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( Reaffirmed 1996

)

NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE

BUREAU

OF

INDIAN

STANDARDS

MANAK BHAVAN. 9 BAHADUR SHAH ZAFAR MARG NEW DELHI 110002

SP 30:1984 First Published August 1985 First Reprint April 1990 Second Reprint September 1992 Third Reprint September 1993 Fourth Reprint November 1998 0 BUREAU OF INDIAN STANDARDS UDC 621.3 : 006.78

The National Electrical Code was adopted by the Bureau of Indian Standards (then Indian Standards Institution) on 15 June 1984, after the draft finalized by the National Electrical Code Sectional Committee had been approved by Electrotechnical Division Council

PRICE Rs 600.00

Printed in India at Central Electric Press, A-12/1, Naraina Industrial Area, Phase-l, New Delhi 110028 and Published by the Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi 110002.

INTRODUCTION
Development programmes are interwoven to a large extent with electrical energy. Realizing the need for harnessing this most useful form of energy available, a great amount of emphasis is being laid on the implementation of the programmes for electrical power generation and a substantial portion of the national budget is being allotted for the purpose. The main feature of this effort is to plan for and execute the economic selection, installation and maintenance of electrical equipment employed in the generation, transmission, distribution and utilization of electric power. The design and practices being followed by the various agencies engaged in this type of activity could be rationalized in the light of newer equipment and processes. to remove any extraneous safety and other factors. Realizing the need for standardizing the requirements of the various Electricity Boards and other bodies; the Electrotechnical Division Council under the Code of Practice for Power Installation and Maintenance Sectional Committee has been formulating Indian Standard Codes of practice on the various aspects of handling the power equipment. These codes have been revised from time to time to align wtth the latest technology made available as well as to incorporate the experience gained in the implementation of these codes. However, time and again the need has been felt for a cogent Electrical Code covering unified practices and procedures and safety requirements to be complied with in the design, execution, inspection and maintenance of electrical installation in different locations. The lndiun E/ecrrici;.v Rules, 1956 contain specific regulations to be adhered to in the supply and use of electrical energy in the interest of safety. Nevertheless, there are several areas which need amplification and complementing. The National Electrical Code is formulated primarily to elaborate the Indian Electricity Rules which are statutory in nature and serve as a comprehensive document an electrical practices in our country. The task of the preparation of the Code is entrusted with the National Electrical Code (NEC) Sectional Committee (ETDC 56). This guiding committee and the expert groups under the same have a broad based representation from central and state government organizations, private bodies and professional institutions having wide experience in the field of electrotechnology, particularly in the field of installation engineering. The object of the National Electrical Code (NEC) is given below : The object of the National Electrical Code is to complement the lndiun E/ectricif~v Rules,. 1956 by way of elaborating as well as recommending practices to comply with their requirements. This code is to provide information in a consolidated form to electrical engineers and contractors in the country who are concerned with the design and operation of electrical installations. The presentation of information in the Code has been broadly organized in the following manner : Part I Part 2 Part 3 Part 4 Part 5 Part 6 Part 7 General and Common Aspects Electrical Installation in Standby Generating Stations and Sub-stations. Electrical Installations in Non-Industrial Buildings Electrical Installations in Industrial Buildings Outdoor Installations Electrical Installations in Agricultural Premises Electrical Installations in Hazardous Areas.

d) Specific requirements for protection and safety. rather than the occupancy. 3) Protective equipment. namely. and does not constitute fundamental standardization work. The Code also does not cover electrical installations in underground mines. it had been felt that at this stage. 5) Emergency electric supply. NEC. as it presents a method of identifying information that is classified on the basis of type of occupancy. 4) Metering of consumption.The National Electrical Code Sectional Committee (ETDC 56) has decided upon the above format as best suited for a compendium like this after considerable deliberations. The NEC is basically a compilation document taking assistance from detailed codes already available. such installations should be -excluded from the scope of the Code. It should be brought out. Product details are also excluded from the compilation work for the time being. a method considered best meeting the needs of practising engineers. while closely following the same. Users of IVEC. Considering the variety of practices being followed by the Electricity Boards and the need to collect data on the same. excludes requirements coming under the purview of utilities. To a limited extent. and 7) Guidance on electrical aspects of building services (lighting. that the approach of the National Electrical Code has been primarily to cater to system engineers. air-conditioning and lifts).he information in a handbook form. the efforts of product groups had been taken into account while consolidating t. In the preparation of NEC. though elaborate. The information relating to each type of installation identified above is further classified and presented in the following manner : a) Assessment of the general characteristics of the occupancy from the point of view of the electrical installation therein. apart from the fact that all the required information may not be vi . and 3) Fire protection signalling systems. the large generating stations and distribution substations. 2) Cables and accessories for power circuit. Individual product codes are available on specific power equipment for the use of product application engineer. 6) Reactive power compensation as applicable. b) Heavy current installation in the occupancy : 1) Power supply and distribution system. The NBC classification 01 buildings/occupancies is based on fire-safety considerations and. c) Light current installation in the occupancy : 1) Electric bells and clock systems. The compilation work\ such as the one envisaged for the National Electrical Code. The Code. efforts have been made to fill certain gaps in consultation with the relevant Technical Committees of ISI. 2) Electrical audio systems. however. would find that a one-to-one correspondence does not exist between the building classification made in them. who are also familiar with the National Building Code of India 1983. adogts a modified approach to this classification taking into account the following broad guidelines : a) The classification of electrical installations should take into account the skill and capabilities of the occupants utilizing the installation. and b) Further classification should be based on the degree of sophistication of the electrical requirements of the building. however.

a continuous programme of review is envisaged.as better materials or new and better method also proved as ‘good practice’ would first be introduced in the individual standard as appropriate than in the National Electrical Code.. for detailed guidance. while in others the relevant provisions have been extracted and reproduced. In all cases. should also preferably be self-contained to the extent possible. The individual parts of the Code. In order to keep pace with such changes and to incorporate the additional knowledge that will be gained through the implementation of the Code. vii . Its provisions will not be mandatory but will serve as a model for adoption in the interest of safety and economy. which deal with specific occupancies. A complete revision of the Code is also intended in due course of time. to only draw attention to the relevant standard. which framed in unison with the statutory provisions of IE Rules 1956. On the one hand is the need to make the Code selfcontained as a reference document and on the qther hand is the need to keep it less voluminous. The National Electrical Code (hereafter referred to as the Code) is intended to be advisory. technological innovations such . with minimum elaboration for their specific purpose. can be immedia.available in a ready format. It had been possible. the provisions of the former shall be considered accurate.tely adopted for use by the various interests concerned. in many instances. It contains guidelines. therefore. is made difficult by the need to make a judicious choice of what is to be reproduced in the Code and what is to be referred to in the parent standard. reference should be made to the individual standard and should any contradiction be observed between the provisions in individual code and those reproduced herein. without calling for too many references to Part I dealing with general and common aspects. As a general rule.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The contributions made by the following individuals/groups and their organizations in respect of the part/sections of the National Electrical Code prepared in collaboration with them are greatly acknowledged. Member 1. Shri D. N. Purandare Organization Electrical Contractors Association of Maharashtra, Bombay Siemens India Ltd, Bombay Chief Electrical Engineer to Government of Maharashtra, Bombay Fact Engineering & Design Organization, Udyogamandal Central Public Works Depart- Part 111 Electrical Installations ment, New .Delhi in Non-industrial Buildin s : ) lmgs Section I Domestic Dwe f. Electrical Contractors Association of Maharashtra, Bombay Part 111 Electrical Installations in Non-industrial Buildings : Section 2 Office Buildings, Shopping and Commercial Centres and Institutions Part 111 Electrical Installations in Non-industrial Buildings : Section 3 Recreational, Assembl; Buildings Part I I1 Electrical Installations in Non-industrial Buildings : Section 4 Medical Establishments Section 5 Hotels Part V Outdoor Installations Section 1 Public Lighting Installations and Section 2 Temporary Outdoor Installations 6. Shri V. S. Bhatia Shri A. N. Dutt Siemens India Ltd, Bombay Electrical Contractors Association of Eastern India, Calcutta General Insurance Corporation of India, Bombay Engineers India Ltd, New Delhi Part VII Electrical Installations in Hazardous Areas Part IV Electrical Installations in Industrial Buildings Part/Section of NEC Part II Electrical Installations in Standby Generating Stations and Captive Substations

Shri V. S. Bhatia Shri M: A. Khan.

Shri K. P. R. Pillai 2. Chief Engineer (Elect)-1

3. Shri D. N. Purandare

4. Shri M. J. Anandamurthv Chief Electrical Insnector. Government of Ta’mil Nadu, Madras 5. Shri M. L. Dongre Bombay Electric Supply & Transport Undertaking, Bombay

Shri A. Chatterjee 7. Shri G. N. Thadani 8. Chief Engineer (Elect)-1

Central Public Works -Depart- Appendix to Part III Specific ment, New Delhi Requirements for Electrical Installations in Multistoreyed Buildings.

NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE SECTIONAL COMMITTEE, ETDC 56
Chairman Shri M. L. Dongre C-214 Casuarina Cooperating Housing Society Best Nagar, Ghatkopar East Bombay. Members Shri M. J. Anandamurthy Electrical Inspector (Technical) (Alternate) Shri V. G. Bapat Shri K. S. Joshi (Alternate) Shri V. S. Bhatia Shri M. M. Shethna (Alternate) Shri ‘D. K. Biswas Federation of Electricity Undertakings of India, Bombay Siemens India Ltd, Bombay Department of Science and Technology (National Committee on Environmental Planning and Coordination), New Delhi Central Public Works Department, New Delhi Representing Chief Electrical Inspector, Government of Tamil Nadu, Madras

Chief Engineer (Elect)-1 Surveyor of Works (Elect)-1 (Ahernate) Shri P. J. Damany Shri J. H. Pate1 (A/female) Shri K. Dasgupta Shri P. Neogi (AIternare) Director of Mines Safety, Dhanbad Director of Mines Safety, Sitapur (A Iternate) ’ Shri A. N. Dutt Shri Abani Dutta (Alternate) Shri G. L. Dua Shri S. K. Sethi (Ahernafe) Deputy Chief Electrical Engineer (G) Shri K. C. Gupta Shri N. Raghavan (Alternate) Brig L. G. Ketkar Lt-Co1 G. R. Mahadevan (Alternate) Shri M. A. Khan Superintending Engineer (inspection) (AIternafe) Shri S. K. Kundu Shri S. R. Chakrabarty (Alfernare)

Gujarat Electricity Board, Vadodara Calcutta Electric Supply Corporation Ltd, Calcutta Directorate General of Mines Safety, Dhanbad

Electrical Contractors Association of Eastern India, Calcutta Rural Electrification Corporation Ltd, New Delhi Railway Board, Ministry of Railways New Delhi h’ational Safety Council, Bombay Directorate General of Inspection, Ministry of Defence, New Delhi

Chief Electrical Engineer to Government of Maharashtra, Bombay

Chief Electrical Inspector to Government of West Bengal, Calcutta

Shri S. V. Madgavkar Shri R. K. Sehgal (Ahcw7ate) Shri B. S. Landalika Shri H. R. Khan (Alternate) Shri K. K. Mondal Shri I. N. Khushu (A/female) Member (Hydroelectric) Director (H ED)-1 (AIIei’nare) Shri M. Muniram Shri S. N. Narasinga Rao Shri M. Ramatar (Alternate) Shri V. H. Navkal S h r i M . R . Iv. Menon (Ahernure) Dr G. M. Phadke Shri K. P. R. Pillai Shri D: N. Purandare Shri S. S. Jhaveri (Ahernute) Shri T. Ramachandran Shri B. M. Reddy Shri T. V. Shankaranarayana Shri V. Venkateshaiah (Alternate) Shri P. D. Sharma Shri S. C. Jain (Alternate) Shri G. N. Thadani Shri S. G. Gokhale (Alrernure) Representative Shri S. Govindaraj (Alternate 1) Shri A. S. R. Sastry (Ahernure II) Shri S. P. Sachdev, Director (Elec tech)

Bombay Suburban Electric Supply Ltd, Bombay Armv Headouarters. Ministry of Defence, h’ew Delhi. General Insurance Corporation of India, Bombay Central Electricity Authority, New Delhi Karnataka Electricity Board, Bangalore Power Project Engineering Division, Department of Atomic Energy, Bombay The Bombay Electric Supply and Transport Undertaking, Bombay Indian Electrical Manufacturers’ Association, Bombay Fact Engineering & Design Organization, Udyogamandal Electrical Contractors Associations of Maharashtra, Bombay Planning Commission, New Delhi Central Electricity Authority, New Delhi Chief Electrical Inspector to Government of Karanataka, Bangalore Delhi Electric Supply Undertaing, New- Delhi Engineers India Ltd, b!ew Delhi Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd, Hyderabad

Director General, IS1 (Ex-officio Member)

Secretary
Shri K. Ganesh Deputy Director (Elec tech), ISI

CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION

PART I GENERAL AND COMMON ASPECTS
0. Foreword SECTION I SCOPE OF THE NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE SECTION 2 DEFINITIONS
0.

3 4

1. 2. 3.

Foreword Scope Definitions List of Indian Standards on Electrotechnical Vocabulary

5 5 5 IO

SECTION 3 GRAPHICAL SYMBOLS FOR DIAGRAMS, LETTER SYMBOLS AND SIGNS 0. I. 2. 3. 4. Foreword Scope Graphical Symbols List of Indian Standards on Graphical Symbols Letter Symbols and signs

SECTION 4 GUIDE FOR PREPARATION OF DIAGRAMS, CHARTS AND TABLES, AND MARKING 0. I. 2. Foreword Scope Preparation of Diagrams, Charts and Tables 20 20 20

SECTION 5 UNITS AND SYSTEMS OF MEASUREMENT 0. Foreword I. Scope 2. Units and Systems of Measurement SECTION 6 STANDARD VALUES 0. I. 2. 3. 4.
0.

24 24 24

Foreword Scope Standard Values of voltages Preferred Current Ratings Standard System Frequency

26 26 26 27 27

SECTION 7 FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES I. 2. 3. Foreword Scope Fundamental Principles Design of Electrical Installation 28 28 28 29

SECTION 8 ASSESSMENT OF GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF BUILDINGS 0. Foreword 32

I. S c o p e 2. Assessment of General Characteristics of Buildings APPENDIX A Types of System Earthing SECTlOh’ 9 SELECTION OF EQUIPMENT 0. Foreword 1. Scope 2. Selection of Equip ment SECTlOh’ 10 ERECTIOh’ AND INITIAL TESTING OF INSTALLATION 0. I. 2. 3. Foreword Scope Erection Inspection and Testing

32 32 38

40 40 40

41 41 41 41

SECTION I I WIRING INSTALLATIONS 0. I. 2. 3. 4. Foreword Scope Equipment, Fittings and Accessories Construction Methods of Internal Wiring 46 46 46 48 51

SECTlOT’! I2 E A R T H I N G 0. Foreword I. Scope 2. General Remarks 3. Earth Electrodes 4. Earth Bus and Earth Wires 5. Measurement of Earth Electrode Resistance 6. Earthing of Installations in Buildings 7. Measurement of Earth Loop ,Impedance APPENDI’X A Representative Values of Soil Resistivity in Various Parts of India APPENDIX B Additional Rules for Earthing SECTION I3 SHORT-CIRCUIT CALCULATIONS ( Under Consideration) SECTION I4 ELECTRICAL ASPECTS OF BUILDING SERVICES 0. Foreword I. S c o p e 2. General Guidelines SECTION l4A LIGHTING 3. Aspects of Lighting Services SECTION l4B VENTILATION 4. Aspects of Ventilation SECTION l4C AIR-CONDITIONING AND HEATING 5. Aspects of Air-Conditioning and Heating Services SECTION l4D LIFTS AND ESCALATORS ‘6. Electrical Aspects of Lifts and Escalator Services
xii

57 57 57 59 62 63 63 64 65 66

69

71 71 71

71

72

72

73

Foreword Scope Terminology Exchange of Information Characteristices of Lightning Discharges Determination of the Need for Protection Zone of Protection Materials and Dimensions Design Isolation and Bonding Protection of Special Structures Inspection and Testing 81 81 81 81 82 82 83 83 83 86 87 87 SECTION I6 SAFETY IN ELECTRICAL WORK 0. . 8. I. Safety Instructions 4. Safety Practices 5. 3. 2. Foreword 95 92 92 92 92 93 94 88 88 88 88 91 91 91 PART 2 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS -IN STANDBY GENERATING STATIONS AND CAPATIVE SUBSTATIONS 0. Power Factor Improvement and Capacitor Rating SECTION I8 TABLES 0. 3. Electrical Call Bell Services Clock Systems 78 79 77 75 SECTION I5 LIGHTNING PROTECTION 0. Foreword I. IO. Electrical Aspects of Audio System Services S E C T I O N 14F FIRE ALARM SYS-lEMS 8... Electrical Aspects of Fire Alarm Systems SECTION l4G MISCELLANEOUS SERVICES 9. Foreword I. Foreword Scope Terminology General Characteristics of Station installation Exchange of Information Layout and Building Construction Aspects Selection of Equipment IO1 102 102 102 102 102 102 XIII . I. I I. 7. 2. Scope 2. 5. 6.SECTION 14E AUDIO SYSTEMS 7. 4: 5. 4. 6. Safety Posters 6. IO. Permit-to-work System 3. Accidents and Treatment for Electric Shock SECTION I7 GUIDELINES FOR POWER-FACTOR IMPROVEMENT 0. Power Factor 4. 9. General 3. Use of Capacitors 5. Scope 2.

. 2. 8. Foreword Scope Terminology Classification General Characteristics of Installations Supply Characteristics and Parameters Testing of Installation Miscellaneous Provisions 117 II7 II7 II7 II7 II8 121 I21 SECTION 3 RECREATIONAL. I. Generating Sets Transformer Installations High Voltage Switching Stations Low Voltage Switching Stations and Distribution Panels Station Auxiliaries Wiring in Station Premises Earthing Building Services Fire Safety Requirements Lightning Protection Testing and Inspection 102 103 103 103 103 104 104 104 104 104 104 PART 3 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN NONINDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS 0. 7. 4.7. 7. 9. IO. 5. 6. 16. I. ASSEMBLY BUILDINGS 0. IO. 5. I I. 12. 15. 9. 2. APPENDIX Foreword Scope Terminology Classification General Characteristics of. xiv Foreword Scope Terminology Classification General Characteristics of Installations Supply Characteristics and Parameters Testing of Installation Miscellaneous Provisions 123 123 123 123 123 124 126 126 . 7. SHOPPING AND COMMERCIAL CENTRES AND 1NSTITUTIOtiS Q. 13. Foreword 107 SECTION 1 DOMESTIC DWELLINGS 0. 8.6 . 14. I I. 2. 3. 6. 17. 4. 13. 4. 3. 12. I.Installation Supply Characteristics and 1 Parameters Switchgear for Control and Protection Service Lines Metering Earthing in Domestic Installations Building Services Fire Protection Testing of Installation Miscellaneous Provisions A Particular Requirements for Locations Containing a Bath Tub or Shower Basin I08 I08 I08 I08 I08 109 I IO Ill Ill III II2 II3 113 II3 II3 SECTlOIS 2 OFFICE BUILDINGS. 3. 5.

APPENDIX Foreword Scope Terminology Classification of Sports Buildings General Characteristics of Sports Buildings Supply Characteristics and Parameters Testing of Installation Miscellaneous Provisions TO PART 3 Specific Requirements for Electrical Installations in Multi-Storeyed Buildings 159 -1. 4. 4. 3. I. Foreword I. 2.EDICAL 0. I. 6. I. 4. Standby and Special Safety Supply System I I. 7. 2. 7. ESTABLISHMENTS 127 127 126 129 129 130 131 138 139 140 140 141 142 Foreword Scope Terminology Classification General Characteristics of Medical Establishments Safety Considerations Supply Characteristics and Parameters Additional Requirements for Hazardous Locations in Hospitals 8. Miscellaneous Provisions APPENDIX A Zones of Risk in the Operating Theatre When Using Flammable Anaesthetic Mixtures of Anesthetic Gases and Cleaning Agents APPENDIX B Patient Environment APPENDIX C Example of an Electrical Installation in a Medical Establishment APPENDIX D Schematic Representation of Protective Conductors and Equipotential Bonding in Operating Theaters APPENDIX E Safety Supply Systems APPENDIX F Safety Supply System of a Hospital (Example) SECTION 5 HOTELS 0. Testing of Installation IO. 3.SECTION 4 M. Building Services 9. 5. 5. 6. 7. Scope 171 172 XV . APPENDIX Foreword Scope Terminology Classification General Characteristics of Installation Supply Characteristics and Parameters Testing of Installation Miscellaneous Provisions A Particular Requirements for Swimming Pools 144 145 146 147 148 151 152 152 152 152 152 153 155 155 156 SECTlOh’ 6 SPORTS BUILDINGS 0. 6. 3. 5. Measures against Interference Provision 12. 2.59 159 159 160 160 163 163 164 PART 4 ELECTRICAL lNSTALLATlONS IN INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS 0.

Guidelines for Specific Location 8. Emergency] Standby Power Supplies 7.IGHTING I N S T A L L A T I O N S 0. Building Services 9. 2. Selection of Equipment 7. SECTION I.. Protection and Safety 8. Terminology 3. Classification of industrial Buildings 4. 3. General Principles 5. I. Foreword Scope Terminology Classification General Characteristics of Temporary Installations General Requirements for Temporary Outdoor Installations 6. Scope 2. Rules for Equipment and Auxiliaries \vi 222 . Testing dnd Commissioning 216 216 216 216 216 217 217 219 2:3 196 196 196 I98 I98 199 207 209 210 212 215 I95 SECTION 3 OUTDOOR INSTALLATIONS 0. Foreword 3A GENERAL Scope Terminology Types of Permanent Outdoor lnstallatiops General Characteristics of Permanent Outdoor Installations 220 220 220 221 222 SECTION 3B EQUIPMENT AND AUXILIARIES 5. 2. Miscellaneous Considerations APPEFDIX A Terminology of Road Types SECTION 2 TEMPORARY OUTDOOR INSTALLATIONS 0. Designs 6. 5. Classification 4. Foreword SECTION I PUBLIC L. 3. 4. System Protection 8. Supply Characteristics and Parameters 6. Terminology 3. 4. Miscellaneous/ Special Provisions APPENDIX A Examples of Industries Based on Fire Safety APPElVDlX B Selection of Wiring Systems APPENDIX C Requirements for Fire Safety in Specific Industries APPElVDlX D Recommended Values of Illumination and Limiting Values of Glare Index-Industrial Buildings APPENDIX E Power Factor in Industrial Installations 172 172 173 174 I78 I78 I79 I 79 180 1x1 183 184 I91 PART 5 OUTDOOR INSTALLATIONS 0. Power Installation Requirements 9. Foreword ‘I.2. General Characteristics of Industrial Buildings 5. Additional Requirements for Temporary Outdoor Installations 7.

Requirement\ for Permanent Outdoor Installations StICTtON ?tJ AI)t)t-I’IONAL G U I D E L I N E S F O R S P E C I F I C AREAS 8.A’l‘IONS 7. 2. 7.l. 8. I.WC t tOS 3C‘ PRO It-C 1 t’OS t . 2. Additional Guidelines for Installations in Specific Areas 231) 227 PART 6 ELECTRICAL 1NSTALLATlONS 1N AGRICULTURAL PR.rardous Areas Testing of Installation A Indian Standards for Electrical Equipment for Use in Hazardous Atmospheres B Recommendations for the Protection of Diesel Engines for Permanent Installation in Hajrardous Areas C Recommendations for Storage Batteries for Use in Zone 2 Areas D Examples of Industries and their Working Places which Require Considerations in Regard to Hazardous Locations E Lightning Protection of Structures with Explosive or Highly Flammable Contents. 4. APPENDIX APPENDtX Foreword Scope Terminotogy Statutory Regulations Fundamental Concepts Classification of Hazardous Areas Specific Guidelines for Electrical Installations in Ha. 6. 5.EMlSES 0. 7. 4. 6. Foreword scope Terminology Classification General Characteristics of Agricultural Premises Supply Characteristics and Parameters Services in Agricultural Premises Testing of Installation Miscellaneous Provisions 235 236 236 236 236 237 239 239 239 PART 7 ELECTRlCAL INSTALLATIONS IN HAZARDOUS AREAS 0. 243 244 244 245 245 246 248 261 261 262 263 APPENDIX APPENDIX 264 265 267 APPENDIX INDEX . (iencral Rulc~ lor P r o t e c t i o n i n O u t d o o r I n s t a l l a t i o n 225 S1IC. 5. 3.O R SAF-E’IY h. 3.t IO?. 31) RPQ\IIREMt:N t S FO!i INS-I-At. I.

NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE PART 1 .

this Page is Intentionally Left Blank .As in the Original Standard.

0.PART 1 GENERAL AND COMMON ASPECTS 0. 0. felt essential to bring out the fundamental and general principles governing electrical installation practice together with common aspects applicable to all types of installations in a separate part to serve as a reference document on such matters. It is.1 Each part/section of the National Electrical Code covers the requirements relating to electrical installations m specific occupancies. so that users of the Code can derive utmost advantage in using it for application in the field even for occupancies not explicitely covered by the scope of subsequent Parts of the Code. Efforts have also been made to ensure that all the relevant details required for the understanding of the Code are available to the extent possible within Part I and references of individual standards have been kept to the minimum.3 This part of the Code is basically a compilation of guidelines available in several Indian Standards dealing with the various general aspects relating to electrical installation practice. Individual sections of this part would therefore have to be read in conjunction with the relevant Indian Standards from which information has been condensed. These Indian Standards are listed at the Forewords to each Section.2 The details enumerated in this part are generally applicable to all types of occupancies and are to be read as modified or supplemented with the information provided in the relevant Parts of the Code. 0. FOREWORD 0. however.4 Effort has been made to make this part self-contained. .

b) Domestic dwellings. h) Industrial premises. the same installation shall be made to comply with the requirements of the Code for the new occupancy.Any type of installation not covered by the above shall be classified in the group which most nearly resembles its existing or proposed use. 4 NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE .Where change in the occupancy places it under the scope of a different section of the Code. 2.6 The Code is also not intended to apply to: a) Systems of distribution of energy to public. 2.5 The Code covers only electrical aspects of lightning protection of buildings and in so far as the effects of lightning on the electrical installations are concerned. and aircraft or installations in underground mines. 0 Hotels. 2.4 The Code does not apply to traction.7 The Code also does not cover guidelines on the payment for electrical work done in installations.2 The Code applies to electrical installations such as those in: a) Standby/emergency generating plants and bullding substations. shopping and commercial centres and institutions. and g) Sports buildings. SCOPE OF THE NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 2.1 The National Electrical Code covers the following: 4 Standard good practices for selection of various items of electrical equipment forming part of power systems.SECTION 1 SCOPE OF THE NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 1. b) Recommendations concerning safety and related matter in the wiring of electrical installations of buildings or industrial compatibility promoting structures. 4 Recreational and other public premises. 4 Additional precautions to be taken for use of electrical equipment for special environmental conditions like explosive and activ. on boardships. k) Agricultural premises. 2. N OTE I . motor vehicles. installations in rolling-stock. and b) Power generation arid transmission for such systems. It does not cover lightning protection aspects from structural safety point of view. SCOPE 1. 2.1 This Section of the Code describes the scope of the National Electrical Code.3 The Code applies to circuits other than the internal wiring of apparatus. and m) Installations in hazardous areas. . 2. d Medical establishments. 2. c) General safety procedures and practices in electrical work. c) Office buildings. NOTE 2 . between such recommendations and those concerning the equipment installed. j) Temporary and permanent outdoor installations.e atmosphere.

2.I’ Cirr~Lrirs Series ~~~ An arrangement of elements so that they all carry the same current or flux. The principal object of this exercise is to provide definitions which are sufficiently clear so that each term is understood with the same meaning by all concerned.15 It~sulation decrease in insulation resistance.1 Capacitor A system of two conductors (plates) separated over the extent of their surfaces by an insulation medium which is capable of storing electrical energy as electrical stress. abnormal 2. 2. do not take account of certain exceptions or are not identical with those which may. The passage of a disruptive 2.I Outdoor electrical equipment are those \uitablc or installation in open air.1. 2.8 Voltage.FOREWORD 0.1. 5 2.1.1.16 O\wloatl Operating conditions in an electrically undamaged circuit which causes an overcurrent. 2 .The electrical machines.7 Electric Current ~ The movement’ of electricity in a medium or along a circuit.An arrangement of elements of which some are connected in series and others in parallel. 6 Elec-tric Circuit ~. DEFINITIONS 2.potentials.1. 2.5 Currenr ~~ The elementary quantity of electricity flowing through a given section of a PAR-I’ I GENERAI. taken along a given path.1. in addition to those contained in individual parts sections.13 Earth Fault --.1 This Section of the Code covers definitions of terms. 2.17 Short-Circrrit -~ The intentional or accidental connection of two points of a circuit through a negligible impedance.1. N OTE ~ A list of ‘Indian Standards on clcctrotcchnicc~l vocabulary relevant for the purposca of the Code i\ gkcn in 3.often applied _to the group of phenomena which accompany a short circuit between points at different .Accidental connection 01 a conductor to earth. It may however be noted that for further guidance. Users may find it convenient to refer to a detailed list of terms and their definitions contained in this section that are relevant to electrical installation practice. 2. Such differences are inevitable and should be accepted in the interest of uniformity and clarity.2 Equipment 2.9 Arc A luminous discharge of electricity across a gas. The direction of the current is accepted as opposite to that of the motion of negative electricity. recourse should be made to IS : 1885 (series) on electrotechnical vocabulary containing a compendium of terms in the field. 2.I2 Cot?t?rc’tiotl (. 1. The term is. 2. conductor divided by the corresponding indefinitely small time. 0.1. 2. 2. It may sometimes be felt that the definitions are not sufficiently precise do not include all cases. apparatus and circuits forming part of an electrical installation or a power system.1 Fundamental Definitions 2.1 Electrical Equipnlenl . _ Parallel ~-~ Electric or magnetic circuits are said to be in parallel (or shunt) when current or flux is d i\ idcd between them. SCOPE 1.1.1 Each part of the Code gives. 2 . 1 .1.SECTION 2 DEFINITIONS O. AND COMMON ASPECTS . Faltll A n 2.2 The definitions contained in the Code. Potential D(/fkretwP ~~~ The line of integral from one point to another of an electric field.1.A material medium in which an electric field can exist in a stationary state.1.2 Cotltluc~rol allows current of electricity to pass continuously.1 I Spark mcnon of shol-t d u r a t i o n wII_ich charactcri/cs a disruptive discharge. the connection is called a dead earth. often accompanied by partial volatilization of the electrodes.1 . The current 2.1.2.1 .3 Dielectrics ~. have been drawn up by the relevant expert groups under the Electrotechnical Division Council with the object of striking a correct balance between absolute precision and simplicity.I4 Earlh Leakage Crtrrettl flowing to earth on account of imperfect insulation. It does not however constitute a treatise on electrical engineering.A n a r r a n g e m e n t o f bodies or media through which a current can flow.0 For the urposes of the National Electrical Code. Series Parallel. where necessaq definitions of terms and phrases relevant for the comprehensions of the requirements stipulated therein. A substance or body which 2. NIIJI. characterized by a large current and a low voltage gradient.lO Flasho\!et discharge round an insulating material. be found in other publications designed with different objectives and for other readers. When the impedance is negligible. the deP Initions given below shall apply.4 Elecrrotle ~~ A conducting element used for conveying current to and from a medium. 1 . A brillinntlv l u m i n o u s phcno2.

2.2.Held equipment intended to be held in the hand during normal use.ljpe Fuse . 2 . 2.Equipment which is moved while in operation or which can easily be moved from one place to another while connected to the supply. in which the motor. with fuses. Equipment . for example. transformers.8 Electric Motor . 2..2. also assemblies of such devices and equipment with associated inter-connections. transmission.2. 2. distribution and conversion of electric energy.16 Switch-Fuse-A switch in which one or more poles have a fuse in series in a composite unit. 2.Breaker .12 Transformer . transmission.2.A switching device that by the melting of one or more of its specially designed and proportioned components.15 Switch (Mechanicat) .2.24 D. accessories.4 Hand.5 Stationary Equipment .2. is connected to the supply network. 2.2. carrier. 2.2.2. 2. 6 . 2.A device designed to produce sudden predetermined changes in one or more phjvsical systems on the appearance of certain conditions in the phJsica/ system controlling it. NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 2. 2.19 Fuse.2 Current Using Equipmenr .Na7W2 ~~ For the purposes of this Code.26 Interconnecting Bus-Bar .Equipment intended to convert electrical energy into another form of energy.i~chgcar general term covering switching devices and their combination with associated control.A non-interchangeable fuse comprising a fuse-base a screw type fuse-.Breaker ( Mechanic*al) -~~ A mechanical switching device capable of making.2:13 Reia. carrying and breaking currents under normal circuit conditions which may include specified operating overload conditions and also carrying for a specified time currents under specified abnormal circuit conditions such as those of a short-circuit.2.2.6 Fixed Equipmenr .18 Circuit. 2. apparatus.2. such as those of overcurrent and short-circuit.2.L i n k .14 S~c. without continuously moving parts. controlling or connecting more than one outgoing circuit fed from one or more incoming circuits. measuring instruments.A mechanical switching device capable of making.11 Auto.2.A machine which consists of an electric motor mechanically coupled to a generator.A totally enclosed structure.An enclosure containing bus-bars. ‘provided at its two ends with metal contacts.Equipment fastened to a support or otherwise secured in a specific location. 2. conversion..20 Enclosed Distribution Fuse-Board .A machine for converting mechanical energy into electrical energy.A switch in which a fuselink or a fuse-carrier with fuse-link forms the moving contact of the switch.2. the shape of which varies according to the type of the fuse.A compact mechanical device for making and breaking a circuit both in normal conditions and in abnormal conditions.25 Distribution Pillar .2.An alternating current motor without a commutator in which one part only.7 Generator .2. 2 2 F u s e . wiring material and appliances.3 Portable Equipment .A piece of apparatus.17 Fuse-Switch .9 I n d u c t i o n M o t o r . heat or motive power. 2.A machine for converting electrical energy into mechanical energy. a gauge piece and a fuse-link. . 2.23 Miniature Circuit. usually cylindrical. forms an integral part of the equipment.2. distribution or utilization of electrical energy such as machines.10 Motor Generator Set .2.Portable 2. 2. protective devices. 2.T h e part of the fuse including the fuse-element which requires replacement by a new fuse-link after the fuse has operated and before the fuse can be put back to service. light. 2. which by electromagnetic induction transforms variable voltage and current in one or more other windings usually at different values of voltage and current and at the same frequency.2. 2.2.2. if any.A fuse-link having a totally enclosed container. the rotor or a stator.A transformer in which the primary and secondary windings have common part or parts. opens a circuit in which it is inserted and’ breaks the current when this exceeds a given value for a sufficient time. Controlgears are switching devices intended in principle for the control of electrical energy consuming equipment. 2 . the term electrical equipment can in general be used to any item used for such purposes as gtneration.Transformer . used for external connection between &rminals ‘of equipment.‘cubicle containing bus-bars connected to incoming and outgoing distribution feeders controlled through links/fuses. measuring. carrying and breaking currents under normal circuit conditions and also making. for the purposes of protecting. protective and regulating equipment.21 Carrridge Fuse-Link . A antI Conlro~~eur 2. enclosures and supporting structures intended in principle for use in connection with generation. carrying for a specified time and breaking currents under specified abnormal circuit conditions such as those of a short-circuit. 2. (Including GUS-Operaled Relal!) . the other working by induction.A conductor other than cable.2.Either fixed equipment or equipment not provided with a carrying handle and having such a mass that it cannot easily be moved.2. 2.

