@ly protected against corrosive and solvent agencies. 6. steel wire armouring and metallic parts of structures but shall not include neutral conductors. No cathodic protection shall be provided for metallic parts in Zone 0 unless they are specially designed for this application. 6. NATE-Potential equalization between vehicles and fixed installations may require special metins. the type of protection appropriate for the highest degree of hazards shall be applicable. conduits.1 General 6. metal cable sheaths.7. all exposed and extraneous conductive parts shall be connected to the main or supplementary equipotential bonding system.1 The selection of electrical apparatus for explosive gas atmospheres is based on the general principle that the likelihood of the simultaneous presence of a hazardous atmosphere and a source of ignition is reduced. for example. The type TT power system is not permitted in Zone 0. located in hazardous areas are live extraneous conductive parts which shall be considered potentially dangerous (especially if equipped with the impressed current m&hod) despite their low negative potential.1. which are not intended to be connected to the equipotential bonding system. 6. The neutral and the protective conductor shall not be connected together.1. Instantaneous earth fault protection shall be installed. However equipment in Zone 0 shall be disconnected instantaneously in case of the first earth fault.3.3 Selection of Equipment 6. the classification of the hazardous area surrounding the electrical equipment decide the selection of an adequate type of protection.4 The selected appartus will normally have a recognized type of protection and should also be selected for the appropriate temperature class and the appropriate apparatus group applicable. 6.7.3.1. in a hazardous area. Therefore. for example some intrinsically safe apparatus. and against water ingress and thermal and mechanical stresses as determined by the environmental conditions. fault protection devices for certain applications in Zone I.2. se@ relevant Indian Standards. 6. PART 7 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN HAZARDOUS AREAS . it shall be protected with a residual current device even if it is a safety extra-low voltage circuit (below 50 V).Cathodically protected metallic parts b) If a type IT power system (separate earths for power system and exposed conductive parts) is used in Zone I. NoTt -~ It may also be necessary to provide instantaneous earth.Account should be taken of the effects due to strong electromagnetic radiation.1. 6. to an acceptable low level.6 Particular consideration shall be given to the location of apparatus which incorporates aluminium or light alloys in the construction of its 253 4 For all power system installed in Zone 0 irrespective of the voltages due attention should be paid to the limitation of earth fault currents in magnitude and duration.3.5 Electromagnetic radiation .3.

to b e p r e s e n t are compatible with the following characteristics of the apparatus: a ) The apparatus grouping (where this is applicable). For apparatus with other types of explosion protection. No’rE 2 It should.3.1.1 of IS : 2148-1981-q.3). internal surfaces are equally important if the explosive gas air mixture has access to them c) The characteristics of the gas or vapour involved in relation to (see 6. preparation for spares and repairing materials and the extent of allowable interruption of power supply during maintenance work.3).For the purpose of flameproof enclosures and intrinsic safety. b) l’hc temperature classification.3 Temperature classes -.1. 6..1. gases and vapours have been classified according to the groups or subgroups of apparatus required for use in the particular gas or vapour *Classification of maximum surface temperatures of electrical equipment for use in explosive atmospheres.Besides the danger 6f explosion caused by an electric spark or arc. and c) Chemical compatibility. the value will be clearly marked on the apparatus. These have been outlined in IS : 55711979* reference to which should be made (see a/so 5. 3 and 4 as applicable.3. 6. that is--the lone (see 6.1. the surface to be considered is the external surface.1. therefore.3.2. This will permit determination of the. the guidance provided in Table 2 shall be followed in the selection of equipment for hazardous rlreas.8 It is advisable that the selection of made after full electrical apparatus be considerations hake been given not only to the initial cost of installation but also to the expected life and expenses for operation and maintenance of the apparatus.2.3. For special applications.3.2.1 In order that electrical apparatus may be selected for use in hazardous area.3.1).7 As electrical apparatus for flammable special safety require gas atmospheres maintenance after they are installed.tion P..9 Unless otherwise specified for a particular equipment. However.2 Sc~kcrion of’ t. I) Ignition current or minimum ignition e n e r g y in the case of installations of intrinsically safe apparatus.10 The necessity for equipment with flameproof. or the lowest values of ignition temperature if more than one combustible material is present. 6.The selection d t)‘pc of protection of the equipment for different lone of hazardous areas shall be made an accordance with Tables 2. 6. any equipment which in the opinion of the authorized inspector affords a degree of safety not less than that afforded by the equipment specified may be accepted as an alternative. Flammable gases and vapours fall into fairly well-defined groups when classified with reference to their ignition temperature. To simplify the manufacture of apparatus.otdrrrt~ 6. The maximum surface temperature of any unprotected surface of electrical equipment should not exceed the ignition temperature of the gas or vapour.2. Similarly electrical apparatus which is designed so that it may be used with certain fammable materials in a particular lone ma!’ be used with flammable materials in /one of lesser risk Hithout restriction provided it is determined that the flammable materials likeI!. lesser sub. the permitted maximum surface temperature have been classified in’ IS : 8239-1976* a!. enclosures or other enclosures may sometimes be eliminated by the adoption of special design. NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 234 . or 2) Safe gap data in the case of installations for flameproof enclosures_ Apparatus certified to the constructional and design requirements for a particular group may also be used with compounds of lesser risk and *Guide for selection of electrical equipment of halardous areas tSpecilication for flameproof enclosures for electrical apparatus. the maximum surface temperture may be based on a reference ambient temperature other than 40°C is used. 3 . follows: a) The classification of the area.enclosure. there is also a danger of ignition at a hot surface exposed to a flammable atmosphere.3. 6.3.3. again to consideration of temperature classification and chemical compatibility. 2 Selec. temperature classification required for the apparatus. 6. 6 .ject group. such as pressurized equipment.~pc of protection -. 6. b) The ignition temperature of the gas or vapour involved.2.3.2.4 Apparafus groups . the selection of electrical apparatus shall be made with full considerations to the facility and frequency of inspection and maintenance. or the upper-limit temperature for any unprotected surface according to IS : 8239-1976 (WC 6. the following information is necessary: which would be allocated therefore to J.be noted that for apparatus with type of protection ‘d’ flameproof enclosure. N OTE I --A‘ reference ambient temperature of 40°C is normally assumed when apparatus is designed to operate within one of the temperature classes indicated above.2.

or with any combination of two faults applied with a specified safety factor for current and ior.WWJ~I~ rnision).3. or with any single fault applied. or with a smgle fault. with a specified safety factor for current and/or voltage. of causing ignition of a prescribed gas or vapour. ZSpecification for presburi7ed enclosures of electrical appartus for use in explosive: Part I Pressurized enclosure with no internal source of flammable gas or vapour (firsr re\*itrt~). voltage. a) Pressurization with air and alarm in case of less of air pressure [Ex-p( I)] b) Pressurization with air and automatic switching off from electric supply in case of loss of air pressure [Ex-p(2)] c) Pressurization with inert gas and alarm in case of loss of inert gas pressure [Ex-p(3)] d) Pressurization with inert gas and automatic switching off from electric supply in case of less of inert gas pressure [Ex-p(4)] e) Dilution with air and alarm in case of loss of air supply [Ex-p(S)] f) Dilution with air and automatic switching off from electric supply in case of loss of air supply c) Pressurized enclosure-Type of protection ‘p’ [Ex-P(6)] *Intrinsically safe electrical apparatus and circuits (firs/ rethion). It is placed in one of the following categories: a) CU/CKWI. doors are properly secured. tspecification for flameproof enclosures of electrical apparatus (. an internal explosion of the flammable gas or vapour which may enter it or which may originate inslde the enclosure. (Ex-i. without suffering damage and without communicating the internal flammation to the external flammable gas %r vapour for which it is designed. intrinsically safe electrical apparatus catagories ia and ih and associated circuits should be employed Type of protection ‘i’. Zone I a) Type of protection adequate for Zone 0.).) Apparatus in this category is incapable of causing ignition in normal operation. DESCRIPTION (3) lnrrrnsic Sq/er_v (Ex-i) (see IS : 5780-1980*) A circuit or part of a circuit is intrinsically safe when any spark or thermal effect produced normally (that is. by breaking or closing the circuit) or accidentally (for example by shortcircuit or earth fault) is incapable.1 9 und 6 . when this is not practicable. This type of protection has following categories (for choice see Table 3). 2 ) Zi)xE (1) TYPF OF PROTCCTION (2) No electrical equipment should be allowed. b) Flameproof equipment--Type of protection ‘d’ Flammproq/ Enclosure (Ex-d) An enclosure for electrical apparatus that will withstand when the covers or other accL%!. through any joints or structural openings in the enclosure (WC IS : 2148-1981. 3 . Zone 0 Apparatus in this category is incapable of causing Ignition in normal operation. An intrinsically safe apparatus is one in which all electrical circuits are intrinpically safe. under prescribed test conditions. PTessL~ri:ed f?nnc/osure ( Ex-p) [see IS : 7389 (Part I)-197621 An enclosure for electrical apparatus in which the entry of flammable gas or vapour is prevented by maintaining the air (or other nonflammable gas) within the enclosure at a pressure above that of the external atmosphere.TABLE 2 TYPES OF PROTECTION FOR DIFFERENT HAZARDOUS AREAS ((‘lousrs 6. 2 . (Conrinued) PART 7 E:LE(‘TRICAL I N S T A L L A T I O N S I N HA%ARDOI:S AREAS 255 .