3.2.3.3.3 Aerial Conductor . are not separated from each other. 2.That part of a rewirable fuse. associated with the wiring and electrical appliance of an installation.JN”RAl. Insulated . 2. Insulated aerial conductors.serving as a mechanical protection.29 Fuse-Base.6 &ble. The term ‘lightning arrester’ includes any external series gap which is essential for the proper functioning of the device as installed for service. a plug. e a c h p r o v i d e d w i t h i t s o w n insulation.A combination of a plug and socket arranged for attachment to a portable electrical appliance or to a flexible cord.The ends of the electrical conductors situated upon any consumer’s premises and belonging to him at which the supply of energy is delivered from the service line. The fuse-base comprises all the parts necessary for insulation. Two flexible cords twisted together are known as ‘Twin Flexible Cord’ NOTE . AND COMMON ASPECTS . for example.A conductor not covered with insulating material. 3 .3.For the maximum diameter and minimum number of wires for flexible cord.3. Flexible -A cable containing one -:-or more cores.35 Cable .A cable provided with a wrapping of metal (usually in the form of tape or wire).3. 2.3.2.3.2.3 Wiring Practice 2. each formed of a group of wires.19 Dead . a fuse.2.The fixed part of a fuse provided with terminals for connection to the system.3. for example.10 Cleat .Cables are said to be ‘bunched’ when two or more are contained within a single conduit.Electrical apparatus including all machines.A conductor adequately covered with insulating material of such quality and thickness as to prevent danger.A flexible cable having conductor of small cross-sectional area. without the intervention of a further distribution fuseboard other than a one-way board. 2.3.Board . if not enclosed. 2. and Weatherproof neutral-screened cable.A length of single-insulated conductor (solid or stranded). 2. 2.11 Conductor.30 Fuse-Carrier-The movable part of a fuse designed to carry a fuse-link. Fkxible .27 Bimetallic Connector .15 Conductor for Portable Appliankes . Covered aerial conductors. P A R T I C.3. 2. or (Ho or more such conductors. a lampholder.21 Distribution Fuse. 2. which are laid up together. 7 2 . Final. 2.An outgoing circuit connected to one-way distribution fuse-board and intended to supply electrical energy at one or more points to current-using appliances.9 Circuit.12 Conductor.3.2 Apparatus -.14 Connector Box or Joint Box. appliances and fittings in which conductors are used for of which they m a y form a part.2. The insulated conductor or conductors may or may not be provided with an overall mechanical protective covering. A r m o u r e d . the diameters of the cores and of the wires being sufficiently small to afford flexibility.Any conductor which is supported by insulators above the ground and is directly exposed to the weather.3.Four classes of aerial conductors are recognized: a) b) c) d) Bare aerial conductors. The fuse-carrier does not include any fuse-link. regardless of whether or not it is supplied as an integral part of the device. 23. 2.Wire in Rehirable Fuse). a switch. Sub .28 Fuse-Element (Fuse.1 Accessory . SCP relevant standard. Earthed .13 Conductor.A device designed to protect electrical apparatus from high transient voltage and to limit the duration and frequently the amplitude of followcurrent.A box forming a part of wiring installation provided to contain joints in the conductors of cables of the installation.3.8 Circuit .A conductor with no provision for its insulation from earth.20 Direct Earthing System . 2.3. 2.A system of earthmg in which the parts of an installation are so earthed as specified but are not connected within the installation to the neutral conductor of the supply system or to earth through the trip coil of an earth leakage circuit-breaker.Any device. 2.16 Consumer’s Terminals . N OTE .3.17 Cord. or a ceiling rose. 2.2.7 Cable. which is designed to melt and thus open the circuit. 2.3.At or about earth potential and/or disconnected from any live system. 2. 2. duct or groove or.An insulated incombustible support normally used for insulated cable. 2. fusible cut-out. It includes all branches and extensions derived from that particular way in the board. 2.18 GUI-0~ Any appliance for automatically interrupting the transmission of energy through any conductor when the current rises above a predetermined amount. Bare .31 Lightning Arrester (Surge Diverter) .An assemblage of parts including one or more fuses arranged for the distribution of electrical energy to final sub-circuits. 2. a socket-outlet.A connector dedgned for the purpose of connecting together two or more conductors of different materials (normally copper and aluminium) for preventing electrolytic corrosion. 4 B u n c h e d .An arrangement of conductor or conductors for the purpose of conveying energy and forming a system or a branch of a system. 2.3. 2.

an electrolier. part of a building or anything affixed thereto or any wall enclosing or intended to enclose any land or space and signs and outdoor display structures.31 Multiple Earthed Neutral System .23 Earth Continuity Conductor -The conductor.37 to 2.The voltage which does not normally exceed 250 volts. 2. to be earthed are connected to the general mass of earth and.Any structure for whatsoever purpose and of whatsoever materials constructed and every part thereof whether used as human habitation or not and includes foundation. 2. Tents.3.A device consisting of two portions for easily connecting portable lighting fittings and other current-using appliances to the supply.36 S w i t c h b o a r d . cornice or projection.24 Earth Electrode-A metal plate. balcony. 2. Extra. 2.3. in the open position it provides an isolating distance between the terminals of each pole. 2. 2. 3 3 Point-A point shall consist of the branch wiring from the branch distribution board. circuit-breaker. resistance or impedance in the earth connection. roofs.High . 2 . 2.30 Live or Alive-Electrically charged so as to have a potential difference from that of earth.3.‘solidly earthed’ when it is electrically connected to earth electrode without a fuse.A material capable of being easily ignited.A device used to open (or close) a circuit when either negligible current is interrupted (or established) or when the significant change in the voltage across the terminals of each of the pole of the disconnector occurs. walls. shade. the conductor of.The voltage exceeding 33 kV under normal conditions.3. b) Of an appliance . SHAMIA NA HS.3. pipe or other conductor electrically connected to the general mass of the earth. NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 2.34 Service -. Low .3. 2. in addition. in addSon. and a conductor is said to be .A conductor is said to have double insulation when insulating material intervenes not only between the conductor and its surrounding envelope (if a cable) or immediate suport (if bare). Lighting . High .29 Insulation Double Of a conductor . switch. tarpaulin shelters.3. plinth. conductors and 2. fluorescent or incandescent) together with any holder.313 Voltage. It may however. N O T E-The definitions given in 2.The final conductor by which the connection to the earth electrode is made.The voltage which normally exceeds 250 volts but does not exceed 650 volts.1 Building . are connected within the installation to the neutral conductor of the supply system. 2. Medium .3.T h e equipment required for delivering energy from the electric supply system to the wiring system of the premises served.3. connecting to the earthing lead or to each other those parts of an installation which are required to be earthed.40 Voltage. be noted that voltage ranges as defined internationally are at variance with the above definitions. fixed platforms.An appliance having accessible metal part is doubly insulated when protective insulation is provided in addition to the normal functional insulation.4. in order to protect against electric shock in case of breakdown of the functional insulation.22 Earth --A connection to the general mass of earth by means of an earth electrode.4 Miscellaneous Terms 2. The socket-outlet is designed as a fixed member and the plug portion carries multiple metal contacts which connect with corresponding metal contacts in socket portion.3.26 Fitting.28 Disconnector .37 Voltage.outlet or suitable termination.27 Flammable . or reflector. together with a switch as required. etc. 2. erected for temporary and ceremonial occasions with the permission of the Authority shall not be considered as building. floors.3. 2. verandah. 2. 2.A device for supporting or containing a lamp or lamps (for example. 2. a bracket.2. 3 . as far as and including the ceiling rose or socket.3. and the middle wire or common return conductor of a three-wire dc or single-phase ac system. for example.3.The voltage which normally exceeds 650 volts (but less than 33 kV).3.3.25 Earthing Lead . specified. A three-pin socket-outlet point shall include.39 Volrage. An object is said to be ‘earthed’ when it is electrically connected to an earth electrude.3. a single-phase or dc installation which is earthed by the supply undertaking (or otherwise at the source of the supply). four-wire system.32 Neutral or Neutral Conductor Includes the neutral conductor of a three-phase 8 .An assemblage of switchgear with or without instruments but the term does not apply to a group of local switches or a final sub-circuit where each switch has its own insulating base. 2. chimneys. a pendant with ceiling rose.A system of earthing in which the parts of an installation.3. the connecting wire or cable from the earth pm to the earth stud of the branch distribution board. plumbing and building services.35 Socket-Outlet and Plug .3.3. or a portable unit. including any clamp. but also between the envelope or support and earth. 2.3.40 are based on the provisions of IE Rules.

4.27 Heating Tar$f .26 Lighting TariJf .Simultaneously accessible parts may be: -live parts.4.4.A part providing protection against direct contact from any usual direction Of access. according to the characteristics of the supply. -extraneous conductive parts. 2. the same clause may provide for a decrease in charges in the opposite case.8 Arm’s Reach’. 2. 2.25 ‘Industrial Tariff .A zone extending from any point on a surface where persons usually stand or move about to the limits which a person can reach with the hand in any direction without assistance. in any direction.4.19 Instailed Load-The sum of the rated inputs of the electrical apparatus installed on the consumer’s premises. 2.16 Distribution Undertaking .4.A tariff applicab!: to electricity supplies taken mainly for lighting and other small appliances.22 Meter Rent . generally more slowly. 2. protection against direct contact.A statement setting.4.4. kWh to kVAh consumed during the specified period. 2. 2. the underside of the joints or beams or tie beams shall determine the upper point of measurement ‘for determining the head robm. 2. PART I GENERAL AND COMMON ASPECTS 2. N OTE -This current may have a capacitive c o m p o n e n t including that resulting from the deliberate use of capacitors.A tariff applicable exclusively to industrial consumers. fans and radios. 2. Service .4. and -earth electrodes.24 Domestic Tariff . 2. 2.6 Creepage distance between two conducting parts along the surface of the insulating material or along the joint of two insulatihg bodies.The. 2.11 Obstacle .20 C o n n e c t e d L o a d .17 Consumer or.4.1 Simultn~eousl~~ A c c e s s i b l e P a r t s Conductors or conduciiveb parts that can be touched Bsimultaneously by a person or where applicable by livestock.3 Room Height-The vertical distance measured from the finished floor surface to the finished ceiling surface.4. shortest Distance . -exposed conductive parts.The party supplying electricity to consumers entirely from extrernal sources of power via a distribution network. for example.21 Kilowatthour Rate (kWh . and associated equipment installed. 2.4.4. 2. 2.18 Demand .A tariff applicable particularly or exclusively to domestic consumers.The ratio. expressed as a numerical value or as a percentage. 2. 2.5 Clearance -The distance between two conducting parts along a string ~ stretched the shortest way between these conducting parts. 2.4. Other forms are sometimes’used for special purposes. but not preventing dehberate action. of the energy consumption within a specified period (year.4.4.10 Barrier . an occupancy shall be deemed to include the subsidiary occupancies which are contingent upon it. N OTE -The power factor is generally measured by the ratio of.4.9 Enclosure .4.12 Leakage Current (in an Installation) ~~~ A current which flows to earth or to extraneous conductive parts in a circuit in the absence of a fault. 2. 2. 2.4. R&e)-.4.part preventing unintentional direct contact.14 Supply Terminals-The point at which a consumer received energy. Customer-The party who receives electricity from the supply or distribution undei-taking for his own needs or for further distribution.28 Power Factor Clause .A clause setting out increase in charges to be applied if the ratio of the kWh to kVAh consumed by a consumer during a specified period below a set limit.4.A line for connecting a current consuming installation to the distribution network.2 Occupancy or Use Group-The principal occupancy for which a building or a part of a building is used or intended to be used.4. 9 . 2. N CTE .The amount to be paid per unit of energy (kWh) consumed. for the purposes of classification of a building according to occupancy. 2.4. 2. 2. Ideally it appioximates a double exponential form.15 Service Line.4.29 Load Factor . out the components to be taken into account and the methods to be employed in calculating the amounts to be charged by the supply/distribution undertaking to the consumer.13 Nominal Voltage (of an Installation) Voltage by which an installatio or part of an installation is designated. -protective conductors.2. N O T E-The actual voltage may differ from the nominal voltage by a quantity within permitted tolerances.An amount to be paid for a specified period for metering.A . Where a finished ceiling is not provided.4.23 Tari$f .4.4.A part providing protection of equipment against certain external influences and.4.4.4 Impulse .A tariff applicable to electricity supplies taken for space heating or for thermal applications or for both. expressed in kW or kVA. to zero.T h e part of the installed load of consumer supplied by the supply undertaking.Usually an aperiodic transient voltage or current which rises rapidly to a peak value and then falls.The magnitude of electricity supply. 2.

Other Parts/Sections of the IS : 1885 series cover terminology relating to the field of electronics and telecommunications. conductars and accessories for electricity supply IS : 1885 (Part 34)-1972 Cinematography IS : 1885 (Part 35)-1973 Rotating machinery IS :.sion) IS : 1885 (Part 42)-1977 Power capacitors IS : 1885 (Part 43)-1977 E l e c t r i c a l e q u i p ment used in medical practice IS : 1885 (Part 49)1978 I n d u s t r i a l p r o c e s s measurement and control 1s : 1885 ( P a r t 5I1Sec I)-1979 I n d u s t r i a l electro-heating.1980 Mica (superseding 1s : 1174) IS : 1885 (Part 54)-1980 Insulators IS : 1885 (Part 55)-1981 Electric fans N O T E . 10 NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE . L I S T O F I N D I A N S T A N D A R D S O N ELECTROTECHNICAL VOCABULARY IS : 1885 Electrotechnical vocabulary: IS : 1885 (Part I)-1961 Fundamental definitions IS : 1885 (Part 8)-1965 Secondary cells and batteries IS : 1885 (Part 9)-1966 Electrical relays IS : 1885 (Part IO)-1968 Electrical power system protection IS : 1885 (Part I I)-1966 Electrical measurements IS : 1885 (Part l4)-1967 Nuclear power plants IS : 1885 (Part l5)-1967 Primary cells and batteries I S : 1 8 8 5 ( P a r t 16/Set I)-1968 L i g h t i n g . Section 3 Lamps and auxiliary apparatus IS : I885 (Part I 7). 3.month.I979 Switchgear and controlgear (/irst revision) IS : 1885 (Part 27)-1969 Static power convertors IS : 1885 (Part 28)-1972 I n s t r u m e n t t r a n s formers IS : 1885 (Part 29)-1971 Mining terms I S : 1885 (Part 30)-1971 O v e r h e a d . Section I General terms IS : I885 (Part 5 I Set 2)-1979 I n d u s t r i a l electro-heating. NOTE -The load factor for a given demand is also equal to thelratio of the utilization time to the time in hours within the same period. t r a n s mission and distribution of electrical energy IS : 1 8 8 5 ( P a r t 32)-1972 Cables. Section 2 General illumination lighting fittings and lighting for traffic and signalling IS : 1885 * ( P a r t l6/ Set 3)-1967 L i g h t i n g . Section I General aspects IS : 1 8 8 5 ‘ ( P a r t I6/Sec 2)-1968 L i g h t i n g . etc) to the energy consumption that would result from continuous use of the maximum kW demand occurring within the same period. 1885 (Part 37)-1974 Tariffs for electricity IS : l&5 (Part 3X)-1977 Transformers (&r’s/ re\ri. Section 2 Resistance heating IS : I885 (Part 53). day.

1 The purpose of the Section of the Code is :o summarize a list of graphical symbols which are to be used for installation diagrams.1 This Section of the Code covers graphical symbols for diagrams.3 It has also been felt essential for the purposes of this Section to draw the attention of practising engineers to standardized letter symbols and signs.1.SECTION 3 GRAPHICAL SYMBOLS FOR DIAGRAMS. I . Three-Phase with neutral.1 2.1.1. 110 V 2 Neutral. Considerable amount of standardization had been achieved in the field of symbols for electrotechnology that it is now possible to device electrical network schematics using them so that these schematic diagrams could be uniformly understood by all converned. LETTER SYMBOLS AND SIGNS 0. FOREWORD b) Alternating Current. 0. 50 Hz 3Nw50Hz 2. 50 Hz 2. 2.0 For the purposes of the Code. 3 Conductors including 2N 2.1.1. 220 V 110 v 2. 0.12 Terminals -5OHz PART I GENERAL AND COMMON ASPECTS 0 . For additional symbols in the subject reference should be made to IS : 2032 (series) on graphical symbols used in electrotechnology. Delta Direct Current A 2.1.2 The symbols contained in this Section of the Code have been drawn up by individual expert groups under the Electrotechnical Division Council. SCOPE 1.1. (Part 2)-1983 Reference Tables for symbols and subscripts. GRAPHICAL SYMBOLS 2.3 Neutral N 2. 415 V. They represent a consensus of opinion in the discipline and are recommended for direct adoption. General Symbol 2. 1. 3wf. N O T E-A list of Indian Standards on graphical symbols used in electrotechnology relevant to the Code is given in 3.9 Overhead Line 2.1. Star a) Alternating Current. 2 Conductors. the following Indian Standards could be referred to: IS : 3722 Letter Symbols and Signs used in Electrical Technology ( P a r t I)-1983 G e n e r a l G u i d e l i n e s o n symbols and subscripts.6 Direct Current.1 A Positive Polaritj~ + 2.10 Winding. Three-Phase.11 Winding.8 Underground Cable 220v 2. letter symbols and signs. 50 Hz 0.15 ” c) Alternating Current.1 Fundamental Symbols 2. Single-Phase. For further details.1. the graphical symbols given below shall apply.2 Alternating current.1. OHz.5 Negatilv Polarity 2.7 Dirwt Current.

3 Motor k# 2. Capacitor 2.13 Resistance.1 Flexible Conductor 2.1.2.2. Variable Resistor 2.2.Transformer 2.1 r16 Winding LF_ 0 M 2.2. Inductor + 2.15 Inductance.2.9 II-Phase Transformer with Three Separate Windings-Star-Star-Delta 0 G DC generator G 0 I2 NATIONAL ELECI-RICAL CORE . Three-Phase.17 Capacitance.8 Auto.14 Impedance * 2.m Earth - i t Induction Motor with Wound Rotor li 2. Resistor.2.1.2.1.6 Induction Motor.7 Transformers with Two Separate 0 0 M 8 2.5 Mechanically Coupled Machines 2.2 Generator 0 G AC generator $2.4 Synchronous Motor 0 MS 2.2. Squirrel Cage 2.1.2.19 Fault Windings 2.1.1.2 Equippent 2.

2.18 Isolator 2.Line Starter for Reversing 2.2.2. Main Fuse Board with Switches 2.2.21 Link 2.z.2.24 Plug 2.2.17 Circuit-Breaker PART 1 GENERAL AND COMMON ASPECTS 13 .15 Snitch 1 t 2.13 Auto.23 Socket Outlet.2. 1SA A n 2. YoR (4 Socket Outlet.2.2.2.10 Starter 2. Cubicle Box.19 Fuse 2.16 Contactor 2.14 Rheostatic Starter 2. SA.2.2.2.on.2.11 LX.Transformer Starter 2.20 Signal Lamp rl A 2.2.12 Star-Delta Starter 2.2.22 Distribution Board.

2.2.2.25 Voltmeter 2.39 Wiring on the Swface 2.31 Indicating Instrument (general symbol) 0 2.36 Master Clock L 0 W 2.2.37 Current Transformer 0 2.2.2.26 Ammeter tl Wh 2.41 Lamp cl 2.2.2.35 Clock 0 A 2.42 Lamp Mounted on a Ceiling NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE .2.2.27 Wattmeter 0 2.34 Watthour Meter 0 V 2.33 Integrating Meter X 2.2.40 Wiring in Conduit R 0 2.32 Recording Instrument (general symbol) 0 2.2.30 Ohmmeter 0 EI L coscp 2.2.2.2.2.28 Varmeter VCN 0 2.2.38 Voltage Tran$ormer LJJ M 2.2.2.29 Power Factor Meter 2.

2.45 Flood Light 2.48 Bell A 2.2.52 Fan Regulay 2.54 Radio Recviling Set I III2. AND COMMON ASPECTS .2.53 Aerial C\ 2.44 spot Light X c = 2.2.? Operated Fire Alarm 2.2.2.50 Ceiling Fan 2.46 Heater XY 2.2.57 Automatic Fire Detector Sh?tch R 2.56 ManualI.2.43 Emergency Lamp 2.pe Water Heaters 2.51 Exhaust Fan II I cl 0 0 3 .2.41 S t o r a g e T. 1.2.2.IST O F I N D I A N S T A N D A R D S GRAPHICAL SYMBOLS ON IS : 2032 Graphical symbols used in elcctrotechnology: IS : 2032 (Part 2)-I962 Kind of current distribution system and methods of connection IS : 2032 (Part 3)-1962 Circuit elements and variability IS : 2032 (Part 4)-1964 Rotating machines and transformers IS : 2032 (Part 5)-I965 Generating stations and sub-stations IS : 2032 (Part 6)-1965 Motor starters IS : 2032 (Part 7)-1974 Switchgear and auxiliaries (first revision) IS PART I CENERAI.55 Television Receiving Srt 2.49 Buzzer 2.2.2.2.2.2.

radial d8.0.. For the purposes of this Code. LETTER SYMB0I. 4.Ind haul ‘.. (1) NAMt Ok I R EF E RE N C E GABLE c FOR wmoLs AND S U B S C R I P T S SI UN I T h QI. the result that terminolo y used’in one disci line becomes clc~sely interre ?ated with that o P the other. C!ClC wcond per Ihc WI m kIlogramVorcc (kgl’) t’or Height i s .KY ..signs used in abbreviatibns for denoting quantltles. kinematics. geometry. 3 4. 6 7..rca stcradian met re met rc mcl rc met rc mcl rc met rc mcI rc \qu.a140 gl\cn a\ hiloponc (hp) I6 \ ‘L\TIONAI. Part 2 Rcfcrcncc lables for symbols and subscripts. numerical values. and guidance on the use of subscripts are covered in IS : 3722 (Part I)-l983* Ready reference tables for symbols and subscripts are contained in IS : 3722 (Part 2)1983*. IO. synibols of units.2 Guidance on the choice of alphabet and their type. dcprh Ihlchnc\\ I-adlu\.eltcr symbols and signs used in Electrotcchnology: Parr I General guidance on symbols and subscripts.111 Table I gives a reference likt of symbols and subscripts used in electrotechnology. 9. EI.EC’TRI(‘AI. 12.1. m m m m m m \otumc tlmc cuhlc mc. angle (plane angle) 2.imcrcr ua\clcn~lh arc. l L. representation of vector quantities.c WYontl Olhcr unit\ iirc mlnutc . In order to enable uniform understanding of t.. CODE .1 Quantities and units used in electro- 4.. X. names of quantities and of constants and subscripts referred to frequently is given in 4.0. tr/ kg AlbO.E Ilk>! No.IS : 2032 (Part IO)-1969 Measuring instruments IS : 2032 (Part I I)-1970 Electrical installations in buildings IS : 2032 (Part IS)-1976 Aircraft electrical symbols IS : 2032 (Part l8)-1976’Symbolsand connection diagrams for integrating meters Es : 2032 (Part 19)-1977 Electrical equipment used in medical practice IS : 2032 (Part 21)-1977.c 5. a list of symbols. thtir functions and units shall contorm to those recommended in.ANTII\ (2) Naie (4) radian Symbol ’ (5) rad Other units are degree minute and second I. the letter symbols and . Electric welding equipment IS : 2 0 3 2 ( P a r t 22)-1978 Irlstrument t r a n s formers IS : 2032 (Part 23)-1978 Instruments for process measurement and control IS : 2032 (Part 25)-1980 Electrical installations .L’ rnc. other subjects such as radiation and light. Several disciplines interact with TABI. 4. IS : 3722 (Part I)-l983* and IS : 3722 (Part 2)-1983*.he meamng they represent. \urt. dynamics and thermodynamics.S AND SIGNS 4..1 Symbols and Subscripts 4.n ships 4.0 General technology cover in addition to electricity and magnetism. 5. II wlld angle length breadth hclpht.

absolute temperature temperature (Celsius) W E P r) T J J W Also expressed in percent kelvin K 25. 21.m Pa (6) 20. 26. 43. 37. IS. tension. 32. per cubic IlwR ‘hewton newton metrc newton per squaremetre (Pascal) joule jouk watt N N. 39. (2) density (mass density) force torque pressure (3) P F T P (4) kilogram. 36. voltage electromotive force electric flux capacitance (electric) current current density magnetic flux r&tancc rcsistivity conductance conductivity impedance reactance loss angle active power reactive power apparent power power factor dissipation factor number of lurns In a winding turns ratio transformation ratio of an instrument transformer 34. rn’ Wb n fI. 27.m s S/m R n rad W var VA Temperature Interval of )K ::xzY (clccrric) potential potential difference. 42. 38. OF @hW’lTlTY NAME CHIEF REMARKS (1) 16. 19. 29. 44. 24. 47. 28. 46. 33. I a V u E CL c I J e R P G Y Z X 6 P degree Celsius I per kelvin volt volt volt coulomb farad ampere ampere per square mctrc webcr ohm ohm mctre siemens sicmcns per metre ohm ohm radian watt var voltampere OC K“ V V V C F A A.TRUE I REFERENCE TABLE FOR SYMROLS AND SU~RIPTS-Conrd ITEM No. 45. work energy power efficiency thermodynamic temperature. 22. 31. 48. 23. 40. 35. 17. 41. 30. Q s A tl N tt K PART I GENERAL AND COMMON ASPECTS 17 .. 49.

For alternatiw symbols and other units of designation. the corresponding quantity IS numeric and its value is written as a number : Part 2 Reference tables for symbols and subscripts. number of phases 53. St UNIT A NO. (1) Q U A NT I T Y (2) (3) K Name (4) Symbol (5) I \ REMAUKS (6) 50. transformation ratio of a voltage transformer 51. transformation ratio of a current lranbformer 52. number of pairs of poles 54.we IS without the unit symbol. illuminance.TABLE I REFERENCE TABLE FOR SYMBOLS AND SURSf?RIPTS-Conrd ITEM N AME OF CHIEF SYMIWI. ELECTRICAl. E candela per square metre lux cd Im cd rn’ Ix NOTE I . luminous intensity 55. luminance 57. Ill NATIONAI. luminous flux 56. illumination I I I candela lumen 1. ‘Letter symbols and signs used in Electrotechnology : 3722 (Part 2)-19X3* NOTE 2 .Wherever symbol for the unit is I. (‘ODE . .

l-he) provide for a common basis f o r understanding and identifying conductors and tipparatus terminal\: but more important.2 Inrerconnection diagram . 2. AND MARKING O.1. c) wiring diagrams or wiring tables. I Erplottator~~~ Diagrams .D i a g r a m representing all connections within a unit of an installation. Three types are defined below: a) Blocli diagram . group 01 apparatus or items of an apparatus are interrelated and or interconnected. maintenance personnel.1. cl Equi\~alenr circuir diagram . It is a diagram in which an installation or equipment together with its functional interrelationships are represented by symbols.3 The guidelines for marking of conductors gicen in 2.FOREWORD 0. such as terminal blocks and the wiring between them. block symbols or pictures without necessarily showing all the connections.1 Various types of diagrams and charts are required to be prepared during the planning and execution stages of an electrical installation work. The diagrams may sometimes show the layout of the different parts and accessories. and d) the states of several items. CHARTS AND TABLES. 2.6.0. 2.gives the successive operation in a specified order.1. PREPARATION OF DIAGRAMS.1. Table I of the Section are in line with the guidelines accepted internationally on such matters.1.Explanatory diagrams are intended to facilitate the study and understanding of the functioning of an installation or equipment. they show the inteknal or external connections or both. The contents of this Section are based primarily on the following publications: IS : 8270 Guide for the preparation of diagrams. SCOPE 1 . PART I GENERAL AND COMMON ASPECTS 2.I This Section of the Code covers guidelines for preparation of diagrams.Explanatory diagram intended to facilitate the understanding of the functioning in detail. 2.SECTION 4 GUIDE FOR PREPARATION OF DIAGRAMS.3. charts and tables for electrotechnology : I)-1976 Definitions and classi(Part fication (Part 2)-1976 Item designation (Part 3). and d) location diagrams or tables.0 General 2.0 The main classifications are: a) explanatory diagrams. 19 .2 Explanaktry~ Tables Explanatory charts or tables arz’ intended to facilitate the study of diagrams and to give additional information. b) operations and time.Special typ of circuit diagram for the analysis and calculation of circuit characteristics. their purposes and -format and the guiding principles for preparing them for the sake of uniformity. and b) Time seywnce charr or rahk .3 Wiring Diagrams or Wiring Tables Wiring diagrams are intended to guide the making and checking of the connection of an installation or equipment.3 Tab/e .1.A table replaces or supplements a diagram or a chart.iring d i a g r a m .CHARTS AND TABLES 2. charts and tables in electrotechnology and for marking of conductors.1977 General requirements for diagrams (Part 4)-1977 Circuit diagram (Part 5)-1976 Interconnection diagrams and tables 0. charts and tables. It shows by sypbols an installation or part of an installation and the electrical connections and other links concerned with its operation. Two examples are given below: a) S e q u e n c e chart or rahle . 0 . b) explanatory charts or tables. 2.Relatively simple diagram to facilitate the understanding of the principle of operation.Diagram representing the connections between the different units of an installation.3. 2 Char1 . Charrs . 2. c) operations and physical quantities. installation. 2. I. 0.2 This Section of the Code covers general guidelines on the subject.1 Unit H.1 Classification According to Purpose 2.A c h a r t m a y s h o w t h e interrelation between: a) different operations. b) Circuit diagram .1 Diagram -~ A diagram may show the manner in which the various parts of a network. For an equipment. ensure safety to operating.is one which in addition takes account of the time intervals between successive operations.0. 2 . It is therefore necessary to define the different types of diagrams.

the two methods of representation as given below may be distinguished: a) Single-line representation -. repwserttatiort .1.A location diagram or table contains detailed information about the location of parts of the equipment. c) Dctachecl r~~pre:8erltatiorl The symbols for the different parts of an item of apparatus or of an installation are :.Lclines o n assignment of item designation. NATIOSAI.1. This designation correlates the Item on different diagrams.3 Item Designation 2. The choice of drawing sizes should be decided after taking into account the necessary factors enumerated in 2. Any of the wiring diagrams may be replaced or NOI I aupplcmcnted by a table.1 Item is a term used for component.2 An item designation may be used fol general or special ptirposes depending on the kind o f i n f o r m a t i o n r e q u i r e d .1.2 Arrangemen/ c$ swlbols .3 Topo~yraphic~al p o s i t i o n s o f t h e 5)mbols o n t h e d i a g r a m correspond wholly.1. terminal blocks. parts list.2. chart. different kinds of symbols as well as symbols of different forms are shown. The item designation is shown at an appropriate place near the graphical symbol of the item. $(. 2) circuits which have a similar electrical function.2 In IS : 2032:. etc. The same drawing may form both an explanator) and wiring diagram.3. CODt. 2. rhe diagram. 4) circuits which follow the same physical route. NOI ISe\crtil of the\e method\ of repruentatlon used on the umc dugwm.4 Localion D i a g r a m s o r T a b l e s .1.sical) location of items represented.Diagram showing the terminals and the internal and/or external conductors connected to them. for example.4. a single line may represent: I) circuits of a multiphase system. plug-in units.2. detached o r assembled) (see 2. 2. the methods of representation are given below: a) Assembled representatiorr -. devices Or elements represented by a single symbol (see 2. N OTE I -A location diagram need not necessarily be to scale. *GUI& Ior preparation 01 dugram\. equipment. devices or elements represented by a single symbol. unit. and 5) conductor symbols which would follow the same route on the diagram. and with the topographical layout of the devices (see 2. sub-assemblies.2 Classification According to Method Representation Of 2.1.33 Terminal diagram . plant. 2. N OTE 2 -Several typer of diagrams may be combined Intlo a single diagram. b) Architectural diagrams. modules.4 General Rules for Diagrams 2.2. b) Multi-line representation .According to the number of conductors.2.4. ma! he b) the arrangement of the symbols representing the elements or parts of an item of apparatus (for example. which is represented by a graphical symbol on a diagram. or partly to the topographical (ph\.2. b) Semi-assembled representation -~~ The symbols for the different parts of an item of apparatus or of an installation are separated and arranged in such a way that the symbols for mechanical linkages between the parts which work together may be drawn easily. +SpeclCwatlon ior paprr \IICS.3).raphwal symbols u s e d i n clectrotcchnolog! ( P a r t \ to ‘25). groups together with standard letter codes for the same are covered in IS : 8270 (Part 2)-l976* 2.A c c o r d i n g to the arrangement of the symbols representing the elements or parts of an item of apparatus on 20 .1 Paper sizes_ for drawings shall preferabl! be according to the international A-series (XV IS : 1064-196lt). 2. a n d tahle~ lor electrotcchnolog! Part 2 Item de\lgnation. and c) Network diagrams.1.2). In particular. circuit descriptions and in the equipment.cparated a n d arranged in such a uay that the circuits ma!’ easily be followed.T h e 2.1.2. ELECTRICAl.3.1 Number of conducrors .2. forming a mixed diagram. It shows the item designations used in related diagrams and tabler.1 The method of representation is distinguished bv: a) The number of conductors. 3) circuits or conductors which belong to the same signal path. cl the placing of the symbols to correspond 2.2.The symbols for the different parts of an item of apparatus or of an installation or equipment are drawn in close proximity on the diagram. 2. Cu.2 of IS : 8270 (Part 2):l976* 2. T h e f o l l o w i n g arc e x a m p l e s w h e r e topographical representation may bc used: a) Wiring diagrams.Two or more conductors are represented by a sirigle line. Several similar items of apparatus may accordingly be represented by a single symbol.Each conductor is represented by an individual line.1). etc.

2.2.41wernIs . from the terminals to which they ar-e connected. Information on the internal connections of units are normally not provided but references to the appropriate circuit diagram [ SEC IS : 8270 (Part 4)-1977*1 may be provided.6.4.\rena -~ Ihe arrangement shall be as follows: When the run of the conducto-rs is horizontal.0. chart\ and table\ for c) When the system is 3-wire with the conductors in the same place.0 General 2.6. The rules also apply for marking conductors in assembies. the red shall be on the left or farthest away as viewed from the front. electroteclln~~lop~: *Guide lor preparatton of dlagramb.6.2 The diagrams may employ single or multiple representation and may be combined with or replaced by tables.0 Bus-bars and main connections which are substantially in one plane shall be arranged in the order given in either 2. conductors Part 3 General requlrrmPnt\ for diagrams Par1 4 CIKUII diagrams. blue and black. red. the provisions of Table I below shall apply for the general application of marking conductors in installation. 2. C) When the system has a neutral connection in d) Unless the neutral connection can be readily distinguished from the phase connections. Parr 5 lntcrconnwmn diagrams and tablea. *Guldc lor marktng of insulated PART I GENERAL AND COMMON ASPECTS 21 . . the red shall be on the top or on the left or farthest away as viewed from th’e front.For the .6. 2. orientation of symbols and met:hods of indicating symbol location are ‘covered In IS : 8270 (Part ?)-1977* 2.2. b) to use a preferred form wherever possible.1 AC .2.durposes of this code. 2.5 Interconnection Diagrams and Tables 2.1 l-he purpose of marking is to pro\. symbol sizes.3 Specific guidelines on the application of IS : 2032 from the point of view df choice of alternative symbols. provided clarity is maintained. meanb whereby conductors can be id!xntified in a circuit and also after they hake been detached a main marking based on the electrical functiortof each conductor or group of conductors.vr.idc a. 2. Any symbol may be composed using the guidanc:e from relevant Part of IS : 2032 and Section 3 Part I of the Code.1 I d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f I n s u l a t e d a n d Bpre konducrors .6.3 Guidance on layout. and c) to use the chosen form consistently throughout the same set of documentation.6. Reference is -also drawn to the provisions contained in relevant Indian Standard.6.6 Marking and Arrangement of Conductors 2. the same place as the phase connections. yellow and blue: a) When the run of the conductors is horizontal. the red shall be on the left or farthest away as viewed from the front. line thinkness.2 DC .0. 2.1 or 2.The order of phase connection shall be. Supplementary marking is used as supplement to b) When the run of the conductors is vertical.6. identification and types of interconnection diagrams and tables are giveri in IS : 8270 (Part 5)-l97h* 2. 2. The latter are recommended when the number of interconnections is large.5. . Main marking is a system o f m a r k i n g charactcri7ing each conductor or group of conductors irrespective of their electrlcal function.1 Interconnection diagrams and tables provide information on the external electrical connections between equipment in an installation. The relative order remains applicable even if any poles of the system are omitted.6. yellow.2 The various methods of marking applicable to electrical installations and the equipment which form part of them are covered in IS : 5578-l970* 2.5. b) When the run of the conductors is vertical.2 Arrangement qf Conductors 2. the neutral shall occupy the middle position. The basic rules for the choice of symbols shall be: a) to use the simplest form of symbol adequate for the particular purpose.6. They are used as ari aid in the fabrication of wiring and for maintenance purposes.All the powbre examples are also not covered there. the red shall be on the top or on the left or farthest away is viewed from the front. equipment and apparatus. the neutral shall occupy an outer position.2.2. the order shall be red.2 according to the system.5.

I) DE>IGNATION OF C ONDUCTORS I~JENTIFICATI~N w 1 A \ Colour (4) Red Yellow Blue Black Red Yellow Blue Black + Red Blue Black Red Black Alphanumeric Notation (2) Graphical Symbol (3) (1) Supply ac system Apparatus ac system Phase I Phase 2 Phase 3 Neutral I Positive Negative I Midwire Phase seutral I Phase I Phase 2 Phase 3 Neutral LI L2 L3 N U V W N L+ LM L N SUPPlY dc system Supply ac system (single phase) Protective Earth conductor PE E Green and Yellow No colour other than the colour of the bare conductor Under consideration. Noiseless (clean earth) TE Frame or chassis Equipotential Terminal MM CC NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE .6. GRAPHICAL SYMBOLS AND COLOURS (Clause 2.TABLE I ALPHANUMERIC NOTATION.

provided no emf is generated in the conductor. 1 A m p e r e (unit of electric current) A constant current which.1.1 Absolute Units 2 . 8 Wurf (unit of electric power) -~ T h e power which results in the production of energy at the rate of IJ.1.SECTION 5 UNITS AND SYSTEMS OF MEASUREMENT 0. of negligible circular CI-W\ section and placed at a distance of one mctrc apart In a v a c u u m will product a force ol 2 X IO ’ newton per metre length between the conductors.2 The electrical units defined in 2. S C O P E 1.1. produces a current of one ampere in the conductor. 2. Use of Sl Units in matters relating to electrical engineering practice has many advantages. 1 . Reference may therefore be necessary to IS : 10005-1980*.of magnetic flux which. magnetic flux) The linked with a circuit produces in it an emf of reduced to zero in one 0.2 This Section of the Code.1 This Section of the Code covers units and systems of measurement in electrotechnology.5 Ohm (unit of electrical resistance) l-he electrical resistance between two points of a conductor when a constant potential difference of one volt. maintained i n t w o parallel straight conductors of infinite Icngth. 2. 1 .4 Henry (unit of electric inductance) . 01 of quantlt\ (unit 2.1 The International System of Units (Sl) have received worldwide acceptance and in’ every country legislation for their adoption either exists or is being introduced. FOREWORD the plates.1. 1.10 Teslu (unit of magnetic flux density) The tesla is a magnetic flux density of I Wb/m’. 2. when it is charged with a quantit. together with their expression in terms of other units.2 ~‘cllilol.6 Volt (unit of electric potential difference atid emf) . recommendations on the selection of their multiples and submultiple\ and supplementary remarks (if any) are enumerated in Table I. 1 . 0.ll~ The quantit! of elcctricitlj conveyed electricity) in one second by a current of o n e a m p e r e . PART I GENERAL AND COMMON ASPECTS 23 .-ic potential of one LOII hct\+een 2 . applied to thehc points.‘s.1. 2. 2. The 2. 7 Weber (unit .1.1. 2.The difference of electric potential which exists between two points of a conductor carrying a constant current of one ampere.9 Siemens (unit of electric conductance) The conductance of a conductor of resistance I ohm and is numerically equal to I ohm-‘. 2.3 r~rot/ (unit of ctectric capacitance) capacitance of an electric capacitor having a difference of elect. is restricted to electrical units only. when the power dissipated between these points is one watt. 2 . for reasons of brevity.The inductance of a closed circuit in which an emf of one volt is produced when the current in the circuits varies at the uniform rate of one ampere per second. composed of a single turn one volt if it is uniformly second. It has been introduced in India under the Weights and Measures Act. ITNITS AND SYSTEMS OF MEASUREMENT 2. 1976.1. of electricity of one coulomb.

k0.s-‘. W C - (4) EXPRESSION m TE R M S OF SI BASE Uhs (9 S ELECTION OF MIILTIPLES (6) m*.A’ m.PW coulomb kc. MfLm.kg. kV/m 01 V/mm.A-’ V Farad ohm siemens wcber tesla F n S Wb T H S/m V/m m’. mV. Mf-l. mR. PH henry siemens/ mctrc volt/metre m3. PS mWb mT. kW. nflm.kg-‘.S Wb/ m’ Wb/A mW.A* m’. electric charge Electric potential.kg. mS. rrF. PC. rV/m rH/m.strength Permeability Permittivity Reluctance Resistivity a. fkm. mz. . nH.4 c/v V/A NV V.kg. PH. Itflm.m m~‘. WA. mfIm.kg. nA.kg. nF. V/m. PF GR. pF/m henry/ metre farad per metre I per henry ohm. PC M V .kg.i’A’ MS/m. mV/m. nH/m pF/m.s~z. mctrc H/m F/m H-’ f3.A-’ GfTm.kg. kS/m MV/m.A-* rn-‘. . nF/m.2) Q UANTITY SpOlOL NAME EXPRESSION TERMS O F OTHER UN I T S IN (1) Electric current Power Quantity of clectricity. potential difference.mpere watt (2) (3) A.s-‘. PT.A-’ mF.A kA.s-‘. Kfl.A-’ kgs’.m. J/s .s*. 24 NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE . PA GW.kg~‘.J~R kS. electromotive force Capacitance Electrical resistance Conductance Magnetic flux Magnetic flux density Inductance Conductivity Electric ticld .s“ s.A“ m’. kV.WI. nT mH. Ir Volt V m*. MW.kg-‘.TABLE I ELECTRICAL UNITS OF MEASUREMENT ~(ClOUSP 2.S’.s-‘.s-‘. mA. nC.

is recognized and product standards relate the voltage.3 kV 6. 1956.-rly those of systems operating below medium voltage levels is enumerated in IS : 585.1. SCOPE 415 v 3.1 The voltage at any point of the system under normal conditions shall not depart from the declared voltage by more than the values given below: a) 6 percent in the case of low or medium voltage. Howclcr.1. the limits of boltage between which the system and the equipment used in the system shall bc capable of operating continuously are as follows: Highest Voltage (Uln) 240 415 3. preferred values of current ratings and standard system frequency. and are applicable to the supply aurhorities.These boltages refer to the Ime-Id-line v o l t a g e . PART I GENERAL AND COMMON ASPECTS 25 .0 General 2.SECTION 6 STANDARD VALUES 2. However.6 II 22 33 66 132 220 400 V v kV kV kV kV kV kV kV kV kV 264 457 3.6 kV I I kV f: K (voltage to neutral . 1. which are generalI!. or c) 12. This standardization helps in laying a sound foundation for further work reiating to product or installation engineering.1.5 percent in the case of extra high voltage. t o a l i g n w i t h I E C rccommcndation\ and in view of’ the economic adbantageh thry offered. because of economic and other co+iderations. 2. 2.2. IO percent above the corresponding nominal voltages given in 2.2.I Sitl~lc. N O T E-The permissible variations given above are in accordance *vith Indian Electricity Rules.voltage shall be 2201440 v.1 The standard voltages for three-phase system shall be as under: 0. 1.2 I2 24 36 72.2. STANDARD VALtiES OF VOLTAdES 2.Voltage Limits for AC Systems 2.2.0.0 6. currents and frequency is one of the primary exercises undertaken at the national level. 2.3 The standard dc distribution .1. The values of voltages recommended as standard in this SeAon are based on the contents of IS : 585-1962*.1 Standard Declared Voltage 2.1 This Section of the Code covers standard values of ac and dc distribution voltages.Phase S_wem *Vol~gc\ systcmb and frequency for tran\mi\\wn a n d distribution This variation in voltage should not be confused Noit with the permissible variarion from the declared voltage as given in 2.22 II0 132 220 400 $ kV kV kV kV N O T E I .2 For medium and low voltage distribution system. d u r i n g 1 9 5 9 .3 6.The standard voltage shall be 240 V.2 For installation design purposes. 0.2 Three. Trcvo. standarcJ values of nominal voltages were 230 V for singlephahc and 230 400 V for three-phase system.0. NOIE 2 I IO kV is not a standard voltage for transmission purposes but this value has been included for the sake of equipment thal are required for use on the I IO kV systems already in existence.Phasr.3 In the case of voltages above I kV. 2. 2. 2.Wire System .1 For the sake of completeness.0 IO 20 30 60 I20 200 380 V v kV kV kV kV kV kV kV kV kV 2.rating of equipment with respect to highest system voltages only. extensions to existing systems at this voltage may have to be made at the same vbltage. the importance of highest system voltage.Pl*I.2 This history of standardization of system voltages nart. values of 240 V si’nglephase atid 240 415 V *three-phase had been adopted. or b) 6 percent on the higher side or 9 percent on the lower side in the case of high voltage.\.0.1 .6 7.2 . only the lower voltage values would be relevant. It is realized that.1 Standardization of basic parameters such as voltage. it is noted that for most of the types of installations covered in subsequent parts of the Code. 2.1. all the standard values of voltages given in IS : 5851962* relating to ac transmission and distribution systems are reproduced in this Section.2. the original recommended.5 I45 245 420 v v kV kV kV kV kV kV kV kV kV LOWSI Vohage ‘216 374 3.1.

If intermediate values are required. 4. the same shall be selected from RIO series (see IS : lO76-1967*). STANDARD SYSTEM FREQUENCY 4.3.ECTRICAI.1 The standard system frequency shall be 50 H7. CODE . 4.2 The limits within which the frequency is to be maintained are governed by the IE Rules.1 The preferred current ratings shall be selected from. the R5 series. PREFERRED CURRENT RATINGS 3. NATIONAL EI.

2 .1. etc.1. 2. however. etc. the materials and other items shall be those approved by the competent authority.0.FOREWORD 0. 0. 1 . openings. lift wells and other spaces required to be provided for service cable ducts. from the point of safety 2. 2. In case an Indian Standard does not exist.3 Lighting and Ventilation . 2. 0 .3 b+‘orktmn. and such other relevant data shall be specified in advance. 2.0 General 2 .1 Proper coordination and collaboration between the architect.30 m for ever) additional 33 kV or part thereof shall he prwided 2. a rertical and horizontal clearance of 0. In all such cases.1. or any additions or alterations made to the existing b u i l d i n g .0 c) Fxtra high voltage l i n e s 3. Part I.1 Coordination No building 2. transformer switchgear rooms.rergy.v Rules . The workmen shall also hold the appropriate certificate of competency. and also the relevant regulations of the electric supply authority concerned.1.1. a recognized authority. The specific nature of each occupancy calls for additional i n f o r m a t i o n w h i c h a r e summariired in the respective Sections of the Code.7 2. 1. Part 2 Fundamental principles’ issued by the International Electrotechnical Commission.3 Sufficient coordination shall be ensured with the civil architect in the initial stages itself to ensure that sufficient building space be allotted for electrical installation purposes such as those required for sub-station installation. that is. it shall also be ensured that the current carrying capacity and the condition of the existing equipment and accessories are adequate. or a modification. 27 2 .1. u n l e s s t h e f o l l o w i n g mtnimum clearances are orovided from the overhead electric supply lines: ’ Verricol m Horizonral m a) 1. it is essential to consider those aspects of design of buildings as vital.rchange q/ It@mation 2.o~ Ilne\ a n d medwm \olt.~gr 2. building engineer and the PART t GENERAI. drawn to the general requirements stipulated in Section 14. which would enable use of natural lighting and ventilation to the maximum. the work on electrical installations shall be carried out under the supervision of a person holding a certificate of competency issued by.5 Up IO and mcludmg 11000 v Abwc I I kV up IO a n d mcludmg 33 kV 3. AND COMMON ASPECTS .SECI’ION 7 FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES O. The provisions that would have to be made for the accommodation of substation. I E. Unless otherwise exempted under the IE Rules. used in an electrical installation shall conform to Indian Standard Specifications wherever they exist. provide sufficient guidelines in respect of achieving the desired level of safety.From the point of view of conserving e. It may be added that subsequent requirements of the Code would.ship Good workmanship is an essential requirement for compliance with this Code.2 In all cases.2 h) High \ 0ltagc Ilnes 3.1 This Section contains the fundamental principles for electrical installation.The installation shall generally be carried out in conformity with the requirements of the IE Rules (1956) as amended from time to time. 1 Co~~ornrir. whether the proposed electrical work is a new installation or an extension to the existing one. 1.1 ate based on IEC Pub : 364-2 ‘Electrical installations of buildings.1. Measures for achieving protection against the various hazards are under consideration by the National Electrical Code Sectional Committee. SCOPE electrical engineer shall be ensured from the planning stage of the installation. 2. 2 Materials A l l m a t e r i a l s . f i t t i n g s .1 This -Section of the Code enumerates the fundamental principles of design and execution of electrical installations. Attention is. the relevant authority shall be consulted. however.1 I 2 I. the civil work. enumerated in 3. FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES 2. equipment and their accessories.r~ H*ith I n d i a n E1ecrricir. in.4 The building services plan shall also include at the early stages all the details of services that utilize electrical energy and the requirements of the electrical installation in order to enable the designers and others involved to decide the coordination to be ensured.2 Distance from Electric Lines shall be allowed to be erected or re-erected. 0 .1. appliances.0 ( s e e NOTE) (SW NOTE) Nolr F o r e x t r a h i g h v o l t a g e l i n e s a p a r t j r o m t h e mlnimum clearances indicated. The basic criteria in the design of electrical installation are enumerated in this Section which could be taken note of in the planning stages.7 2.2 The fundamental principles for protection for safetv f r o m v a r i o u s hazards in the use of electricity.

and ml Accessibility.1. shall advise of the electrical requirements necessary for the lifts and escalators to be installed in the building.1.2 Protection Against lndirhct Contact - INSTALLATION 3. livestock and property in accordance with 3.1 The design of the electrical installation shall take into account the following factors: a) The protection of persons. Electrical Space for 2. 3 .6 are intended to ensure’ the safety of persons. This protection can be achieved by one of the following methods: a) Preventing a fault current from ‘passing through the body of any person or any livestock. 4 Preventing a current from passing through the body of any p’erson or any livestock. G&era1 provisions are outlined in Section 14.4.2 The following factors shall therefore be kept in view: a) Characteristics of the :available supply or supplies. k) Preventing of mutual influence between electrical and noneiectrical installations. b) Nature of demand.0 General .1. livestock’ and property against dangers and damage which may arise in the reasonable use of electrical intitallations. where the value of that current is equal to’ or greater than the shock current. fires and orher injurious effects. 3 P r o t e c t i o n Agpinst Thermal EJfects in Normal Ser\Vce .1 For information regarding recommended limits of thermal transmit^&nce of roofs and walls and transmission losses due to different constructions. NOTE .4 Heat Insulation 2. Persons and livestock shall be protected against dangers that may arise from contact with exposed conductive parts.0 The requirements stated in 3. r) Levels of illumination.6 Location and Equipment . 3. and g) Fannage. two major types of risks exist: a) shock currents. e) r) f3) h) Cross-section of conductors. and b) excessive temperatures likely lo cause burns. 1 . Emergency control.The .2 Proper coordination shall be ensured to provide for necessary arrangements to install and serve the electrical equipment needed for the airconditioning and heating services in the building.2. reference shall be made to IS : 3792-1978’. 4 Room/spaces required for electrical utility. have been provided in the relevant parts of the Code the following asp&s shall be taken note of in general while planning the building design: a) Need for and location and requirements of building substation.5 Lifts and Escaiators.1. This protection can be achieved by one of the following methods: c) Layout. b) Load centre and centre of gravity of buildings. and.Even though specific provisions regarding the choice of location and space requirements for electrical installation in buildings Protective equipment. the lift/escalator manufacturer in consultation with the building planners.electrical installation shall be so arranged that there is no risk of ignition of flammable materials due to high temperature or NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE . Type of wiring and methods of installations. b) Limiting the fault current which can pass C. e) Location and requirements of switchrooms.. j) Disconnecting devices.4. Part I.0. 3.1 Protection Against Direct Contact Persons and livestock shall be protected against danger that may arise from contact with live parts of the installation. d) Environmental conditioni.0.3.1 Protection for Safety 3.) Automatic di&onnection of the supply on the occurrence of a fault likely to cause a current to flow through a body in contact with exposed conductive parts. c) Emergency supply or supplies. through a body to a value lower than the shock current. DESIGN OF ELECTRICAL b) Limiting the current which can pass through a body to a value lower than the shock current.1.1. 3.1 to 3.Fdr information df the electrIcal engineer. 2. and b) The proper functioning of the electrical installation for the use intended.In electrical installations. 3. 2. 3.

6 T)qpe o f W i r i n g arid M e t h o d s o f Installations .1.For hve conductors.4 Environmental Conditions (see Section 8 of Part I) 3. earthed (grounded) neutra P or mid-wire. c) daily and yearly variation of demand. b) the nature of the walls or other parts of the building supporting the wire.1.4 Protection Against Overcurrent Persons or livestock shall be protected against injury. Cross-sectional areas greater than those required for safety may be desirable for economic operation. etc.1. and iii) protective conductor. and b) Limiting the maximum overcurrent to a safe value and duration. and the methods of installation depend on: a) the nature of the location. there shall be no risk of persons or livestock suffering burns. 3.4 assures their protectron against any fault currents. heating. b) loads to be expected on the various circuits. 2) frequency and frequency tolerances (see Section 6 of Part I). b) the admissible voltage drop. power.6 Profecrion Againsr Overvolrage Persons or livestock shall be protected against injury and property shall be protected against any harmful effects of a fault between *live parts of circuits supplied at different voltages. telecommunication. and 4) prospective short-circuit .1. e) requirements for control. NOPE 2 .Partxular attention should be given to earth fault currents. 2) For dc: i) conductors equivalent to those listed above.2. d) any special conditions. telecommunication. Persons or livestock shall be protected against injury and property shall be protected against damage from ‘any excessive voltages likely to arise due to other causes (for example.1 to 3.1.2 Yupplies Other Factors of Design 3.7 Methods for Prorecrion for Safer. protection.! - While the general principles of protection against hazards in an electrical installation are given in 3. signalling. 3. during normaLoperation of the electrical equipment.1. d) other mechanical stresses to which the conductors may be exposed. are to be determined by: a) location of points of power demand. atmospheric phenomena or switching voltages).3 Emergency Supply or Supplies (see also Part 2 of the Code) a) Source of supply (nature. for example. c) the electromechanical stresses likely to occur due to shortcircuits.2.electric arc. 3. PART I GENERAL AND COMMON ASPECTS 29 .2.1 Characteristics qf the Available Supply or aj Nature of current: ac -and/or dc. 3.5 Protection Against Fault Currents Conductors.The above listed items concern primarily the safety of electrical installations.6 g u i d e l i n e s on the methods f o r achieving protection and the choice of a particular protective measure are under consideration. 3. 3. signalling. -and e) the maximum impedance with respect to the functioning of the short-circuit.2.1. compliance with 3.5 Cross Section of Conductors -the cross section of conductors shall be determined according to: a) their admissible maximum temperature. 3) maximum current allowable. This protection can be achieved by one of the following methods: a) Automatic disconnection on the occurrence of an overcurrent before this overcurrent attains a dangerous value taking into account its duration.2.The choice of the type of wiring 3. control. characteristics). Also. N OTE I . other than live conductors. ii) neutral conductor. e) Particular requirements of the supply undertaking. d) Protective measures inherent in the sup ly.2 Nature of Demand-The number -and type of the circuits required for lighting. N OTE . and any other parts intended to carry a fault current shall be capable of carrying that current without assuming excessive temperature. includrng overcurrents caused by faults.current (see Section 13 of Part I). etc. and b) Circuits to be supplied by the emergency source.2. and property shall be protected against damage due to excessive tempeatures or electromechnical stresses caused by any overcurrents likely to arise in live conductors. 3. 3. c) Values and tolerances: I) voltage and voltage tolerances (see Section 6 of Part I). b) Nature and number of conductors: 1) For ac: i) phase conductor(s).

for example. and later replacement of individual items of electrical equipment.eell Electrical ud . in interrupting device shall be installed in such a way that it can be easily recognized and effectively 2nd rapidly operated. circuits or individual items of apparatus as required fOJ maintenance. 32.‘l’oll-rkt~c. b) earth-fault current.2. for inspection. c) overvoltage.9 Disconnecting Delkes -~ Disconnecting devices shall be provided so as t0 p e r m i t disconnection of the electrical installation. 3.t~ic. maintenance and repair. operation. 4 voltage.2. 3.8 Emergency Control. testing.11 Accessihilit~~ of Electrical Equipment ~~ The electrical equipment shall be arranged so as to afford as may be necessary: 0 other stresses to which the wiring may be exposed during the erection of the electrical installation or in service. The protective devices shall operate at values of current. protection against the effects of: a) overcurrent (overload.2.7 Protective Equipment . and d) undervoltage and no-voltage. and interruption of supply.cl accessibility of wiring to persons and livestock.The characteristics of protective equipment shall be determined with respect to their function which may be. voltage and time which are suitably related to the characteristics of the circuits and to the possibilities of danger.2.Where in case of danger.al Iu\~uIIu~~o:?: The electrical instaiiatlon shall be arranged in such a way that no mutual detrimental influence will occur between the electrical installation and nonelectrical installations of the building.10 Prevention ej’ Mutual Injluencv BetH. 3. there is necessity f o r i m m e d i a t e 4 sufficient space for the initial installation b) accessibility testing. fault detection OJ repair. e) the electromechanical stresses likely to occur due to short-circuits. short-circuit). and 30 NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE . 3.

b) Electrical resistance of human body. Out of these influences. 0.2. PART 1 GENERAL AND COMMON ASPECTS . I. SCOPE 1. electrostatic or ionizing influences. testing and maintenance. k) Electromagnetic.Each condition of external influence is designated by a code comprising 2 group of two capital letters and a number as follows: 31 4 Maximum demand and diversity from the b) Type of distribution system. b) Atmospheric humidity. NOTE I . prospective shortcircuit currents. safe operation. 2. c) Altitude. d) Diversion of installation from the point of view of control. d) Conditions of evacuation in an emergency.1 An assessment of the general characteristics of buildings is essential before planning for the needs of an electrical installation. point of view of economic and reliable design (see 3.3 The contents of this Section are primarily intended for installations inside buildings though to the extent possible they could be utilized for outdoor sites. Based on the work of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) under IECjTC 64 “Electrical Installations of Buildings’ this section covers a checklist of various factors that require assessment.FOREWORD 0. m) Solar radiation.2. nominal voltage. ASSESSMENT OF GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF BUILDINGS 2. 2.2 of Section 7. However mqe severe conditions may prevail at outdoor sites and these require special considerations. n) Seismic effects. and q) Wind. types of systems of live conductors and types of system earthing. standby and safety supply services.2.. Part I). However. those which are specifically important for specific occupancies are listed at the relevant Sections of the Code. NOIF. f) Preserce o f c o r r o s i v e o r p o l l u t i n g substances.2 This Section follows the internationally recommended method of identification of the external influences on the electrical installation such as environment. 2) Utilization a) Capability of persons. it is hoped that this Section would also enable understanding of installations not explicitly covered by the Code. 2. and e) Nature of processed or stored material.0 An assessment of the general characteristics of buildings as enumerated below is essential from the point of view of design and protection for safety of the electrical installa!ion.O Purposes. and b) Building design. p) Lightning.This assessment shall include those characteristics of main.1 Identification of General Characteristics 2. utilization and method of construction of the building. g) Mechanical stresses.The following shall be assessed: N OTE .1 This Section of the Code covers guidelines for assessing the characteristics of buildings and the electrical installation therein. WE Appendix A. c) Contact of persons with earth potential. e) Presence of foreign solid bodies. 3) Construction of Buitdings a) Constructional materials.For t y p e s o f system earthing. c) Supply characteristics such as nature of current.1 The characteristics of the following external influences shall be assessed: I) Environments a) Ambient temperature. j) Presence of fauna. which include.2 Identification of External Influences on the Electrical Installation 2. h) Presence of flora and/or mould growth. Supplies and Structure .SECTION 8 ASSESSMENT OF GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF BUILDINGS O. 0. 2. d) Presence of water.2 Table I suggests the classification and codification of external influences which require assessment in the design and erection of electrical installation. T h e s e characteristics when assessed shall also be taken into consideration in the selection and erection of equipment.1 .

For the time being. IO\\ \\I) I-\ \\ll’l I \ (3) COIN DESIGSI IO\ (1) (4) Environment I) Ambient temperature l-he ambient temperature 10 he considered for the cqulpment is the temperature at the place where the equipment is to he installed resulting from the influence of all other equipment in the hame location. Codification for the same (see NOTE I above). and c) the reliability of equipment for proper functioning of the installation is appropriate to the intended life. a) any periodic inspection and testing and maintenance and repairs like1 to be necessary during the intended lifye can be readily and safely carried out. uhcn operating. Lower and upper limits of ranges 01 ambient temperature: -WC -400 c -2YC -5°C +5”c t5oc +50 c +5”c +5oc +40” c +400 c +6ooc AAI AA2 AA3 AA4 AA5 AA6 (Conrinued) 32 NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE . Where an authority is to be responsible for the operation of the installation.DINGS \ CLASS (ClNl/\<’ 2 2. Those characteristics include. the effectiveness of. for example: a) transient overvoltages.T h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s d e f i n e d f o r e l e c t r i c a l installations are those accepted by the IEC and as applicable for electrical installations in buildings. the code AC 2 signifies: A = environment AC = environment altitude AC2 = environment altitude > 2 000 m The code given here for marking equipment. Influences on outdoor installations are separately defined in the respective parts of the Code. c) starting currents d) harmonic currents. 2. having regard to the frequency and quality of maintenance expected: C = construction of buildings T h e s e c o n d l e t t e r relares t o t h e n a t u r e o f the exrernal injuenre A B c T h e n u m b e r relates to r h e c l a s s w i t h i n e a c h external inJluence I 2 . and g) earth leakage currents. the characteristics of influences (co1 2. as recommended by IEC are given in co1 4 for information.~‘\ (2) Awl I( \.An assessment shall be made of any characteristics of equipment likely to have harmful effects upon other electrical equipment or other services or likely to impair the supply. the protective measures for safety during the intended life is ensured.An assessment shall be made of the frequency and quality of maintenance the installation can reasonably be expected to receive. . not taking into account the thermal contrthution of the equipment to he installed. during its intended life. b) rapidly fluctuatirig loads. It is hoped that in due course the. TABLE 1 ASSESSMENT OF GF.2) CII\K.\(‘II~KISI. C H A R A C T E R I S T I C S O F BI’II.3 Compatibility . e) dc feedback. 3 For example. users of the Code would be familiar with the codification in terms of which the requirements would be stated in future editions. f) high-frequency oscillations. that authority shall be consulted.4 Maintainability .T h e jirsr letter external injluence A = environment B = utilization relates IO the general category of 2. Those characteristics are to be taken into account in applying the requirements of this code so that. is not intended to be used NOTE 2 .NERAI. Table I) are given in descriptive language only.

S e a s h o r e locatIon\ huch as piers.5 mm. NOI I. Locations where hosewater is used regularly (yards. Locations in which sprayed water forms a continuous film on floors and ior walls. this applies.jets of water from any dIrectIon PosGbihty of water waves Possibility of intermittent partial or total covering by water. Presence of foreign solid hodIt where the smallest dlmenslon is not less than 2. In conditions AEI and AE3. AND COMMON ASPECTS 33 . etc. LocatIon\ which may be flooded and or uhere water may be at least I50 mm ahove the highest point of equipment. car-washing bays). AEI Small Objects AE2 Very small objects AE3 P A R T 1 GENERAI. Wires are examples of foreign solid bodies of which the smallest dimenslon is not less than I mm. Locations such as iwlmming pools uhere electrical equipment is permanently and totally covered with water under a pressure greater than 0. 1001s and small objects are examples of foreign solid bodies of which the smallest dimension is at least 2. Locations where equipment may be subjected lo splashed water. Installations subject to temperatures outside the ranges require special consideration. ventilation dl les rapidly. dust may be present but is not slgmficant to operation of the electrical equipment. 2) Atmospheric humidity 3) Altitude 4) Presence of water Negligible Probability of presence of water is neghgible Locations in which the walls do not generally show traces of water but may do so for short periods.Comd (‘I \\\I h\IGSArIO”. etc.S mm Presence of foreign solid hodies where the smallest dimension is not Ins than I mm.1 h a r ADI under consideration <2OOOm >ZOOOm AC1 A PPLICATIONS E XAMPLES AND C ODE (3) (4) AC2 Free-falling drops Possibility of vertically falling drops AD2 Sprays Possibility of water falling as spray at an angle up to 60’C from the VertlCal Possibility of splashes from any direction AD3 Splashes AD4 Jets Waves lmmeralon Possibility of .TABLE 1 ASSESSMENT OF GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF’ BUILDINGS . for example. construction site equipment. Combination of two ranges to define some environments may be necessary. heache\ quays. 10 certain external lightmg fittings. for example! in the form of vapour which good. (1) CHAI~A~TE~I~TICS (2) The average temperature over a 24 hour period must not exceed 5°C below the upper limits. the lowest part of equipment being not more than I m belou the water surface. AD5 AD6 AD7 Submersion Possibility of permanent and total coverlng by water AD8 5) Presence of foreign solid bodies: Negligible The quantity of nature ot dust or foreign sohd bodies i\ not slgmficant. Locations in which water vapour occasionally condenses as drops or where steam may occasionally be present.

\ . AK1 AK2 Under consideration AJ Household and similar conditions where the effects of vibration are generally negligible. such conditions are found in factory.Provisional classification.~‘l-i WiS~II(‘S (2) Presence of dust in significant quantity. other laboratories or in locations where hydra-carbons are used (boiler-rooms. AGI AG2 AC3 b) Vibration Low severity Medium severity High severity N OW . Conrrl I IOX CII .\ (1) DtJst 6) Presence of corrosive or polluting substances: Negligible The quantity or nature of corrosive or polluting substances is not significant The presence of corrosive or polluting substance of atmospheric origin is significant. Usual industrial conditions. such as chemical works and cement works. Quantitative expression of vibration severities is under consideration. this type of pollution arises especially in the production of abrasive.TABLE 1 ASSESSMENT OF GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF BUILDINGS CI \ss DI+I<. Household and similar conditions.w~.. For example. Industrial installations subject to severe conditions. Quantitative expression of impact severities is under consideration. APPLI(‘ATIOYS AK. AF2 Intermittent or accidental Intermittent or accidental subjection to corrosive or polluting chemical substances being used or produced AF3 Continuous Continuously subject to corrosive or polluting chemical substances in substantial quantity. insulating or conductive dusts. chemical works. Severe industrial conditions. etc). laboratories. EXAMPLM (3) coot (4) AE4 AFI Atmospheric Installations situated by the sea or industrial zones producing serious atmospheric pollution.. IXstrnction should bc made bctvvccn harmful growth of vcgctatton or condittons for promotion of mould grovvth. AF4 7) Mechanical Stresses: a)’ Impact Low severity Medium severity High severity N OTE . Usual industrial conditions. c) Other mechanical stresses 8) Presence of fungus and/or mould growth No hazard Hazard No hazard of fungus and/or mould growth hazard of fungus and/or mould growth The hazard dcpcnda on local conditions and the nature of fungus. Locations where some chemical products are handled in small quantities and where these products may come only accidentially into contact with electrical equipment. AHI AH2 AH3 9) Presence of vermin No hazard No hazard (Conrinued) 34 NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE . garages.Provisional classification.

Harmful hazards of stray currents. Harmful presence of ionizing radiation. gstinction should he made between: (4) AL2 . Harmful presence of electromagnetic radiation.presence of small animals or birds m harmful quantity or of an aggressive nature. seismic effects must be specially considered. AP4 over 30 up to and including 300 Gal over 300 up to and including 600 Gal greater than 600 Gal 13) Lightning Negligible Indirect exposure Direct exposure Hazard from supply arrangements Hazard from exposure of equipment Installations supplied by overhead lines. AN2 Up to 30 Gal (I Gal = I cm/s’) API AP2 AP3 Vibration which may cause the destruction of the building is outside the classification. if the seismic wave resonates with the building. AQI AQ2 AQ3 14) Wind (Under consideration) Utilization I) Capability of Persons Ordinary Children Uninstructed persons Children in locations intended for their occupation. small animals) A PPLICATIONS E XAMPLES AND C ODE (3) The hazard de nds on the nature of the vermin. AMI Stray currents Electromagnetics loni7ation Electrostatics Induction I I) Solar radiation Negligible Significant 12) Seismic effects Negligible Low severity Medium severity High severity AM2 AM3 AM4 AM5 AM6 ANI Solar radiation of harmful intensity and/or duration. Nurseries BAI BA2 ( COrIliflUPd) PART I GENERAL AND C O M M O N A S P E C T S 35 . electrostattc or ionizing influences Negligible No harmful effects from stray currents.presence of insects in harmful quantity or of an aggressive nature. the frequency of seismic acceleration is between 0 and IO H z . Parts of installation> located outside buildings. ioni7ing radiation or induction. Frequency is not taken into account in the classification. In general. birds. Harmful presence of electrostatic fields.Conrd C LASS D E S I G N A T I O N (1) Hazard C%A~AUTERI~~I~~ (2) Hazard from fauna (insects. The risks AQ2 and AQ3 relate to regions with a particularly high level of thunderstorm activity. IO) Electromagnetic. electrostatic fields. however. .TABLE 1 ASSESSMENT OF GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF BUILDINGS . Harmful presence of induced currents. electromagnetic radiation.

difficult conditions of evacuation. for example. hospitals. sufficient experience to enable them to avoid dangers which electricity may create (engineers and technicians) BA3 Instructed BA4 Skilled BA5 2) Electrical Resistance of the Human Body Classification (Under consideration) 3) Contact of Persons with Earth Potential None Low Persons in non-conducting situations Persons do not in usual conditions make contact with extraneous conductive parts or stand on conducting surfaces. N O T E . cinemas). 5) Nature of Processed or Stored Materials No signifiant risks Fire risks Manufacture. in the event of fault. High-rise buildings. Metallic surroundings such as boilers and tanks. processing or storage of flammable materials including presence of dust. pharmaceutics. easy conditions of evacuation. High density occupation.TABLE I ASSESSMENT OF GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF BUILDINGS . hydrocarbon stores. Locations with extraneous conductive parts. BEI BE2 Buildings of normal or low height used for habitation. Presence of unprotected foodstuffs. Locations open to the public (theatres. High density occupation. Norr-conducting locations. Low density occupation. wood-working shops. by broken lamps. old persons) Electrical operating areas Persons adequately advised or supervised by skilled persons to enable them to avoid dangers which electricity may create (operating and maintenance staff) Persons with technical knowledge or Closed electrtcal operating areas.Certain precautions may be necessary. kitchens. BCI BC? BB Frequent BC3 Continuous BC4 4) Conditions of Evacuation in an Emergency Low density occupation. easy conditions of evacuation. to prevent processed materials being contaminated by electrical equipment. paper factories. Handicapped Persons not in command of all their Hospitals physical and intellectual abilities (sick persons.This class does not necessarily apply to family dwellings. Persons are in permanent contact with metallic surroundings and for whom the possibility of interrupting contact is limited. Processing or storage of explosive or low flashpoint materials including presence of explosive dusts. Oil refineries.Con/d CII 4K \(‘trKISTI(‘S (2) A P P L I C A T I O N S AND CODE EXAMPUS (3) (4) Norm ~. either numerous or of large area.) BDI BD2 BD3 BD4 Explosion risk Contamination risks BE3 Foodstuff industries. difficult conditions of evacuation. Barns. and similar products without protection. Persons are frequently in touch with extraneous conductive parts or stand on conducting surfaces. High-rise buildings open to the public (hotels. (Conrinued) 36 NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE . etc.

and N = direct electrical connection of the exposed conductive parts to the earthed point of the power system. according to the arrangement of neutral and protective conductors as independent of the earth electrodes of the p o w e r s y s t e m . or one point connected to earth through an impedance. (for example.Figures I to 5 show examples of commonly used three-phase systems. CB3 Flexible or unstable CB4 A P P E N D I X A (Clause 2. Flexible wiring. _ High-rise buildings. the earthed point is normally the neutral point). Subsequent letter(s) (if any) indicate arrangement of neutral and protective conductors: c) IT qstem -~ The IT system has no direct follows: TN-S system: having separate neutral and protective conductors throughout the system.The TT power system has one point directly earthed. chimney effects). Installations needing support. false ceilings. the exposed conductive parts of the electrical installation being earthed. in which neutral and protective functions are combined in a single conductor in a part of the system. displacement between a building and the ground. air-support structures. neutral and protective functions combined in a single conductor (PEN conductor).Conld C LASS DESIGNATIOK CHARAUERISTI~S (2) . NOTE I . Three types of TN systems are recognized.Constructions of Building I) Constructional Materials Non-combustible Combustible 2) Building Design Negligible risk Prtortgation of Buildings of which the shape and dimensions facilitate the spread of fire (for example. and I = all alive parts isolated from earth. 37 . oscillation) Tents. TN C-S system: TN-C system: b) TT s. I . and in which neutral and protective functions are c o m b i n e d i n a single conductor throughout the system. connection between live parts and earth. removable partitions. NOTE 2 -The codes used have the following meanmgs: First letter indicates relationship of the power system to earth: T = direct connection of one point to earth. or Contraction or expansion joints. Forced ventilation systems. (in ac system. a) TN Systems-TN power systems have one point directly earthed. the exposed conductive parts of the installation being connected to earth electrodes electricallv PART I GENERAL AND COMMON ASPECTS s= c= neutral and protective functions provided by separate conductors.O) TYPES OF SYSTEM EARTHING The folloGng types of system earthing are taken into account in this Code. then exposed conductive parts of the installation being connected to that point by protective conductors.llstem -. independently of the earthing of any point of the power system. settlement of ground .or building foundations). Second letter indicates relationship of the exposed conductive parts of the installation to earth: T = direct electrical connection of exposed conductive parts to earth.TABLE 1 ASSESSMENT OF GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF BUILDINGS. CBI CB2 APPLICATIONS EXAMPLES (3) AND CODE (4) Buildings mainly constructed of combustible materials Wooden buildings CA1 CA2 Movement Buildings of considerable length Risks due to structural movement or erected on unstable ground. Structures which are weak or subjects to movement (for example.

SYSTEM EARTH SED CONDUCTIVE P&R1 S POWER SYSTEM EARTH CONDUCTIVE PARTS A N D PROTECCO M B I N E D I N A S I N G L E A P ART OF THE S Y S T E M F I G.(‘l’IONS A N D PROI. ~Ii~.S~M 38 NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE .C . 2 T N .S S YSTEM S EPARATE N EUTRAL AND F I G. I T N .E(. 5 IT S~. 3 7-N-C SYSTFM.YIW C O M B I N E D I N A SING1. NEUTRAI.SMM F I G. 4 TT SYSTEM SYSTEM EARTH CONDUCTIVE PART FIG.F C‘~NDI:~T~R ‘TIIROIIGIIOI:T I III: SI.S S Y S T E M N EUTRAL TIVE P R O T E C T I V E C O N D U C T O R S THRO~JGHOIJI I III: SJ~SIIXI FIJN~TIONS CONDIKV~R IN L30 Nt L20 v POWER SYSTEM EARTH CONDUCTIVE PARTS -A‘ = POWER SYSTEM EARTH :-)) -o -* b---l I hPE L-_-_-A & f POSED EX CONDUCTIVE PART F I G.

an item of equipment does not have by design the properties corresponding to its location it may be used on condition that adequate additional protection provided as part of the completed electrical installation. and maintenance of electric power equipment. and d) harmonics.Electrical equipment shall be suitable with respect to the maximum steady voltage (rms value for ac).1 A series of product codes have been brought out in the field of electrotechnology which covers details of selection. it may be necessary to take account of the lowest voltage likely to occur.Iitions of Installation .4 Prevention of Harmful effects . of Part 1 of the Code. 2.Every item of electrical equipment used in the installation shall conform to the relevant Indian Standard specifications wherever available.All electrical equipment to be selected on the basis of its power characteristics. 2. and with respect to the current likely to be carried in abnormal conditions and PART I GENERAL AND COMMON ASPECTS 39 .All electrical equipment shall be selected so that it will not cause harmful effects on.2 Characteristics . taking into account the load factor and the normal service conditions. 2. fulfil t h e requirements given in 2. other equipment or impair the supply during normal service including switching operations.All electrical equipment shall be selected so as to withrtand safely the stresses and the environmental conditions (see 3.4 Power .All electrical equipment shall be selected with respect to the maximum steady current (rms value for ac) which it has to carry in normal service.5 Guidelines on the selection of specific equipment are covered in the relevant Indian Standard codes of practice. has an frequency 2. the rated frequency of the equipment shall correspond to the frequency likely to occur in the circuit.1 to 2. In this context. installation.2 Current .3 Con. 2. i n p a r t i c u l a r . as well as overvoltages likely to occur. SCOPE 1. c) asymmetrical load. This Section of the Code is prepared in such a manner as to bring out only the essential criteria for selection of equipment. 2.2 of Section 7 of Part I) characteristic of its location to which it may be exposed. the factors which may have an influence include: a) power factor.2 of Section 7 of Part I) is b a s e d a n d s h a l l .3 Frequency .SECTION 9 SELECTION OF EQUIPMENT 0. operating time of protective devices. and users of the Code are recommended to make reference to individual product codes for detailed guidelines.2. 2.4. if any) during which it may be expected to flow. 2.2. 2. 1. shall be suitable for the duty demanded of the equipment.For certain equipment. b) inrush current.2.1 Conformity to Indian Standards L. FOREWORD the period (for example.1 This Section of the Code covers general criteria for selection of equipment.2.Every item of electrical equipment selected shall have suitable characteristics appropriate to the values and conditions on which the design of the electrical installation (see 3.1 Voltage .2.If influence on the characteristics of electrical equipment.2. SELECTION OF EQUIPMENT 2. likely to be applied. however. NOTE -This Section shall be read in conjunction with the Indian Standard codes on individual equipment. 0. NOTE . If. The general characteristics of building installations are assessed according to the guidelines given in Section 8.