01 PROTFL’llOh (2) d) Sand filled apparatus~-Type protection ‘q’ of Surrd-/i/M U/I/XI~&LC\ (Fx-q) (. It may be that a combination of several types of protection is incorporated within one piece of apparatus. \o a\ to gl\c InctcCl\i+ securlt! aga~nht the po\\lhlllt! r11 C\CCI\I\C temperature5 and the occurrcncc 01 ate\ or \parh\ in electrical apparatur uhlch di>ci !~ot p r o d u c e arc\ 01 \parks i n norm31 WI\ ~LC A m e t h o d oI protection in u htc.UIC\ additional to those a d o p t e d in ordinal! !ndu\trlal practice a r e applltd. construction and testing of electrical apparatus with type of protection ‘e’.H hich the apparatus ha\ been designed. flameproof enclosures of electrical apparatus (ser. the apparatus with type of protection ‘e’ and ‘n’ should be used with enclosures providing at least the following degree of protection: a) IP 55 where there are uninsulated conducting parts mternally.n in \\hlch IIIC. oil-immersed eiect. e) Oil immersed apparatus Type of protection ‘0’ fJ Such other apparatus as mav he rpeclflcall> c e r t i f i e d o r as:iessed for use in Zone I arear\. Norb 3 ~~~ Oil-immersed apparatus may bC used only m case its security will’pot apparatus.~cl with the Inflammable g a s o r \apour. Norr. ‘n’ and where applicable. d) Hermetically sea!ed apparatus protection ‘s’ (see Note I) 1 ypc 01 Nort I Special protection category IS reserved for those types of protrctlon that cannot be classilied as belonging wholly to any one of the above types. *Specification tSpccification :Speclflcation @Specification .SCJ/<. 2 For outdoor installation.ond revision). intrinsically sale electrical apparatus and circuits. 256 NAtIONAt ELECT?fICAL C O D E . rvpe of protectmn 6s’ Zone 2 a) Tlpe of protection applicable for Zone 0 or Zone I. electrical equipment with type of protection ‘n’. n o a r c occur\ Nithin the outer cxplosi\r atmosphcrc either h! the transmi\+lon o f f l a m e o r h! the overheating of the fail\ of the cnclo\ure.g according to IS : 5780-1979 ij and IS : 214% 19818) respectively.I\.h the cquipmellt ]\I 40 de\lpned and con\tructcd t h a t t h e cutcrnal intlammable ga\e\ or Lapour\ cann~>t e n t e r t h e cnclo\ure and hence prc\ent\ . and b) IP 44 for insulated parts. be impaired by tilting or vibration of the NOlb 4 For apparatus with type of protection ‘p’ ‘c’./\ (t Y-c‘) (WC’ IS h?X 1-1972$) A method ol protcctl~. ‘9’ only area classification and ignition temperature are required.TABLE 2 TYPES OF PROTECTION FOR DIFFERENT tlAZARDD1’S AREAS Ccmrtl JOV6 (1) TYpt. (see Note 2) type of /~1l~rW\<‘~/ .rical apparatus for llse in explos~e gas atmospheres. where apparatus ‘is protected by Ex-‘I’ or Ex-‘d in addition to one of these types of protection. it is necessary to determine the appropriate apparatu\ grouplr. in huch a \cay that under the conditions of WC for.I \our-ce of ~gnltlon like an ale or spark from corn~rlg unto c~nl. c) Increased safety apparatus protection ‘e’. However.iSpeclllcatlon 71 Spccillcatlon for for for for lor for sand-filled protection of electrical equipment for use in explosive atmospheres.w IS 7724Flectrtcal apparatu\ which ha\ all it\ Ii\c I975*) p a r t \ cntircl) e m b e d d e d in a ma\\ of powder> material.

applications in other industries. Zone-2 Zone-I Zone-O f I I 1 I J .1 Where unavoidable. For intrinsic safety.TABLE 3 MINIMI’M ACTIONS IF FAILURE OF PROTECTIVE GAS FOR TYPE OF PROTECTION (Clause 6.Represenrarive atus SuhGas &TO”P IIA IIB IIC Propane Ethylene Ma rimum Eqwimenral Safe Gap > 0. These sub-groups with a representative gas and the design parameters are as follows: Appar.3 Individual Features Equipmenf for Hazardous Areas features of individual equipment in hazardous areas are indicated 6.3.4. Zone-2 Zone-l NH.4. 6. atmosphere for which the apparatus is intended. Zone-2 Zone-i NH. For flameproof enclosures.8 Betbeen 0.4.1 Exceptional Circumsfances 6. i.3 Pressurized Rooms Hydrogen Various gases and vapours.X Below 0.1 In exceptional circumstances (for example.- : Non-hazardous area.45 6.3. development or repair-work.apparatus is sub-divided according to the requirements appropriate to the.S m m Minimum lgnirion Currenr Ratio Above 0. if the internal components of circuits are not ignition-capable during normal operation. PART 7 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN HAZARDOUS AREAS 251 .1. Group II .4 Miscellaneous Requirements Electrical of . n NL) OF P ROTECTION P(3) P(4) P(5) P(6) i--7Normal Abnormal Restricted None Unrestricted Restrtcted Restricted Unrestricted Unrestricted Not relevant Legend N Not relevant Not relevant H P(2) .4. switchgear and equipment may be located in a pressurized room within a hazardous area meeting the following requirements: *Guide for control of undesirable static electricity.9 mm < 0. NH. The groups of the apparatus are: ~~ for mining applications (fire damp) ~.45 and 0. research. *Classification of flammable gases of vapours with air according to their maximum experimental safe gaps and minimum igniting currents. Adequate.1) IISTERNAL RELEASE AREA C LASSIFICATION T YPE ’ d e i. 2 Y / atmosphere. nature of the flammable. NOTE -. Not adequate.9 mm Greater than 0. and in emergency situations) apparatus may be used which is not specially designed for use in Zone I or Zone 2 hazardous areas.The essential for installation in Table 5. provided that adequate measures have been taken to ensure an adequate level of safety.1) AKEA Cl \SSIFI<‘ATIO\ (1) Zone I Zone 2 ‘p’ E NCLOSURE DUES NOT C O N T A I N I GNITION -CAPABLE A PPARATUS (2) Alarm No action required E NCLOSURE C ONTAINS I GNITIONC APABLE A PPARATUS (3) Alarm and switch off Alarm TABLE 4 ADEQUATE TYPES OF PROTECTION FOR ELECTRICAL APPARATUS WITH AN INTERNAL SOURCE OF RELEASE (Clause 6.3. None-2 Zone-l NH. Adequate. gases and vapours are classified according to their maximum experimental safe gap (MESG).4.2 Stark Electricit!! . for which a particular group of enclosure is suitable are listed in IS : 9570-1980*. Group I Group II 6. it is either regularly supervised by trained personnel or gas-free conditions are regularly monitored.5 mm less than 0.see IS : 7689-1974* 6.2 Apparatus which is intended to be used for short periods only may be of normal industrial design but only when operating in Zone 2. 6. gases and vapours are classified according to the ratio of their minimum igniting currents (MIC) with that of laboratory methane.1.2.2. electrical 6.4.3. of the internal components of circuits have type of protection adequate for Zone-l. Adequate. Zone-2 Zone-I NH.

Provision against lateral displacement necessary All switches.3. necessary precautions against spread of fire (see 1646-1961) shall be complied with iii) Lighting fittings No lighting fittings shall be used All ltghtrng fittings shall be flameproof. type of protection ‘i’ Transformers and capacitors that are dry type or contatning liquids that need not have an)i special enclosure provided that the following requitements are satisfied: Cable boxes shall be suitable for specified level of current and fault clearing time Only off-circuit manually-operated tapchangers shall be allowed with provision for locking the operating handle in position Auxiliary devices shall be intrinsically safe or if they have sparking contacts. a) All power and drstribution Transformers and capacitors suitable transformers and capacitors for Zone I areas with type ‘d’ protection b) For control and. Motors with type of protection ‘p’ ii) Transformers and capacitors No transformer or capacitor shall be used in this area. fuses and other equipment. alternatively. Any other sparking accessories or switch shall comply with the requirements for Zone I area Where oil-filled transformers are used. slip-ring motors in which the main enclosures and windings are offype ‘e’ but the normally sparking parts of type ‘d’. these shall be: i) type ‘d’ or hermitically sealed. b) Motors with type of protection ?t’ a n d ‘e’ However all normally sparking parts such as slip-rings and brushes shall be provided with type of protection ‘d’ or ‘p’ Motors provided with a combination of the above forms of protection. for example. auxiliary devices may be deleted or installed in a safe zone rendered safe by pressurization. If necessary a suitable guard shall be provided by means of cables in screwed steel conduits.TABLE 5 FEATURES OF ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT (Clause 6. and the equipment is provided with a general purpose (Conrimed) 2!% NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE . circuit-breakers. When not practicable use type 5’ protection All equipment where arcing may occur under normal conditions of operation shall be type ‘d’ unless the interruption of current occurs in a hermetically sealed chamber. the enclosure together with the enclosed apparatus shall be type ‘d’ protection a) Lighting fittings for Zone I b) Lighting ftttings with type of protection ‘e’ or ‘n’ iv) Switchgear and controlgear No switchgear and controlgear shall be used. iii) of mercury in glass type with adequate mechanical protection. instrumentation purposes. ii) under adequate head of oil.protection Motors No motor shall be used a) Motors with type of protection ‘d’ b). iv) of enclosed break type Or.3) E QUIPMENT (1) I) ZONE 0 (2) in this area ZONE I (3) Z ONE 2 (4) a) Motor suitable for Zone I areas.