F O R E W O R D 0. These conductors in flexible cords or flexible cables shall be identifiable by colouring or other means throughout their length (see 2. 1956. A complete check shall also be made of all the protective devices. 3. good workmanship by suitably qualified personnel and the use of proper materials shall be ensured. After putting the installation into 3. Inspection of the Installation 3.0 General. This Section lists the aspects/parameters that are required to be verified before an installation could be certified as ready for energizing and use. 1956 have been complied with. range of settings and for co-ordination between the various protective devices. However. 0.5 All electrical equipment shall be installed in such a manner that the designed cooling conditions are not impaired.SECTION 10 ERECTION AND INITIAL TESTING OF INSTALLATION 0. 2.2. fittings. among other things.1 For the erection of the electrical installation. 2. *Code of practice for electrical wiring installations: Part 3 inspection and testing of installation. 3.6 All electrical equipment likely to cause high temperatures or electric arcs shall be placed or guarded so as to eliminate the risk of ignition of flammable materials. Guidelines on such aspects are outside the purview of the Code. Where the temperature of any exposed parts of electrical equipment is likely to cause injury to persons.3 In addition to initial testing. SCOPE 1. General workmanship of the electrical wiring with regard to the layout and finish shall be examined for neatness that would facilitate easy identification of circuits of the system.2. CODE 40 . 3. shall include checking whether all equipment.2 While a complete check list of items to be checked and necessary tests to be done are included in this Section. In the event of defects being found. This. as determined in accordance with Section 9 of Part I shall not be impaired in the process of erection.1.1 General Requirements 3. 2. characteristics of the electrical 2.4 Connections between conductors and between conductors and other electrical equipment shall be made in such a way that safe and reliable contacts ire ensured.7 Attention is also drawn to the provisions contained in relevant Indian Standard codes on installation of specific equipment which shall be adhered to during erection of the installation. periodic testing and preventive maintenance checks are necessary. wires and cables. ERECTION 2. 2. individual product standards cover more detailed guidelines on precommissioning c h e c k s f o r i n d i v i d u a l equipment.ECTRICAI. accessories. soundness of termination with respect to tightness. is put into service. used in the installation are of adequate rating and quality to meet the requirements of the load. the nature and frequency of such measures depending on the nature of the electrical installation in question. 2.1. contact prcssui-e and contact area. adequacy of clearances. as soon as practicable.1 Testing and ensurmg that the installation conforms to the predetermined conditions before the installation could be energized. 0. INSPECTION AND TESTING 3.3 Protective conductors and neutral conductors shall be identifiable at least at their terminations by colouring or other means.1 Before the completed installation. these parts shall be so located as to prevent accidental contact therewith. with respect to the rating. NATIONAL EI. 2. a general inspection shall be carried out by competent personnel to verify that the provisions of this Code and that of Indian Electricity Rules. inspection and testing shall be carried out in accordance with the Indian Electricity Rules.1 This Section of the Code covers general principles of erection of installation and guidelines on initial testing before commissioning.2 The equipment.1.3 Where an addition is to be made to the fixed wiring of an existing installation the latter s h a l l b e e x a m i n e d f o r c o m p l i a n c e with recommendations of this Code.4 The contents of this Section are based on iS_: 732 (Part 3)-1982* 1.At the completion of wiring. or an addition to the existing installation. these shall be rectified. is a necessary prerequisite under the Giutory -provisions.6 of Section 4 of Part I). a reference could be made to individual equipment codes which cover maintenance schedules: 0. and the installation retested.2 service periodic inspection and testing shall be carried out in order to maintain the installation in a sound condition.

me-plates are fixed and the equipment are fully painted. 4) the required ground *clearance to live terminals is provided. 2) all connections to the earthing system are feasible for periodical inspection. 11) all construction materials and temporary connections are removed. contactors.1 Substation Installations ~~ in substation installation it shall be checked whether: handle interlock for safe and reliable operation in all panels and cubicles. etc. 8) all cable trenches are provided with nonflammable covers. there is any oil leak. 2) phase-to-phase and phase-toearth clear3) all equipments are efficiently earthed and properly connected to the required number of earth electrodes. rear and sides of the switthboards. PAHT 22) the gap in the horngap fuse and the size of 23) the switch operates freely. 10) all na. fire-fighting equipments. all the blades make contact at the same time. are in order. operating rods. 17) the earth bus bars for tightness and for corrosion free joint surface. sufficient ventilation and draining arrangements are made. buchholz relay. are in order. horizontal and vertical barriers. brass bolts and nuts with lead washers are provided in the pipes/ plates. oil sumps/pits are free from rubbish and dirt and stone jelly and the earth connections are visible and easily accessible. are removed. Neutral and lightning arrester earth pits are marked for easy identification. 3. relays. maintenance. etc.2.2. 31) in case of cable cellars. 20) safety devices. 3) sharp cable bends are avoided and cables are taken in a smooth manner in the trenches or alongside the walls and ceilings using suitable support clamps at regular intervals. control switchfuse is provided at an accessible height from ground for controlling supply to overhead travelling crane hoists. 18) control switchfuses are provided at an accessible height from ground.2 Installation at Voltage not exceeding 650 V. 6) the required number of caution boards. overhead bus bar trunking. 16) Panels and switchgears are all vermin and damp proof and all unused openings or holes are b!ocked properly. 1) the installation has been carried out in accordance with the approved drawings. 21) clearances in the front. 29) connections to gas relay in transformers are in order. 14) earth electrodes are of GI pipes or CI pipes or copper plates. 12) oil levels. ances are provided as required. transformer tap position. 5) two separate and distinct earth connections are provided for the motor/apparatus. 15) earth pipe troughs.are free from cracks. automatic safety shutters/doors interlock. etc. 5) suitable fencing is provided with gate with lockable arrangements. etc. For earth connections. 4) suitable linked switch or circuit-breaker or lockable push button is provided near the motors/apparatus for controlling supply to the motor/apparatus in an easily accessible location. fuse adequate. rubber mats. The arcing horns contact in advance.It shall be checked whether: all blocking materials that are used for safe transportation in switchgears. 28) accessories of transformers like breathers. Jl I GENERAL AND COMMON ASPECTS . 7) in case of indoor substation. bus bar tightness. 27) bushings are free from cracks and are clean. and 32) all incoming and outgoing circuits of panels are’clearly and indelibly labelled for identifications both at the front and at the rear. 25) in the case of transformers. and tlie handles are provided with locking arrangements. 9) free accessibility is provided for all equipment for normal operation. vent pipe. 30) oil and winding temperature are set for specific requirements in transformers. and are clean. 26) connections to bushings in transformers are tightened and have good contact. bus bar covers/ shrouds. 24) Insulators . etc. 13) earth pipe troughs and cover slabs are provided for earth electrodes/earth pits. adequate arrangements to pump out water that has entered due to seepage or other reason is provided.3. are kept in the substation. 19) adequate head room is available in the transformer room for easy topping up of oil. are adequate.

before an installation or an addition to the existing i. IO) the cables are not taken through areas where they are likely to be damaged or chemically affected.3. 15) flat ended screws are used for fixing conductor to the accessories. 4) tamper-proof interlocked switch socket outlets are used for locations easily accessible. 3. conduit and conduit properly earthed.3 Lighting. 14) ammeters and voltmeters are tested and calibrated. 6) a separate earth wire is run in the lighting installation to provide earthing for plug points. 13) the fittings and fixtures used for outdoor use are all of weather proof construction. 16) flat washers backed up by spiring washers are used for making end connections. the third pin being suitably earthed. 14) proper terminal connectors are used for termination of wires (conductors and earth leads) and all strands are inserted in the terminals. 7) proper connectors and junction boxes are used wherever joints are to be made in . 9) clear and permanent identification marks are painted in all distribution boards.Switchboards shall be tested in the manner indicated below: 3) the plug points in the lighting circuit are all of 3-pin type. 2) all earth connections shall be checked for continuity. s u b . IO) the polarity is checked and all fuses and single pole switches are connected on the phase conductor only and wiring is correctly connected to socket outlets. 3. etc. fixtures and equipment. NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE . and no fuse is provided in the neutral. armoured cable wiring is used. switchboards.2. provisions of arc chutes in their respective poles are made. 15) the relays are inspected visually by moving covers for deposits or dusts or other foreign matter. and similarly. 8) four core cables are used for overhead travelling crane and portable equipments. 4) the operation of the circuit-breakers shall be tested from all control stations.After inspection. the following tests shall be carried out.3. and 16) in the case of air circuit-breakers.0 Gerwtd. fittings and switchgears used in the hazardous area are of flame proof application. conductors or cross over of conductors take place. 5) lighting wiring in factory area is taken enclosed ir. tallation is put into service.The lighting circuits shall be checked whether: 3.the metal rails on which the crane travels are electrically continuous and earthed and bonding of rails and earthing at both ends are done. I) spare knockouts provided in distribution boards and switchfuses are blocked. 12) the belts of the belt driven equipment are properly guarded.1 Switchboards .m a i n b o a r d s a n d switches. and separate supply for lighting circuit is taken. II) the screens and armours of the cables are earthed properly. 8) cartridge fuse units are fitted with cartridge fuses only. or alternatively. the wiring is enclosed to the full lengths. any testing of the electrical installation in an already existing installation shall commence after obtaining permit to work from the engineerincharge and after ensuring the safety provisions. 3) the operation of all protective devices shall be tested by means of secondary or primary injection tests. 9) if flexible metallic hose is used for wiring to motors and equipments. 2) ends of conduits enclosing the wiring leads are provided with suitable bushes. as necessary. 13) adequate precautions are taken to ensure that no live parts are so exposed as to cause danger. and 17) number of wires in a conduit conform to provisions of this Code. 3.42 1) all switchboards shall be tested for di- electric test in the manner recommended in IS : 8623 (Part I)-l977*. fixtures. the fourth core being used for earthing. and the hose secured properly. switch fuses which are used for lighting control. *Factory built assemblies of switchgear and controlgear: Part I General requirements.3 Testing of Installation 1) wooden boxes and uanels are avoided in 2) neutral links are provided in double pole _ factories for mounting the lighting boards and switch controls.

heating and power appliances and electric signs. Cable installations shall be 3. 43 a) The insulation resistance of each phase winding against the frame and between the windings shall be measured. provided that it does not exceed 500 volts for medium voltage circuits. installation and maintenance of transformers: Part 2 Installation. 8) contact resistance of main and isolator contacts shall be measured. countersigned by the certified supervisor under whose direct supervision the installation was carried out.3. d) The insulation resistance shall also be measured betwetn all conductors connected to one pole or phase conductor of the >upply and all the conductors connected to the middle wire to the neutral on to the other pole of phase conductors of the supply. e) On completion of an electrical installation (or an extension to an installation) a certificate shall be furnished by the contractor. but in that event the insulation resistance between the case or framework.s as listed in IS : 1002X (Part 2)-1981* shall be car-ricd out. 7) the closing and opening timings of the ciicuit-breakers shall be tested wherever required for autotransfer schemes. since moisture might have been absorbed during shipment and storage: When the temperature of such a motor is raised. 6) the operation of the circuit-breakers shall be tested for all intedock.4 Motors and Other Equipment . the working voltage shall be deemed to be that which is maintained between the outer or phase conductor and the neutral. Star points should be disconnected.\/~).. Megohmmeter of 500 V or 1 000 V rating shall be used.2 ~.For checking the efficiency of earthing the following tests are recommended (see IS : 3043-1966*).. PART I GE:NERAI. motor winding shall be dried out. even below the acceptable minimum. provided that the whole installation need not be required to have an insulation resistance greater than IMR.5) indication/ signalling lamps shall be checked for working.3. and 9) the specific gravity of the electrolyte and the voltage of the control battery shall be measured. +Code of practice for installation and maintenance of power cables up to and Including 33 kV (/ir. the value shall be corrected to 25°C. c) Control rheostats. and all live parts of each rheostat. the insulation resistance will initially drop considerably. appliance and sign shall be not less than that specified in the relevant Indian Standard specification or where there is no such specification shall be not less than 0. R1 = I 000 + 2P where R. 3.I)I~~~. Such a test shall be made after removing all metallic connections between the two poles of the installation and in these circumstances the insulation resistance between conductors of the installation shall be not less than that specified in (b). b) The insulathon resistance as measured at ambient temperature does not always give a reliable value. be disconnected from the circuit during the test.3 C’cihlc~s chcckcd ah laid doun in IS : 125%19X3+.The following tests are made on motor and other equipment: 3. If any suspicion exists on this score. If the resistance is measured at a temperature different from 25OC.3. All commissioning tests 3. Where the supply is derived from three-wire (ac or dc) or a polyphase system the neutral pole of which is connected to earth either direct or through added resistance.5 Wiring Installation . Minimum acceptable value of the insulation resistance varies with the rated power and the rated voltage of the motor. The following relation may serve as a reasonable guide: 2 0 X E. all lamps in position or both poles of installation otherwise electrically connected together. AND COMMON ASPECTS . = Rated phase-to-phase voltage. *Code of practice for earthing. and except in earthed concentric wiring.u.~. and P = Rated power kW. a dc voltage of not less than twice the working voltage. = Ksuptibn resistance in MR at 0 E.vr r~\~ision). may. if desired. *Code of practice for selection.3.The following tests shall be done: a) The insulation resistance shall be measured by applying between earth and the whole system of conductor or any section thereof with all fuses in place and all switches closed.6 Earthing .3. b) The insulation resistance in megohms of an in?tallation measured as in (a) shall be not less than 50 divided by the number of points on the circuit. This certificate shall be in a prescribed form as required by the local electric supply authority. 3.5 MR.

b) The earth resistance of earthing grid is measured. c) All electrodes are connected to the’grid and the earth resistance of the entire earthing system is measured. 44 NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE .a) The earth resistance of each electrode is measured. These tests shall preferably be done during the summer months.

1.0 I . 1 .A11 lampholders shall be provided with 45 . Where control at more than one point is necessary as many two-way or intermediate switches may be provided as there are control points.1 Ceiling Roses and Similar Attachments 2 .takitiOnS: Part 2.4 Fitting-Wire .SECTION 11 WIRING INSTALLATIOlVS 0.2 Where necessary lighting fittings shall be supported by suitable pipe/conduits.1 Each 15A socket outlet provided in buildings for the use of domestic appliances sych as air-conditioner. 2. conductors connecting such current-consuming devices shall be of flexible cord with an earthing core and the earthing core shall be secured by connecting between1 the earth terminal of plug and the. Design and consiruction.2 2 : 5.2 Socket Outlets and Plugs 2. with suitable discrimination with back-up fuse or miniature circuit-breaker provided in.1 A major portion of fixed installation design in a building relates to wiring installation. Celluloid shade or lighting fitting shall not be used under any circumstances.1.2 4810.5 Lampholders .5 2.2 Each socket outlet shall also be controlled by a switch which shall preferably be located immediately adjacent thereto or combined therewith.3 Lighting Fittings 2. the sub-circuit leads shall termmate In a ceiling rose or box with connectors from which they shall be carried into the fittings. a socket outlet with plug shall be of three-pin type with the third terminal connected to the earth.1 A switch shall be provided for the control of every lighting fitting or a group of lighting fittings. The requirements specified in this Section are based on safety and reliability considerations.Lampholders for use with flexible pendants shall be provided with c o r d grips.ring installations. steel chains. This Section of the Code is primarily intended to cover guidelines on design and construction of wiring installations which are commonly applicable to all types of occupancies. Specially designed ceiling roses shall be used for multiple pendants. . the maximum weight !o which the twin flexible cords may be subjected shall be as follows: Nominal CrossSectional Area of Twin Flexible Cord Number and Diameter in mm of Wires Maxrmum Permissible Weight kg mm* 0.2 Normally.3 A ceihng rose shall not embody fuse terminal as an integral part of it. brackets fabricated from structural steel. 2.2 2410. Where a lighting fitting is supported by one or more flexible cords.5 In an earthed system of supply.3.body of current-consuming devices.2 8010. 2.3. shall be provided with its own individual fuse. qQUIPMENT FITTINGS AND ACCESSORIES 2. 2. 0.2 It may be mentioned that the general design guidelines for wiring given in this Section have to be carefully considered while applying them to specific occupancies and a proper selection of the method is to be decided depending on local conditions. Guidance on such matters are covered in respective Sections of the Code. When such socket outlets with plugs are connected to any current+onsuming device of metal or any noninsulating material or both. 0. FOREWORD 2.2. depending upon the type and weight of the fittings.The use of fittings-wire shall be restricted to the internal wiring of the lighting fittings.3 The contents of this Section are based on IS : 732 (Part 2)-1982* 1.75 l6/0. etc.2. 2.3 No flammable shade shall form a part of lighting fittings unless such shade is well protected against all risks of fire. *Code of practice for electrical wiring iE.3 The switch controlling the socket outlet shall be on the live side of the line. only one flexible cord shall be attached to a ceiling rose.3. it is necessary to install an interlocked plug and socket or alternatively a socket outlet which automatically gets screened by the withdrawal of plug. The socketoutlet shall not necessarily embody the fuse as an integral part of it. PART I GENERAL AND COMMON ASPECTS 2. etc.the distribution/sub-distribution board. 2.5 4 2. 1 A ceiling rose or any other similar attachment shall not be used on a circuit the voltage of which normally exceeds 250 V .1 This Section of the Code covers the essential design and constructional requirements for electrical wi.2 3210.2.2.3 8.o 1. 2.2.5 0. 0.8 14. Where fittings-wire is used for wiring fittings. 2.4 Ordinary socket outlet may be fixed at any convenient place at a height above 20 cm from the floor level and shall be away from danger of mechanical injury.2 12810. 2. 2. N OTE ~ In situations where a socket outlet is accessible to children. SCOPE 1. water cooler.

care being taken that the blades rotate in the proper direction. all ceiling roses. these boards shall be well varnished with pure shellac on all four sides (both inside and outside). the clearance between the bottom-most point of the ceiling fan and the floor shall be not less than 2.9 Attachment of Fittings and Accessories 2.4 m. pendants and accessories attached to walls or ceilings shall be mounted on substantial wooden blocks twice varnished after all fixing holes are made in them. 2.2 Where teak or hardwood boards are used for mounting switches.7 Lamps . NOTE .8. Flexible cord and cord grip lampholders shall not be used where exposed to weather. the outer or screw contacts shall be connected to the ‘middle wire’. 2. irrespective of being painted to match the surroundings. Brass screws shall only be used for attaching fittings and accessories to their base blocks. The bushing shall be of insulating material unless a jacketted type or cord is used.For fixing of an exhaust fan. Hand lamps shall be equipped with a substantial guard attached to the lamp holder or handle. Fan clamps for steel joint shall be fabricated from flat iron to fit rigidly to the bottom flange of the beam. ceiling on which these clamps are to be fitted. adequate strength to withstand the dead and impact forces imposed on it. alternatively the two pipes may be welded.5 mm* aluminium and shall be protected from abrasion. the earthed conductor of the circuit. sectional area not less than 1. Hand lamps shall be equipped with a handle of moulded composition or other material approved for the purpose. d) Exposed live parts within porcelain fixtures shall be suitably recessed and so located as to make it improbable that wires will come in contact with them. f) Unless otherwise specified.9. Care shall be taken during fabrication that the metal does not crack while hammering to shape. The hole shall be neatly plastered with cement and brought to the original finish of the wall. 2. In verandahs and similar exposed situations where pendants are used. Blocks shall not be less than 4 cm deep. There shall be a spacing of at least 125 mm between live parts and the mounting plane of the fixture. shall be hung at a height of not less than 2. 2. The suspension rod shall be s.1 In wiring other than conduit wiring.5 m above the floor level. and shall in addition be secured by means of split pins. the neutral. but in a:1 cases care shall be taken to see that they are rigid and safe. There shall be no joint in the suspension rod. etc. b) All ceiling fans shall be wired with normal wiring to ceiling roses or to special connector boxes to which fan rod wires shall be connected and suspended from hooks or shackels with insulators between hooks and suspension rods.All lamps unless otherwise required and suitably protected. brackets. The size of such boards shall NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE .2 Exhaust Fans . Where centrecontact Edison screw lampholders are used.6 Outdoor Lamps .shade carriers. Fan clamps for wood beams shall be of suitable flat iron fixed on two sides of the beam and according to the size and section of the beam one or two mild steel bolts passing through the beam shall hold both flat irons together. 4 Portable lamps shall be wired with flexible cord. Metallic guards shall be earthed suitably. but if joints are unavoidable then such joints shall be screwed to special couplers of 5 cm minimum length and both ends of the pipes shall touch together within the couplers.Lamps fitted outdoor shall have weather-proof fittings so as to effectively prevent the ingress of moisture and dust. Fan clamps for reinforced concrete roofs shall be buried with the casting and due care shall be taken that they shall serve the purpose.9. Other fan clamps shall be made to suit the position.1 Ceiling Fans-Wiring for ceiling fans shall conform to the following requirements: a) Control of a ceiling fan shall be through its own regulator as well as a switch in series. regulators. c) Fan clamps shall be of suitable design according to the nature of construction of 46 2. provided where flexible cord enters the base or stem of portable lamp. they shall be of fixed rod type.8 Fans. a circular hole shall be provided in the wall to suit the size of the frame which shall be fixed b y means of &-bolts embedded in the wall. c) Ali wiring shall be free from short-circuits and shall be tested for these defects prior to being connected to the circuit. The minimum clearance between the ceiling and the plane of the blades shall be not !ess than 300 mm. Regulators and Clamps 2. In all cases fan clamps shall be fabricated from new metal of suitable sizes and they shall be as close fitting as possible. The exhaust fan shall be connected to exhaust fan point which shall be wired as near to the hole as possible by means of a flexible cord. 4 Canopies on top and bottom of suspension e) The lead-in-wire shall be of nominal cross- b) A bushing or the equivalent shall be rods shall effectively hide suspensions and connections to fan motors.0 mm’ copper or 1.All fan clamps shall be so fabricated that fans revolve steadily.8. 2. respectively.

1.5 m of any washing unit in the washing rooms.4 R e c e s s i n g q/ hoards-. 3. plugs.23 Metal-clad switchgear shall preferably be mounted on any of the following types of boards: a) Hinged-type metal ‘boards . according to the manner in which the cabks are run. woode? hoards may be used as main-boards or sub-boards.2 The main switchgear shall be easily accessible and shall he situated as near as practicable to the termination of service line. where. or wooden Gutties and shall he provided with a locking arrangement and an earthing stud.1 Reception and Distribution of Main Supply 3.1. or with unbreakable glass doors in teak 17 PART I GENERAL AND COMMON ASPECTS .1.W h e r e S O specified.1 Control at the Point of Commencement of SUPPlY be provided with glands or bushings or adopted tb receive screwed conduit. All wires passing through the metal board shall be bushed.1. 1956 shall apply.5 cm between the teak wood board and the cover. the conductors include an earthed conductor of a two-wire system or an earthed neutral conductor of a multi-wire system or a conductor which is to be connected thereto. on the underside instead of pure shellac.1. Rule 5 I(t)(c) of Indian Electricity Rules. an indication of a permanent nature shall be provided to identity the earthed neutral conductor.1. the boards shall be painted with suitable. the distance being increased for larger boards in order that on closing of the cover. the switchboards shah be recessed in the wall. If there are any attachments of bare connections at the back of the switchboard. N O T E-Such type of boards are particularly suitable for large switchboards for mountmg large number of switchgears or higher capacity metal-clad switchgear or both. The wiring throughout the installation shall be such that there is no break in the neutral wire in the form of the switch or fuse unit.1. CONSTRUCTION 3.Such type of boards are parlicularly suitable for small switchboards for mounting metal-clad switchgear connected to supply at low voltages.1 All main switches shall be either of metal-clad enclosed pattern or of any insulated enclosed pattern which shall be fixed at close proximity to the point of entry of supply. 3. thoroughly protected both inside and outside with insulating varnish and of not less than 6.enable the board to swing open for examination ‘of the wiring at the back.2.1.1.2.1. There shall be a clear distance of I m in front of the switchboard. g) Adequate illumination shall be provided for all working spaces about the switchboards when installed indoors. These shall be of seasoned teak or other suitable quality timber with all joints dovetailed. The front shall be fitted with a hinged panel of teak wood or other suitable material.2 Location The location of the main board should be such that it is easily accessible for fireman and other personnel to quickly disconnect the supply in case of emergencies. cl e) Switchboards shall not be erected above gas Wooden boards . f-l In case of switchboards unavoidably fixed in places likely to be exposed to weather. in dry situations and in ventilated rooms and they shall not be placed in the vicinity of storage batteries or exposed to chemical fumes. stoves or sinks. N OTE .1 There shall be ctrcuit-breakei or a linked switch with fuse on each live conductor of the supply mains at the point of entry.These shall consist of a box made of sheet metal not less than 2 mm thick and shall be provided with a hinged cover to. 4 In a damp situation or where flammable or explosive dust. Where t.2. 3. The board shall be securely fixed to the wall by means of rag bolts. such as bakclite. 3.1. antitermite paint.These shall consist of an angle or channel iron frame fixed on the wall. The joints shall be welded. 3. Alternatively. vapour or gas is likely to be present. 3. 3. or on the floor and supported on the wall at the top if necessary.5 mm in thickness.depend on the number of accessories that could conveniently and neatly be arranged. or within 2.3 On the main switchgear. to drip or to abnormal moist atmosphere. the switchboard shall be totally enclosed or made flameproof as may be necessitated by the particular circumstances. b) Main switchboards shall be installed in rooms or cupboards having provisions for locking arrangement so as to safeguard against operation by unauthorized personnel. A teak wood board.hete is danger of attack by termite. hinged-type metal boards shall be made of sheet covering mounted on channel or angle iron frame.1. b) cl Open type switchboards shall be placed only Fixed-type metal boards . shall bc provided at the back for attachment of incoming and outgoing cables.For small installations connected to a single-phase 240 volts supply.2 M a i n Sn’itches and S~citc~hhoards 3. the outer casing shall be weatherproof and shall 3. There shall be a clear distance of not less than 2. the insulation of the cables is not subjected to damage and no short length of cables is subjected to excessive twisting or bending in any case.

3. which shall be symmetrically and neatly arranged for arriving at the overall dimensions. The switches shall always be linked. these fuses shall be so arranged that the fuses are not live when their respective switches are in off position. The load on any low voltage sub-circuit shall not exceed 3 000 watts. At least one spare circuit of the same capacity shall be provided on each branch distribution board. each such switch shall be marked to indicate which section of the installation it controls. including the disposition of the . Such sub-circuit shall not have more than a total of ten points of lights.5 In large installations of medium voltage. if need is felt separate circuits may be provided for the I W O. 3. before proceeding with the actual construction of the boards.rmanent. In corrosive atmospheres. however. changing of fuses like operation. Power sub-circuits shall be designed according to the load but in no case shall there be more than four outlets on each sub-circuit. on the live conductor of each sub-circuit and the earthed n.1. b) Where a board has more than one switch. c) In installations requiring the use of group 4 The arrangement of the gear shall be such e) In every case in which switches and fuses are 0 No fuses other than fuses in instrument circuit shall be fixed on the back of or behind a switchboard panel or frame.3. If a se arate fan circuit is provided.5 cm of any edge of the panel and no hole other than the holes by means of which the panel is fixed shall be drilled closer than 1. the number of P in ans the circuit shall not exceed ten. fitted on the same pole. b) No apparatus shall project beyond any edge b) Lights and fans may be wired on a common cl The. <‘ODE . non-flammable insulating material.2.3 cm from any edge of the panel.3 Branch distribution hoards a) Branch distribution boards shall be provided 4 Equipment which is on the front of a switchboard shall be so arranged that inadvertent personal contact with live parts is unlikely during the manipulation of switches. Normally. circuit. shall be so spaced that an arc cannot maintain between such parts and earth. Ample room shall be provided at the back for c o n n e c t i o n a n d a t t h e *front b e t w e e n t h e switchgear mountings.6 Arrangemetlr o/’ apparatus 3.2 Main distribution board shall be provided with a circuit-breaker on each circuit. control for switching operation. that they shall be readily accessible and their connections to all instruments and apparatus shall also be easily identifiable. or co\cred with \uit:thlc plastic compound. and shall not bc more than 2 m from floor level.Iltritt trtiil Brutli~h I~i. if exposed to weather or damp situations.7 Identification and marking a) Marking shall be done as given in Table I of Set 41 Part I of the Code. The load of such circuit shall be restricted to 800 watts.ocket outlets.4 Installation on distribution boards 3.wood frame with locking arrangement. Looping by cable connections at incoming and outgoing of these devices should be avoided.1. a proper drawing showing the detailed dimensions and design.2.2.1. all circuits and sub-circuits shall be designed by making a provision of 20 percent increase in load due to any future modification.3.3.mountings.C:(‘TWI<‘AI. Power subcircuits shall be designed according to the load but in no case shall there be more than two 15-A outlets on each sub-circuit. b) These shall be fixed on suitable stanchion or wall and shall be accessible for replacement of fuses. fans and 5-A . or all-insulated type.1 Main and branch distribution boards shall be of any type mentioned under 3. But. 3. The main switch shall be marked as such and where there is more than one main switch in the building. 3. In case of new installation. the outer surface of the doors being flush with the walls. N A T I O N A L EI. fans and lights may be wired on a common circuit. unless they are effectively screened by substantial barriers of non-hygroscopic.1.1. 3.1. c) All markings shall be clear and pe. c) These shall be of either metal-clad type. circuits for socket outlets may bc kept separate from fans and lights. 3. they shall be trcatcd with anti-corrosivc prcservativc. each such switch shall be marked to indicate which section of the installation it controls. or a switch with a fuse on the phase or live conductor and link on the neutral or earthed conductor of each circuit. with a fuse or a miniature circuit-breaker or both of adequate rating/setting.\lrihirriort Hourcl\ 411 a) The distribution fuse-boards shall be located as near as possible to the centre of the load they are intended to control. of the panel. 3.1.2. they shall be of the weatherproof type. No fuse body shall be mounted within 2.eutraI conductor shall be connected to a common link and be capable of being disconnected individually for testing purposes.3 .1. various live parts. shall be prepared and incorporated in the building drawing.3.1.

be fixed at the corresponding points on the switchboard panel.list giving details of each circuit which it controls and the current rating of the circuit and size offusedlement. as far as possible evenly between the number of ways of the board. b) The current rating of a fuse shall not exceed the current rating of the smallest cable in the circuit protected by the fuse. or 2) arranged so that it is not possible to o n the two at the same time.1.2 If the .1. 3. these distribution boards shall be: The cables between these points shall be of such length as to allow. 4 All bare conductors shall be rigidly fixed in such a manner that a clearance of at least 2. 3. the rating of the cable shall be the current which the circuit is designed to carry. 3 ) i n s t a l l e d in a room or enclosure accessible to only authorited persons. 4.00 mm2 copper and 1.00 mm? aluminium. Conductor for final sub-circuit for fan and light wiring shall have a nominal crosssectional area not less than 1. 1) In a hinged type board.50 mm? aluminium. 3. and also marked with the voltage and number of phases of the supply.6. avoiding unnecessary crossings.of the following methods shall be employed.down.3. a pilot lamp shall be fixed and connected through an independent singlepole switch and fuse to the bus-bars of the board. namely. t % ey are interlocked.cable size is increased to avoid voltage drop in the circuit. NOTE-The wiring of such low voltage distribution boards shall be segregated from each other and not run in the same condvk a) A fuse carrier shall not be fitted with a fuseelement of higher rating than that for which the carrier is designed (see Set 18. Part I c?f the Code). .6 Fuses apart.4. an indelible indication of its appropriate current rating for the protection of the circuit which it controls. following the arrangements of the apparatus mourited thereon. if possible. Cables in each circuit shall be bunched together.Where the supply is derived from a three-wire or four-wire source. and the metal case is marked ‘Danger 415 volts’ and identified with proper phase marking and danger marks. earth or earthed neutral conductor of the circuit.5 Branch Switches . the switchboard panel to swing through an angle of not less than 900 3. one. and distribution is done on the two-wire system. In each circuit or sub-circuit the fuse shall be selected to match the cable rating to ensure the desired protection.1.1. leaving the spare circuit for future extension. or in an adjacent conspicuous position.6 Passing Through Walls and Floors 3. 3.and shall also. 3. Single-pole switches (other than for multiple control) carrying current of not more than I5 A may be of tumbler tybe or flush type which shall be ‘on’ when the handle or knob is .4 Selection of Size qf Conductor (see Set I8 Part I of the Code). Care shall be taken to see that wires pass very 49 PAR1 . d All distribution boards shall be marked Lighting’ or ‘Power’. I GENERAL ANS) COMMON ASPECTS 3.50 mm? copper.5 Wiring qf tlivrrihurion boards: c) Every fuse shall have in its own case or cover. all branch switches shall be placed in the outer or live conductor of the circuit and no single-phase switch or fuse shall be inserted in the middle wire.4. as the case may be. The cross-sectional areas of conductors for power wiring shall be not less than 2. conductors are carrying the maximum current under the normal conditions of service. All connections between pieces of apparatus or between apparatus and terminals on a board shall be neatly arranged in a definite sequence. the incoming and outgoing cables shall be fixed at one or more points according to the number of cables on the back of the board leaving suitable space in between cables.1. Each shall be provided with a circuit . e) If required.5 cm is maintained between conductors of opposite polarity or phase and between the conductors and any material other than insulating material. lugs or ferrules unless the terminal is of such a form that it is possible to securely clamp them without the cutting away of cable strands. b) c) Cables shall be connected to a terminal only by soldered or welded or crimped lugs using suitable sleeve.1.43 All conductors shall be of copper or aluminium. The minimum cross-sectional area of conductors of flexible cord shall be 0.1.1 Where cond:uctors pass through walls.5 mm?. copper. 3.3.1.1 The sizes d conductors of circuits shall be so selected that the drop in voltage from consumer’s terminals in a public supply (or from the bus-bars of the main switchboard controlling the various circuits in a private generation plant) to any point on the installation does not exceed 3 percent of the voltage at the consumer’s terminals (or at two bus-bars as the case may be) when the a) In wiring a branch distributioh board.d) Where two or more distribution fuse-boards feeding low voltage circuits are fed from a I) fixed not less than 2 m supply of medium voltage. total load of the consuming devices shall be divided.1.

This system shall not be employed for wiring on damp walls or ceilings unless suitable precautions in an approved manner are adopted to effectively prevent dampness from affecting the insulation of conductors.1. c) Insulated conductors while passing through 3. and properly bushed on the open end.All cleats shall be of apprqved design and shall consist of two parts.1. spacing between such metal and porcelain cleats shall be inserted either with varnished wood fillet or varnished wood clamp securely fixed so as to prevent conductors coming in contact with such metal along which they are passing. wrought all over and varnished with two coats of varnish or painted as may be required.5 cm above the floors and flush with the ceiling below.1. cleats shall be of such dimensions that in the case of branch loads. plastic (PVC and polyethylene) insulated cables. 3.1.5 cm square on the inner end and 2 cm square on the outer end They shall be cemented into walls to within 6.7 Distance Between Wires . b) The conductor shall be carried either in a rigid steel conduit or a rigid non-metallic conduit or in a porcelain tube of such a size which permits easy drawing-in.5 cm apart centre-tocentre and in the case of sub-mains not less than 4 cm apart centre-to-centre.1. floors shall be protected from mechanical injury by means of rigid steel conduit to a tieight not less than I. 4. if the cable used in twin-core. provided that this rule shall not apply. which will rigidly maintain a distance of at :least 1. a) In ordinary cases. 4. in such a manner so as to be visible except in positions where they would 50 . 4.For circuit voltages up to 250 volts.2 Where a wall tube passes outside a building so as to be exposed to weather.5 cm wider than the cleat used. metal conduit or cleat (as the case may) shall be attached to the wall or ceiling in a suitable manner that would conform to the requirements given in the Code.6 Fixing qf Cleats a) A teak wood box extending through the whole thickness of the wall shall be buried in the wall and casings or conductors shall be carried so as to allow 1.3 cm air space on three sides.3 cm between the NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 4. 4.1 Cleated Wiring System 4. on either ends of such holes: be liable to mechanical injury and where they are less than I. as far as pra&icable. In the case of new buildings.All cleated wiring shall be run. plugging of walls or ceilings may be done by a suitable type of asbestos.25 m run.Vulcanized rubber inslulated cables. 4.4 Cleats . the wood casing. The batten shall be of seasoned teak or other suitable seasoned hardwood 2 cm thick and 2.7. a wood batten shall be provided and fixed with not less than one plug per 1. 4. Under no circumstances two wires shall be placed in one groove of porcelain cleats.lJ Crossing yf’ Conductors a) Where cleated conductors cross each other they shall be separated by an insulating biidging piece.5 m above the floor. so that there may be no risk of the conductors touching the wall owing to sagging or stretching. Care shall be taken in selecting size of cleats particularly for branch distribution wiring where two-way and three-way porcelain cleats are essential. Cleats shall be fixed at distances not greater than 60 cm apart and at regular intervals. and the difference in size shall be reasonable.1 General. of the casing or conductor.1.1.1. if necessary.1. braided or unbraided.1.1. wherever possible. wood. in which cases they shall be adequately protected. it shall be chamfered on the edges. wood or other suitable material.2 Accessihi/ir\* .1 Where owing to irregular coursing or other reasons the plugging of the walls or ceiling with wood plugs presents difficulties.7. the outer end shall be bell-mouthed-and turned downwards. a base piece and a cap. batten.2 To achieve neatness. shall be used without any further protection.5 cm of the surface.7 Fixing to Walls and Ceilings . but when owing to irregular coursing or other reasons it is impracticable to fix the cleats in a regular and workman like manner.6. The end of conduit shall be neatly bushed with porcelain. b) Where practicable the same method shall be 4. METHODS OF INTERNAL WIRING 4. 3. Care shall also be taken that graoves of porcelaicl cleats do not compress the insluation nor be too wide to give a very loose fit.Plugs for ordinary wails or ceilings shall be of well-seasoned teak or other suitable hardwood not less than 5 cm long and 2. A special pattern of cleat may be used. the remainder being finished according to the nature of the surface with plaster or lime punning. teak wood plugs shall be fixed in the walls before they are plastered 3. adopted in the cases of stone walls.3 Class q/ Cables .7.5 Where cleated wiring is laid along iron joists or any metal. metallic or a fibre fixing plug.1. where conductors pass round corners.freely through protective pipe or box and that the wires pass through in a straight line without any twist or cross in wires. This steel conduit shall be earthed and securely bushed. cleats shall be attached to plugs arranged in the manner specified under 4. conductors shall not be less than 2.

teak wood solid corner pieces of a radius not less than 7.2. shall be of well-seasoned teak wood or of suitable insulating material and shall be of double type. 2 Mureriol atltl Buftcrtl 91’ C a s i n g ~. The casing shall have grooved~ body with beaded or plain moulded cover as desired.2. plastic insulated cables or other suitable insulated cables are used in the wiring work and carried within wood casing enclosure. Joints in capping shall not overlap those in the casing.2.5 mm thick. Where conductors have to cross corners.1.2. 4.2.5 A t t a c h m e n t qf Casing to Wall and Ceihng . The conduit shall 51 . joint cut-outs or.. Wood casing wiring system shall not be used in damp places or in illventilated places.5 cm and 01 same width as that of casing with same tini%h . keeping mechanical continuity throughout the entire layout. a) No cleated wiring shall be left unprotected up to I. if so desired. free from knots. blocks. NOIV Care shall bc taken in llxing screws on cupping\ w that they do nol picrcr through Ihe walls casing and damage the insulation.3 Dimensions qf Casing .2. c) At the time of laying and drawing of conductors.All casing shall be of seasoned teak wood or any other suitable hardwood. nor fixed in proximity to gas.This system of wiring is suitable for low voltage installation where vulcanized rubber insulated cables.Casing and capping shall be run in lengths as long as possible.4 Bunching q/ Circuits . roof spaces or other concealed spaces in which they are not normally open to view. 2 . may be bunched.s Where conductors pass through floors. Where crossing of wire\ is unavoidable and a junction box is not used. Casing shall be used only on dry walls and ceilings avoiding outside walls. 2 . 4.1 General. walls.9. and shall not be buried in walls or ceilings under plaster. separate base and top.I bridge piece of casing shall be fixed on the top of casing with neat finish and shall pass conductor\ avoiding crossing.7 Join/s in Casing and Capping . 4 . or other defects. 4. b) In open type wiring. unless suitable precautions are taken. 9 P a s s i n g Thsou~h Fioor. When brought through the floor it shall be enclosed in cOnduit in the manner specified’ in 4. and free joints. etc. All casing shall be spaced from the wall or ceiling by means of porcelain disc insulators not less than 6. such as boards. but where joints are required for connecting or bifurcating the wires.Conductors of opposite polarity or different phases shall not be PART I GENERAL AND COMMON ASPECTS 4. steam or water pipes or immediately below the latter Casing under steel joists shall be securt.d by hoopiron or by of wood clamps. as far as possible.2. two screws shall be inserted on the two dividing walls in a workmanlike manner). All joints shall be scarfed or cut diagonally ‘in longitudinal section and shall be smoothed down by fitting to make joints a very close fit as far as possible. all sides plaqed with smooth finish and all sides well varnish’ed. For sizes above 64 mm similar additional round-head screws shall be fixed on the centre-wall (or alternative walls in cases of 3 grooves) at an interval of 45 cm.2 Wood C&g Wiring System 4. 4.The sizes of casing and capping for various sizes of 250 volts grade insulated cables in a groove shall be in accordance with those specified in Table 2 of Set 18! Part I of the Code. in such case conductors shall be carried through steel conduit with all screwed accessories.8 Ly~wur c?/’ Wood Cuing Wiring I. 4.All capping shall be attached to the casing (after all insulated wires are laid inside grooves) by round-head screws (rust resisting) fixed on edges and screwed to outer wails of the casing at an interval not exceeding 15 cm crosswise (that is.2. and spaced with disc insulators. ceilings.5 m. NOTE--Lengths of conductors of the same polarity or phase.9 Prorecrion Near Floor bunched in one groove in wood casing. Screw heads shall be countersunk within the dividing wall of the grooves (in the case of three-grooved casing. 4. . 4 . saps. junction boxes of wooden or other insulating material with porcelain connectors inside shalf be used. 30 cm between two successive screws on each side) for all sizes up to 64 mm casing and capping. They shall be secured at joints with two or more screws as would be necessary. and such pipe work shall be earthed and properly bushed on all open ends to prevent abrasion of cables. tight and rigid without any twist. partitions. that is.above floor level.fuse cut-outs shall not be inserted for any purpose. of 4.All casing shall be fixed by means of suitable countersunk head wood screws to plugs at an interval not exceeding 90 cm for sizes up to 64 mm casing and not exceeding 60 cm for sizes above 64 mm casing. they shall he carried in an approved heavy gauge conduit properly bushed at both ends. The wooden boards shall be well varnished on all sides (both inside and outside) and may be mounted with suitable porcelain Insulators behind the boards. b) As far as possible.6 At/acVwwnl of Capping . shakes.t\ that of capping shall be used with grooves at the bottom for conductors. no open type of wiring shall run within floors.ay~Llt of wood casing wiring shall he such as to avoid corners as far as possible and avoid crossing of conductors inside the casing. (both inside and outside) with pure shellac varnish.conductors except when the cabk used is twincore. d) All wooden fittings. care shall be taken to keep’the wires straight.

4 Protection of TRS or PVC-Sheathed Wiring . they may be taken in teak wood channelling of ample capacity or cement chases or conduit buried in the wall. after erection..8 B u r i e d C a b l e s .3.ith one coat of varnish or suitable paint matching with the surroundings.be carried 1. be painted with one coat of oil-free paint or distemper of suitable colour over a coat of oil-free primer. above which a single clip shall hold a single twin-core cable.5 m below ceiling level and neatly entered into the hasing. 4. The ends of all conduits or pipes shall be neatly bushed with porcelain.4 Metal-Sheathed Wiring System 4. shall be used. Metalsheathed wiring may be used in places exposed to sun and rain NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 4. Where attack from termite is’prevalent. as the case may be.5 mm?. and the PVC-sheathed wiring shall be painted with a synthetic enamel paint of quick drying type.5 m above floor level and 2. In the latter case there shall be one or more conduits of adequate size to carry the cables. The conduits shall be neatly arranged so that the cables enter them straight without b_ending. stone.4. 43.All cables taken through floors shall be enclosed in an insulated heavy gauge steel conduit extending I. where so specified. l 4.1 Passing Through Walls . Where junction boxes are provided.While cutting and stripping of the outer covering of the cables. and shall not be used in places exposed to sun and rain nor in damp places. care shall be taken that the stiarp edge of the cutting instrument does not touch the rubber or PVC sheathed insulation of conductors. the base of which is made flush with the plaster or brickwork.6 Passing Through Floors . The conduit shall be securely earthed. wood or other approved material.10 C a s i n g R o u n d Mouldings or Decora/ions -.3. In addition all casing together with capping after erection shall be painted or varnished to the 4 desired finish.5 Bends in Wiring -.1. 4.5 m from the floor. or the wiring shall be drawn through a conduit complying with all requirements of conduit wiring system.1 All sheathed cables on brick walls. two coats of varnish.6. be suitably protected at the floor level.The wiring shall not in any circumstances be bent so as to form a right angle but shall be rounded off at the corners to a radius not less than six times the .3. after the cables are laid. 4.3. The clips shall be fixed on varnished wood battens with any rustresisting pins or screws and spaced at intervals of IO cm in the case of horizontal runs and I5 cm in the case of vertical runs. or any structural steel work shall he run on well-seasoned aqd varnished.4. straight teak wood battens of not less than IO mm finished thickness and the width of which is such as to suit total width of cables laid on the batten.Metal-sheathed wiring system is suitable for low voltage. 4.5 m above the floor and flush with the ceiling below. internally and on the back.11 Painting and Varnishing . and shall not be used in situations where acids and alkalis are likely to be present.1 In cases where there are chances of any damage to the wiring such wiring shall be covend with sheet metal protective covering.3.0 Genera/. 4. For the wiring and runs of mains exposed to heat and rain.3.3 Tough Rubber-Sheathed or PVC-Sheathed Wiring System 4.overall diameter of the cable. these shall be painted \.3. wires are sheathed in protective covering against atmosphere and well protected to withstand dampness.9 Stripping of Outer Covering . Care shall be taken to avoid hammering on link clips with any metal instruments. or by means of any other approved type of metallic covering.3.3. 4. clips specially made for dutdoor use from a durable metal.T h e t o u g h r u b b e r sheathed cables shall not be buried directly in plaster. 4.This shall be considered as special decoration work and carried out in consultation with the architect or the engineer-in-charge of construction work and with this approval. if so required.Link clips shall be so arranged that one single clip shall not ho&more than two twin-core TRS or PVC-sheathed cables up to I.10 Painting . antitermite treatment shall be given.Wiring with tough rubbersheathed cables is suitable for low voltage installations.2.2 Such protective covering shall in all cases be fitted or all downdrops within 1.down in 3.The method to be adopted shall be that laid. installations. the tough rubber sheathed wiring shall. These battens shall be secured to the walls and ceilings by countersunk head wood screws to coed plugs or other plugs at an interval pot exceeding 75 cm. Wiring with PVC-sheathed cables is suitable for medium voltage’installation and may be installed directly under exposed conditions of sun and rain or damp places.4. 4. 4.All casing and capping shall be given before erection. 4. The protective outer covering of the cables shall be stripped off near connecting terminals. resistant to weather and atmospheric corrosion.3. the flat-head wood screws shall be countersunk within wood batten and smoothed down with file.2. and this protective covering shall be maintained up to the close proximity of connecting terminals as far as practicable. steel joists.from Mechanical Damage 52 . or plaster walls and ceilings. 4. Prior to’erection. they sh‘8il be made moisture-proof 1 with suitable plastic compound.3.0 General.If so required. This system of wiring is suitable in situations where acids and alkalis are likely to be present. 4. which shall.3 Link Clips -.

4. etc.2 While cutting and stripping of the outer covering of the cables. The conduit(s) shall be neatly arranged so that the cables enter them straight without bending. or other approved material and enclosed in joint-boxes. 4. 53 .4. 4.All cables taken through floors shall be enclosed in an insulated steel conduit extending 1.1.These shall be so arranged that one single clip shall not hold more than two twin-core metal-sheathed. stone walls or plastered walls and ceilings. The earthing shall extend to all main switches. 4.6.4.icrogap mainswitches or similar fittings.2 The protective covering shall in all cases be carried right through the entire length of such doubtful positions.4.3 Wiring on Rolled Steel Joists .t an interval not exceeding 75 cm. Where paper-insulated metalsheathed cable is used.2 Arrachment to Walls and Ceilings . care shall be taken to remove cotton !ape covering from the top of rubber insulation of cable. stripped off.7 Passing Through Floors .4 ProtecGon of Wiring from Mechanical Damage 4. The wiring shall be fixed to the batten in the ordinary way.5 Join/s .3 and made electrically continuous throughout their lengths by means of soldered joints or approved suitable clamps or alternatively.8 Passing Through Walls -The method to be adopted shall be that laid down in 3. In the latter case there shall be one or more conduits of adequate size to carry the cables. the metal sheathing shall be nicked only.4. measured from the connection with the earth electrode to any other position in the completed installation shall not exceed IfI. For the wiring and runs of mains exposed to heat and rain. such wiring shall be covered with sheet metal protective covering. 4. or across these boxes. The clips shall be fixed on varnished wood battens with brass pins or brass screws and placed at intervals of IO cm in the case of horizontal runs and 15 cm in the case of vertical runs. resistant to weather and atmospheric corrosion. which have been well varnished on four sides.Where wiring is to be carried along the tace of rolled steel joists. steel joists or any structural steel work shall be run on well-seasoned and perfectly straight teak wood battens of not less than IO mm finished thickness.the sharp edge of cutting instrument does not touch the rubber or PVC insulation of conductors. The ends of all conduits or pipes shall be neatly bushed with porcelain. all openings in the same shall be sealed. with earth continuity conductors (each bonded cables) especially manufactured for the purpose. The width of teak wood battens shall be such as to suit the total width of cables -laid on the batten. or the wiring shall be drawn through a steel conduit pipe by complying with all requirements of conduit system of wiring. 4.4. clips specially made for the outdoor use from a durable metal. the wood screws shall be counter sunk within wood batten and smoothed down with file. All tape shall be.6 Stripping of Insulation and Outer Covering 4.The electrical resistance of the metal sheathing together with the resistance of the earthing lead.9 Buried Cables Metal-sheathed cables shall in no case be buried directly in the plaster or under any masonry work. in comph&nce with Indian Electricity Rules.4. 4. cables up to 1.6.1 In cases where there are chances of any damage to the wiring. 1956. 4.onspicuously as possible. Alternatively. joints shall be made by means of connectors. 4. 4. this system may be installed in damp places with protection against ingress of dampness provided at the open ends of the cables. Prior to erection these shall be painted with one coat of varnish or suitable paint of colour to match with the surroundings.10 Earthing ~ Precautions shall be taken to ensure that all metal sheathing including portable appliance with exposed metal parts. The joint-boxes shall be so constructed as to prevent insects from entering them and to allow the white-washing of the walls without water having access to the connectors. distribution boards. as the case may be.4. the base of which is made flush with the plaster or brickwork.4.11 Testing . a batten shall first be laid on the joists and clipped to it as in.4.provided no joint of any description is exposed.4. as. shall be used.6.5 m above the floor and flush with the ceiling below. Bonding connections shall be so arranged as not to come in contact with plaster.1 When rubber or PVC insulation has to be stripped for joints.All metal-sheathed cables on brick walls. and the insulation between the metal sheath and the conductors shall be of rubber or PVC sheath only.4.Where joint-box system is specified. together with all joint-boxes and other similar receptacles are efficiently earthed in accordance with the requirements laid down under 5. wood or other suitabk material.4. or protected by means of any other approved type of metallic covering.4. insulated with porcelain.4. 4. All cables shall PART t tiENERAL AND COMMON ASPECTS be bonded through. The cotton tape covering shall always remain inside lead covering of cables. 4.4. well as manufacturers design and inst+uctions in connection with earthing of all insulated m.4. These battens shall be secured to the wills and ceilings by counter sunk head wood screws to wood plugs or other approved plugs a.4.1 Link Clips . While connecting conductors to the connecting terminals of accessories. metal-sheathed cables can be run on metallic saddles.5 mm2 above which a single clip shall hold a single twincore cable. not cut. 4. care shall be taken that .

where necessary. No length of conduit shall have more than the equivalent of four quarter-bends from outlet to outlet.2 Recessed Conduit Wiring S. chases shall be provided in the wall. bends.‘secured to suitable wood plugs or other plugs with screws in an approved manner at an interval of not more than I m.approved preseivative compound to secure protection against rust.1. 4.5. no bare threaded portion of conduit pipe shall be allowed unless such bare threaded portion is treated with anti-corrosive preservative or covered with suitable plastic compound. draw boxes.1.Recessed conduit wiring system shall comply with’all the requirements for surface conduit wiring system specified in 4. tees.wo’rkman like manner for a perfect continuity between each wire and conduit. In the case of buildings under construction. For lighting and small power outlet circuits phase segregation in separate conduits is recommended.1. at the time of their construction and shall be filled up neatly after erection of conduit and brought to .1.1. etc.5.5. The number of insulated conductors that can be drawn into rigid steel conduit are given in Table 3 of set 18/Part I of the Code.All conduit pipes shall be finished with stove enamelled surface. 4. unions. Radius of such bends in conduits shall be not less than 7.5. In long distance straight runs of conduit. they shall be a‘dequately protected. 4. f&r fittings. but on either side of couplers or bends or similar fitting. junction boxes. Conduit fittings shall be avoided as far as possible on conduit system exposed to weather.1. No single-core cable of nominal cross-sectional area greater than 130 mm* enclosed alone in a conduit and used for alternating current. insulated conductors of ac supply and dc supply shall be bunched in separate conduits.Unless otherwise specified. ceiling.-srem with Rigid Steel Conduits .11 Inspection type conduit fittings such as inspection boxes. the bends at the outlets not being counted. 4. solid or inspection type normal bends.1.5. 4.5.Conduit pipes shall be fixed by heavy gauge saddles.5.7 Bends in conduit . 4. or any other approved outlet boxes for either surface mounting or flush mounting system.5. forming part of the conduit system shall be adequately protected against rust particularly when such system is exposed to weather. 4. shall be neatly painted after erection with two coats of any suitable paint. Threads on conduit pipes in all cases shall be between I I mm to 27 mm long sufficient to accommodate pipes to full threaded portion of couplers or accessories. 4.1 to 4.1 7)pe and size of conduit .5 Conduit Wiring System 4.12 Puinring .4 Prorection against dampness . No steel conduit less than 16 mm in diameter. In alI cases.Where required. or fixing cast-iron inspection boxes whichever is more suitable.All necessary bends in the system including diversion shall be done by bending pipes.6 Fixing of conduit . If conduits are liable to mechanical damage.ermit the conduit to be fixed in the manner desired. including all bends. a) Making of chase-The chase in the wall shall be neatly made and be of ample dimensions to p.1.1 Surfacp Conduit Wiririg System with Rigid Steel Conduits 4.13 C o n d u i r j o i n t s .5. 4. 4. The entire system of conduit after erection shall be tested for mechanical and electrical continuity throughout and permanently connected to earth by means of suitable earthing clamp. NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE b) . or by inserting suitable 54 4. elbows and tees shall be so installed that they remain accessible for such purposes as withdrawal of existing cable< or installation of additional cables.5.5 Prortction of conduit against rust The outer surface of ‘the conduit pipes.lO Erecrion and earthing of con&t The conduit of each circuit or section shall be completed before conductors are drawn-in. etc. saddles shall be fixed at a distance of 30 cm from the centre of such fitting.the original finish of the wall.1 .5 cm. shall be boxes of suitable meta. all metalsheathed wiring or its protective covering when such is fitted. but in such a manner as to prevent the entry of insects as far as possible.1. Fixing qf conduir in chase -The conduit shall be fixed by means of staples or by means of saddles not more than 60 cm apart. Fixing of standaid bends or elbows shall be avoided as far as practicable and all curves maintained by bending the aonduit pipe itself with a long radius which will permit easy drawing-in of conductors.5.5.11 and in tidditional. efficiently fastened to conduit in a .shall be used. etc.5.All outlets . All threaded joints of rigid steel conduit shall be treated with some. elbows or similar fittings.accessories be used. conform to the rbquirements specified below.8 Ourlets . All conduit accessories shall be of threaded type and under no circumstances pin grip type or clamp type .1.9 Conductors .All conductors used in conduit wiring shall preferably be stranded.1. 4.2 Bunching of cables . Cut ends df conduit pipes shall have no sharp edges nor any burrs left to avoid damage to the insulation of conductors while pulling them’ through such conduits. solid type ‘fittings shall be used. switches. inspection type couplers at reasonable intervals Shall be provided or running threadi with couplers and jam-nuts shall be provided.In order to minimize condensation or sweating inside the conduit all outlets of conduit system shall be properly drained and ventilated.4.5.4.5.C o n d u i t shall be joined by means of screwed couplers and screwed accessoeries only.

Where flexible nonmetallic conduits are unavoidabk.Inspection boxes . and cl resistant to low temperature and sunlight effects. it shall be of any suitable insulating material.Wherever 4. the conduit sections -across the joint may be through flexible conduits of the same size as the rigid conduit. Where there are long runs of straight conduit. 4.4 Conduit Wiring Systems wiih Flexibk Non-metallic Conduits . ii) Surface mounting type .10 Non-metallic conduit systems shall be used only where it is ensured that they -are: a) suitable for extremes of ambient temperature to which they are likely to be subjected in service. inspection type couplers shall be provided at intervals.5. The metal box shall be effciently earthed with conduit by. 4.5.9) or by employing normal bends. may be either of flush mounting type or of surface mounting type.Conduits shall be joined by means of screwed or plain couplers depending on whether the conduits are screwed or plain.3 Conduit Wiring System with Rigid Nonmetallic Conduits .9 Heat may be used to soften the conduit for bending and forming joints in case of plain conduit.4 Fixing of Conduits . d) Types of accessories to be used .1 Outlets -all the outlets for fittings.53. cl conduit . The number of insulated cables that may be drawn into the conduits are given in Table 4 of Set 18/Part I of the Code. 4. but in such a manner as to prevent the entry of insects. In order to minimize condensation or sweating inside the conduit.The provision of 4. Suitable ventilating holes shall be provided in the inspection box covers.5.1 Qpe and sire-The conduit may be either threaded type or plain type and shall be used with the corresponding accessories.6 shall apply except that the spacing between saddles or supports is recommended to be 60 cm for rigid non-metallic conduits. 9 Flush mounting type . 4. For !ighting and small power outlet circuits phase segregation in separate circuits is recommended.Rigid non-metallic conduits are used for surface.3.Rigid PVC conduits are not. 4. as far as possibk. 4. PART I GENERAL AND COMMON ASPECTS . 45. 4.53. e) When -crossing through expansion joints in buildings.5.5. Certain types of ri id PVC conduits and their associated fittings are unsuitibe for use where the g ambient temperature is likely to fall below -5°C. inspection boxes. recessed and conceakd conduit wiring.3. 4.Conductors of ac supply and dc supply shall be bunched in separate conduits. all outlets of conduit systems shall be properly drained and ventilated. The minimum sizes of inspection boxes shall be 75 X 15 mm.npcrature of the conduits and fittings may exceed WC. inspection bends. positioning of conduit in close proximity to hot surfaces should be avoided.Suitable inspection boxes shall be provided to permit periodical inspection and to facilitate removal of wires.5 B e n d s i n necessary.5.5.All outlets. etc.1. shall be boxes of substantial constru&ion. on outdoor systems.33 Conduit joints .All flush mounting outlets shall be of cast-iron or mild steel boxes with a cover of insulating material or shall be a box made of a suitable insulating material. NOTE .outlet box is specified.5.532 Btinching of cables . b) resistant to moisture and chemical atmospheres.If surface mounting type.a suitable means of earth attachment.536 Conduit fittings shall be avoided. Cautton should be exercised in the use of this conduit in locations where the ambient temperature is 5oOC or above. 4. the material shall be acceptably resistant to moisture and corrosive agents.5. if necessary. elbows or similar fittings. switches etc.5 m and within 300 mm ‘on each side of every outkt box or fittmg. as far as possible. The switches and other outlets shall be mounted on such boxes. such al switches and sockets. bends or diversions may be achieved by bending the conduits (see 45. However thts provision is not applicabk where flexible conduit 1s fished and for lengths of not over 900 mm at terminals where flexibility is necessary. These shall be mounted flush with the wall. For use underground.2(a) to (d) shall apply. 4.3.3.g For use with recessed conduit wiring system the provisions of 4. they shall be secured at intervals not exceeding I.3. As the material softens ‘when heated.suitable for use where the normal w&king te.3.

Also by providing such an earth surface of uniform potential under and surrounding the station. 0. 2.1 The subject of earthing covers the problems relating to the conductidn of electricity through earth. the neutral may be earthed through a suitable impedance. loss of life or serious personal injury may result. design parameters of earth electrode. the earth now . The different types of earthing s stems are listed in Appendix A to Set I/Part r of the Code.9 Each earth system shall be so devised that the testing of individual earth ekctrode is possible. The earth connection improves service continuity and avoids damage to equipment and danger to human lives. as neatly as possible. 5 1.7 As far as possible all earth terminals shall be visible. while earthing of noncurrent carrying metal work and conductor is essential to the safety of human life.5.2 The object of an earthing system is to provide as nearly as possible a surface under and 51 .0. 2.1 Earthing provides safety of persons and apparatus against earth faults.0. These relate to general conditions of soil resistivity.0. 67. The choice of one system or the other would de nd on several considerations as each offer di tl” ferent degree of performance/ safety. ynless otherwise specified.potential in a short distance big enough to shock or injure an attendant when short-circuits or other abnormal occurrences take place. It is recommended that the value of any earth system resistance shall not be more than 5 n.6 Earth electrodes shall be provided at generating stations.0.This section shall be read in conjunction with the provisions of IS : 3043-1966. Part 2 Design and construction IS : 3043-1966 Code of practice for earthing. earth bus and earth wires and methods of measurements. other than live parts.SECTION 12 EARTHING O. 0.FOREWORD 0. Particular requirements for earthing depending on the type of installation are covered in respective Sections of the Code. high frequency and mains frequency corekss induction furnaces). 2. 61. to denote a low impedance return path of the fault current. 0. if they are poorly made or inadequate for the purpose for which they are initnded. 2. Any system is characterised by the type of distribution system. The terms earth and earthing have been used in this Code. of animals and of property and is generally known as equipment earthing. In the case of high and extra high volta es the neutral points shall be ea. relaxation may be obtained from the competent authority.1 This Section of the Code covers general requirements associated with earthing in electrical installations.4 The contents of this Section are based on following: IS : 732 (Part 2)-1982 Code of practice for electrical wiring installations. SCOPE around a station which shall be at a uniform potential and as near1 zero or absolute earth potential as possibk. 2.rarely serves as a art of the return circuit but is being used mainly Por fixing the voltage of system neutrals. 88 (2) and 90. The following Indian Electricity Rules are particularly applicable: 32.1 In cases where direct earthing may prove harmful rather than provide safety (for example.4 Earthing shall generally be carried out in accordance with the requirements of Indian Electricity Rules.2 This Section of the Code summarises the essential requirements associated with earthing in electrical installations. If necessary. as well as to ensure that operators and attendants shall be at earth potential at all times. 1.0 General 2. 1956 as amended frdm time to time. 2. 62.rthed by not less tgh an two separate and distinct conriections with earth each having its own electrode at the generating station or substation and may be earthed at any other point provided no interference is caused by such earthing.5 All medium voltage equipment shall be earthed by two separate and distinct connections with earth through an earth electrode. which include types of systems of live conductors and types of system earthing.0. 69. NATIONAL ELEflRICAL CODE I. 2. and the relevant regulations of the electricity supply authority concerned. GENERAL REMARKS 2.3 Earthing associated with current-carrying conductor is normally essential to the security of the system and is generally known as system earthing. As a matter of fact. irrespective of reliance being placed on the earth itself.0. 2. xe purpose of this is to ensure thqt in general811 parts of apparatus. 2.01 All connections shall be canfully made. substations and consumer premises in accordance with the requirements. Specific requirements for earthing in individual installations are covered in respective Parts of the Code. there can exist no difference of .0.3 Additional rules applying to earth leakage circuit-breaker systems are covered in Appendix B. NOTE . shall be at earth potential.0.0. 2.

1 Design Considerations 2. used in earthing shall. the material shall be approved by the competent authority.1. For example. This problem may be serious in small stations where the grid may cover only a 57 2. does not include the case of a switch for use in controlling a generator or a transformer or a link for test purposes. 2.2. 2.0.11 No addition to the current-carrying system either temporary or permanent. necessitating the installation of earth electrode at depths to which frost ~111 not penetrate.4 Potential Gradients .3. essentially electrolytic in natun and is affected therefore by moisture . 2. ate capable of carrying the new value of earth fault current which may be obtained by this addition. 2.1 System %Irrhing 2. In the case of materials for which lndian Standard specifications do not exist.2 The type of soil largely determines its resistivity and representative values for s’oils generally found in India are given in Appendix A. which will increase the maximum available earth fault current or’its duration until it has been ascertained that the existing arrangement of earth electrodes. N OTE -Earthing may not ive protection against faults which are not csrntially earth f auks. 2.1. it is unlikelv that any protective gcar’iziying on carth%tg wili operate sin& ihe major fault is the open-circuit against which urthing gives no protection. For this the step potential and touch potential should be Investigated and kept withm safe limits. in or around the premises shall not have large dangerous potential differences impressed across his body in case of a fault within or outside the premises.3. conform to Indian Standard specifications wherever these exist. the effective resistivity depends not only on the surface layers but also on the underlying geological formation. 2.13 Soil Resistivity 2X3. Earth conductivity is. if a phase conductor of an overhead spur litic*brcaks. as owing to the disposition of earth current. however.2 The earth system resistance should be such that when any fault occurs against which earthing is designed to give” protection.0. Such dan er may arise if steep potential gradients exist witffin the premises or between boundary of the premises and an accessible point outside.It is necessary LO ensure. -and the‘ part remote from the SUDD~Y falls to the nround.1.2 Equipment Earthing . t h a t a n o v e r r i d i n g consideration in deciding which of the alternative method of protection is to be adopted for a particular system or location is the soil resistivity in the area concerned.12 No cut-out. therefore. the values given in Appendix A should be taken only as a general guide.1. the potential of which with respect to neighbouring objects may PART I GENERAL AND COMMON ASPECTS . 2.4 While the fundamental nature and properties of a soil in a given area cannot be changed.0.1. Many of these factors vary locally and some seasonally and. shall be made. The situation is more difficult in the zone immediately outside the periphery where the problems may exist even for the theoretical case of a singk plate covering the substation area.33 The soil temperature also has some effect on soil resistivity but is important only near and below freezing point.content of the soil and its chemical composition and concentration of salts dissolved in the contained water.1. 2. to secure optimum t%tivit< Reference is drawn to 1s : 3043-1966. therefore.1. Within an earthing grid.1 The ngulations that every medium.1. In most cases such operation involves isolation of the faulty main or plant by circuit-breaker or fuses. that a person walking on the ground or touching an earthed objects.13 All materials. etc. use can be made of purely local conditions in choosing suitable electrode sites and of methods of oreoaring the site sekcted.step and touch potentials may be lowered to any value by reducing the mesh interval of the grid.The object of equipment earthing is to ensure effective operation of the protective gear in the event of leakage through such metal work. 2.1 The resistance to earth of an electrode of givep dimensions is dependent on the ekctrical resistivny of the soil in which it is installed. high and extra high voltage equipment shall be earthed by not less than two separate and distinct connections with earth is designed primarily to preserve the security of the system by ensuring that the voltage on each live conductor is restricted to such a value with respect to the potential of the general mass of the earth as is consistent with the levels of insulation applied. Grain sire and distribution and closeness of packing ate also contributory factors since they control the manner in which the moisture is held in soil. attain a value which would cause danger to life or risk of fire.1.0. In the case of underground system there may be no difficulty. link or switch other than a linked switch arranged to operate simultaneously on the earthed or earthed neutral conductor and the live conductors shall be inserted on any supply system. This however. earth bus-bar.10 It is recommended that a drawing showin the main earth connection and earth electro!es be prepared for each installation. the protective gear will operate to make the faulty portions of plant harmless. 2.1. It follows. the . but in the case of overhead line s stem protected only by fuses there may be Jifficulty in so arranging the value of the earth resistance that a conductor falling and making good contact with earth shall cause the fuses in the supply to operate. fittings. Local values should be verified by actual measurement and this is specially important whete the soil is stratified. etc. especially in case of large electrical installations.

if necessary. whether it is earthed directly below or remotely should be kept in view in order.1 An earth electrode should be designed to have a loading capacity adequate for the system in which it forms a part. potential equaliser grillages of closer mesh securely bonded to the structure and the operating handle’ should be buried below the surface where the operator may stand when operting the switch. 3.4 In direct current system.1.3 In cases where soil conditions point to excessive corrosion of the electrode and the 60 ( connections. iron or mild steel electrodes is reco:umended.STATIDN ELECTRODE OF EQUAL RESISTANCE AN0 2 OHMS IMPEDANCE IN REMAINDER OF CIRCUIT) (2) IN BOTH CASES A SUPPLY VOLTAGE OF 24OV HAS BEEN ASSUMED f 30 d z! 20 a 10 2 4 6 8 13 12 11 16 IMPEDANCE OR RESISTANCE IN OHMS FIG. use of copper.1. While assessing the touch potential. the method of earthing of the object touched. Special attention should be paid to the points near the operating handles of apparatus.TOTAL EARTH CIRCUIT WPEDANICE m L ii 5o 40 z L 0 (2) CURVE R-RESISTANCE OF CONSUMER’S EARTH ELECTRODE (ASSUMING SUG. 3. for exampk.1. however. that is.6 It is recommended to use similar material for earth electrodes and earth conductors or otherwise precautions should be taken to avoid corrosion. Failure IS fundamentally due to excessive rise of temperature at the surface of the electrode and is thus a function of current density and duration as well as electrical and thermal properties of soil.2 Under ordinary conditions of soil. EARTH ELECTRODES 3. to consider the possibility of occurrence of large potential differences. 1) CURVE A . when the limitations on step potential become less exacting. Attempts shot& be made to design a substation so as to eliminate the possibility of touch contact beyond the earth-system periphery. 3. it IS recommended to use either copper electrode or copper clad ekctrode or zinc coated (galvanized) iron electrodes.2 Current Loading 3. energy in the earth path at the point at which-it is installed under any condition of operation of the system.~ At consumer’s premises where the apparatus is protected by fuses. namely: a) Long duration overloading as with normal system opertion. care should be taken to select a material which is resistant to corrosion in the type of soil in which it will be used 3.1 Material 3. I RECOMMENDED EARTH CIRCUIT IMPEDANCE OR R ESISTANCE FOR D IFFERENT V ALUES OF F USE R ATING NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE .2 Two conditions of operation require consideration. 3. 32.1. I. and b) Short time overloading as under fault conditions in directly earthed system. the total earth circuit impedance shall not be more than that obtained by graphs given in Fig.1. 2. it should be capable of dissipating without failure. due to electrolytic action which causes serious corrosion.limited area. enamel and grease.1. 3.5 The .1 Although electrode material does not affect initial earth resistance. 3.1. and. it is recommended to use only copper ekctrodes.electrode shall be kept free from paint.2.

2 Earth electrodes should not be installed in proximity to a metal fence to avoid the possibility of the fence becoming live. the capacitance is divided into two by the plane of earths surface so that.The resistance of any electrode 100 P 4nC where R = resistance in an infinite medium. N OTE 2 .5 m) - I5 m I.(soil) in ohm- metre. PART 1 GENERAL AND COMMON ASPECTS 59 . and ’ C = capacitance of the electrode and its image in free space. If two or more plates are used in parallel.5 mm? L=if@. c) Plate electrodes.“‘” (not less than) Size (Ideal 2.5 m 0. buried in the earth is in fact related to the capacitance of that electrode and its image in free space. 212 p loo P R =‘G log y ohms <’ MEASCIREMEI~ TABLE I DESIGN DATA ON EARTH QLECTRODES . :Cast iron. they shall be separated by not less than 8.50 m*.5 m (4) Round Conductor (5) Plate (WC NOTE 2 ) (6) Diameter 16 m m * (not less than) 12. The relationship is given by: R=- Elecrro& Shape on 3.2 E f f e c t o f Resistance .5. Ideal area is 3. 3.A typical illustration of pipe earth electrode is given in Fig.TYPE Rod Pipe (Wc N$TE 1) OF E LECTRODES Strip - (1) (2) 38 m m * IO0 mm: 2. *Steel or galvanized iron. 33.5.4 Types of Earth Electrodes-The following types of earth electrodes are considered standard: a) Rod and pipe electrodes. b) Strip or conductor electrodes.0 mm*7 60X60 cm Thickness - - 6. tCoppcr.pL.33 Voltage Gradient 33. and thus dangerous at points remote from the substation. In practical case. 3. For details regarding their design.. it should be earthed. If the’ metal fence is unavoidable.60 mmt 25X4 m m * - 6 mm’* - 3.15 mm+ N OTE I . P = resistivity of the medium .5 m 3 to 3. reference shall be made to IS : 3W3-I966* 3. and d) Cable sheaths. y ohms 72 where I = length of rod or pipe in cm. *Code of practice for earthing. or alternatively giving rise to danger within the resistance area of the electrode Chich can be reduced only by introducing a good connection with the general mass of the karth.1 Under fault conditions the earth electrode is raised to a potential with respect to the general mass of the earth.5 m - 25 X 1. This results in the existence of voltages in the soil around the electrode which may be injurious to telephone and pilot cables whose cores are substantially at earth potential owing to the voltage to which the sheaths of such cables are raised.A typical illustration of plate ekctrode is given in Fig.1 The design data on the various types of earth electrodes is given in Table I. The voltage gradient at the surface of the earth may also constitute danger to life.30 mm? 3.0 m.5 Design Data on Earth Electrodes 3. and d = diameter of rod or pipe in cm. loo P R=_ 27rc a) For rod or pipe ekctrodes. 2. b) For strip or round conductor ekctrodes. the formula is loo P R = 2 log.