TABLE 5 FEATURES OF ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT-Contd
EQUIPMENT (1) ZONE 0 (2) ZONE I Z ONE

(3)

(4)

2

enclosure and also if the current interrupting contacts are oil-immersed, enclosed break switches for lighting. etc. with flameproof breaking chamber, mercury in glass switches and enclosed break microswitches v) Generators No generators shall be used in Zone 0 area Generators with Type ‘d’ and ‘p’ protectton Equipment suitable for Zone I areas Generators with type ‘n’ protection or ‘0’ and haying brushless excitation system and sparking parts, if provided shall comply with Zone I requirements vt) Diesel engines Unacceptable The use of permanentaly installed diesel engines to the avoided Where ncccs~~ry, they shall be protected as given i n Appendts H vii) Storage batteries Shall not be used. Storage batteries shall not be installed in Zone I areas except those in portable lamps where the enclosures housing the bulb. jwitch and battcrv shall be flameprooi type The use of permanently installed diesel engines to be avoided Equipment suitable for Zone I areas

Storage batteries shall be of type *e’ protection (see Appendix C)

a) The pressurized room shall be situated in

vicinity

such area within a hazardous location, which is least hazardous and from which the operators working in the room can easily evacuate in the event of an accident. ceiling, floor, doors and the like shall be on non-combustible materials and shall be sufficiently resistant to explosion blasts or other mechanical effects. room shall be such as not-to allow gases or vapours to penetrate easily through them. and at least one of them shall face the direction of no source of hazard as for as practicable.

of doorways is maintained higher than the atmospheric pressure outside the room.

b) Main structural parts such as wells, pillars,

.i) An alarm or other device shall be provided so that any disorder in the pressurization system may’ be assuredly noticed. ” k) Openings to lead uirings or pipings from the hazardous locations into the room shall be so constructed as not to admit explosive gases into the room. by filling tightly the space around conduits or pipes with cement or similar incombustible materials.
N o r t - - E l e v a t e d ambient temperatures c a n b e e x p e c t e d i n pressurized room\. Accordingly, tt is advisable that due account be taken while selecting electrical equipment for installation In pressurized rooms.

cl Structural materials and construction of the d) More than one doorway shall be provided,

e) The design of the doorway facing the hazar-

dous area shall be such that the doors can only be opened outwards from the interior and they shall be double doors. In case it is necessary to provide a window facing the hazardous area, the window shall have enough strength to resist an explosion blast. blowout of gases or other possible mechanical effects. The source of air shall be free of hazardous concentrations of flammable gases and vapours contaminants and any other foreign matter. It shall be determined from the nature of the process and the physical layout.

6.4.3.2 Prior to commissioning apparatus p r o t e c t e d b y pressurization o r c o n t i n u o u s dilution, it shall be verified by competent personnel that the installation of the equipment fulfils the requirements of relevant Indian Standards, either by inspection of the reference documents, or by tests if necessary. The following shall be considered: a) the protective gas supply is suitable, that is. impurities in the protective gas will not reduce the level of safety such as by attacking the enclosure or ducting material or introducing flammable material into the enclosure. b) The apparatus design and safety provisions are such that purging can be completed satisfactorily.
259

h) The voiume and pressure of supplying air

shall be such that the air pressure in the

PART 7 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN HAZARDOUS AREAS

NOTE -Satisfactory completion of purgin would include pas&g a volume of protective gas o Bat least five times the free internal volume of the protected
enclosure and associated ducting, prior to energizing the electrical apparatus.

b) connected at one point to the potential

equalization conductor if this exists in the
whole area of the installation of the intrinsically safe circuits, or

cl The minimum pressure required is maintained with the minimum protective gas supply stated by the manufacturer. not exceeded.

cl connected to earth at one point only if
earthing is required for functional or protective purposes. The installation method shall be chosen with regard to the functional requirements of the circuits according to the manufacturers’ instructions. If the circuit is isolated attention should be given due to static charges.
More than one earth connection is permitted on a network provided that the network i s galvanically separated into circuits each of which has only onC earth point.

d) The maximum temperature limits stated are
With regard to installation practices, following shall be considered: the

4

For wiring swtems:

from earth, particular to any possible danger

9 When cable wiring systems are used, the

cable entries shall prevent excess leakage of the protective gas and ensure that sparks or incandescent particles do hot escape from the enclosure.

ii) When conduit’wiring systems a;e used, it is recommended that all conduit entrances to an enclosure be sealed to prevent excess leakage of protective gas unless the conduit system is being used as a duct for supplying the protective gas.

b) The point at which the protective gas enters

the supply duct’ or ducts should be situated in a non-haz.ardous area.

c) Ducting should, as far as possible, be loca-

ted in a non-hazardous area. If ducting p/asses through a hazardous area, it shall be checked for leaks prior to start-up of the electrical apparatus to ensure that the requirements of 6.3,3.2.1 (a) are met.

6.4.4.2 Where a safety barrier is used, the maximum fault voltage in apparatus connected to the barrier input terminals shall not exceed the fault voltage rating of the barrier. for example, 2 5 0 V. Where a safety barrier requires a connection to earth, the connecting load to the earthing terminal of the safety barrier should be as short as possible. The cross section of the connecting load shall t,ake account of the short circuit current to be expected, and shall have a minimum value of 1.5 mm2 copper. Consideration should be given to the need for. earthing of the supply system connected to the barrier input terminals. 6.4.4.3 In installations with instrinsically=safe circuits, for example, in measuring and control cabinets, the terminals shall be reliably separated fiom the tion-intrinsically safe circuits (for example. by a separating Ijanel, or a gap of at least 50 mm). The terminals of the intrinsically safe circuits shall be marked as such. All terminals shall satisfy the requirements of relevant lndian Standards. Where terminals are arranged to provide separation of circuits by spacing alone, care shall be taken in the layout of terminals and the wiring method used. to prevent contact between circuits should a wire become disconnected. 6.4.4.4 Enclosures and wiring of intrinsically safe circuits should meet the requirements which would be applied to similar types of equipment which are intended to be installed in nonhazardous areas otherwise having the same environmental conditions. If a n e n c l o s u r e contains both intrinsically safe circuits and non-

d) Exhaust ducting shall vent to a non-hazardous area or otherwise be designed to prevent the emission of sparks 3r hot particles such as by the use of spark arrestors or baffles. Care should be taken tp ensure that the exhaust does not result in a secondary hazardous source in an otherwise nonhazardous area Safk Installations -- A 6.4.4 Intrinsicall~l fundamentally different installation philosophy has to be recognized in tIie installation of intrinsically safe circuits. In comparison with all other types of installations, where care is taken to confine electrical energy to the installed system as designed so that a hazardous environment cannot be ignited, the integrity of an intrinsically safe circuit has to be electrically protected from the environment in order that the safe energy limitation in the kircuit is not exceeded, even when breaking, shorting or earthing of the circuit occurs.
As a consequence of this principle the aim of
the installation rules for intrinsically safe circuits is to maintain separation from other circuits. 6.4.4.1 Intrinsically safe circuits may be installed either: a) isolated from earth, or
260

intrinsically safe cirCuits, the intrinsically safe circuits shall be clearly identified. In installation containing both intrinsically safe apparat.us and apparatus having another type of protection, the intrinsically safe circ_uits shall be clearly marked. 6.e.4.5 Marking may be achieved by labelling
NATIONAL ELECTRICAL

CODE

or colour coding of enclosured, terminals and cables. Where a colour is used for this purpose it shall be light blue. 6.4.4.6 Where intrinsically safe circuits may be exposed to disturbing magnetic or electric fields, suitable attention shall be given to transposition or shielding to ensure that these fields do not adversely affect the intrinsic safety of the circuit. 6.4.4.7 Unless specifically permitted, conductor of intrinsically safe circuits and conductors of non-intrinsically safe circuits shall not be run together in cables, cords, conduits, or bundles. In cable ducts and trays, intrinsically safe cables shall be separated from non-intrinsically safe cables by a mechanical barrier. Such a barrier is not required if all cables are provided with additional protective sheathing or sleeves which provide equivalent separation, or if the cables are securely fastened to ensure that physical separation is maintained. 6.4.4.8 A flexible cable may contain more than one intrinsically safe circuit if the cable installation is such as to minimize the risk of damage which could cause interconnection between different circuits. 6.4.4.9 The installation of intrinsically safe circuits shall be such that the extreme permitted values, such as capacitance, inductance and inducatance to resistance ratio, are not exceeded. The permissible values shall be taken from the certificate, the nameplate of the apparatus, or from the installation instructions. 6.4.4.10 Where intrinsically safe circuits are interconnected to form a system, due account shall be taken by calculation or by measurement of the resultant combination of electrical parameters, such as inductance, and capacitance, which may affect the intrinsic safety of the system as a whole.

NOTE - In addition to electrical sparking due account should be taken of thermal effects particularly where noncertified apparatus is used.

6.4.4.11 The following equipment is considered to be intrinsically safe without certification: Devices whose electrical parameters, according to the manufacturer’s specification, do not exceed any of the values 1.2 V, 0. I A. 20 J or 25 mW need not be certified or marked. They will be subject, however, to the requirements of relevant lndian Standard specification, if they are connected to a device which contain a source of energy which could cause the circuit to exceed these parameters. 7. TESTING OF INSTALLATION 7.0 All equipment intended for use in hazardous areas shall be approved by a recognized, testing and certifying authority (see 3.2). 7.1 Installation tests should include insulation resistance and earth continuity resistance and the checking of fused ratings and other protection devices, settings and operation. 7.2 For periodical electrical testing, the following precautions shall be followed:

a) Insulation tests should, in general, be carried

out with certified intrinsically safe insulation tester for use in hazardous areas. out with certified intrinsically safe earth tester embodying a hand-driven generator suitable for use in hazardous areas. protective devices, where practicable, and the operation of other protective devices should be checked.

b) Earth continuity tests, in general, be carried

cl The rating of fuses and the settings of

APPENDIX (Clause 0.6)

A

INDIAN STANDARDS FOR ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT FOR USE IN HAZARDOUS ATMOSPHERES IS : 2148-1968 Flameproof enclosures of electrical apparatus (first revision). IS : 5571-1979 Guide for selection of electrical equipment of hazardous areas (fht revision) IS : 5572 (Part I)-1978 Classification of hazardous areas for electrical installations: Part I Areas having gases and vapours wrsr revision) IS : 5780-1980 Intrinsically safe electrical apparatus and circuits @rst revision) IS : 6381-1972 Construction and testing of electrical apparatus with type of protection ‘e’ IS : 6539-1972 Intrinsically safe magneto-telephones for- use in -hazardous atmospheres IS : 6789- 1972 Bolted flameproof cable couplers and adaptors. 1s : 7389- 1974 Pressurized enclosures of electrical equipment for use in explosive atmospheres (Part l)-1976 Part I Pressurized enclosures with no internal source of flammable gas or vabour (first revision) I s Y IS : 7693-1975 Oil immersed apparatus for use in explosive gas atmospheres
261

PART 7 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN HAZARDOUS AREAS

IS : 7724-1975 Sand-filled protection of electrical equipment for use in explosive atmospheres IS : 7820-1975 Methods of tests for ignition temperatures IS : 8239-1976 Classification of maximum surface temperatures of electrical equipment for use in explosive atmospheres IS : 8240-1976 Guide for electrical equipment for explosive atmospheres.