’ f .:: .’ ‘4 us ROD7 f Cl COVER HINGED TO Cl FRAME /MIRE MESH rCEMENt CONCRETE r912.0 12-t ~6OOx600x6*3 GI PLATE bR 6OOx6OOx3~15 COPPER YLAIE SECltbN X X All dimensions in miilimctres. 3 A TYPICAL ILLUSTRATION OF PIPE EARTH ELECTRODE A TYPICAL ILLUSTRATION ELECTRODE OF PLATE EARTH .- s C E MEN1 C O N C R E T E (WI))\ I a.7 GI PIPE SdlO 01 PIPC 0 1500 (min.I -@- -ALTERNATE LAYER OF CHARCOAL OR COKE AND SALT HOLE. 2 NOTE -Three and four buckets 6f water to be poured into sump every few days to keep the soil surrounding the earth plate permanently moist. All dimensions in millimetres.1 2J I a t F!iKoAL ENLARGED DE LA i _. N OTE -Three or four buckets of water to be poured into sump every few days to keep the soil surrounding the earth pipe permanently moist.7 GI PIPE I 75 8 i 150 1 II. It 200&300#-4 ‘-0 12..3 rCI C O V E R H I N G E D TO Cl FRAME I_ ~~- t JygOafcME . FIG. FIG.

NOTE .Welded. EARTH BUS AND EARTH WIRES 4. Where required.0 G e n e r a l 4. c) For plate electrodes. sleeve connectors (for example.6 If the metal sheath and armour have been used as an earth continuity conductor the armour shall be bonded to the metal sheath and the connection between the earth wire and earthing electrode shall be made to the metal sheath. NOTE .where I = length of the strip in cm. galvanized iron. and t = width (strip) or twice the diameter (conductors) in cm. 4. 4. 4. it shall be so designed and 6 16 18 INDIVIDUAL RESISTANCE IN OHMS F I G. 4. Bolted connectors and their screws shall be protected against any possible corrosion.0. bolted and clamped joints are permissible.To reduce the depth of burial without increasing the resistance.0. 4).7 If a clamp has been used to provide connection between the earth wire and the metal sheath and armour. 4. The resistance in this case is practically prdortional to the reciprocal of the number of electfydes used so along as each is situated outside the resistance area of the other. 35. 4. enough to resist any strain that is likely to be put upon them.5 The path of the earth wire shall. - R =4 where a ohms A = area of both sides of plate in m2. The distance between two electrodes in such a case shall preferably be not less than twice the length of the electrode.0. be out of reach of any person.3 They shall be either stranded or solid bars or flat rectangular strips and may be bare provided due care is taken to avoid corrosion and mechanical damage to it.0. 4 R E S I S T A N C E OF EL E C T R O D E S A T D E P T H S A N D S O I L RESISTIVITIES P A R T 1 GEKI:RAL A N D C O M M O N A S P E C T S VARIOGS 61 .2 All earth wires and earthcontinuity conductors shall be of copper.4 Interconnections of earth-continuity conductors and main and branch earth wires shall be made in such a way that reliable and good electrical connections are permanently ensured. as far as possible.0.1 The mimmum allowable size of earth wire is determined principally by mechanical consideration for they are more liable to mechanical injury and should therefore be strong 4. w = depth of burial in cm.0. a number of rods or pipes shall be connected together in parallel (see Fig.3 Effect of Depth of Burial .Aluminium shall not bc used underground. or steel or aluminium. they shall be run inside metallic conduits.0. indented. riveted or bolted connectors) are permissible. For stranded conductors.

A measured current is passed between the electrode ‘A’ to be tested and an auxiliary current electrode ‘C’ and the potential difference between the electrode ‘A’ and the auxiliary potential electrode ‘B’ is measured. decrease of generator handle speed will cause thi? lo disappear. the resistance of the voltmeter should be high compared to that of the auxiliary potential electrode ‘B’ and in no case should be less than 20 000 ohms.4 The auxiliary electrodes usually consist of 12.1.1 Two suitable directions. that is. the auxiliary current electrode ‘C’ shall be placed at least 30 m away from it and the auxiliary potential electrode ‘B’ shall be placed midway between them.In this method two auxiliary earth electrodes. A reading is taken under this condition. AMMETER - A\+ TEST ELECTRODE F I G. 6. Where fuses are used to disconnect the faulty section of an installation in the event of an earth fault. The resistance of the test electrode ‘A’ is then given by: 5. 5). 5. p$ where R = resistance of the test electrode in ohms. 50 Hz.3 At the time of test. permissjble impedance of the earth fault path may bc computed from the following NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE a 62 . The current electrode is then moved out in 30-m steps untik the same reading is obtained fdr three consecutive locations.9 The minimum sizes of earth-continuity conductors an4 earth wires shall be as given in the relevant part of the Code. pipe or plate. 5. they may prodlice serious errors in the measured value.1 may not give sat. In these cases.1.2. .0.1. 5. I hese earth testers usually generare direct current and have rotary current-reverser and synchronous rectifier mounted on rhc generator shaft so that alternating current is supplied 10 the lest circuit and the resulting potentials are rectified for measurement by a direct-reading moving-coil ohm meter. wheri possibk. the to/q!. MEASUREMENT OF EARTH ELECTRODE RESISTANCE 5. The last readings then correspond to the true value of earth resistance. .lnstaikd as to provide reliable connection without damage to the cable.isfactory results if the test electrode is of very low impedance (I ohm or less). 8” POTENTIAL ELECTRODE X+lm CVJ. the following method may.1. The current electrode is then left in the last foregoing position and the potential electrode is moved out in 30-m steps until three consecutive readings are obtained without a change in value.nce of a fault of negligible impedance from a phase or non-earthed conductor to adjacent exposed metal. tire placed at suitable distances from the test electrode (see Fig.2 The source of current shall be isolated from the supply by a double wound transformer. but an increase 0. The uresence ot strav currents in the soil is indicated bv wtndcring of the instrument pointer. the test electrode shall be separated from the earthing system.1. The current lead is taken in the other direction and the current electrode located at the same distance as the potential electrode.1 The eaithing arrangements of the consumer’s installation shall be such that on occurre. 5. at least 90 degrees apart.2 Alternative Method 5.1.This applies particularly while measuring the combined resistance of large installations. arr: first selected.8 The neutral conductor shall not be used as earth wire. and I = reading of the ammeter in amperes.6 Unless three consecutive readings ot test electrode resistance with different spacings of electrodes agree.In most cases there will be stray currents flowing in the soil and unless some steps are taken to eliminate their cffecc.1 If the test is made at power frequency.1 The method described in 5. V=F reading of the voltmeter in volts.2. 5. NOTE .5 Ail the test electrodes and the current electrodes shall be so placed that they are independent of the resistance area of each other. 4. EARTHING OF INSTALLATIONS IN BUILDINGS 6._ CURRENT ELECTROOE OF 3 METHOD O F M E A S U R E M E N T E LECTRODE R ESISTANCE E A R T H 5.1 Fall of Potential Method . besides the test electrode. this elimination becomes very I? ~cult and it a dl betrer lo use an earth tester incorporating a handdrIven generalor. 5. The potential Lead is laid in one direction and an electrode is’placed 250 to 300 metres from the fence. If the test electrode is in the form of rod.1. 5.lf Ihe testing current is of the same I* uency as the stray current.5 mm diameter mild steel rod driven up to I m into the ground. a current corresponding to not less than threeand-a-half iimes the rating of the fuse or one-anda-half times the setting of the overload earth leakage circuit-breaker will flow except where voltage operated earth leakage circuit-breakers are used and make the faulty circuit dead.0. 4. be adopted. the test shall be repeated by increasing the distance between electrodes ‘A’ and ‘C’ up to 50 m and each time placing the electrode ‘B’ midway between them.

6. planning an installation to consult the supply authority or an electrical contractor having knowledge of local conditions.~~ The factor of safety in calculating the permissible Impedance should be left to the discretion of the de‘signer. Where non-metallic joint boxes are used. or members of structural steel work shall not be used as earthcontinuity conductor. Where necessary. 6. Slackness in joints may result ih deterioration a n d e v e n c o m p l e t e l o s s o f continuity.Metal conduit pipe should generally not be used as an earthcontinuity conductor but where used a very high standard of workmanship in installation is essential. in order to ascertain which of the two. the size of the earth-continuity conductors should be equal to the size of the current-carrying -conductors and for metal sheathed.5. for protection against earth-leakage currents is likely to prove satisfactory. 6. 6. 7. the metal sheath of the cables or the earth-contin ity conductor contained in a cable. In the case of screwed conduit. This includes the line conductor.1 Connection to earth of those parts of an installation which require to be earthed shall be made by means of an earth-continuity conductor which may be a separate earth conductor.3 Earth-Conlinuit!.5. that is.5. As regards the sizes of galvanized iron and steel earth-continuity conductors. 6.5 mm? . Conductors and Earth Wires Contained in the Cables . namely. such as a metal strip having a resistance not greater than that of the sheath of the largest cable entering the box. etc. in large installations the overall impedance permissible may be less than I ohm. increase in length of the circuit conductors and the earth-continuity conductors. flexible cableY or flexible cord.1 The current which will flow under earth fault conditions and will thus be available to operate the overload protection depends upon the impedance of the earth return loop. so that considerably less than this might be allowable for the earth-continuity system.5 Metal Conduit Pipe Used as on EarrhContinuity Conducror . the use of fuses or overload circuit-breakers.that t h e m a x i m u m sustained v o l t a g e d e v e l o p e d u n d e r f a u l t conditions between exposed metal required to be earthed and the consumer’s earth terminal shall not exceed 32 volts rms.formula (for a normal three-phase system with earthed neutral).5. they may be equal to size of current-carrying conductors with which they are used.5 mm? for copper and 2. 6.6 Pipes and Structural Steel Work . MEASUREMENT OF IMPEDANCE EARTH LOOP 6. 65. fault. means shall be provided to maintain the continuity.3 It is recommended . gas pipe. inevitable extensions to installations involving.2 Earth-Conrinuit. they shall be protected against corrosion. every joint in such sheaths shall be so made that its current-carrying capacity is not less than that of the sheath itself. z = Phase-toearth voltage of system Minimum Factor fusing current X of of fuse safety where 2 = permissible impedance in ohms. earth-continuity conductor and earthing-lead. PVC and tough rubber sheathed cables the sizes of the earth-continuity conductors shall be in accordance with relevant Indian Standards. earth electrodes at consumer’s premises and substations and any 63 . such as the grading of fuse ratings.5.1.1 The factor of safety in the above formula ensures that in most cases the fuse will blow in a time which is sufficiently short to avoid danger and allowing for a number of circumstances. Plain slip or pin-grtp sockets are insufficient to ensure satisfactory electrical continuity of joints. lock nuts . 6. such as water pipe.1. NOII . 6. In fact.5 Earth-Continuity Conductors 6. Joints shall be so made that their current-carrying capacity is not less than that of the conduit itself.Pipes. 6.The size of the earth-continuity conductors should be correlated with the sire of the current carrying conductors.For flexible cables.for aluminium and need not be greater than 70 mm* for copper and 120 mm? for aluminium.4 Cable Sheaths Used as Earth-Continuitjx Conduc/ors -~ Where the metal sheaths of cables are used as earth-continuity conductors. largest current carrying conductors. increase of resistance due to drying out of the earth electrodes in dry weather.should also be used.2 It will be observed that this requirement determines the overall impedance and does not contain a specific reference to any part of the circuit such as the conduit or other earthcontinuity conductor together with the earthing lead.2 ‘It is desirable when. provided the minimum size of earth-continuity conductors is not less than 1.5. The size of earth-continuity conductors to be used along with aluminium current-carrying conductors should be calculated on the basis of equivalent size of the copper current-carrying conductors. the &es of earth-continuity conductors should not be less than half of the PART 1 GENERAL AND COMMON ASPECTS 7.4 Only pipe or rod earth electrodes are r e c o m m e n d e d and they shall satisfy the requirements of 3.\a Conductors and Earth Wires not Contained in the Cables ~.

L-+-J A = ammeter B = neon indicator C = main switch D = test switch E = consumer’s earth electrode F = supply fuses P = polarity switch s = substation earth electrode V = voltmeter At FF. Bombay 6. The opencircuit voltage of the loop tester should not exceed 32 volts. To test the overall earthing for any installation depending for protection on the operation of dvercurrent devices. Gujarat 2. Karnataka 7.parallel metallic return to the transformer neutral as tiell. Deccan trap and gneisses Underlying bedrock-Deccan trap do do do Underlying be&ckgneisses Underlying bedrock-sandstone. LOCALITY T YPE OF S OIL ORDER OF REHSJIVITY ohm-metre 6-23 6-24 4-i I REMARKS Underlying bedrockDeccan trap do Underlying bedrock-sandstones. if desired. Dhond. as the transformer winding. for example. SL No. F I G. Garimenapenta.3. Distt Nellore Andhra Pradesh 8 . The neutral is used in place of the phase conductor for the purpose of the test.1. Bijapur Distt. E ARTH L OOP I MPEDANCE T E S T E R APPENDIX (Clause 2.2) A REPRESENTATIVE VALUES OF SOIL RESISTIVITY IN VARIOUS PARTS OF INDIA. Kartee 9. shale and limestones. 6.5-9 . trap or gneisses do do do (Conrinued) NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 1. Distt Surat. After the supply has been connected this shall be done by the use of an earth loop impedance tester as shown in Fig. fus& it is necessary to measure the impedance of this loop under practical fault conditions. N OTE I -Arrows show current flow in neutral/earth loop. Taptee Valley 3 Narmada Valley Clayey black soil Alluvium Alluvium 4. Purna Valley (Deogaon) 5. Kakarapar. Delhi a) Najafgarh Agricultural Alluvium a) Black cotton soil b) Moorm Alluvium (highly clayey) a) Alluvium b) Alluvium a) Alluvium (dry sandy soil) b) Loamy to clayey soil c) Alluvium (saline) 3-6 6-40 2-10 I O-50 2 3-5 9-2 I 75-l 70 38-50 1. jacks are provided for insertion of plugs for connection to external neutral and/or earth conductors. 6 C IRCUIT D IAGRAM OF N OTE 2 -Supply system is shown dotted.

1 This system shall be used only where the neutral and earth is low enough to preclude the possibility of a. ADDITIONAL RULES APPLYING TO THE MULTIPLE EARTH NEUTRAL SYSTEM B-2.dangerous rise of potential in the neutral. Villupuram. selective Protection .2 Selective operation of earth leakage circuit-breaker is required. ADDITlONAL RULES APPLYING TO THE DIRECT EARTHING SYSTEM B . electrodes and earthing conductors shall be installed in one of the follbwing ways: 65 . Wajrakarur. and to a separate earth electrode. the earth resistance shall be as low as possible. PART I GENERAL AND COMMON ASPECTS B-3. 1 Where a’ driven or buried elstrode is used.1 Installation of the Earth Leakage CircuitBreaker System. 19. ADDITIONAL RULES APPLYING TO T H E E A R T H L E A K A G E CIRCUITBREAKER SYSTEM B-3. B-2. LOCALITY T Y P E O F SO I L O RDER O F R EMARKS RESISTIVITY ohm-metre Dry soil a) Moist clay b) Alluvium soil Alluvium a) Alluvium b) Top soil Lateritic clay 36-109 2-3 I O-20 > 2 5 Underlying bedrockquartzites Underlying bedrock-sandstone or shale b) Chhatarpur IO. Satara Distt.l . Kerala (Trivandrum Distt. Koyna. K o r b a .SL No. General ( see Fig. Cossipur. 7) . Calcutta 12. shale or trap do Underlying bedrockgranite Underlying bedrockgranites and gneisses Underlying bedrock-sandstones and gneisses do Sandy loam (Saline) Alluvium Sandy surface Alluvium Lateritic a) Alluvium b) Alluvium (sandy) ’ (clayey) 20. Bhagalpur.If B-3. kalyadi. Kutch-Kandla (Amjar Area) bvrmx) 9-14 24-46 Underlying bedrock-traps. Madras 21. sand-stones or gneisses Underlying bedrocklaterite.3) B ADDITIONAL RULES FOR EARTHINGS B-l.All parts required to be earthed shall be connected to an earth electrode through the coil of an earth leakage circuit-breaker which controls the supply to all those parts of the installation which are to be protected. Bharatpur 15. The value of earth resistance is under consideration. Nort. Koiar G o l d F i e l d s 17. Ramanathapuram Distt Madras Clayey sands Alluvium a) Alluvium b) Lateritic soil NOTF ~~ The soil resistivities are subject to wide seasonal variation as they depend very much on the moisture content APPENDIX (Clause 0. M P I I. Andhra Pradesh 18. Bihar 13. Banaskantha Gujarat 22. charnockite or granites 6-14 60-150 45-185 50. Mysore 16.I50 800-l 200 (dry) 4-50 60-200 II 170 2-5 ia:prox) Underlying bedrockgneisses do do Underlying bedrock-sandlaterite or trap Underlying bedrock-sandstone.) 14. the circuit-breaker. Ambaji.

a) Arrangement Giving Complete SelectivitJ3 (see Fig. Ali the separately protected portions of the installations may be connected to one electrode to the earth leakage circuitbreaker. 8) . earthing conductors. condutts.BREAKERS C O M P L E T E SELE~TIVIT\ NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE . F’ INSULATED CONDUCTOR E ARTH.ING CONDUCTORS MAY BE BARE PLUG OUT L E ARfH E L E C T R O D E S F I G. which are to be protected as a unit shall be electrically separated from all other such parts and from any other earthed metal. where there are no conduits to be earthed FOR F I G. Each part to be protected ‘as a unit shall be connected to an earth electrode through the coil of an earth leakage circuit-breaker. 7 CONNECTION OF E A R T H L E A K A G E CIRCIJIT-BREAKER SI M P L E I N S T A L L A T I O N INSULATE0 CdNOLtClOR \INSULAlED CONDUCTOR REINFORCEME ELECTRODE 4 EARTH ELECTRODE 8A By complete separation of the exposed metal of one installation from that of othger installations 88 By use of a double-insulated wiring system. etc. 8 ‘ CO N N E C T I O N S 66 OF E A R T H L E A K A G E CIRWIT.All metal frames.

9 CONNEC‘TIONS OF EQUIPMENT E A R T H L E A K A G E CIIKIJIT-BREAKERS FOR P ARTIAL S ELECTIVITY PART I GENERAL AND COMMON ASPECTS 67 .A double-Insulated wiring system is used.L.C. but this electrode shall be separated from the electrode to w h i c h t h e c o n d u i t s a r e connected. All these portions may be connected to one electrode. Each part to be protected as a unit shall be connected to an earth electrode through the coil of a separate earth leakage circuitbreaker which controls all the active conductors supplying that portion of the installation only. Any conduit used does not then NOTE 2 ~ The earthing conductor is insulated from the conduit. INSULATED f.B.g. ARTHING CONDUMAY BE BARE CONDUCTOR PLUG-SOCKET OUTLETS ELECTRODES f+pF I G.v (Complete Selectivit)’ MYth Respect to Faults in Apparatus. all shall also be connected to another earth electrode through an earth leakage circuit-breaker which controls all the active conductors supplying the whole or portions of the installations concerned. 9) All the conduits and associated fittings shall be bonded together and connected to an earth electrode.CONDUCTOR MAY BE 0ARE MAIN E.. tough rubber-sheathed cables. e. NOTL I -. need to be earthed. but no Selectivity M’ith Respect to Falls in Wiring in Conduit) (see Fig.b) Arrangement Giving Partial Se1ectivir.

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‘SECTION 13 SHORT-CIRCUIT CALCULATIONS (Under Consideration) .

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and c) Lifts and escalators. broadly.1 Most of the modern day services in buildings depend on electrical energy. detail is seen quickly and accurately and the room is free frog any sense of gloom or monotony. Non-electrical design aspects are not covered in the Code. .2. 2. These are: a) Electrical audio-systems. and d) Fire-alarm systems. b) Clouds.occupancy in SP : 7 (Part 8). 71 .SECTION 14 ELECTRICAL ASPECTS OF BUILDING SERVICES O. 1. 4 Controlling direct and reflected glare from light sources to eliminate visual discomfort. and d) Prevailing winds.1 Good lighting is necessary for all buildings and has three primary aims. and the third is to create.FOREWORD 0. GENERAL GUIDELINES 2. b) Air-conditioning. c) Electric clock systems. These shall be referred to from the point of view of ensuring good design of building services and early coordination amongst all concerned.1 The chief aim of orientation of buildings is to provide physically and psychologically comfortable living inside the buildings by creating conditions which suitably and successfully ward off the undesirable effects of severe weather to a considerable extent by judicious use of the recommendations and _ knowledge of climatic factors.1. the following climatic factors influence the optimum orientation af t h e buildings: a) Solar* radiation and temperature. minimizmg flicker from certain types of lamp and paying attention to the cdlour rendering properties of the light.2 Good lighting design shall take into account the following: a) Planning the brightness pattern from the point of view of visual performance.1 This Section of the Code covers requirements for installation work relating to building services that use electric *power. Reference shall be made to IS : 7662 (Part I)1974* on orientation of buildings.where b) Using appropriate.1983.1 Extensive guidelines on building design aspects have been covered from the point of view of ensuring economic services in an . SECTION 14A LIGHTING 3. and Installing emergency lighting systems where necessary. 4 Correlating lighting throughout the building to prevent excessive differences between adjacent areas and so as to reduce the risk of accidents. ASPECTS OF LIGHTING SERVICES 3. The first is to promote the work and other activities carried on within the buildings. For reasons of restricting the volume of the text. b) Form and texture in the task area and surroundings.2 Orientation of Building 2.1 Principles of Good Lighting 3. in conjunction with the structure and decoration. are: a) Lighting and ventilation. for which reference shall be made to the relevant part of SP : 7-1983 ‘ National Building Code of India ‘.2 Apart from the three major power consuming services in a buildin there are other functional/safety services ta at are basically light current installations.2. b) Electric call-bell systems. 2. directional lighting. safety and amenity and surroundings. From the point of view of conservation of energy and safety in its use.2 From the point of view of lighting and ventilation. *Recommendations for orientation of building: Part I Non-industrial buildings. 4 In artificial lighting installations. to assist preception of task detail and to give good modelling. 3. These services. a pleasing environment conducive to interest and a sense of well-being. SCOPE 1.3 This Section of the Code draws attention to the requirements to be complied with in the design and construction of building services. whose proper functioning is important. 0. c) Relative humidity.1. this Section is restricted to only the electrical aspects of building services. it is found essential SO draw attention to essential design principles for building services. the second is to promoie the safety of people using the building. PART I GENERAL AND COMMON ASPECTS 2. Realization ot these aims involves: 4 Careful planning of the brightness and colour patterns within the working area and the surroundings so that attention is drawn naturally to the important areas. 0.

b) Removal of combustion products or other contaminants and to prevent vitiation by body odours.2. c) Mechanical supply and natural exhaust of air. 5. e) Lighting for movement.The level of illumination for a particular occupation depends on the following criteria: a) Supply of fresh air for respiration. changes for various occupancies.2. d) Desired space conditions. stroboscopic effect and flicker. 1 . fl Provision for emergency. the’ maintenance of heat balance oaf the body in order to prevent discomfort and injury to health of the occupants. b) Natural supply and mechanical exhaust of air. NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE *Code of practice for interior illumination: Part of good lighting and aspects of design. In the case of buildings to be air-conditioned.2 Mechanical Ventilation . This may be achieved in one of the following ways: a) Natural supply and natural exhaust of air.2 Design Aspects 3. 3.General ventilat’on involves providing a building with relatively laIge quantities of outside air in order to improve general environment of building. and Maximum energy effectiveness of the lighting system used consistent with the specific needs of visual tasks performed.1 Ventilation of buildings is required to supply fresh air for respiration of occupants. and 4 Adequacy for pleasantness or amenity. ASPECTS OF VENTILATION 4. b) Adequacy for realizing maximum visual c) Adequacy for the performance of visual tasks at satisfactory high levels of efficiency. capacity.0.0.0 General 5.C) Cornrolling glare. 4. c) External and internal load patterns. electrical requirements for the system shall be made at the planning stage itself. to dilute inside air to prevent vitiation by body odours and to remove any products of combustion or other contaminants in air and to provide such thermal environments as will assist I 5 .1 Design Considerations 4 Adequacy for preventing both strain in seeing and liability to accidents caused by poor visibility. b) The type of construction. 3. 4 Colour rendering. For specific occupancies covered in the Code see relevant Part/Section.Reference should be made to IS : 3103-1975* and IS : 3362-19777 which cover methods of mechanical ventilation. Principles tCode of practice for interior illumination: Part 2 Schedule for values of illumination and glare index. SECTION 14C AIR-CONDITIONING AND HEATING 5. *Code of practice for industrial ventilation firs/ revision).2.3 Guidelines on principles of good lighting design can be had from IS : 3646 (Part I)-1966*.2 The considerations: following govern design g) Maintenance factors in lighting installation.Reference shall be made to IS : 2440-19752.1. 3.1 Methods of Ventilation . and d) Mechanical supply and mechanical exhaust of air. iGuide for daylighting of buildings (secund revision). airconditioning is resorted to.0.3 Lighting Problems and Economics Reference is drawn to Appendices C and D of IS : 3646 (Part I)-1966* SECTION 14B VENTILATION 4.2 Designing for Daylight .0 General 4. 4. 1 The design of the system and its\ associated controls should take into account the following: a) The nature of the application. provisions for. cl Recommended schedule of values of air 4 The limits of comfort and heat tolerance of 4. 72 . The schedule of recommended values of illumination and limiting values of glare index are given in IS : 3646 (Part 2)-1966t. tCode of practice for natural ventilation of residential buildings lfirsr revision).1 Where desired temperatures and humidities cannot be obtainted by ventilation. 3.1 Illumination Levels -. ASPECTS OF AIR-CONDITIONING AND HEATING SERVICES 5. and the occupants.

plant should be limited.2 Electrical Requirements 5. This should be available early in the planning stage to ensure proper electrical provisions to be made for the service. a safety device shall be i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t h e instal~lation to cut off automatically the source of heating.e) Permissible control limits. ventilating 5.2. size capacity and b) Nu’mber of floors served by the lift. as soon as the temperature of the room reaches a predetermined high level not exceeding 44”C. g) Details of wiring and apparatus required.3 Consideration should be given to changes in building load and the system designed so that maximum operatianal efficiency_ is maintained under part. c) Height between floor levels. h) Quantity/quality of service. f) Control methods for minimizing use of primary energy. when measured in still air.2.2.room. Such means shall consist of suitable photo-electric or other effective smoke sensititve controls.2 The following aspects shall be taken into account to decide the electrical requirements for lifts: a) N u m b e r o f position. a junction box shall be installed or other means shall be adopted to break the continuity of such conduit at the point of entry.Where conduits are used for carrying insulated electrical conductors and. ELECTRICAL ASPECTS OF LIFTS AND ESCALATOR SERVICES 6.. e) At weekends.0. f) Electric supply required. lifts. Such system shall also be provided with automatic controls to stop fans in case of fire.4 Air-conditioning and systems circulating air to.0. and h) Economic factors (including probable future cost and availability of power).more tnan one floor or tire area shall be provided with dampers designed to close automatically in case of fire and thereby prevent spread of fire or smoke. and h) If extended low voltage conditions persist. d) At night.1 Conduits . and the conduit should be sealed round the conductors to prevent air being carried from one area into the other through the conduit and thereby giving rise not only to leakage and inefficiency but also to the risk of condensation of moisture inside the conduits. The same method applies equally to other types of wiring. in which case these shall be designed to remain in operation. Similarly. e) Provisions for ventilation and lighting. . 5. preferably to 400°C and in any case it shall not exceed 538OC. the lift/escalator manufacturer should advise the architect/engineer of the building of his electrical requirements. unless a higher temperature is required for an industrial process carried on in the air-conditioned enclosure. c) In intermediate seasons. such as steam or electricity by means of a theremostat or some other device. Serious harm to the plant and sometimes fires may be caused by negligence in this respect.2. d) Provisions for machine. the total system should be separated into smaller increments having similar load requirements so that each area can be separately controlled to maintain optimum operating conditions.5 Air-cdnditioning system serving large places of assembly (over I 000 persons). 73 . 5.2 The operation of the system in the following circumstances should be considered when assessing the complete design: a) In summer. b) In winter.2. f) Under frost conditions.when such conduits pass from a non-air-condmoned area into an air-conditioned area or into a fan chamber of duct. g) If electricity supply failure occurs and when the supply is restored. 6.0 General 6. or just outside.1. large departmental stores or hotels with over 100 rooms in a single block shall be provided with effective means for preventing circulation of smoke through the system in the case of a fire in air filters or from other sources drawn into the system even though there is insufficient heat to actuate heat sensitive devices controlling fans or dampers. unless arranged to remove smoke from a fire. 51.2 In case of air-conditioning plants where re-heating is used. a safety device PART 1 GENERAL AND COMMON ASPECTS shall be incorporated in the instailation to cut off the supply of electricity to the heating device whenever there is failure of the air current in which the heater is required to operate. like wood sheathing or ducts which allow air to pass through around the conductors 5. 5. The surface temperature of all electric heaters used in an air-conditioned . g) Opportunities for heat recovery. 5.3 In case of air-conditioning plants where heating by means of an electric heater designed to operate in an air current is used.1 For the information of the electrical engineer. load conditions. or may be manually operated controls. where applicable. SECTION 14D LIFTS AND ESCALATORS 6.

2. particulars of full load current.2.2. 2 . each car is fitted with.2. N A T I O N A L E L E C T R I C A L CuDE 4 Pmver Supp(v Mums .2. 74 . and n) Operation and maintenance. This means of isolation should be lockable. All conductors should be insulated for the maximum voltage found in the cable.6 Circuits which supply current to the motor shall not be included in any twin or multicore trailing cable used in connection with the control and safety devices. 1 All electrical’ supply lines and apparatus in connection with the lift installation shall be so constructed and shall be so installed. For multiple lifts with a common machine room a separate supply should be provided for each car.2 Electrical Installation Requirements 6.The lift sub-circuit from the intake room should be separate from other building service. protected. on a schedule.7 A trailing cable which incorporates conductors for’ the control circuits shall be separate and distinct from that which incorporates lighting and signalling circuits in the case of buildings less than 30 metres in height.2.2.2 Electrical Wiring and Apparatus 6 .2.2. When an alarm bell is to be provided.2. tn the case of building more than 30 metres in height or where high speed lifts (I . maximum permissible voltage drop. either on the controller or by a.2 All metal casings or metallic coverings containing or protecting any electric supply lines of apparatus shall be efficiently earthed. suitable for lamps or tools. This alarm bell. 6. an alarm push which is wired to a terminal box in the lift well at the ground floor by the lift maker. 6.1 Design and Operation. 4 Lightiqg. 6.j) Occupant load factors. from the building fire alarm supply.3 No bare conductor shall be used in any lift car as may cause danger to persons.Machine rooms and all other rooms containing lift equipment should be provided with adequate illumination and with a switch fixed adjacent to. It is important that the switches at the intake and in the machine room which are provided by the electrical contractor are of correct size. The car lighting supply should be independent of the power supply mains.2.2. in order that any car may be shut down without isolating the supervisory control of the remainder.4 All cables and other wiring in connection with the lift installation shall be of suitable grade for the voltage at which these are intended to be worked and if metallic covering is used it shall be efficiently earthed. operation and maintenance of electric passenger and goods lifts (second rwision).The requirements for main switches and wiring with reference to relevant regulations are given in IS : 4666-19807. 6. The supply to the car light should be from a separate circuit. the supply should be taken from the machine room lighting. the switch *Code of practice for installation. When the alarm system is connected to a transformer or trickle-charger. 6. TSpecification for electric passenger and goods lifts (/S-. use of single travelling cable for lighting and control circuits is permitted. 6.Reference is drawn to IS : 1860-1980* and IS : 4666-1980t 6. 6. size of switches and other details to suit requirements. Each lift should be capable of being isolated from the mains supply. The lift.2. 6.2. so that correctLy rated fuses can be fitted. The supply may be from a battery (or transformer) fixed in the machine room or. maker should provide overcurrent protection for power and controi circuits. a separate sub-circuit is required for the common supervisory system. for which should be in the lift well. No form of ‘ N O ’ VCJLT’ trip relay should be included anywhere in the power supply of the lift. m) Control system.the entrance. The lift maker should specify. Pits should be provided with a light. 6. worked and maintained that there may be no danger to persons therefrom. the lift maker should fit the cabinet in the car and provide wiring from the car to a terminal box adjacent to the lift well. to be supplied by the lift maker (with indicator for more than one lift). when available. At least one socket outlet. starting current.5 Suitable caution notice shall be affixed near every motor or other apparatus operating at a voltage exceeding 250 volts.It is recommended that lift car be proylded either with an emergency signal that is operattve from the lift car and audible outside the lift well or with a telephone. For multiple lifts a diversity factor may be used to determine the cable size and should be stated by the lift manufacturer. and controlled by a switch in the machine room. should be fixed in an agreed position and wired to the lift well. 2 .52 m/s or more) are employed.2.8 Emergency signal or telephone . ‘When a telephone is to be provided in the lift car. should be provided in each room. but the following are not included in the contract.circuit-breaker.2. and accessible from the lower terminal floo’r entrance.1 General . b) For banks of interconnected lifts. k) Car speed.$I revision).

2 . the earthing of the conduit may be considered to earth the fitting.Suitable ‘CAUTION’ notice shall be affixed near every motor or other apparatus operating at a voltage exceeding 250 volts. used for leading into_ a fitting.A l l electric safety switches and controllers shall be enclosed to protect against accidental contact. a brake shall be provided on this shaft. and between such contacts and earthed parts.0 General 7. 6. 6.4 No bare conductor shall be used in any escalator as may cause danger to persons. e l e c t r i c a l tubings or wireways which shall be securely fastened to the supporting structure.1 Connection Between Driving Machine and Main Drive Shqft .3.1 This Section covers essential installation design -aspects of electrical audio systems for indoor and outdoor use both for temporary and permanent installations.6 All electrical supply. The terminal for the earthing of the metallic cases and covers of doors interlocks.The terminal for the earthing of the frame of the motor. PART 7.3.8 E n c l o s u r e qf Electrical Parts -.An electric motor shall not drive more than one escalator. *Code of practice for earthing.2 Driving Motor.2 of Part 1 /Set 12 of the Code. on the driving machine or on the main drive shaft.on the driving machine. mechanically applied brake capable of stopping the up or down travelling escalator with any load up to rated load. 7. The cross-sectional area of copper earthing conductor shall be not s’maller than those specified in 5. or a chain. All metal casings or metallic coverings. 6.Each escalator shall be provided with an electrically released. 6. stop buttons.3.3. controllers and similar other parts shall be efficiently insulated and the insulation shall be capable of withstanding for a period of one minute the continuous application of a ac test voltage equal to ten times the voltage at which these electrical parts are energised. the cases and covers of the tappet switch and similar electric appliances which normally carry the main current shall be at least equivalent to a 10 mm diameter bolt. the frame of the control panel. 1 0 Jnsulation . other operating and similar devices.3 Additional Requirements for Escalators 6. Where a chain is used to connect the driving machine to the main drive shaft.5 Electrical conductors shall be encased in rigid conduits. junction boxes and similar electrical fittings which normally carry only the control current shall be. fused switch or a circuit-breaker shall be mstalled and shall be connected into the power supply line to the driving machine motor. conduit is. With dc power supplies the main disconnecting switch and any circuit-breaker shall be so arranged and connected that the circuit -of brake magnet coil is opened at the same time that the main circuit is opened. protected.0.0. such terminal being specially provided for this purpose. for individual occupancies are covered in individual Sections of the Code.7 Disconnect SLititch .The driving machine shall be connected to the main drive shaft by toothed gearing.3 Brake . The switch shall be so placed that it is close to and visible from the escalator machine to which the supply is contrdlled.3 Specific requirements if any.3. worked and maintained that there is no danger to persons from them. 9 E a r t h i n g . door contacts. 6.3. Where screwed conduit screws into electric fittings carrying control current and making the case and cover electrically continuous with the conduit.6 .9 Caution Notice . 75 I GENERAL AND COMMON ASPECTS . stud or screw. the winding machine. a coupling. lines and apparatus in the ezcalator shall be of suitable construction and shall be so installed. car switches. 6.0.The electrical parts of starting and stopping devices. It is not required that this brake be of the electrically released type if an electrically released brake is provided . limit switches. ELECTRICAL ASPECTS OF AUDIO SYSTEM SERVICES 7.2 This applies to sound distribution systems and public address systems but does not cover installations in conference halls where both microphones and loudspeakers are distributed amongst the audience.3. One side of the secondary winding of bell transformers and their cases shall be earthed. 2 . SECTION 14E AUDIO SYSTEMS 7.2. 6. 6 . the fitting and such length of flexible conduit shall be effectively earthed.3. This brake shall be located either. 3 . The earthing conductor shall be secured to earthing terminal i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e recommendations made in IS : 3043-1966* and also in conformity with the provisions of Indian Electricity Rules.An enclosed.3. containing or protecting any electric supply line or apparatus shall be efficiently connected with earth. Disconnecting switches or circuit-breakers shall be of the manually closed multi-pole type. 6. 6. at least equivalent to a 5 mm brass screw. Where flexible. subject to a maximum voltage of 2 000 V when the test voltage is applied between contacts or similar parts in the open position. call and control buttons.

7. or inside an iron-pipe at that depth if heavy mechanical movement is expected above.2. a m p l i f y i n g e q u i p m e n t / s y s t e m a n d loudspeakers shall be governed by the considerations enumerated in IS : 1881-1961* and IS : 1882-1961 t.be such that.2. and the acoustic power requirements therein. 7. A voltage regulating device shall be provided if the regulation is poorer than * 5 percent. b) the accommodation and location of the central amplifier equipment.The completed installation shall be inspected and tested by the engineer to ensure that the work has been carried out in the manner specified. These shall be isolated from power. tape-recorder or radio receiver or from a sound film is amplified and presented through a system of loudspeakers installed at chosen locations. Plans shall show: a) details of the installation proposed. Any wiring required to be run along corridors or outside walls below 1.Proper equipment shall be made in ar:?rdance with good practice. Microphone cables shall be laid without sharp bends.3 Inspection and Testing .2.1. advice of an acoustical expert shall be sought for best accuracy and reproducibility.2. The patch cords shall be neatly . Indoor cables can be laid on the floor along the walls or under the carpet.2 PoMjer Supplies 7 . Reference is drawn to 5.2 The supply mains shall be controlled by a switch-fuse of adequate capacity. In the absence of ac mains supply the system shall be suitable for operating from a storage battery.6 In large open grounds such as an outdoor stadium. 7.7 The plugs and sockets used in e l e c t r i c a l a u d i o s y s t e m s shall n o t b e interchangeable with those meant for power currents.0 The output from the microphone.1. tCode of practice for outdoor installation of public address systems.1. that is in installations where the breakdown of the sound distribution systems should be restored instantaneously or within a limited time. 7.sound heard from different loudspeakers do not have any noticeable time lag. 7.2. reference shall be made to IS : 1881-196t* and IS : 188219611.2. 7.8 Microphone and gramophone cables shall preferably use twisted pairs of conductors with sufficient insulation screened continuously with a close mesh of tinned-copper braid.1 Wiring for Audio System 7.2. All controls shall be mechanically and electrically noiseless. 7. they shall be either buried in the ground at a depth not less than 20 cm. be laid overhead at a height not less than 3.2.2. 7. 2 .1‘ All present controls should be mounted behind cover plates and designed for adjustment only with the help of tools.8 m’shall be protected by a conduit.1. depending on the nature of occupancy.2 The positioning of equipment shall be such that the lengths of the interconnecting cable’s is kept to the minimum.2 Design Requirements 7. 7. 7. e a r t h i n g o f the 7. they shall be mounted on racks of suitable dimensions of metal or wood.9 The loudspeaker cables shall be so chosen that the line losses do not exceed the values given. 2 .3 Earrhing .Where necessary. clipped securely to a bearer wire.2. in such a manner that the controls are within easy reach. When laid in the open.1.2. 1 The equipment should normally operate from 240 V. 7. The design of this installation shall .4 Miscellaneous Provisions .1 The initial and ultimate requirements of the installations should be ascertained as accurately as possible by prior consultations. 7.1. The copper braiding should be sheathed with an insulating covering. single phase 50 Hz ac mains supply.2.1.2. and c) the ducts are overhead lines required for wiring. 7. 7.4 In determining the positioning of the microphones and loudspeakers in the installation. gramophone. NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE practice for outdoor installation of public address *Code of practice for the’ installation of indoor amplifying and sound distribution syskems. 7. the linematching transformers shall be mounted in weather-proof junction boxes. 7. care shall be taken to ensure that the . the quality of reproduction is as desired.2.5 For outdoor installations.5 m. Joints in the cables shall be avoided.2 of IS : 18811961* and IS : 1882-19617 o n t h e q u a l i t y o f reproduction suitable for different purposes.1.1 Exchange of Information 7.2.4 For guidance on selection of equipment and their installation and maintenance.0.1. the stand-by equipment shall be readily available.2. 76 . The choice of equipment such as these for input signals. *Code of systems.arranged.13 In case the number of the equipment is large.1‘0 All e q u i p m e n t s h a l l b e s e c u r e l y installed in rooms gatirded against unauthorized access. in Table I of IS : 1882-1961* 7. loudspeaker and telephone cables. This may also. -Precautions shall be taken ‘to keep dust away.

If necessary remote indicating panel. or b) one lamp glowing during normal operation of the system for each section and the alarm indicated by the extinguishing of the lamp for the section where the call originates. These shall be supplemented by sector indicators for the various sectors at a central control point. reference shall be made to Part 4 of SP : 7-1983* and the relevant Indian Standards. Part 4 of SP : 7-1983* 8. All call points in a section shall be connected to the same indicator.2. while specific requirements if any or individual situations are covered in the respective sections of the Code. 8. NOTF ~~~ These may be of fixed temperature detector or rate of rise detector.3 For large or intricate premises. 8. 8. 77 8. 8. For this.2 Wiring for Fire Alarm Systems 8. b) PV. autonx~l~ fire alarm AND COMMON ASPECTS . Operation of silencing switches shall not prevent sounding of alarm from any other zone simultaneously. ELECTRICAL ALARM SYSTEMS 8.2 For guidance on their choice and siting in the installation. Alarms should not sound on the failure of the indicator.SECTION 14F FIRE ALARM SYSTEMS ASPECTS 8.2.1. c) Rubber insulated braided cables.0. depending on the nature of occupancy installation and maintenance aspects. and e) Hard metal sheathed cables. The main control centre shall be located on the ground floor and should be segregated from the rest of the building by fire-break wall. etc. ii) loniration chamber detector.2. stair cases and other flue-like opening. c) Flame detectors. cables of the following types shall be used: a) Mineral insulated aluminium sheathed cables.0.3 For total requirements for fire protection of buildings.2. including non-electrical aspects such as choice and disposition of fire-fighting equipment. a number of main indicator boards may be used covering different sectors. The wiring shall be kept away from lift shafts.2. 8.2 Alarm sounders shall be of the same kind in a particular installation.UK I” systems.1 The equipment and wiring of the fire alarm system shall be independent of any other equipment or wiring.1 The following types of fire detectors are a) two lamps connected in parallel associated available for installation in buildings: a) Heat detectors (IS : 217519771): i) ‘Point’ or ‘spot’ type detector ii) Line type detector. the premises shall be divided into sections’Tones. 8. 8. 8.2.0 General 8. The laying of the cables shall be done in accordance with Part I Set I of the Code.10 For fire alarm systems. When the premises are extensive.7 The arrangement of the circuits and the electrical connections shall be such that a call or fault in any circuit does not prevent the receipt of calls on any other circuit. PART I GKNERAI. with audible alarms in the night quarters of the caretaker of the building should be provided.6 The origin of the calls may be indicated by the use of lamp indicators. see Appendix B. Each indicator shall include: 8. tHeat WISIIIV~ lire-dctcctors for.2.2. d) PVC or rubber insulated armoured cables.8 The indicating device associated with the various call points and sections shall be grouped together on the main indicator board. with each indication. iii) Chemically sensitive detector.1 This Section is intended to cover the electrical aspects of the installation of fire alarm/protection systems in buildings. or cancel the other indications of the alarm or fault. so arranged that failure of either of the lamps -is readily apparent. 8. and shall be spaced at least 5 cm away from each other and other wiring.2. 8. it is necessary that the origin of a call be indicated.5 No section shall have more than 200 fire -detectors connected together.1.1 Fire Detectors 8. where it can be under constant observation.2 This Section is applicable in genera1 to all types of occupancies. b) Smoke detectors: i) Optical detectors.C insulated cables. For every installation a control point shall be provided. The various *National Building Code.4 At the control point the main indicator board or the Tone and section indicating boards a n d a l l c o m m o n control a p p a r a t u s a n d supervisory equipment shall be located.2.9 The silencing switches/push buttons in their off position shall give an indication of this fact on the main control panel.0. The wiring of the fire alarm systems shall be in metallic conduits. OF FIRE drops or lamp indicators shall be grouped together on the main indicator board or control panel. 8.

8.1.2 Sufficient power shall be made available for the purpose and the power source shall be entirely independent of all other equipment in the premises and shall not be interrupted at any time by the main switch controlling supply to the premises.3. but overload and novolt protection shall not be provided in the switch.1. *National Building Code.2.3 Pumping sets shall be direct coupled type.1 If wooden bases are used for bells and buzzers. Any flexible’chordslattached to them should be covered with hard wearing braid. aspects shall be ascertained in collaboration with the parties concerned: for control required a) Accommodation apparatus.3 Fire Fighting Equipment 8.0 General 9.4 All motors and electrical equipment shall be continuously rated.1.1. 8. with facilities for automatic recharging in 8 hours sufficiently to supply the maximum alarm load at an adequate voltage for at least 2 hours. hospitals or similar large buildings where call. ducts and condliits required for wiiing. 8. The capacity of battery shall ‘be such that it is capable of maintaining the maximum alarm load on the system at an adequate voltage for at least I hour plus the standing load or losses for at least 48 hours.for small installations having up to 20 call points. 8. and b) Details of chases. 1).1 Full details of the electric supply shall be furnished together with details of generator plant to the appropriate authorities.3.l’pe ~~ where positive indication is required which remain in position until restored. C) Time Bell Sjtstem . +Code of practice for the installation of electric bells and call systems. b) Multiple Call Be/l S.1.11 The source of supply for the alarm system shall be a secondary battery continuously trickle/float charged from ac mains.for Electrical Drives . Terminals shall be of adequate size and should be so arranged that the loosening of a terminal screw does not disturb the contact assembly.for Pumps in H_vdrant and Sprinkler S. in the substation and in the fire-pump room.1 Pela s may following sltua Y Ions: be required for the a) Where mains operated device is to be controlled by a circuit operating at a voltage not exceeding 24 V. 2). ELECTRICAL CALL BELL SER%‘lCES 9. 9. schools.0. 9. An indicator lamp shall continuously glow in a prominent position to indicate this. arid shall work satisfactorily at varying load. c) Pendulum type . 8. the component parts shall be rigidly held together independently of the base. and c) For maintaining a call indication until an indication is reset.!stem ~~ Hotels. points are numerous (see Fig.1.1 Requirements .3.3.1 Equipment and Materials 9.g the contact gap and pressure and means for locking the arrangement. mills.1. 9. or indicator call system in the building. the following. drip-proof with air inlets and outlets protected with meshed wire panels where required motors shall have a suitable fixed warming resistance to maintain them in dry condition.1 Guidance on installation of electric bells and call systems are covered in IS : 8884-1978t.4.where sound of bell is undesirable.wems 8. NATIONAL ELECTPICAL CODE . for example in hospitals or in noisy locations such as forges. 9.1.3. 9.4 Bell push switches shall be of robust construction.8.Factories.1. locatIon and distribution points.2 On the basis of information collected on the extent of installation of electric bells and buzzers. 8. etc.0 The choice of fire fighting equipment and their installation details shall be governed by the requirements specified in Part IV of SP : 7-1983* 8.3. Suitable overload protective devices shall be provided to prevent discharging of the batteries through the charging equipment.3.3 Equipment for outdoor use shall be suitably protected against the environmental conditions. b) Flag t. They shall not incorporate no-volt trips.6 The electric circuit for fire fighting system shall be provided at its origin with a suitable switch for isolation.5 1 he starting equipment of the set shall incorporate an immeter and clearly marked to show full load current.1.For dwellings and small offices (see Fig.5 The indications shall be one of the following types: a) L a m p t!‘pe . 9.1. 9. so that they are unaffected by any warping.0. 78 9. SECTION 14G MISCELLANEOCJS SERVICES 9.3.2 Bells and buzzers which have a make or break contact shall be provided with means of adjustir.2 Choice of Call-Bell System-The following guidelines are recommended: a) Simple Call Bell S~~stcrn --. b) For repeating a call indication at a distant point or points.1.

1 Design Considerations 10.3 To ensure necessary continuity of supply.2. 10. a ration of 0.3. CLOCK SYSTEMS RESET KNO8 10.1. L SUPPLY F I G.The system may be operated at the normal mains voltage.1 of IS : 89691978*. 10.30 m 4. The following is adequate: Dia BELL P U S H SWllcHES INDIC ATOR qf Clock Height .4 X 3..45 m 0.1.1.1. single battery on ‘constant trickle charge is recommended. 10. Batteries should always be provided. 10. The capacity of the battery shall be at least sufficient to supply the installation for 48 hours.6 m.2.3 Wiring.30 m diameter of dial to every 2. 10.50 m /llooloR CENTRAL SWlTCbtUOOY WITN 10.1 The master clock shall be placed in a room not smaller than 2. means being provided for charging at a higher rate when necessary.~ MU L T I P L E C A L L B ELL S Y S T E M PART I GENERAL AND C O M M O N ASPECTS 79 .from Floor 0.60 m 2. not less than IO Ah. or the conduit may be colour coded for distinction from other circuits.3 Power Supply . accordance with Part l/Set I I of the Code. FIG. *Code of practice for the installation and maintenance of impulse and electronic master and slave clock systems.The wiring shall be done in.4 Wiring. Where such openings are necessary. though it is preferable for the control circuit to be operated at a\ voltage not exceeding 24 V 9.2 The location and size of slave clocks may frequently depend upon aesthetic requirements. two batteries should be provided with changeover switch. I SI M P L E E L E C T R I C C A L L B ELL S Y S T E M 10.1 Where the supply is ac.2 Where the supply is dc. 3.The wiring shall be done in accordance with Part I /Set I I of the Code Special conductor shall be provided. but from the point of view of readability.9.1. 10.70 m 3.3.7 m of height is acceptable. A schematic is shown in Fig. direct connection of the system to the supply mains is not recommended.2 The enclosure of the clocks shall have no openings giving access to live parts or functional insulated parts or functional insulation other than the openings necessary for the use and working of the clocks. sufficient protection against accidental contact with live parts shall be provided.2 Location of Clocks 10.1 Reference’is drawn to 5.30 m 0.

K SY S T E M ti:ATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE . 3 IM P U L S E M ASTER CLO<.ASTER CLOCK AVE CLOCKS RELAY TRICKLE CHARGE pk \ t \ ac SUPPLY F I G.

SECTION 15 LIGHTNING PROTECTION O. etc. 2.1 For the purposes of the National Electrical Code.0 For the purposes of this section.i This Section covers the essential design and construction details of lightning protective systems. gas and water pipes as well as climatic and soil conditions 81 guide of general nature on the principles and practices in the protection of structures against lightning.4 Earth Terminations or Earth Terminations Network ~~ Those part of the lightning protective system which are intended lo distribute the lightning discharges into the general mass of the PART I GENERAL AND COMMON ASPECTS . and account has to be taken of several other local conditions such as variati’ons in the architecture.11 Metal-Roofed Building -. and between various portions of the latter. Electrical connection between the 2. 2. 2.A metal plate. 1.13 Testing Points ~~ Joints in down conductors or in bonds or in earth conductors connecting earth electrodes.A building with roof made of or covered with sheet metal.1 Air Termination (Lightning Conductor) or Air Termination Network --Those parts of a lightning protective system that are intended to collect the lightning discharges from the atmosphere.6 Fasteners Devices used to fasten the conductors to the structures.3 Down Conductors connect the air terminations with the earth terminations. The primary object of such an exchange is to obtain information regarding the architectural features of the structure so that due provision may be made to retain the aesthetic features of the building while planning the location of the lightning conductors and down conductors of the’ lightning protective system. atmospheric conditions. 2.12 Side Flash -. 2.FOREWORD 0.5 Earth Electrodes -. 2.1 This Section of the Code covers guidelines on the basic electrical aspects of lightning protective systems for buildings and the electrical installation forming part of the system.8 Joints . for specific occupancies from the point of lightning protection are covered in respective sections of the Code. 2. which Conductors 2.9 Lightning Protective System . 1.2 Additional guidelines if any. T h e s e a r e summarised in Part 7 of the Code.A spark occurring between nearby metallic objects or between such objects and the lightning protective system or to earth. these include those portions of the earth terminations that make direct electrical contact with the earth.The whole system of interconnected’ conductors used to protect a structure from the effects of lightning.7 Isoceraunic Level . intended to serve qnly as a earth. the following definitions shall apply.4 The contents of this Section are based on IS : 2309-1969 ‘Code of practice for the protection of buildings and allied -structures against lightning’. t o p o g r a p h y o f t h e r e g i o n . EXCHANGE OF INFORMATION 311 The architect should exchange information with the engineer concerned when the building plans are hejng prepared. 2.10 Metal-Clad Building -~ A building with sides mtide of or covered with sheet metal. It is. so designed and situated as to enable resistance measurements to be made.2 Bonds lightning protective system and other metal work. a number of years. 2. Information may also be obtained at an early stage regarding other services. 0. the fixed installation for lightning protection is considered part of the electrical installation design and constitutes a major area where the installation design enginegr has to ensure proper coordination. however.14 Zone of Protection The space within which the lightning cotiductor is expected to provide protection against a direct lightning stroke. require s p e c i a l consideratians. such as electrical installation.It is the number of days in a year on which the thunder is heard in the particular region averaged over. TERMINOLOGY 2. SCOPE 1. Ali parts below the testing point in a down conductor are included in this term. 2. 0. 3. pipe or other conductor or an array of conductors electrically connected to the general mass of the earth.3 Lightning protection of industrial installations which are categorized as hazardous.The mechanical and electrical junctions between two or more portions of the lightning protective system or other metal bbnded to the system or both. 2. 2. 2. 0.

The current in any lightning discharge rises steeply to its crest value in a few microseconds and decays to zero in a few milliseconds. NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE The thermal effect of 4.1 The lightning current which is discharged to earth through the resistance of the lightning conductor and earth electrode provided for a lightning protective system. A complete lightning discharge may thus last a second or even longer. therefore. the space between the thunder cloud and the lightning conductor.When a high ekctric current is discharged through parallel conductors which are in close proximity to each other. In addition. d) Degree of isolation. 4. The lightning current also produces.2 The lightning current rises steeply lo its crest value (approximately at the rate. transmission lowers. and structures containing explosives and highly flammable materials. .The principal eletrical effects of a lightning discharge are two-fold.1 Appendix C of IS : 2309-1969 gives the details of various factors that affect the risk of the structure being struck and the consequential effects of a stroke.In determining how fai to go in providing lightning protection for specific cases or whether or not it is needed at all.2 Electrical Effects -. however. ‘be provided with adequate mechanical fixings. 5. 5. and the nature. 4.1 A different mechanical effect exerted by a lightning discharge is due lo the fact that the air channel. is suddenly raised lo a very high temperature. 4.3. produces a resistive voltage drop whtch momentarily raises the potential of the protective system with respect lo the absolute earth potential to a very high value.2. around the earth electrode.2 With many structures. The examples of such structures are: a) b) c) d) e) r) those in or near which large number of people congregate. A vertical conductor of the dimensions generally used in a lightning protective system has an inductance of about 16 X IO-‘H/ 100 m.4. a high voltage gradient which may be dangerous to persons and animals. masts.1 Risk Index . and g) Lightning prevalance. thermal and mechanical. 4. those concerned with ‘the maintenance of essential public services. along which the discharge is propagated. tall trees. buildings. b) Type of construction.In practice the cross-sectional area of a lightning conductor is determined primarily by mechanical considerations. of IO kA. c) Contents or consequential effects. it is necessary to take into account the following factors: structure are electrical.1. have been assigned lo these factors which help in arriving at an overall ‘risk index’ to seye as an aid to judging whether lightning protectlon is necessary or not. f-l Height of structure. with due regard to the time relationship. e) Type of terrain. to the resistive (ohmic) voltage drop across the earthing system. all the metal component parts of the lightning protective system should be indicated on them. structures of historic or cultural importance. The rate of rise of current in conjunction with the inductance of the discharge path produces an inductive voltage drop which would be added.2. size and position of. These currents are unidirectional and may vary in amplitude from a _ few hundred amperes to about 200 kA.strong air pressure wave which is responsible for damages to buildings and other structures. these are subjected to large mechanical forces The a ground plan should show all the tall objects. those in areas where lightning strokes are prevalent. there will be little doubt as to the need for lightning protectibn.1 The principal effects of lightning discharge to lightning conductors should.3 Thermal Effects lightning discharge results in rise in temperature of the conductor throligh which the lightning current is discharged to the earth. ps) and as a first approximation may be regarded as equivalent to high f r e q u e n c y discharge. This ignores the fusing or welding effects which occur locally consequent upon the rupture of a conductor which was previousiy damaged or was of inadequate cross-sectional 82 . These effects are determined by the current which is discharged into the structure. etc. very tall or isolated structures. 5. that is. its duration IS so short that the thermal effect on a lightning protective system is usually negligible. D E T E R M I N A T I O N O F T H E N E E D F O R PROTECTION 5. This results in a.an effect. C H A R A C T E R I S T I C S O F L I G H T N I N G DISCHARGES 4. Although the amplitude of the lightning current may be verb high.. Certain values called ‘index figures’.4 Me&a&al Effects . within the zone of protection. such as. area. Many lightning discharges consist of a single stroke but some others involve a sequence of strokes which follow the same path and which discharge separate currents of amplitude and duration as mentioned above. It is not possible to provide protection against such .2 Scale drawings showing plans and elevations of the structure shduld be obtained. 4. a) Usage of structure. 4.

6. ZONE OF PROTECTION 6.1 The zone of protection of a lightnmg conductor denotes the .space within which a . . . . . hghtnmg conductor provides protection against a direct lightning stroke by diverting the stroke to itself. Examples of the protection of different types and shapes of buildings along with zone of protection provided by their lightning protective systems are given in Appendix A of IS : 23091969. 7. MATERIALS AND DIMENSIONS 7.1 Materials - The materials of lightning conductors, down conductors, earth termination
network, etc, of the protective system shall be reliably resistant to corrosion or be adequately protected against corrosion. The following materials are recommended:

TABLE 1 SHAPES AND MINIMUM SIZES OF CONDUCTORS FOR USE ABOVE GROUND

(Clause 7.2)

;:.
I,
2. :: 5. 7?

MATERIAL

AND SHAPE

MINIMUM SIZE

Round copper wire or copper-clad steel wire Stranded copper wire Copper strip Round galvanized iron wire CWvanized iron strip Round aluminium wire
Aluminium strip

6 mm diameta $0 mm.* (or 7/3.(10 m m
diameter)

20X3 mm
8 mm diameter

20X3 mm
9 mm diameter 25 X.3.15 mm

TABLE 2 SHAPES AND MINIMUM SIZES OF
CONDUCTORS FOR USE BELOW GROUND ((-louse 7.2)
2 r). M
ATERIAL AND

SHAPE

MlNlMClM

SIZE

a)

Copper - When solid or stranded copper wire or flat copper strips are used, they shall be of grade ordinarily required f o r comniercial electrical work, generally designated as being of 98 percent conductivity when annealed: They shall conform to relevant Indian Standard specifications.

Round copper wire or copper-clad steel wire 2. Copper strip 3. Round galvanized iron wire 4. Galvanized iron strip

8 mm diameter 32X6 mm IO mm diameter 32X6 mm

b) Copper-clad SW/ - Where copper-clad steel

is used. t h e c o p p e r coverlng shall be permanently and effectively welded to the steel core. The proportion of copper and steel shall be such that the conductance of the material is not less than 30 percent of the conductance of solid copper of the same total cross-sectional a’rea.

due to corrosion 7.3 Corrosion - Where atmospheric, chemical, electrolytic or other causes is likely to impair any part of the lightning protective system, suitable precautions should be taken to prevent its occurrence. The.contact of dissimilar metals is likely to initiate and accelerate corrosion unless the contact surfaces are kept completely dry and protected against the ingress of moisture. 7.3.1 Dissimilar metal contacts can exist where a conductor is held by fixing devices or against external metal surfaces. Corrosion can arise also where water passing over one metal comes into contact with another. Run-off water from copper, copper alloys and lead can attack altiminium alloys and zinc. The metal of the lightning protective system should be compatible with the metal ‘or metals used externally on the structure over which the system passes or with which it may make contact. 8. DESIGN

c) Gal\qnizd Steel- Where steel is used it
shall be thoroug,hly p r o t e c t e d a g a i n s t corrosion by a 71nc c o a t i n g w h i c h w i l l satisfactorily withstand the test specified in Appendix D of IS : 2309-1969. Copper is preferred to galvanized iron where corrosive gaich. industrial p o l l u t i o n or saltladen atmospheric condition\ ;trc ,cncountcrcd.

d) .Illrt~~irlilrt~r

Aluminlum ~irc :I& strips arc increasingly linding fa\our for u\e a s lightning conductor\ in \ic.\\ of the fact that aluminium has ;I conduct~\~t!~ almost double that of copper mahs for no\\. When used, it shall be at least 09 perccnr pul-e. (:f sufficient m e c h a n i c a l s t r e n g t h :Ind eflccti\ely protected against corrosion.

8.0 General

e) A1lo.1~~ -- Where a l l o y s o f m e t a l s a r e used they shall .be substantially as rchistant t o c o r r o s i o n a s c o p p e r u n d e r similar conditions. The recommended shape 7.2 Shapes and Sizes and minimum sizes--o& conductors for USC above ground and below ground are given in Table I and Table 2 rc\pcctl\cly.
P A R T I CENERAI. AND C O M M O N ASPEUTS

l.ightning protective systems should be installed with a view to offering least impedance to the passage of lightning current between air-t_erminalh and earth. There shall be at icast two parts. and more if practicable. This is d:lne bv connecting the conductors to form a cage cnc!osing t h e building. T h e b a s i c d e s i g n considerations for lightning protective systems are given in 9.2 of IS : 2309-1969. The principal component of a lightning protective system are: a) air terminations, b) down conductors,
83

c) joints and bends, d) testing points, e) earth terminations, f) earth electrodes, and g) fasteners. 8.1 Air Terminations - For the purpose of lightning protection, the vertical and horizontal conductors are considered equivalent and the use of pointed air terminations or vertical finials is, therefore, not regarded as essential except when dictated by practical considerations. An air termination may consist of a vertical conductor as for a spire, a single horizontal and vertical conductors for the protection of bigger buildings. 8.1.1 A vertical air termina’tion need not have more than one point and shall project at least 30 cm above the object, salient point or network on which it is fixed, 8.1.2 Horizontal air terminations should be so interconnected that no part of the roof is more than 9 m away from the nearest horizontal conductor except that an additional 30 cm may be allowed for each 30 cm by which the part to be protected is below the nearest protective conductor. For a flat roof, horizontal air terminations along the outer perimeter of the roof are used. For a roof of building with larger horizontal dimensions a network of parallel horizontal conductors should be installed as shown in IS : 2309-1969.
NOTC Salient points even if less than 9 m apart should each be provided with an air termination.
8.1.3 Horizontal air terminations should be coursed along contours, such as ridges, parapets and edges of flat roofs, and where necessary over flat surfaces in such a way as to join each air termination to the rest and should themselves form a closed network.

The method and nature of the fixings should be simple, solid and permanent, due attention being given to climatic conditions and possible corrosion. 8.2 Down number and Conductors - The spacing of down conductors shall largely depend upon the size and shape of the building and upon aesthetic considerations. The minimum number of down conductors may, however, be decided on the following considerations:

4 A structure having a base area not exceeding

100 m* may have one down conductor only if the height of the air termination provides sufficient protection. However, it is advisable to have at least two down cond.uctors except .for very small buildings. For structures having a base area exceeding 100 m*, the number of down conductors required should be worked out as follows: i) One for the first 100 m* plus one more for every additional 300 m* or part thereof, or

b)

ii) One for every 30 m of perimeter. The smaller of the two shall apply.

C) For a structure exceeding 30 m in height
additional consideration IS : 2309-1969 shall apply. as given in

8.2.1 Down conductors should be distributed round the outside walls of the structure. They shall preferably be run along the corners and other projections, due consideration being given to the location of air terminations and earth terminations. Lift shafts shall not be used for fixing down conductors. 8.2.2 It is very important that the down conductors shall follow the most direct path possible between the air termination and the earth termination. avoiding sharp bends, upturns and kinks. Joints shall as far as possible be avo&d in down conductors. Adequate protection may be provided to the conductors against machanical damage. Metal pipes should not be used as protection for the conductors. 8.2.3 Metal pipes leading rainwater from the roof to the ground may be connected to the down conductors but cannot replace them. Such connections shall have disconnecting joints for testing purposes. 8.2.4 Where the provision of suitable external routes for down conductors is impracticable or inadvisable, as in buildings of cantilever construction, from the first floor upwards, down conductors may be used in an air space provided by a non-metallic non-combustible internal duct. Any covered recess not smaller than 75 X I5 mm or any vertical service duct running the full height of the building may be used for this purpose, provided it does not contain an unarmoured or non-metal-sheathed cable.
NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE

8.1.4 The layout of the network may be designed to suit the shape of the roof and architectural features of the buildings. 8.1.5 The air termination network should cover all salient points of the structure. 8.1.6 All metallic finials, chimneys. ducts. vent pipes, railings, gutters and the like. on or above the main surface of the roof of the structure shall be bonded to, and form part of, the air termination network. If portions of a structure vary considerably in height, any necessary air termination or air termination network of the lower portions should, in addition to their own conductors, be bonded to the down conductors of the taller portions. 8.1.7 All air terminals shall be effectively secured against overturning either by attachment to the object to be protected or by means of substantial braces and fixings. which shall be permanently and rigidly attached to the building.
84

8.2.5 Any extended metal running vertically through the structure should be bonded to the lightning conductor at the top and the bottom unless the clearances are in accordance with

IS : 2309-1969 for tall structures. 8.26 A structure on bare rock, should be provided with at least two down conductors equally spaced. 8.2.7 In deciding on the routing of the down conductor, its accessibility for inspection, testing and maintenance should be taken into account. 8.3 Joints and Bonds 8.3.1 Joinrs - The lightning protective system shall have as few joints in it as necessary. In the down conductors below ground level these shall be mechanically and electrically effective and shall be so made as to exclude moisture completely. The joints may be clamped. screwed, bolted, crimped, riverted or welded. With overlapping joints the length of the overlap should not be less than 20 mm for all types of conductors. Contact surfaces should first be cleaned and then inhibited from oxidation with a suitable non-corrosive compound. Joints of dissimilar metal should be suitably protected against bimetallic action and corrosion. 8.3.1.1 In general, joints for strips shall be tinned, soldered, welded or brazed and at least double-riveted. Clamped or bolted joints shall only be used on test points or on bonds ,to existing metal, but joints shall only be of the clamped or screwed type. 8.3.2 Bonds - External metal on or forming part of a structure may have to discharge the full lightning current. Therefore. the bond to the lightning protective system shall have a crosssectional area not less than that employed for the main conductors. On the other hand, internal metal is not so vulnerable and its associated bonds are, at most, only likely to carry a portion of the total lightning current, apart from their function of equalizing potential. These latter bonds may, therefore, be smaller in crosssectional area than those used for the main conductors. All the bonds should be suitably protected against corrosion. Bonds shall be as short as possible. 8.4 Testing Points- Each down conductor shall be provided with a testing point in a position convenient for testing but inaccessible for interference. No connection, other than one direct to an earth electrode, shall be made below a testing point. Testing points shall be phosphorbronze. gunmetal, copper or any other suitable material. 8.5 Earth Terminations - Each down conductor shall have an independent earth termination. It should be capable of isolation for testing purposes. Suitable location for the earth termination shall be selected after testing and
PART I GENERAL AND

assessing the specific resistivity of the soil and with due regard to reliability of the sub-soil water to ensure minimum soil moistness. 8.5.1 Water pipe system should not be bonded to the earth termination system. However, if adequate. clearance between the two cannot be obtained, they may be effectively bonded and the bonds should be capable of isolation and testing. The gas pipes, however, should in no case be bonded to the earth termination system. 8.5.2 It is recommended that all earth terminations should be interconnected. Common earthing, besides equalizing the voltage at various earth terminations also minimizes any risk to it of mechanical damage. The condition for limiting earthing resistance given in 11 does nobapply and in such a case no provision need be made for isolation in earth. e 8.5.3 A structure standing on bare rock should be equipped with a conductor encircling and fixed to the structure at ground level and following reasonably closely the contour of the ground. This conductor should be installed so as to minimize any risk to it of mechanical damage.’ The condition for limiting earthing resistance given in 11 does not apply and in such a case no provision need be made for isolation in earth termination for testing. Where there is a risk to persons or to valuable equipment. expen advice should be sought. 8.6 Earth Electrodes - Earth electrodes shall be constructed and installed in accordance with Part I /Set I2 of the Code. 8.6.1 Earth electrodes shall consist of rods, strips or plates. Metal sheaths of cables shall not be used as earth electrodes. 8.6.2 When rods or pipes are used they should be driven into the ground as close as practicable but qutside the circumference of the structure. Long lengths in sections coupled’ by screwed connectors or socket joints can be built up where necessary to penetrate the substrate of low resistivity. Where ground conditions are more favourable for the use of shorter lengths of rods in parallel, the distance between the rods should preferably be not less than twice the length of the rods. The arrangement of earth electrodes are given in Fig. 6 of IS.: 2309-1969.
8.6.3 When strips are used, these should be buried in trenches or beneath the structure at a suitable depth, but not less than 0.5 m deep to

avoid damage by building or agricultural operations. The strips should preferably be Laid radially in two or more directions from the point of connection to a down conductor. But if this is
not possible they may extend in one direction only. However, if the space restriction requires the strips to be laid in parallel or in grid formation the distance between two strips should not be less than 2 m. 8.6.4

When plate electrodes are-used they shall
85

COMMON ASPECTS

oc ourled mto the ground so that the top edge of the plate is at a depth not less than 1.5 m from the surface of the ground. If two plate electrodes are to be used in parallel the distance between the two shall not be less than 8 m. 8.6.5 In the neighbourhood of structure where high temperatures are likely to be the encountered in the sub-soil, for example brick kilns, the earth electrodes may have to be installed at such a distance from the structure where the ground is not likely to be dried out. 8.7 Fasteners - Conductors shall be securely attached to the building or other object to be protected by fasteners which shall be-Substantial m construction. not subject to bi’eakage. and shall be made of galvanized steel or other suitable material. If fasteners are made of steel, they should be galvanilcd to protect them against corrosion. If they are made of any other material suitable precautions shou!, be taken to avoid corrosion. Some samples of fasteners are shown in IS : 2309-1969. 8.8 Earth Resistance - Each earth termination should have a resistance in ohms to earth not exceeding numerically the product of IO and the number of earth terminations to be provided. The whole qf the lightning protective system should have a combined resistance to earth not exceeding IO ohms before any bonding has been effected to metal in or on the structure or to surface below ground. 9. ISOLATION AND BONDING

total clearance required is the sum of the two distances and may be expressed by the following simple equation : D=0.3Ri where K l5n

D = required clearance in metres, R= the combined earthing resistance of the H = structure height in metres, and n= number of down conductors connected to a
earth termination

in ohms,

common air termination.

9.1.2 The above clearance may be halved if a . ^ . - . slight risk ot occurence ot a side Hash c a n b e accepted. 9.1.3 The drawback of isolation lies in obtaining and maintaining the necessary safe clearances and in ensuring that isolated metal has no connection via the water pipes or other services with the earth. In general, isolation can be practised only in small buildings. 9.2 Bonding - In structures which contain electrically continuous metal. for example, a roof. wall. floor or covering, this metal, suitably bonded, may be used as part of the lightning protective system. provided the amount and arrangement of the metal render it suitable for use in accordance with 8. 9.2.1 If a structure is simply a continuous metal frame without external coverings it mrfy not require any air termination or down conductors provided it can be ensured that the conducting path is electrically continuous and the base of the structure is adequately earthed. 9.2.2 -A reinforced concrete structure or a reinforced concrete frame structure may have sufficiently low inherent resistance to earth to provide protection against lightning and if connections are brought out from the reinforcement at the highest points derring construction. a test may be made to varify this at the compktion of the structure. 9.2.3 If the resistance to earth of the steel frame of a structure or the reinforcement of a reinforced concrete structure is found to be satisfactory, a suitable air termination’should be installed at the top of the structure and bonded to the steel frame or to the reinforcement. Where regular inspection is not possible. it is recommended that a corrosion resistant material be used for bonding to t%e steel or to the reinforcement and this should be brought out for connection to the air termination. Down conductor and earth terminations will, ot course. be required if the inherent resistance of the structure is fdund to be unsatisfactory when tested. 9.2.4 Where metal exists in a structure as reinforcement which cannot be bonded into a continuous conducting network, and which is not or cannot be equipped with external earthing NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE

9.0 When a.lightning protective system is struck
with a lightning discharge. its electrical potential with respect to earth is raised. and unless suitable precautions are taken. the discharge may seek alternative paths to earth by-side flashing to other metal in the structure. Side flashing may be avoided by the following two methods :

a) Isolation. and
b) Bonding. 9.1 Isolation - Isolation requires large clearances between the lightning protective system and other metal parts in the structure. To find out the approximate clearances. the following two factors should be taken into account :

a) The resistive voltage drop in the earth
termination. and b) The inductive voltage drop in the down conductors. 9.1.1 The resistive voltage drop require> a clearance of ‘0.3 m,‘ohm of earthing resistance while the inductive _,voltage drop requires a clearance of I m for each I5 m of structure height. For two or more down conductors with a common air termination this distance should be divided by the number of down conductors. The 86

connections, its presence should be disgarded. The danger inseparable from the presence of such metal can. lx mipimized by keeping it entirely isolated from the lightning protective system. 9.2.5 Where the roof structure is wholly or partly covered by metal, care should be taken that such metal is provided with a continuous conducting path to earth. 9.2.6 In any structure. metal which is attached to-the outer surface or projects through a wall or a roof and has insufficient clearance from the lightning protective system, and is unsuitable for use as pa0 of it, should preferably be bonded as directly as possible to the lightning protectives system. If the metal has considerable length (for example, cables, pipes, gutters, rain-water pipes, stair-ways, etc) and runs approximately parallel to a down conductor or bond, it should be bonded at each and but not below the test point. If the metal is in discontinuous lengths, each portion should be bonded to the lightning protective system; alternatively, where the clearance permits, the presenee of the metal may be disregarded. 9.2.7 Bonding of metal entering or leaving a structure in the form of sheathing or armouring of cable, electric conduit, telephone, steam, compressed air or other services with earth termination system, should be avoided. However, if they are .required to be bonded. the bond& should be done as directly as possible to the earth termination at the point of entry or exist outside the structure on the supply side of the service. The gas pipes should in no case be bonded with other metal parts. However. water pipes may be bonded to other metal parts, if isolation and adequate clearance cannot be obtained. In this operation all the statutory rules or regulations which may be in force should be followed and the competent authority should be consulted for providing lightning protection in such cases. 9.2.8 Masses of metal in a building, such as bell-frame in a t6wer. should be bonded to the nearest down conductor by the most direct route available.
9.2.9 Metal clading or curtain walling having a continuous conducting path in all directions may be used as part of a lightning protective system. 9.2.10 In bonding adjacent metalwork to the lightning protective system careful consideration should be given lo the possible effects such bonding would have upon metalwork which may be cathodically protected.. 10. PROTECTION OF SPECIAL STRUCTURES 10.1 For guidance on design of lightning protection systems for special structures, reference shall be made to IS : 2309-1969. Guidance for the appropriate authorities shall also be obtained.

systems shall be exammed by a coinpetent engineer after completion, alteration or extensions, in order to verify that they are in accordance with the recommendations of the Code. A routine inspection shall be made at least once a year.
11.2 Teathg 11.2.1 On completion of the installation or of any modification, the resistance of each earth termination or section thereof, shall. if possible, be measured and’the continuity of all conductors and the efficiency of all bonds and joints shall be verified. 11.23 Normally annual measurement of earth resistance shall be carried out but Local circumstances in the light of experience may justify increase or decrease in this interval but it should not be less than once in two years. In the case of structures housing explosives or flammable materials, the ‘interval shall be six months. 11.23 Earth resistance shall be measured in accordance with Part I/Set I2 of the Code. 11.2.4 The actual procedure adopted for the test shall be recorded in detail so that future tests may be carried out under similar conditions. The highest value of resistance measured shall be noted as the resistance of the soil and details of salting or other soil treatment, should be recorded. 11.2.5 The record shall also contain particulars of the engineer. contrzictor or owner responsible for ‘the installation or upkeep or both of the lightning protective system. Details bf additions or alterations to the system, and dates of testing together with the test results and reports, shall be carefully recorded.