IS : 8241-1976 Methods of marKIng for identifying electrical equipment for explosive atmospheres IS : 8289-1976 Electrical equipment with type of protection ‘n’ IS : 9166-1979 Spark test apparatus for intrinsically safe circuits IS : 9570-1980 Classification Jf flammable gases or vapours with air according to their maximum experimental safe gaps and minimum igniting currents

APPENDIX B [Table 5? hem (iv)]
RECOMMENDATIONS FOR THE PROTECTION OF DIESEL ENGINES FOR PERMANENT INSTALLATION IN HAZARDOUS AREAS

B-O. To ensure a maximum degree of safety in the event of a permanently installed diesel engine I or 2, it is being necessary on Zone recommended that it should have the following protection.
B-l. The, starter shall be either of flameproof electrical type (usually operated from the mains supply) or of the following non-electric types: a) Pneumatic, b) Hydraulic, c) Spring recoil, d) Inertia, or e) Hand start. Any other electrical equipment associated with the engine shall be flameproof. Electrical equipment shall be effectively earthed and bonded. B-2. Cooling fan blades shall be made from nonmetallic materials which do not accumulate electrostatic charge. B-3. All belts shall be of antistatic fire-resistant type. B-4. In order to contain discharge of sparks or flames from the exhaust system, a gas conditioner box and a flame trap shall be installed. Alternatively, the exhaust should be designed to discharge to a location within a safe area. B-5. To prevent flashback through induction system, wherever possible, air intakes for engines shall be located in a safe area. Alternatively, a flame trap should be installed. B-6. The surface temperature of the engine and exhaust system shall not exceed 250°C when tested under full load conditions. In some situations cooling of the exhaust manifold and piping may be necessary, using water jacketing or
262

finned coolers and/or high temperature cut-outs or alarms should be provided. However, when either the free movement of air is restricted by thermal or accoustic shielding or the ignition temperature of the surrounding flammable atmosphere is below 200°C, exposed surface temperature of engine shall not exceed the minimum ignition temperature of the gases involved. B-7. To prevent overspeeding of the engine due to induction of flammable gases or vapours, means shall be provided to stop the engine. It can be either: a) a valve to close the air intake, or b) a system to inject carbon dioxide into the air intake. B-8. Alarms or automatic shutdown devices shall

be provided, activated by excessive water temperature and low lube oil pressure. B-9. 4 system using an’ alarm or trip device to protect the engine from excessive vibration should be considered. B-10. An engine having a crankcase volume of over 0.5 m3 shall be provided with relief devices. Relief valves or breathers on engines shall be fitted with flame traps or dischar e into the induction system downstream,of the #ame trap, if fitted, and upstream of the shut-off valve, if fitted, as specified B-7. Dipsticks and/or filler caps should be screwed or effectively secured by oth,er means. B-11. Intake and exhaust system design shall meet the following minimum requirements: a) The length of the flame path through or across any joint shall b6 ‘not less than 13 mm, b) Suitable metal-clad or other acceptable
NATIONAL ELECl’RICAL CODE

jointing material shall be interposed between all joint faces to ensure that leakage does not occur.

c) Where valve spindles pass through the walls
of anv component of the induction system. the d-iametrical clearance shall not exceed 0.13 mm for an axial length of not less th’an 25 mm. unless end caps are fitted, and

d) No screw. stud or bolt-hole shall pass

through the wall of any component of the system. B - 1 2 . L)ecompression s y s t e m s s h o u l d n o t normally be provided. However. if they are essential, then the decompression parts should be provided with flametraps and ducted away to safe area. B-13. The fuel injection pump and governor, where fitted, should be so designed that reverse running of the engine is not possible.

APPENDIX C [Table 5, /rem (vii)]
RECOMMENDATIONS FOR STORAGE BATTERIES FOR 1lSE IN ZONE 2 AREAS Storage batteries for use in Zone 2 areas shall be of increased safety type. These shall meet the following requirements. C-l. Celluloid and similar combustibles shall not be used as constructional materials. ‘, C-2. Battery containers as well as fittings and insulating parts outside the enclosed cells shall not consist of porous materials, for example, wood or other flammable materials and shall be resistant to flame and the action of electrolytes. C-3. Openings, of calls necessary for the escape of the gases given 6ff shtiil ‘be so constructed as to prevent splashing of the electrolyte.‘ C-4. The exterior of the cells shall be so constructed as to resist impact, and the cell cases shall be firmly fixed. C-5. The cells shall be so built into the containers that working loose of connection of the cells with one another is impossible and normally a discharge voltage exceeding 24 volts shall not appear between adjacent rows of cells. The creepage distance between two poles of adjacent cells shall not be less than 35 mm. Where the discharge voltage exceeds 24 volts, the

c-o.

creepage distance shall be correspondingly increased by I mm per 2 volts. Where voltage of batteries is not less than 50 volts. either the battery case shall be sub-divided by partitions or the batteries shall be grouped into containers so that in no grouping does a voltage exceeding 50 volts occur. In these cases. the partitions or the containers shall have, heights at least half that of the batter) case. C-6. The battery case shall be so constructed as to ensure sufficient ventilation in order to prevent accumulation of gases given off fro’m the batter). and the free space within the case shall be as small as possible. C-7. The metallic cover of the battery case shall be lined, with materials resistant to electrolyte. C-8. The cover of the battery case shall have special fastenings. C-9. Exposed live parts of battery contained in a case shall be protected with rubber or equivalent insulating materials. However, the opening for checking voltage may be provided.
Charging of storage batteries shall be conducted in NoTt non-hazardous location, while the cover of the hatter:, enclosure is kept open.

APPENDIX (Clause 0.3)

D

EXAMPLE OF INDUSTRIES AND THEIR WORKING PLACES WHICH REQUIRE CONSIDERATIONS IN REGARD TO HAZARDOUS LOCATIONS D-l. Though it is difficult to determine hazardous locations merely according to kind of industries or kind of working places, typical industries and working places which require .considerations in regard to hazardous locations are listed below: I ) Ammonium sulvhate manufacrurina industry - Places wiere gaseous raw materials are produced, electrolysis of water is conducted or synthesis of ammonia is carried out. 2) Soda manufacturing industr>! --- Working places of electrolysis, synthetic hydrochloric acid manufacturing and liquid chlorine handling. 3) Elec:ric ,/tirnac,e industr~~ .--- working places where calcium carbide is pulverized and storage of it. 4) Compressed or liyuqfied~flammahle gas industry--- Working places where flammable gases
263

PART I ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN HAZARDOUS AREAS

fihres manufacturing industrlj Working places where flammable gases . Storage of volatile flammable liquids. lacquers or other flammable finishers are regularly or frequently applied by spraying. jet fuels or other volatile flammable liquid or flammable gases are used. added or stored. 15) Paints manufacturing industry . 26) Aircrqft hangars . filled or stored.Working places where volatile flammable liquids are added.facturing industry .Working places where flammable gases or volatile flammable liquids are handled in large quantity. applied. Places where benzene or the other volatile flammable liquids are filled or stored. plants.1. 11) Vegetable oil industry. where flammable thinners are used.Working places where dry distillation or rectification is conducted.Working pi&es where volatile 6) Dyestgffs and their intermediates manufacturing industry . Coal tar products industry .W o r k i n g p l a c e s where washing using flammable liquids and recovery of the said liquids are conducted.Location used for storage or servicing of aircraft in which gasoline.v . I?) Wood dr. 25) Printing industr. reacted. Storage of these li. Places where volatile flammable raw materials or finished products are stored. Storage of these liquids. hardened oil and glvcerine manu. Storage of volatile flammable liquids. filled or stored.Working places where volatile flammable liquids are distilled or filled.Working places where flammable where coal tar is fractionally distilled or light oil extracted from coal is refined or fractionally distilled.Working places where extraction or recovery is conducted using volatile flammable liquids. solvent extraction plants .Working places where flammable gases or volatile flammable liquids are handled in large quantity. dipping. prepared. 19) Oil refining and petrochemical indust. Storage of the said liquids. brushing or by other means. 9) Synthetic resin and plastic marwfacturing industry . 14) Drugs and medicines manefacturing industry .Working places where printing is done using inks with addition of volatile flammable liquids.! -. 12) Fatty acids. flammable liquids are added. or liquefied flammable gases are transferred to the fuel tanks of vehicles. 8) Acetylene. distilled or extracted. prepared. applied or recovered. Hydrogeneration .Working places 16) Insecticides and germicides manufacturing industry . Places where volatile flammable liquids are filled or stored. Storage of containers filled with flammable gases. 23) Drj?-cleaning industr. Storage of volatile flammable liquids. gases or volatile flammable liquids are handled in large quantity.Working places where hydrogen is produced or added. 20) Gum products industry* . and where readily ignitable deposits or residues from such paints. distilled.quids.vlene or methanol deriilative manefacturing industries ..are produced. 17) Perfumes and cosmetics manefacturing industry . Storage of the gases and liquids. produced.Working places where volatile flammable liquids are added.! . 264 NATIONAL ELECI’RICAL CODE .:.Places where alcohol is distilled.Working places where gaseous raw materials or volatile flammable liquids are produced.Working places where gum arabic is produced or applied. refined reacted. lacquers finishers may occur.Working places where flammable gases or volatile flammable liquids are handled in large quantity. 7) Fermentation industry . 18) Photographic sensitive materials manujacruring industr.Working places where preparation of volatile flammable paints. 21) Brecc+ng industrrv .Location where petrol or other volatile flammable liquids. locations where paints. recovered or distilled. --. Other working places where flammable gases or volatile flammable liquids are used in large quantity. 24) Finishing processes -. 22) Processed paper or coated cloth manefacturing industr. Places ‘where volatile flammable liquids are transported. compressed or filled. Worki’ng places where various refining processes or chemical reactions are conducted. eth.or volatile flammable liquids are added.l distillation industry .Working places where volatile flammable paints or thinners are produced. recovered or stored. 27) Petrol birnks and service stations . 10) Synthetic .

liquids. E-2. E-2. E-3. so far as potential hazards are concerned. I . and where no risk is involved in discharging the lightning current over the surfaces of the structure to be protected. or metal conductors entering the structure given in E-4. should not exceed 30”. vapours or dusts are manufactured. the protective angle to be applied may be as much as 45’ within the space bonded by the conductors. such as vertical and horizontal air terminations and other means. E-2.4 If the vertical conductor is separate from the structure to be protected. vicinity in the event of a lightning stroke. Where the depth of burying is adequate. gases. In case of doubt. a network of horizontal conductors with a spacing of 3 m to 7. Where this method is adopted. the minimum clearance between it and the protected structure shall be not less than 2 m. stored or used or in which highly flammable or explosive gases. including its services. The presence of explosives or highly flammable materials in a structure may increase the risk to persons or to the structure and th.1. For this reason higher degree of protection is essential for these structures. If two or more parallel’ horizontal qf Building with explosives dust or flammable vapour risk Integrally mounted system with vertical air terminals 1. E-l.2) LIGHTNING PROTECTION OF STRUCTURES WITH EXPLOSIVE OR HIGHLY FLAMMABLE CONTENTS E-O. c) Maintenance of containers in good condition. the air termination network may be replaced by a network of earthing strips arranged on the surface in accordance with expert advice.2 by virtue of the fact that soil has an impulse breakdown strength which can be taken into account when determining the risk of flashover from the protective system to the structure to be protected. but it should not exceed 30’ outside that space. Avoidance of spark gaps between metallic conductors at points where there may be an escape or accumulation of flammable vapours or gases.5 A structure which is wholly below ground and which is not connected to any services above ground may be protected by an air termination network in accordance with E-2. Protection of a different deg-ee may be secured in the case of both self-protecting and other structures by installation of various types of protection equipment. protecting in positions of iesser exposure with regard to lightning. Also the minimum clearance between the suspended horizontal air termination and the highest projection on the protected structure shall be 2 m. E-2.2 is unjustified. conductors are installed. b) Closure or protection of vapour or gas openings against entrance of flames. GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF PROTECTION E-2. according to the risk.1 These should generally be of the integral mounted system with the horizontal air terminals running along the perimeter of the roof in all cases except for buildings r?ntaining highly Type of Building . should be fixed to the roof of the structure.5 m from each other dependmg on the type of storage and processes involved 265 . vapours or dusts may accumulate.2. the recommendations for bonding between metal in the structure. 4 Avoidance. E-2. PRECAUTIONS E-1.2 An air termination network should be suspended at an adequate height abqve the area to be protected. Following precautions should be taken for the protection of structures and their contents from lightning.APPENDIX E (Clause 6. TYPES OF LIGHTNING PROTECTION SYSTEM E-3. the establishment of zones of protection through use of earthed rods. of the accu- mulation of flammable air-vapour mixtures about such structures. The supports of the network should be adequately earthed.1 For the protection of structures with explosives or highly flammable contents the general principles are given below.3 Where the expense of the method given in E-2.Recommended Tvpe Proreccrion a) ‘Storage of flammable liquids and gases in all-metal structures.5 m. this clearance should be increased by I m for every IO m of structure height above I5 m to prevent sidesflashes. expert advice should be sought. should be ignored.5 m high and horizontal air terminals spaced 3 to 7. If one horizontal conductor only is used. essentially gas-tight. so far as possible. the protective angle adopted. masts. and 4 0 Location of structures not inherently self- g) For structures not inherently self-protecting. The recommendations given in E-l to E-IO should be followed for structures in which explosive or highly flammable solids. or the equivalent. The height of the horizontal conductor should be sufficient to avoid all risk of flashover from the protective system to the structure to be protected.

electrical cable sheaths. steel ropes. for example.5 Metallic pipes. *Code of practice for the protection of building and allied structures against lightning. E-5.1 For a buried structure or underground excavation to which access is obtained by an adit or shaft. This clearance applies also to the planting of new trees. BONDING E-4. E-4. the recommendation in E-4. should be provided at the termination of the overhead line. should be bonded to the lightning protective system.2 Each separate structure protected in accordance with E-2. E-3. o f t h e t y p e c o n t a i n i n g voltagedependent resistors.5 m unless other considerations.4 Structures of this category should not be equipped with a tall component. Such connections should be made at least in two places and should.5 . such as the need for bonding other objects to it.3 should be equipped with twice the number of down conductors recommended in Part I /Set 15 of the Code.2 Major metalwork inside the structure be bonded to the lightning protective E-4. E-4. E-S. or the ring conductor should be connected to the ring c o n d u c t o r s o f one o r m o r e n e i g h b o u r i n g structures until the above value is obtained E-4. and of retaining walls in close proximity to the structure. reinforcement and services. E-5. components and wires of all fences. Discontinuous metal wire fencing on non-conducting supports or wire coated with insulating material should not be employed. If this value proves to be unobtainable. should be bonded together gnd connected to the lighting protective system. On account of the low impulse strength of mineral-insulated metal-sheathed cable.2 The metal uprights. It should be earthed at the point of entry outside the structure on the supply side of the service and bonded directly to the lightning protective system. such as spire or flagstaff or radio aerials on the structure or withm I5 m of the structure.m. a length of buried cable with metal sheath or armouring should be inserted between the overhead line and the point of entry to the structure and a surge protective device. They should be about 75 m away and the other a further 75 m away. E-5. NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE . which enter a structure of this kind. The sparkover voltage of the lightning protective device should not exceed one-half the bieakdown withstand voltage of the electrical equipment in the structure. This ring conductor should preferably be buried to a depth of at least 0. but structures near existing trees should be treated in accordance’with IS : 2X)9-1969* E-4. *Code of practice for the protection of building and allied \tructurer against lightning. should be connected in such a way as to provide continuous metallic connection between themselves and the lightning protective system. or risk of corrosion make it desirable to leave it exposed in which case it should be protected against mechanical damage. The earth terminal of this protective device should be bonded direct to the cable sheath or armouring.5 as regards extra earthing should be followed for the adit or shaft at intervals not exceeding 75 m. The following types of protection are recommended: E-3. This metal casing should be electrically continuous within the structure. The resistance value of the earth termination network should be maintained permanently at IO ohms or less. for example. should system. Small explosives storage buildings Buildings storing more dangerous types of explosives.Type of Building Recommended 7jape 01 Prorecrion Explosives storage building Integrally mounted system with vertical air terminals and Pxplosives workshops 0.4 Where the electrical conductors are connected to an overhead electric supply line. rails or guides not in continuous electrical contact with the earth. MISCELLANEOUS REQUIREMENTS E-5.3 Electrical conductors entering a structure of this category should be metal-cased.3 The vents o f a n y t a n k s c o n t a i n i n g llammable gas or liquid and exhaust stacks from process plants emitting flammable vapours or dusts should either be constructed of nonconducting material or be filled with flame traps. nitroglycerine (NG) and for Vertical pole type Suspended horizontal air terminations at least 2 m higher than the structure and with a spacing of 3 m initiatory explosives manufacturing sensitive explosives and very small buildings. the methods recommended in IS : 2309-1969* should be adopted.1 All major members of the metallic continuous metal including structure. so far as is possible. testing.3 m high and horizontal air terminals spaced 7. be equally spaced round the perimeter of the structure at intervals not exceeding I5 m. such cables are not recommended for the above purpose.3 The earth terminations of each protective system should be interconnected by a ring conductor.

7 Wlrlng s!stcm 6. 2.4 X B a r r i e r I . 2.3.7 Acces\ory I. 2. 2. 2. 4. 2 .13 Conductor. II.2. 2. 2. 2.3. 2. 2. 2. 2. 2.3 Conductors Arrangement of 1. l. 5. 14G‘. 2. 2.26 Connector box 1. -7.22 Motor. -7.1.2 Definition I . Flexible 1. 2. D-type 1. 7 Call-bells I. 2. Building services Atr-conditlonmg 1. 2. 3 Celling fan. 2. 2. 9. 2. 2 3 I9 D e m a n d 1. 14G.19 1 arthed neutral system.20 Load factor I.2 Sequence 1.3.29 Load.30 Fuse. 3A.4. Stationary I.9 Arm-a reach 1. 2. 2.1.2 Rigid. Electrical 1. 2. 2.1. i. 2. lransport 5. Cartridge 1.3. 7.8. A-4. I Ire . 2.17 Fuse-wire 1. 24 19 Diclectrlc 1.1 M a r k i n g I. Installed 1. I. . 2. A-3 Z o n e s . 2.3. 4 Recreational buildings 3. 3 Charts Classification 1. 4 Assessment of 1. 2. 2.25 Earthing system. 2. 4 Shopping crntres 3. 2. Current using 1. 2.4. 2 .S I Current.1.6 Protective I. 1. 2.2.2. I. /. Assessment of 6. Electrical I. 3. 2.18 Circuit-breaker. 2. Assessment for 1. 2. 14c‘. II. 2. 2 3.Audu)-s! slems General aspects 1.3. 2.2. 4 Medical establishments 3. 2. I. 14G‘. 2.2. 2. 2. 2.2a Time sequence 1.17 c Call-bell.1 W i r i n g 1. 2. 3A. Earth continuity I. 2.4 Insulation.4.13 Apparatus.2. 2.3 Hazardous area 7.2 Clock systems D e s i g n I. Insulated 1.22 Fuse-link. 2.2 Gcnc~al characteristics.9 267 D Defimtions I . I.1 General aspects I.12 Conductor. 8 General characteristics.8 Motor. 14G‘. 7 .4 I iltr and escalators 1. 52.thcr~~ ot rhc clxc~w~ number Indicates that the uhole Section or Part is relevant to the aspel’t A Air-cond:cloning l)c\~gn. 2.3.h o a r d I&butron 1. 3. General Aprlcultural buildings. . 2. 14G Power supply 1.8 Circuit-breaker 1.3 Conductor. 20 Flammable material 7. II. 2.2 Apparatus.6 tquipment.1. 2. -7. 7 Flammable 1. 2.3. 7. 2.15 Conductor. 2.3.5 C l e a t I.26 Flammahiltty lange 7 . 3. I . 2. -7.?. 2. 2.2 Wiring 1. FIxed 5. lloors 1.3 Disconnector 1. 2.3. I. 2.2 Speclllc bulldingc (SW under individual titles) Agt’lcuitural premises Cables 6. 2. 2 . 2.3.3.2.7 Identification of 1. 2. 2. A-2. 3A. 14E.3. 2. 2. 2. 4 Vrntila~ion. X.2. 4 Sports buildings 3.2. 4. 2. electric Equipment 1. 2.. 5. 10. 2. /4F.3.1 Guide for preparation I. 2. 2. 2. I4 Con\e)tnp \! \trm. 4. 5. Miniature I.23 Circuits.16 Earth 1 . 4 Temporary outdoor installations 5. 3 Con\umer‘\ terminal 1. Induction 1. 7. 2. 2.14 LTlectric circuit 1. 2.5. 2. 4. 2.21 Fuse-switch 1.2. 14G‘. 2.2. 14C. 2.17 C u r r e n t 1. I6 Contt-c~lgeal 1. S&lion Nuniber (if any) in italics and the specific clause number in Roman.1 Apparatus. 2. 2.4 IKqu~pment. 2. 6 &-lame arrester 7. design I.2. 148. 6 l.21 I-use-board. 18 S u r f a c e 1. 2.1.1 S e l e c t i o n o f si7e 1.5. 2.3. 2. 2 D o m e s t i c dwellmgs 3.6.2. 6. 3A. HazardoIls atmosphere 7. 4. Selection of 3.5. 2. 2.2.2 . 2.xlble 1. 2 9 F u s e . 2. 14A. 7.1 (~cnclal ayocct~ 1 .3. 2. 2. 2. 2 I2 l-use I. Movable S.6. 2.2.2 Conductor. 2.{A.4. 4. . 7. 2. Direct 1. II. 14G. 10. 5 Audio-systems 1.4 INDEX . 7. 2. 2. 2.14 Ignition temperature 7. 2.3 Fquipmenr. 2. 2.5 Cable.2. II. 2. 2.4. 2. 7.23 Conductor. connected I.14 Impulse 1. 2.15 Lighting arrester 1. _?. II. IO Apparatus. 4 . 2. 2. 4 Hotels 3.3. 9. 2. 2.30 Load.2. 2.3 Rigid steel I. 2. Bimetallic I.10 Building 1. 2. Earthed I. Multiple I. classification of 3. 2 . 2. 2 2 . ‘2. Interconnecting I.1 I Flammable ga\ or vapour 7 . 14C. 2. 4. I2 Clearance 1. 14C.1 Fire-protrction 1.8. 6 lesting 6.1. R HeacIng 1.7 Halard 7.1 E l e c t r i c a l mstallation in 3.10 Conductive part. 2. 7.lphting design I. 2. 2.1 B Bathrooms equipment. 2. 2.3.2 F i x i n g tu walls I. 2. 3 Explanatory 1.20 Fuse-carrier 1. 2. 2.2. Xl. . 2 .29 Insulation fault 1.1.4.2 Industrial buildings 4. 2.2 I9 Fu\e-base I.2.3. 2. 4 Ot’fice buildings 3. Aerial 1. 2. 5. 2 . 4 ldcntificatlon of 1. Connection of I.7 E l e c t r o d e 1.1 Flectric~l installations i n 6 Fence\.3 IX Dead I.3 Ventilarlon. I. IO t’la\h point 7. _‘. 4.4. preferred rated 1. ‘4.1 Cbaractcristlcs of buildings.3. gcncral 1.6 Electric current I. 2. Simultanec~u\l> I. 2 .4.3.4 Classification 6. 2. 2.31 Lighting fitting 1.3.27 I . Portable 5. 2. 9 Equipment I. 4.4 Haulage truck 5. 2.2 Wiring I.3.12 Cut-out I. 4. 4.20 E a r t h leakage current 1. 2. 2. App A Safety in 3.6 Cables. -7.28 Distance. 2. 2.1.4. 2. Double 1. 2. 2. 2.?. 2.2. CI. General 1.? Accessible part\.2 Equipment. 2. 2.24 Farth fault 1. 3 LLlghting. 2.INDEX Evcr~ key word III the index is followed by a designation of location in the Code (Indci numhcl) dcrwtcd h!i Explanatory Note the Part number in bold. Enclosed distrlbutlon 1.2. Armoured 1.3 Ser\lces 6.1. 2.5.3. Portable 1. JC Rcgulatorc 1 . Creepage I. F!e. non-metallic J. 2.1 Bulldmg.4.3. 4.14 C o n s u m e r I. 5 Heat Insulation of 1. 14c‘.4 Fncloaure 1. 3.26 Cables I. 2. 2.3.1 Building point 7. 2.6 Distribution pillar 1. 3 . 14E Poucr supply 1.2b Clearance Definition 1.32 Connector. 2.IA Ceiling roses J.4 Conduit Flexible I. 2 6. 2. 2.1 Circuit I. 2. Neutral 1. 10. 2. 2. 8 Flammables liquid 7 .25 Di\trlbution undertaking J.1 I A r c I. 2.2 resting 1. 2. general 1.1 5 Current.6 Passing through walls.\ Clamps 1.2. 2. Portable appliances 1. 2. 2 .1 Equipment.2. I .5.1 I Conductor.2. 7 C o r d .3.5 Fxplo\~ve Ilmit\ 7 . 2. 3A. 2.2 Equipment.26 L i v e 1. 2.1.13 Bus-bar.7 Capacitor 1. 2. 2. 14E. 14C Requlrementb. 2 . 8.2 Requirements. 14E. Mobile 5. 2. 2. 6. 3. 2. Electric 1. 2. 4 Institutions 3.1.1. 2. II. 14.1 General aspects 1. 2. 141). 2.2. 2. 2. I Flammahlc miht 7. 2. II.12 Farthahle point 5. 2. 9.18 C o n d u c t o r I.4.4. Exposed 5. 2. IO. 2.19 Meter rent I. 2. //. 2. 2. 4 Safrt! 6.1.5 Cable. 6.4. Hand held.5 Electric lines and buildings 1.21 Farth electrode 1. Flrctric 6.3. 14c‘. 9 .1 Clock5 1 . l-axed 1 . I. II.3.l a m m a h l e ga‘. 2 . 2 Fla\ho\cr 1. 2. Bare 1.1 I3 Farthing lead I. 2.4 Recessed I. 3.24 Fuse-element 1.13 Apparatus. Bunched 1. 2. Icahagc. dcslgn 1. //. 2 10 !-lammahlr mlxturc 7 . /4E. 2. 14G Location I.1 Silea of 1 . 4.28 Generator I. 2.lquificd 7. 2.28 Fuse-link 1. 5. 2.4. 2.2. 2. 2.

10.4.2 Frequency Limits 1.0. 5. 5.r6 supply.4. 4. 3E.4 Telephones 3. 3. Electrical Agricultural premises 6 Air-port aprons 5. 3.. 2. Pr. Medium I. 5. main 4. 6. 6.2.0 Switchgear.1 Equivalent circuit I. 1. 1.5 Plugs and sockets 7. 7. 2.35 S p a r k 1. 2.24 Public dighting installations 5. 2. I. 8. Earth leakage 1. 1. 2.4.3 Electrical installation 3.2 Classification 3. choice of 7.14 Tariff 1. IO.29 Service 1. Appendix B Earthing. 2. 2. 2.16 Switchgear I.2 Installation.3 Diesel engines 7.3. 2. 2. 5. 2.1 Safety circuits 5. 3A.2.4 Isolation 7. 2. 6 Wiring 3. 4 Load. 1.8 Power supply. 8. Assessment of 3.6.5 Testing 1. 2. 2. 6. 12. Unrestricted 7. 1. 2. Design data 1. location of 4. 2. 8. 2.1.1 Systems. 2. 14. Medical 3.2. 2. 2.3 Unit wiring 1. 3A. 34. 2. 2. 3 Storage batteries 7. 2.2.2. 5.1.0. 2. 4. 2.2 Rooms. 4.7 Static electricity 7.1 I Occupancy 1. 3 Distribution.1 General characteristics.4 Lightning protection 7. 3. 2. 4. 1..1 Substation 4. 2. 2. Low I.5. 2. 6. 5.2 Electrical installations in 7 Equipment. 2.1 Classification 3.4 E q u i p m e n t 1. Restricted 7. 34.3 Bus. 8.40 Voltage. 2.16 Point I. 2. 2. 6.4 Classification 4. 2.17 Socket-outlet and plug 1. 5.1 W i r i n g I. 6.1 Guide for preparation I. 9 ’ Space for I. Medium voltage 4. Selection of 4. 4. 2. Source of 7. 6.1 Apartments 3.4 Electrode.3. 6. 5. I2. 12. 5. 9.4.1.2.1. 2. domestic 1. 4.5 Diagram Block 1. 5.11 Subcircuit.3 Intrinsically.0.2. 4. Types of 1. 2. I Conduits.15 Release. 8. 1. 9 Electrical Installations 3. Secondary 5.1 Zones. 12.3. 12.1 Overload 1.1 Supply 4. 2. 4.24 Tariff. 2. Fundamental concepts 7.2 Wiring 4. 2. 5.1.3. 7.2.3.25 Tariff. 7. 5. I Electrode. 2. 4.1. 5.1.3. 6.23 Tariff.3. 14.4. 2. 7 Wiring in 7. 6. 5. /2. 5. 6. 5. 5. 5. fire-fighting I.2 Statutory regulations 7. 6 Equipment.32 Non-hazardous area 7. I.2 Emergency supply 4.4.39 Voltage. extent of 7.4 fire-safety 4. design 7. I Metal sheathed wiring system 1. selection of size 3.4. location of 3. 5. 2. I. 6. 1. 5. B-4 Wiring system. Industrial 1.1. Appendix C Testing 7. I . 2. 2.20 Obstacle I.1.4. Control of 4.4. 2. 5. internal ‘7.2. 8. 6.3 Specific buildings (see under indivi ual titles) Wiring. 4.2.2. Fig. 2. 2. 2. Choice of 7. Fire-alarm I. 5. 2. Depth of burial I. 2. 4. IS. 8 Socket-outlets 3.27 Tariff. 5.2 Identification 1.2 Switchboards. 5. 2.31 Switch 1. 2.2 General. 14. choice of 4. 6. Types of I. 2.3 Circuits. 2.2.2.4 Earthing 3.3 Distribution. 2. Table I System 1.4. External Codification I. 4 Lifts 3. 6. Table I Audio-systems 1. 3. 8. 6. /I.3. Type of 7.2.29 Safety devices 5. 12.3 Relay.1 Clocks 3. Laying of 7. 10. 3. assessment of 3. 5.4 Fire-safety 3.4 Selection of I. 5.2 Earthing.1 Services 3. 6.2 Testing 3. selection of 7.2 Call-systems 3.3 Lighting 4.1 Industrial buildings Air-conditioning 4. /I. 5 Emergency supply 3. 3 Electrode resistance 1. 6.38 Voltage. 8. 2. 2. 7. 5.4 Hospitals (see under Medical Establishment) Hotels Air-conditioning 3.13 Release. 2. 2. Protection from 7. 7. 2. 2.4.1 I Voltage 1. 3. 2. safe 7. 2.2. 6. 7 Heating 4. 5. Fire protection Detectors 1.1 E Earth.-i. 3.6 Electrical installations in 4 Electra-heat installations 4. I Power-factor compensation 4. Portable 7.2 Operating area 5. 12. 2.4 Terminal I. 2.6 Lift and escalators 1. 8. External 5.8.22 Design constderations 1.1.la) Circuit 1. 8.4. Restrictions for 4. final I. 5. 12. 8 Static electricity. 34.2 Wiring system.3. 1. 2. 2. 5. / Fire-safety 3. 6. I Asse bly buildings 3. 2.5 Electrode.2. IS. High 1. 2. Appendix D.4 Swimming Pools 3. 4.1 Lifts 3.2. 2.0 Temporary outdoor installations 5.3 Examples of 7. 2.33 Potential difference 1.5 Sub-station 3.1.2 General characteristics. 4. 10. 2. 5. 2. 1. Table I Object of 1. I . 3 F Fire-safety. Earthing Alphanumeric notation 1.3.3 Switchgear.3 Sparking.16 Release. 2. 4.Motor generator set. 6. 4.1 Equipment. Processing machinery.0 Cables.1. /2.8 Voltage. 3A. 3.2 Wiring. 4 Interconnection I.2 Electrodes. 1. 2.3 Services 4. Appendix E Operation and maintenance 7.1 Maintainability I.1. 2. 2.14 Surge diverter I. 2.2. Primary 5.5 General characteristics.2. 2.3 Definition. 5. automatic 7.3.6 Equipment. 2. 8. I I. 2.3.5 Pressurized room 7.2. 2.2 L o c a t i o n I. 4 268 INDEX .4.1.6 Working level 5.3. I. Types of 3. power 4. I .2 IE rules for 1. 2. 2.15 Short-circuit I.36 Switch-fuse 1.27 Temporary -installations 5.2 Hazards.1. 2. 1. 2.12 Transformer.6 Exhaust Fans I. 2. 5.15 Switchboard I. 2.4 Industrial premises 4. 4. 4 Hazardous areas.9 Supply terminals 1. assessment of 4.4. 2. 3A. 2. I.2 Symbol 1. Stacking machinery 5.1 Transformer 1.34 Service line I. I7 Risk Zones. Extra-high 1.3.l. Bonding 7.2.ying machinery. 9. 2. Laying of 7.1 Electrode.4.2.2 Standard values I. Appendix A Switchboards 3. self-contained 5. 5. 6. 3. Lighting I. 2. Medical 3.3 Protection.4 Wiring system. 5. 2 Room height 1.23 Definition 1: 2.9 Protection.3 Lighting 3.1 Metering 3. I2 Hazardous areas 7. 8. 3A. 1. 4 H Hazardous area Apparatus. 4.0 Circuit-breaker. sub.10 Neutrial I. Nominal I.3 Ventilation 4. 2. 2. 5.2 Lifts 4.3 Electrodes. 2. 5. 1.3.2 Cables. 7.1. Lighting protection 1. Pipe 1. 6.17 Po~. 6. 5. 1. 4.4 Rules for I. 2. Lighting protection 1.37 Voltage. 5.3 Temination.2 to 2. 8. 5. 5.9 Loop impedance 1. Auto 1. 2. 2.3 Switchboards. Fig. Estimation of 3. 2. 2.lb) Classification of 1.2. 2.3. 7. 1. 2.3 Domestic dwellings Air-conditioning 3. 2. 9. 4.1.1. 14. 2. 12. 7. Plate I.1 I IE Rules Cohformity to I.3 L i g h t i n g 3. 12. 6.2.l. 5. 2. 8.4 Operations. IO Noiseless 1. 12. 2. wire I. 5. 5. 2. 2. 140.13 Winning.1.1.5 Influence.1 Conductors.. 2. 3. Ic) Explanatory I. B-3 Continuity conductor 1. 5.6. 2. /2.6 Cables. 2. Heating I.2.5. 8. 2. electrical Compatibility I.4 Distribution boards 3.6. 2.4 Classification 7.1 Wiring 3. Electrical 5. 4.2. 2. 1. 8. common aspects 1. 6. 6.6 Socket-outlets 3.

open-cast 5. 140 Requirements.3 Lamp-holders. 7. 140. I L Lifts Earthing 1. 3. 2. 6. 4. 4. 5.6.1 Classification 3.6 Substation 3. 38. 5. 2 Testing of 1.3 Types 5. 4. 5. 1. 2. Roads 5. 1. Protection against 1 . . Assessment of 3. 2.2 Testing 3. 7. 3. 8. 5. 6. E-2 Explosion protection 3. 3.3 Power installations 5. I Earthing 5. 5. -5.2 Substation 5. main 5. 7. 2. 4.2. 4 Lifts 3. 4. 4. 5.2.3. 4. Cable 5. I.3 Lighting protection General. I Circuit Installation measures 3. 1. I I Zones of 1. general 1. 1.3 Switching devices 5.1 5. 5.2 Supply 5. 7. 4. 4 Primary processing machinery 5.1 Fire-protection 3. Table 8 Supply 5. 5. 7. 2 Methods of protection I. 8 Quality 5.1.4 Services 3. A-l Temporary outdoor 5. 2.7 Mines.5 Telephones 3.3.2 Car-parks 5.4 Transformers 5. 3. 7 Sub-circuit 5.-. 4 Conductors 1. 3 Railway yards ‘5. 3E Domestic dwellings 3. I I Lifts 3. 4 Emergency supply 3. 3. D. 7 Sefetv 5.4 Electrical installations 3.3 Metering 3. 2.2 Static converters 5. 6. 3 Ports.I. 5 Safety 5.Bathrooms 3. 4.1 Temporary outdoor 5.5 Guidelines for 1. 17.2. 5 Materials 1.5 G r o u p I.3 Railways 5. IS. 3. 6. 5. I Rooming houses 3. 2. 2. 7.6.3. 7. 8. 1. 7. Protection against 1.6. 5. 1. I. 2. 3 Emergency supply 3. 3.6 Roads 5. 2. I. 1. 3. 3 Residential buildings 3.3 Light sources 5.5 Levels of illuminatian. 12. 13.6 Domestic dwellings 3. Assessment of 5. 2.0. Protection against 1 . 5 Docks 5. 3. 6 Swimming pools 3. 4 Electrical Effects 1. 1.2 Specific buildings (see under individual titles) Wiring 1. I Generating stations. 1.1 ’ Levels of illumination. Table 7 Cables 5. 4.3 Electrical installation 3.1 Lighting 5. A-l Business buildings 3.5 Telephones 3. 15. 5 Shopping and commercial centres 3. 140. 6. 4.3 Lighting 3. 4 Emergency lighting 3. 4. 6. /I. 1. 1. 7. IS. 2 Erection I. 2 Farm houses 6 Fault currents. 2. 8 Wiring 5. 6 M Marking Alphanumeric. 3 Non-industrial 3 Office buildings 3. 1. 3C. 5. 6.4 Protection against I. 8.3 Vision. 1.2 Junctions 5. 38.4 Shopping streets 5.1 Roundabouts 5.5 Aims of 5.3 Mechanical effects I.1. 4. 2. 8. 12.6. 38. 2. E-l Essential circuits 3. 4 Mercantile buildings 3. 1. 3. protection against 3C.2 Control 5. 17. 1.3. 2. 6 Wiring 3. IS. 3 Construction sites 5. 5. 2. 6.5. 1. 7. 4. IO Services 3. 3 Direct contact. 2.2. 6.3 Workmanship I. 4 Interfe’rence suppression 3. 6. 2. 3. 2.2.2 Anti-static floor 3. 3.2. 4. 5.1 Outdoor installations Permanent outdoor 5. 2 Livestock houses 6 Lodging houses 3. I Quarrys 5. 3E. 2. 3. 5.2 Testing 3. 3. Permanent outdoor 5.1 System design I. I. 2 Medical establishments Air-conditioning 3. t. 3E. 3. 2 Outdoor 5 Oy. 17. standby 2 Hazardous area 7 Hospitals 3. 5. 38. INDEX 269 .3 7.3 Public lighting installations Aerodrome 5. 4 Hotels 3. 3A. 2. 3E. 2. 5. 2.2 Waterways 5.5 Hazardous areas 7. 9 Sub-stations. 2.1 Public lighting 5.3 General characteristics. 8. Table 8 Power installation. 7. /I.1. 7. 2. 2 Sports buildings 3.4 Recreational Air-conditioning 3.2 of R Railway marshalling yards Classification 5. 6 Set:oAd&y processing machinery 1 5. JB. 17. 7. 5. 2 Design I. 5.Urrent Protection against 1. 2 General characteristics.1. 4. 2.1 Bridges 5. 1. 2.6 Specific buildings (see under individual titles) Wiring for I.2.2 Medical establishments 3.2 Systems of 1. Requirements for 5.1 Equipment for 5. Table 8 Classification. 5 Indirect contact. 3.1 Clocks 3. 2. I5 Thermal effects I. Appendix A Requirements 5.1 Conductor.2 Call-bell system 3. 1.0. 5. 9 Wiring 3. 6. IS.5 Lighting 3. characteristics.1.6 0 Office-buildings Air-conditioning 3. 3D. 4.2 Switchboards 3.2. 2.5 Fundamental principles 1. 6. 2. 2. 4. 5. 4. 2 Circuit. 4. I. 5. electrical 1. 17 Individual 1. 4. AsseJsment of 3. 2. 6. 17.6 Equipment. 3 Thermal effects.4 Fire-safety 3. 5. Lamps Electrical aspects.1 Paging system 3. 3. 2. 4. Principles of 5. 4. 3. 5 Central 1. Common aspects I. 3A. specific buildings (see under individual titles) Outdoor 1. 3. 5.2 Main squares 5. 5 Safety supply systems 3.3 Item-designation I. 2. 8. 6 Flyovers 5. 4.1 Dockyards 5.3. 3E.5 Connectors. 6. 6. 1.1. 3D.6. 7.4 Industrial . 8. Harbours 5. 8. I Educational buildings 3. shape.K 8. 10.4 Design 5. 5. 3 Cables 5. 4. IS. 2. 4. I .3 Recreational buildings 3. 2. 7. 4. 2.2 Poultry 6 Protection for safety 1.1 Clocks 3.2 Transport convey or system 5.2 Discharge. 7.3 Economics of 1. 1. I. /I Lighting Conductor. 4. 12. 4 Capacitor rating I.2 Safety 3.2.6 Measurement Electrical units 1. Protection against I.2 Audio-visual 3. 7. Water supply system 30.6 Definition 5. 3. 8. 7.3 Classification 3. 7.1 Luminaires 5. 15.1. 10. material for I . Ov$rltage Protection against 1. Assessment 3.7 General characteristics. 711 Fire-safety 3. f4A Fittings 1.6. 3. 7.1 Institutional buildings 3. 7. 4. 7. 7. 4 Requirements 5.buildings 4. 1. 12.2 Zones of risk 3. 3D. 140.1 Lifts 3. 8 Testing of systems 1.1.3 Lighting 3.9 General aspects 1.2 Lighting.5 General characteristics.4 Rotating machines 5. 4. 8. I. I. 16. Appendix E Isolation and bonding I. 1. 6.1 Pumping.6 Direct contact. 4.1 Classification 5. selection of 5. 6. 4. 17. 5. 4. 10.2 P Power factor compensation Capacitors for 1.2. 5. 15. 5. 5. 5. 5 General characteristics 5. 5. 14. 1. /5. /I. _?B. 2. 2.2.2 Call-systems 3. 9. 4. 1. 8 Sub-station 3. 5.1 Testing 5.4 Electrical installations 3.12 Industrial 4 Inspection 1.1.

1 Score-board 3.7 Testing 1.1 Working distance for I. 4.1 270 INDEX . A-5 Switchboards A r r a n g e m e n t o f a p p a r a t u s 1 .1. 5.2. 7. 5.1. 6. 16 Equipment.1 Swimming pools 3. 4. 2. 6. 6.0~ voltage 2. 6.2a) Time sequence 1.3.5 Location 1. 3. 2.Services 3. If. 6. 3. 5. ‘6.1 Wiring 3. 3. B-4 Rubber-sheathed 1.3 Testing 3.2b) Wiring I. 16. /I.2.3 Transformer Installations 2 Testing 1. /I. 16. values 1. 2.2.t I. 5.6 Distribution 1.1 Call-bell 1.1. 14. 6.5.3 Identification of 1.2. 6. 3. 3. 6. 6. 3. 5.4 Lighting 3. 9. /I Hazardous area 7. 5. 2 Letter 1.3 Selection. II. 5.1.1. 4. 3. 6 Fire-safety 3. /I. 3. 3. 146 Specific buildings (see under individual titles) Voltage Declared. supplier 1. 5 Metal sheathed I. 3. 3.1 Surface Conduit I.3. 3.1. 5. /I. 10.3 PVC sheethed 1. 2. 5.5. A-3 Zones. Devices for I.3 Wiring of 1.5. 3 Permit-to-work. /I. 6. 6. 5. 3. 4.2 T Tables Classification 1. 5. 4 Lifts and escalators I.2 Assembly buildings 3.2. 3. 5. 6 Wiring 3.2 Selection.1 Pressurized rooms 7. classification 3. 5.2. 6. 10. IO. /3 Socket-outlets.2. A-4 Electrical Installations in 3.8 Limits.4 General characteristics.1 Explanatory 1. 4.2 Symbols Graphical. Common aspects 1. 4. 2.1. 6.5. 10. 5.1. 2. l6. system for I.5.7 L o c a t i o n o f 1. 2. 4.1 Auxilltartes 2.1.2 General. 12. 6.1 Classification 3. 4. 5. 14.2 Limits. Selection of 2.5 Lifts 3.1 Electrical 1. 3. 14. 10.5 Substation 3. 5. A-5 Testing 1.1 Selection. 5. 5. 4 Interconnectiq-. IO Specific buildings (see under individual title) Wiring in 2. Wiring installations.1. 8. II.3. Hazardous area 7.2. 1. Specific buildings (see under individual titles) Reception and distribution 1. I. 16.1 ‘Three phase system I. standard value I. 6.1. selection 01 3.1 Substations Building. 6.1 High voltage 2. 2.2 Audio-systems 3. 4.2 Marking of 1.3 Recessed conduit 1.1. I3 Sports Buildings Air-conditioning 3.1. 5. 3. 6.1 Short-ctrcuit calculation\ I. 5.1 Substation 2. 2.1 Single phase system I.1. 6.2 Recreational buildings 3. 6.2. II. Domestic 3. 5 Swsimmtng Pools Equipment.1 V Ventilation General aspects 1. Il. 3.4 internal methods of 1. 4. /I. 3. A-2.1 Tables for. 2. 4. 7. 2.6 Substation 3. I/. 2. 6. 5.3 Conduit 1. 2. 5. I Sports buildings 3. 4. Plugs 1.5. 3. 5. Y 1. I/. 5. 2. 4. 2 P o s t e r s I. 4. 6.4 Control-room 3.5. 5. 5. 2.1. /6.2 U Units Absolute I.1.2 Instructions I. I Audio systems 1. 6. 16. 4.1 Clocks I. 2. 5 PJactices I. j. 3. 4.2 W Wiring.5.4 Sequence 1.1.1 Fire-alarm 1. 4 Subscripts 1. 3 Clocks 3.2 Guide for preparation 1.1 Voltage.i Industrial 4.1 Definition I. 6.1.4 Office building 3.3 Services 3. 6.1 Types 1. Wiring systems Agricultural premises 6. 6 Wrring 3. 2. 4 Group switching 3. 5. 14.1 Restrictions. 2 System International 1. 1. 6.2 Medical establishments 3. 14. 7. I I Equipment. 6.4 Cleated I. 3.2 s Safety Electrical work 1. 5.1.l. Industrial 4. App-A Safety 3. 5.2. 2.3 Light sources 3. Assessment of 3.3 Switchboards 3.2 Short-circuit calculations 1. I.4 Testmg 3.2. 5. 7. /I. 7. 5.1 Supply C o m m e n c e m e n t 1.2 Electrical installations 3.1. II. 2 lnspcction of 1 . 4. 4 Protection for I. I/. industrial 4. 7. 5.5 Wood casing 1. 6.1 Emergency 2 Emergency.5 Domestic dwellings 3. 3. II. If.3. 5. 12.1 Hotels 3. II. 4. 4. Installation design I.