11.3 Deterioration - If the resistance to earth of a lightning protective system or any section of it exceeds the lowest value obtained at the first installation by more thah 100 percent, appropriate steps shall be taken to ascertain the causes and to remedy defects, if any.
1.1.4 Testing Continuity and Efficacy of Conductors and Joints 11.4.1 The ohmic resistance of the lightning protective system complete with air termination, but without the earth’ connection should be measured and this should be a fraction of an ohm. If it exceeds I ohm, then there shall be some fault either electrical or mechanical, which shall be inspected and the defect rectified. 11.4,2_For this system .is best hivided into convement sectlons at testmg oints by suitable joints. A continuous curre.nt oPabout IO A shall be passed through the portion of the system under test and the resistance verified) against its-calculated or recorded value. Suitable portable precision testing sets for this purposes should be used.
87

11. INSPECTION AND TESTING II.1 Inspection - All lightning protective
PART I GENERAL AND COMMON ASPECTS

In extenuating circumstance. the. i.7 Permit books should be treated as important records. duly logged. The real benefit to be derived from the guidelines covered in this Sec!‘!on will be realized only when the safety instructions it contains are regarded as normal routine duty and not as involving extra and laborious operations.1 Work on Dead LOHI and Medium Voltage Mains and Apparatus . N OTE 3 On completion of the work. who might be required to work adjacent to live electrical mains or apparatus.2 It is essential that safety should be preached and practiced at all times in the installation. Such work shall only be carried out with proper equipment provided for _the purpose and. a dated and initialled statement shall then and there be recorded in the book by the person responsible for it.1. 0. All sheets in the permit books and the books themselves should be seriaily numbered. SCOPE 1.8 Permit books shall be kept only by the person-in-charge of operation who shall maintain a record of the receipts and issues made by him. the original shall be returned to the issuing officer duly discharged for cancellation. unless standing instructions are issued by the competent authority to follow other procedures. the person-in-charge of the maintenanqe staff should return the permit duly discharged to the issuing authority. such as for the purpose of saving life or tjme in the event of an emergency.on i s i n t e n d e d t o c o v e r recommendatiops on safety procedures and practices in electrical work. 3.The words permit-to-work’ and ‘permit’ are Bynonymous for the purpose of this Section. etc. tokens may be issued to the workers authorizing them individually to carry out the prcscribcd work.action taken shall be reported to the person-in-charg: _. 2. 1.Unless a person is authorized to work on live imains and apparatus all mains and apparatus to be worked upon shall N-ATIONAL E L E C T R I C A L C O D E aa . All work shall be carried out under the personal supervision of a competent person. 2. If any sheet is detached. engineers.SECTION 16 SAFETY IN ELECTRICAL WORK O.1 This Section of the Code covers guidelines on safety procedures and practices in electrical work. 2.4 In all cases. N OTE 2 The original permit will be issued to the personin-charge of work and the duplicate will be retained in the permit book. It covers basic approaches to-electrical work from the point of view of ensuring safety which include inbuilt safety in procedures such as permit-to-work system. and also of others who may be directly or indirectly connected with the work. safety insturctions and safety practices. 03 This Section of the Code shall be read in conjunction with the following standards : IS : 5 2 1 6 R e c o m m e n d a t i o n s o n s a f e t y procedures and practices in electrical work. ‘23 On completion of the work for which the permit-to-work is issued. No page should be detached or used for any other except bonafide work. a permit-to-work should be issued to the person-in-charge of each department. by specially trained and experienced persons who are aware of the danger that exists when working on or near live mains or apparatus. N O T E. contractors. but also to the staff of other departments. Part I 1982 General Part 2 1982 Life saving techniques IS : 2!5 I-1982 Specification for danger notice plates IS : 8923-1978 Warning symbol for dangerous voltages 2.2 No work shall be commenced on live mains unless it is specifically intended to be so done by specially trained staff. SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS 3. PERMIT-TO-WORK SYSTEM 2.5 The ermits shall be issued not only to the staff of t Re supply under takings. in such cases. it may become necessary to start the work without being able to obtain the necessary permit-to-work. 2.6 A model form of permit-to-work certificate is given in IS : 5216 (Part I)-1982 ‘Recommendations on safety procedures and practices in electrical work : Part I General’.1 Safety Instructions for Working on Mains and Apparatus up to and including 650 V 3. If more than one department is working on the same apparatus. The permit-to-work certlflcate from the person-incharge of operation to the person-in-charge of the men selected to carry out any particular work ensure that the portion of the installation where the work is to be carried out is rendered dead and safe for working. For further allocation of work by the permit receiving officer. the issue and return of permits shal! bc recorded in a special register provided for that purpose. In such cases all possible precautions shall be taken to ensure the safety of the staff engaged for such work.FOREWORD 0 . N OTE I -~ The permit is to be prepared in duplicate by the person-inxharge of operation on the basis of message. operation and maintenance work. from the person-in-charge of the work.1 All work on major electrical installations shall be carried out under permit-to-work system which is now well established.as soon as possible. 1 T h i s Sect. after taking necessary precautions. 2.

Isolation of mains shall be effected by the following methods : 4 The electrical circuits shall be broken only by authorized persons by disconnecting switches. or in any way interfere with. and such persons should take all safety measures as may be required. specified on the permit-to-work shall not be removed or interfered with except by authority from the person-in-charge of the work. Devices .4 shall be scrupulously followed. isolating links. 3. 3.2 Work on Live Mains and Apparatus Only competent. any mains or conduits or through containing a live mains except under the persotutl instructions and supervision.2.2. rubber gauntlets.set consists of two rods a9 a) No person shall work on. the following precautions shall be taken : 1) No person. It should also be ensured before the application of test voltage. A . Each rod is fitted with an indicating neon tube or other means which glows when the contact end of the rod comes in contact with exposed live parts. If any part which will thus become alive is exposed. each phase shall first be connected through a test switch fuse. the inadvertent energizing of the mains and apparatus.4.All mains and apparatus shall be regarded as live and a source of danger and treated accordingly. after receiving a permitto-work.23 Isolation of Mains .for Proving Mains and Apparatus Bead 3. the isolation should be visibly checked. The cardoning off shall be done in such a way that it does not hinder the movement of the maintenance personel. mats.3 Testing of Mains and Apparatus-No person shall apply test voltage to any mains unless he has received a permit-to-work and has warned all persons working on the mains of the proposed application of test voltage. shall work on. which is specially designed for connecting to the live parts. 3. 3. 2) When any live mains is to be earthed. test or earth mains or apparatus unless covered by a permitto-work and after proving the mains dead.1. on the ‘site of work. unbolting connections or switches which are racked out Where possible.be isolated from all sources of supply before starting the work. that no other permit-to-work has been issued for working on this mains. and b) Where the means of isolation are provided with a device to prevent their reclosure by unauthorized persons. Each rod is clearly marked for the maximum voltage .1 General . Before inserting fuses or links in a feeder or distribution pillar controlling the cable on which a fault has been cleared. earthing and short-circuiting of any mains shall be PAW t GENERA L AND COMMON ASPECTS . c) While working on mains.1 High voltage neon lamp contact indicato& rods are often used for proving exposed mains and apparatus dead. Under no circumstances shall be person work with unsound gauntlets. earthed and short-circuited. platforms or other accessories and safety devices. experienced and authorized persons shall work on live mains and apparatus. only recognized methods should be used. under any circumstances.1. stools. The minimum working distance depends upon the actual voltages. Measures shall be taken against.2 Safety Instructions for Working on Mains and Apparatus at Voltages Above 650V 3.2. Immediately before starting work. and 3) The earths and short-circuits. Warning boards shall be attached on or adjacent to the live apparatus and at the limits of the zone in which work may be carried out. a safety sergent could be posted. the person-incharge of the test shall take due precautions to ensure that the exposed live portion does not constitute danger to any person. shall be thoroughly examined to see whether they are in sound condition. It does not apply to operations carried out on mains and apparatus which are so constructed as to permit safe operation within these distances. etc. b) The operations of proving dead. and in all cases the phase sequence should be checked to ensure that only like phases are connected together. be used on higher voltapes. such a device shall be used.2. _ .2 Contact indicator and phasing rods are provided-for phasing and proving exposed mains and apparatus dead.2 _Minimum Working Distance . carried out only by an authorized person under the instructions of the person-in-charge of maintenance. of competent person. Exposed live equipment in the viscinity shall be cordoned off so that persons working on the released equipment in service. ah connections to the live parts shall be made last. ‘3.No __ . unless it is positively known to be dead and earthed.4 . the procedure prescribed in 3. If necessary.on which it may be safely used and shall not.4 Connecting Dead Mains to Live Mains When dead mains are connected to live mains.1. except for the purpose of connecting the testing apparatus. 3. 3.2. proved dead. person shall work within the minimum working distance from the exposed live mains and appartus. For earthing and short-circuiting. 3. No live part should be within’unsafe distang of a person working on live low at&medium voltage mains so that he does not come in contact with it unless he is properly protected.4. if used.2.

Except for the purpose of ‘testing.The precautions mentioned below should be adopted to the extent applicable and possible : a) Examine earthing devices periodically and always prior lo their use. When the contact tip of one rod . b) Use only earthing switches or any. a steel wedge shall be carefully driven through it at the point where it is to be cut or preferably by means of a spiking gun of approved design. and Again check the rod by applying it to live parts as in (2) above. 3.2.2. the cable shall be discharged through a 2 megohms resistance and not directly. All earthing switches wherever installed should be locked up. d) Earthing should be done in such a manner that the persons doing the job are protected by earth connections on both sides of their working zone. following precautions should be taken : b) If a cable is required to be cut. 3.9 W o r k i n g o n mains H*hew visible isolation connot be carried out .2. that is.2. Check the rod by applying it to known live parts of the correct voltage. two. 3.2.2. other special apparatus where provided for earthing.4.for earthing .4 Testing ond morking of devices -.2.which it may be used and shall not. but the Indicating tube should glow on this test or tlFa.7 Removing the eorth conntictions . Be very careful lo be in a position to see the glow.‘open’ or ‘closed’.od is. Each set of rods is normally marked for the maximum voltage on . the indicating tube shall not glow. one on each side of the work zone. Apply the rod to’each phase required lo be proved dead. the glow will to intermittent. the indicating tubes should glow. the earthing and short-circuiting devices shall remain connected for the duration of the work. owing to dielectric absorption which is particularly prominent in the dc voltage testing of high voltage cables. rods up to II kV may be tested by applying them to the top of the spark plug in a running motor car cngme. If the rod is in order the indicating tube will glow each time the plug sparks. The earthing device when used shall be first connected lo an effective earth. induction testing set or spiking device may be used for proving the cable dead. where duplicate feed is available and by one circuit opening device where duplicate feed is not available provided the following conditions are fulfilled : a) The position of the contacts of the circuit oF~ning device(s) -.On completion of work. 90 c) Verify that the circuit is dead by means of discharging rod or potential indicator.A cable shall be identified as that having been proved dead prior to cutting or carrying out atiy operation which may involve work on or movement of the cable.4. The indicator itself should first be tested on a live circuit before and after the verification. d 4 N OTE I -All the above iperations shall be carried out at rhe same place and at the same time.6).6 Earthing and short-circuiting mains a) High voltage mains shall not be worked u on unless they are discharged to earth aPter making them dead and are earthed and short-circuited with earthing and shortcircuiting equipment is adequate to carry possible short-circuit currents and specially meant for the purpose. 3. if any. the end of the earthing device attached to the conductors of the earthed mains or apparatus shall be removed first and the other and connected lo earths shall be removed last. removal of the earthing and short-circuiting devices shall be carried out in the reverse order to that adopted for placing them (see 3. and earthed and short-circuited though work may be proceeding on one phase only.4. 3.4. agam the indicating tubes shall glow. 4 a) W cl Ensure that the rod is clean and dry. The cable shall be dischaiged for a sufficiently long period to prevent rebuilding up of voltage. the indicating tube shall glow.While using the high voltage contact indicator and phasing rods for proving the mains or apparatus dead. The conductor shall not be touched after the earthing device has been removed from it.5 Idcnt~ficotion of cables to be worked upon .8 Sqfety precautions . if no live parts are available on the site.3 the circuit may be broken by two circuit opening devices.4.circuit cannot be broken visibly as set out in 3.Where the electrical. A non-contact indicating rod.is NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE .useleu as a means of proving the mains or apparatus L N OTE 2-The rod should be tested both before and after the use.is applied to ixposed live parts and that of the other to earth or other exposed live parts provided there is sufficient voltage difference between the.4. be used on higher voltages.connected in series by a length of insulated cables. Both rods are fitted with contact tips and indicating tubes. The other end of the device shall then be connected to the conductors lo he earthed. phasing.3 Use of Conrocr Indicator and Phasing Rods . appearing in the indicating tube. d All the three phases should he effectively 3. 3.2. etc. Therefore.2A. d After testing the cable with dc voltage. under any circumstances.It shill be ensured that all devices for proving high voltage mains and apparatus dead are marked clearly with the maximum voltage for which they are intended and should be tested periodically.4.

4.1 The owner of every medium. both the circuit opening devices are in series between the mains and apparatus to be worked on and any source of supply. it is very necessary that certain elementary safety practices are observed.2.n a danger notice in Hindi or English and the local language of the district on every motor. all supports or high and extra high voltage etc.982.3 and 3. 5. SAFETY POSTERS W The circuit opening device(s) can be locked’ mechanically in the open position.s (first revision)‘.4.clearly indicated by the position of the operating handle or by signal lights or by other means.6 and 3. 5. 6. generator. in a conspicuous positi0.2.10 W o r k o n tttains wilh mw or more secrions .above shall be locked in the open position before the work on the mains and apparatus is commenced.4. the circuit opening device is between the mains to be worked on and any source of supply. high and extra high voltage installation is required to fix permanently.9 shall be observed with regard to each section. transformer. AND COMMON ASPECTS 91 . 3.4.2 Equipment. ACCIDENTS AND TREATMENT FOR ELECTRIC SHOCK . any short-circuiting and earthing removed and’ the permit-to-work form duly returned and cancclled. FART I CENERAI.2 It is also recognized as good practice to indicate by means of the symbol recommended in IS : 8923-1978 ‘Warning symbol for dangerous voltages’ on electrical equipment where the halards arising out of dangerous voltage exist. The danger notice plate shall conform to IS : 2551-1982 ‘Specification for danger notice pla te.2. It has been fc.1 In all electrical works. Devices and Appliances General guidelines regarding the same as given in l’S : 5216 (Part 1)~1.md that quite a large number of accidents occur due to the neglect of these practices. SAFETY PRACTICES 4. the provisions of 3.2. 4. available. The details of such practices are given m Appendix C of IS: 5216 (Part I)-1982. d In cases where duplicate feed is not The circuit opening devices mentioned . Recommendation on safety procedures and practices in electrical work: Part 2 Life saving techniques.When the mains to be worked upon are to be divided into two or more sections.(see IS : 5216 (Part 2)1982. 5. are adequately earthed and short-circuited between the circuit opening device and the position of the work. cl The mains and apparatus to be worked on 4 In cases where duplicate feed is available. The locking devices shall be removed only by a compete_nt person and not until the work has been completed.

The reactive power depends on the inducta. This component is power is available for transmission and utilization without any extra cost. For higher voltage installations.1 The disadvantages of low power factor are as follows : a) OvtJoading of cables and transformer.lce and capacitance of the apparatus.2 Specific guidelines. cables.1 Conditions of supply of electricity boards or licensees stipulate the lower limit of power factor which is generally 0.1 The majority of ac electrical machines and equipment draw from the supply an apparent power (kVA) which exceeds the required useful power (kW). 0. improvetient. if an installation on improvement 0 r*power factor are covered in the respective sections of the Code. The choice of these components to bring up fhe power factor depends on economics. rebate for lowi high power factor.1.3. This is due to the reactive power (LVAR) necessary for alternating magnetic field. Moreover. 2. 3. A power factor of unity (100 percent) deiotes 100 percent utilisation of the total current for useful work whereas a power factor of 0. 3. for individual 1.4 The contents of this Section are based on “Guide I)-1975 for t tic I S : 7752 (Part improvement of power factor in consumers’ installations: Part I Low and medium suppI voltages”.3 Principal Causes of Lower Power Factor 3. The ratio of usefol power (kW) to apprarent power (kVA) is termed the power factor of the load. 3. 0.4 Effect of Power Factor to Consumer 3. The available resources are utilized to its fullest possible extent. Induction furnaces and heating coils.2 The power factor indicates the portion of the current in the system performing useful work. 3. except that of incandescent lighting and most forms of resistance heating. etc. The reactive power is indispensable and constitutes an additional demand on the system. More useful a) the in-phase component of the current (active or useful current) which is utilized for doing work or producing heat.1 This Section has been prepared with a view to providing guidance to the consumers of electrical energy who take supply of low and 23 In case of ac supply.70 shows that only 70 percent of the current is performing useful work.1 The following electrical equipment and apparatus have a lower factor : a) Induction motors of all types particularly when they are underloaded. the life of individual apparatus is considerably increased and the energy losses reduced. and b) the quadrature component of the current (also called ‘idle’ or ‘reactive’ current) and used for creating magnetic field in the machinery or apparatus. System components have fixed parameters of inductance. Arc welders.2 Power factor is dependent largely on consumers apparatus and partly on system components such as transformers. signs. in the power factor would effect savings in the energy bills.SECTION 17 GUIDELINES FOR POWER-FACTOR IMPROVEMENT &FOREWORD 0.1 When the tariffs of Electricity Boards and the licensees are based on kVA demand or kW demand with suitable penalty. the total c_urrent taken by almost every item of electrical equipment. 2. SCOPE 1. namely : medium vbltage for improvement of power factor at the installation in their premises. GENERAL 2. 1. conform to these conditions.3 1 he guidelines provided in this Section are basically intended for installation operating at voltages below 650 V. etc. additional or more specific rules apply.2 The various advantages of maintaining a high power factor of a system reflects on the national economy of a country. NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE . Fluorescent and discharge lamps. 3. POWER FACTOR 3. 2.4. is made up of two parts. 92 not convertible mto useful output. capacitance and resistance. neon.2 The principal cause of a low power factor is due to the reactive power flowing in the circuit. Choke coils and magnetic systems. 0.3. b) cl 4 e) f-l Power transformers and voltage regulators. transmissioti lines.1 This Section of the Code covers causes for l o w p o w e r f a c t o r a n d guIdelines for use of capacitors to improve the same in consumers installations.85 and consumer is obliged to improve and maintain the power factor of his installation to.

also called static condensers. c) inefficient operation of plant.1 Static caGacitors.4 I n d i v i d u a l C o m p e n s a t i o n possible the capacitor should be connected directly across the terminals of the low power factor appliance or equipment. these capacitors may be operate! manually or automatically as required. and Reduction in voitagc dips caused by welding and slmiiar ‘equipment.5.5.5 Group Compensation . 4. This ensures the control to be automatic through the same switching devices of the apparatus of applianct.1 In order to improve the power factor. cables. c) Reduced losses in the transformers and d) Lower loading of transformers.Capacitors may also be installed at a central point. relieve distribution system before the point of its installation from carrying the inductive reactive power to that extent. switchgears. 3. cables.The explanation for the derivation of the formula for economic power factor Cos $17 is given in Appendix A of IS : 7752 (Part I)-1975 ‘Guide for improvement of powerfactor in consumers’ installation: Part I Low and medtum supply voltages. Wherever 4.3 When considering the economics connected with power factor correction. Automaiic operation may be arranged by means of suitable relays in which a 93 .5. cables. b) Reduction in power cost. and d) Penal power rates. that is. A bank of capacitors may be installed to connect them to the distribution centre of main bus-bars of the group of machines. that is. 43 Capacitors for power factor improvement may be arranged as described in IS : 7752 (Part I)-1975. depreciation and maintenance. switchgear.power factor prescribed in the conditions of supply of Electricity Boards or Licensees and the reduction in charges offered in supply tariffs fortfurther improvement of power factor shall. installation of capacitors also improve the voltage. etc. compensate for losses and lower the loadings on supply equipment.5 Economics of Power Factor Improvement 3.5. 3. Improvement in voltage conditions and apparatus performance.5 In case of two port tariff with kVA demand charged. 3. etc.5. _ 3. where B is the total cost per kVAR per year of capacitor installation ihclusive of interest. The successful operation of power factor i m p r o v e m e n t d e p e n d s v e r y largel-y on the positioning of the capacitor on the system.In industries where a large number of small motors or other appliances and machines are installed and whose operation is periodical it is economical to dispense with individual installation of capacitors.2 The advailtages of high power factor are as follows : cos is the improved power factor after installing the capacitors qbl Cos $Q is the imttal power factor. the consumer shall install capacitors where the natural power factor of this installation is low. generating plant. transformers. 3. etc. ease of installation loss maintenance. provide necessary Capacitive reactive power. the value of economic improved power factor (Cos & ) may be obtained as foliows : Let th: tariff be Rs A per kVA of maximum demand per annum plus Rs P per kWh PART I GENERAL AND COMMOh ASPECTS 4. along with orher considerations such as reduction of losses.b) Decreased line voltage at point of appiicatioll. at the incoming supply or service position. when installed at or near the point of‘ consumption. it is most important to remember that any power factor improving equipment will. the load growth.4. 4. 4. The economic power factor Cos & is obtained from the expression 4 Reduction in the current. In order to overcome problems of drawing leading currents on light loads. in general.2 The average values of the power factor for different types of 3 phase electrical installations as measured by one of major utilities in the country are given in respective Sections of the Code.2 The use of the static capacitors is an economical way of improving power factor on account of their comparatively-low cost.6 Central Compensation . regulation and reduces amperes loading and energy losses in the supply apparatus and lines. U S E O F C A P A C I T O R S 4. 3. e) Increased capability of the ‘power system (additional load can be met without additional equipment). d e t e r m i n e t h e kVAR c a p a c i t y o f t h e capacitors to be installed. The automatic control is preferred as it eliminates human errors. N OTE . Ideal conditions are achieved when the highest power factor is maintained under all load conditions.4 The minimum permissible . low losses and the advantage of extension’ by addition of requisite units to meet.

1 For calculating the siqe of the capacitor for power factor improvement ref&cacc rhould be made to Table 5 of Part 1 /Sac 18 of the Code. TO STAR DELTA STARTER F I G. AS RECOMMENDED tSUIlABLE FOR GROUP OPERATION1 F I G.7 The methods of connecting power factQr capacitors to supply line and motors is given in Fig.contactor controls the capacitors bank ana maintains the correct amount of. POWER FACTtlR 1MPROYEMENT:AND CAPACITOR RATING 5. 1 and 2. CONTACTOR. 2 M ETHODS OF C O N N E C T I N G C APACITORS FOR I MPROVEMENT of P O W E R F ACTOR TO S UPPLY L I N E 94 NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE . I M E T H O D S OF P OWER F ACTOR C ONNECTING C APACITORS TO FOR MOTORS IMPROVEMENT OF CIRCUIT BREAKER.OR FUSE SWITCH. 4. kVAR in the circuit. 5.

when made available in the form of ready reference tables facilitates the work.85* I/2.35 0.OOt 191 1. frequent need arises to make reference to certain data.80 2 2 3 2 2 2 9 8 5 5 4 I2 12 IO 8 6 I2 12 IO 9 6 I I - I I - I i - N OMINAL D IAMETER T O L ERANCE PERMISSIRLE RESlSrANcE AT 20°C Max Min : 16 mm (2) (3) mm t 0.80 2.5 4 6 IO l/1. but are required to be referred to in designing the installation.056 6 0.40 7/ 1. mm Thickness of outer wall. 0.564 4 0.183 4 8 0. mm Thickness of casing.173 0.029 6 3 0.525 0 0.006 9 9 0.2 The recommended current rating of cables are covered in the form of tables in the following Indian Standards.06 I / 3.009 0.1 In electrical engineering work.031 0.j5t 711. this Section merely draw a reference to IS : 3961 (series).084 0 8 0. The data when finalized will form part of the Code. mm’ of Wires I.005 3 25 35 50 - - 6 t: 20 :: 40 :: 100 0.005 6 (5) flim 0.00 I I I I *For copper conductors only.24 712.12* l/l.003 + ? 0. mm Length. This Section of Part I gives in one place such of those tables which basically provide fundamental data not necessarily required for the understanding of the Code that they should appear along with relevant text.20 0.053 5 0. FOREWORD TAPLE 2 SIZE OF WOOD CASING AND CAPPINb. which.037 0. mm Thickness of capping.015 O.0 C ARLES THAT E SIZE O F CAHLE A W N IN ON M A GROOVE Y H E In view of ihe fact that this data is voluminous and are themselves being extensively reviewed for possible up-dating by the concerned expert group.013 6 0. TINNED COPPER RATC~ CLlRREhT O F Fr:trWlRF (A) Nominal Number and Diameter Cross(in mm) Sectional Area.85 I .24 71 I .1967 PVC insulated and PVC sheathed heavy duty cables (Part 3)-1968 Polyethylene insulated cables (.5 to 3.5 2.008 0. of grooves Width of grooves.014 3 0. IS 3961 Recommended current ratings for cables (Part I)-1967 Paper insulated lead sheathed cables (Part 2).40 lil.089 0.009 0.75 0.009 t 0. AND NUMBER OF CABLES THAT MAY BE DRAWN IN ONE GROOVE OF THE CASING Width of casing of capping.SECTION 18 TABLES 0.004 0.80 71 I .Oi8 f 0. mm Width of dividing fillet.006 t t 0.50 7/3.:. tFor aluminium conductors only PART I GENERAL AND COMMON ASPECTS !n .005 f 0.a.0 1.60’ I/2.80 31 I . TABLE 1 DIAMETER AND MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE RESISTANCE OF FUSE-WIRES. 4)-1968 PVC insulated light duty 38 2 6 12 7 16 6 44 2 6 12 51 2 9 I3 64 2 13 18 76 2 16 24 89 102 2 16 35 2 19 38 IO IO IO IO 16 6 19 IO 19 IO 25 Ill I I 32 13 1: 32 13 6 6 6 IO IO 10 I3 2.020 (4) Dim 0.040 0 I 0.70 712.25 1 I so . mm Thickness of the back under the groove. m NI’MRER D R OF 0.011 _t t 0.50 0. mm No.006 4 5 0.63 0.

wgr 711. MUX Sectional (in mm) -+. TABLE 4 MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE NUMBER OF 1.. . 711.0 I. of . . The table applies to I: I kV grade cabks. 50 . w.80 5 4 3 2 7 6 5 3 2 I3 IO IO 6 5 4 20 I4 I4 IO 9 7 4 2 I4 II 9 5 2 2 I2 6 5 : .0 I/ 1. m m 50 S (13) B‘ (14) 63 \ -Nominal N u m b e r and.129 111.50 19/1.copper conductors only. ?For.oot - : - : 3 2 - s 7 5 4 2 : 6 4 3 8 7 5 6 5 4 9 8 9 NOTE .80 31 I. w NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE .oot 19/1. - - 2 - 50 2 2 *For .40 l/l.80 71 I. m m 40 Max / Nominal CrossSectional Area mm* I.70 712.12.060 I(224 7/0.06* l/2.5 2.50 7/3.:.80 7/3.85* 4 3 3 2 3 2 2’ _7 0 4 3 5’ 5 3 2 I2 IO 7 6 5 4 2 IO 8 0 5 4 3 20 I8 I2 IO 14 I2 IO 8 - - 1.24 7/0. rluminium conductors only.24 712. tFor aluminium conductors only.The table shows the maximum capacity of conduits for the simulataneous drawing of cables. The columns headed S apply to runs ot conduit which have distance not exceedlnp 4.25 m between drawin-boxes.3 4 6 10 I6 25 35 50 l/l.40.6” . and which do not deflect from the straight by an angle of more than IS”.TABLE 3 MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE NUMBER OF 1.70 712.1 kV GRADE CABLES THAT CAN BE DRAWN INTO RIGID STEEL CONDUITS SIZE OF CABLE SnE OF CO N D U I T .80 3/1. S B S Area of Wires B S B‘ S B B‘ S mm2 (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (9) (10) (11) (12) (8) 4 7 t.5 4 6 IO 16 25 35 Number and Diameter (inwm. I6 20 25 N UMRER OF 32 C A B L E S.55t 711. 5 IO 20 I4 5 13 1.1 kV GRADE SINGLE-CORE CABLES THAT MAY BE DRAWN INTO RIGID NON-METALLIC CONDUITS SIZE OF CABLE S IZE OF C O N D U I T. ’ 16 io 32 40 25 CrossDiameter NUMBER OF CABLES.85* r/2.5 2.40 l/l.400 I /3. The columns headed B apply to runs of conduit which deflect from the straight by an angle of more than ISo *For copper conductors only.\. l/l.24 712.

846 1.459 0.450 0.709 I.413 I.209 0.580 0.316 0.381 0.00 (14) - (11) 2.130 1.136 0.400 0.882 0.192 I.026 - I.52 0.377 1.042 - (12) 2.97 0.836 0.98 0.024 0.269 0.076 1.798 1.942 0.343 0.407 0.936 0.035 0.40 0.077 1.809 0.608 0.130 0.480 1.242 0.564 0.417 1.251 0.99 1.192 0.850 0.400 0.149 0.460 0.188 0.220 0.345 0.337 KB I:205 I.519 1.225 2.430 1.048 I.487 0.584 0.578 1.200 I.585 1.079 1.876 0.317 0.281 0.46 0.480 0.695 1.512 0.066 1.620 0.982 0.828 0.655 0.485 1.299 0.483 I.358 0.164 0.020 0.213 0.970 0.838 0.131 1.855 1.92 @?6) 0.: 1.544 1.817 0.5Og 0.771 0.881 1.398 0.672 0. _ - NOTE .060 2.372 0.657 0.169 1.228 I.130 I :!? I.85 (3) 0.712 1.341 0.481 1.356 I.982 0.639.582 0.334 1.447 0.146 2.82 0.77 0.058 0.57 0.51 0.369 0.176 0.369 0.94 0.654 0.918 0.063 0.239 1.202 I.650 0.567 I.502 .769 0.658 0.563 0.939 0.645 0.268 1.114 1.160 I.644 1.083 0.062 1.343 0.794 0.030 0.514 0.652 0.474 0.132 0.420 1.386 1.905 0.434 0.811 0.395 0.89 0.998 1.677 1.226 I.549 0.014 0.447 0.525 0.70 0.887 0.67 0.980 0.320 0.600 1.624 I.271 1.654 0.620 0.98 0.191 I.684 0.368 1.: 0.234 0.73 0.43 8.921 0.963 0.907 0.085 2.047 - FKTOR I.059 0.453 0.151 I.575 I.840 0.442 1.421 0.740 0.809 0.230 I.237 I.679 0.096 1.037 1.198 0.047 I.441 1.085 .74 0.95 0.103 1.592 1.750 0.573 0.478 0.121 0.277 0.112 1.870 0.63 0.515 0.902 0.487 I.024 0.425 1.96 0.480 0.329 0.743 a.349 1.625 0.326 1.870 0.72 0.61 0.754 0.008 0.The consumer a advised to make proper allowance for lower supply voltages where these exist during th working hours and may choose slightly higher kVAR than recommended in the table for such cases.090 0.124 0.190 0.69 0.672 0.803 0.518 0.80 (2) 0.912 0.105 0.395 0.700 0.361 0.526 0.549 0.590 1.659 I.903 1.541 0.031 - I.309 0.58 0.809 0.56 0.730 0.512 0.107 0.64 0.405 I.78 0.567 0.90 0.636 1.317 0.71 0.784 1.777 0.479 0.774 0.971 0.300 1.347 0.788 0.580 0.913 1.62 0.749 0.196 I.620 0.052 0.243 0.96 (10) 0.561 .534 1.316 1.507 0.113 0. 0.315 I.593 0.319 0.159 0.264 0.268 0.713 0.270 0.961 I.233 1.725 1.164 I.519 0.538 0.821 0.230 0.732 1.42 0.172 0.684 1.826 1.191 0.929 I.53 0.769 1.80 0.117 1.937 0.986 0.724 0.028 1.155 0.647 1.623 0.257 0.90 (4) 0. 1.229 I.473 I.484 0.488 0.727 0. PART I GENERAL AND COMMON ASPECTS 97 .027 - I:771 I.043 1.645 0.66 0.651 1.058 0.230 I.935 I.748 0.089 t-z .81 0.79 0.283 0.86 0.223 0.76 0.459 0.160 0.99 (13) 1.134 0.567 0.878 0.453 I.104 0.529 1.508 0.421 0.507 0.417 0.552 1.49 0.238 0.I71 .437 0.079 0.949 0.154 I.949 0.265 1.41 0.997 0.086 0.091 1.021 I. POWER FA(.974 0.082 2.65 0.964 I.686 0.301 0.343 0.355 0.565 0.663 0.145 0.737 1.054 0.95 (9) 0.188 I.996 0.294 0.648 0.235 0.48 0.896 1.164 2.419 0.515 0..216 0.022 1.393 1.053 0.140 0.:: 11297 I.501 I.558 I.94 (a) 0.499 0.861 I.%6 0.618 0.742 1.395 0.626 1.357 I.192 0.935 0.502 I .440 0.063 1.303 I .701 0.403 1.850 0.713 0.860 1.519 I.805 1.631 0.613 0.750 0.600 0.568 0.329 0.395 0.027 0.758 1.: 0.634 0.268 1.959 1.680 .59 0.426 0.032 __ _.790 1.904 0.161 0.534 0.049 1.275 0.537 1.321 0.894 0.909 0.242 0.309 0.485 0.634 0.388 0.215 .453 0.884 0.530 0.837 1.263 1.230 I.489 0.936 0.816 I.291 0.149 0.157 I.144 I.162 0.904 0.588 1.745 0.544 I.290 1.939 0.778 I.288 0.673 0.421 1:g 1.435 1.93 0.843 0.310 0.373 0.353 1.108 1.878 0.2% :::rl: 0.329 0.837 0.473 0.677 1.973 0.114 0.217 0.597 0.078 0.909 0.303 0.103 0.369 I::.289 0.248 1.492 0.536 0.123 I.595 0.800 1.458 I.013 0.308 1.741 0.429 0.387 I.355 0.47 0.536 0.071 0.186 0.424 0.143 0.257 .836 1.335 0.849 0.88 0.798 0.716 0.871 0.899 8:E 0.804 0.83 0.782 1.165 I.356 1.262 0.079 1.489 I.136 I.532 1.175 0.832 1._ __ _.005 0.266 8:.692 0.939 0.3669 0.779 0.781 0.92 0.679 0.744 0.089 0.117 0.60 0.591 0.075 1.829 0.687 0.363 0.594 0.126 0.578 0.399 0.225 0.183 0.500 0.026 - It! I.138 I.553 0.441 1.203 0.712 0.413 0.713 1.381 0.958 0.682 0.874 I.677 1.005 0.600 1.54 0.112 0.TOR (1) ING 5 CAPACITOR SIZES FOR POWER FACTOR IMPROVEMENT I MPROVED POWER FA C T O R 0.288 2.623 1.68 0.709 0.93 (7) MULTIPLI~NG 0.996 0.552 0.183 0.250 0.775 0.685 0.107 2.714 0.463 0.87 0.607 0.z I:160 I.806 0.738 1.593 0.433 0.329 0.034 1.716 0.426 0.541 0.446 1.338 1.591 0.426 0.097 0.847 0.661 0.453 0.395 0.870 0.899 1.857 0.117 I.425 0.530 I.84 085 0.010 0.785 0.079 0.785 0.740 0.629 1.454 :z .113 1.686 1.I.97 0.805 0.186 0.855 0.91 (5) 0.466 0.538 0.066 0.533 I.546 0.497 1.395 1.179 I.776 0.2 2 0.246 0.50 0.202 I.167 0.564 0.277 1.397 1.151 I.976 0.720 0.464 1.124 1.936 0.408 0.347 0.815 0.190 I.041 1.556 0.840 0.618 0.713 0.156 0.698 0.685 0.109 0.614 .039 1.204 0.209 0.936 0.027 0.691 0.371 0.283 0.390 ::E 0.966 0.992 0.252 0.TABLE EXIST -.988 1.905 0.924 I.189 I.629 0.309 1.55 0.652 0.085 0.370 1.729 0.116 1.042 1.276 1.295 0.751 1.452 0.758 0.973 I.141 0.058 1.076 I.292 0.786 1.262 0.230 0.483 01450 0.91 0.769 0.559 I.037 2.742 I.75 0.083 1.878 0.030 0.624 0.299 1.604 0.374 0.474 I.681 1.

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NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE PART 2 .

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This Part does not include the switching stations and other large generating plants coming solely under the pet-view of the electric supply authority of a metropolis. note has been taken of the requirements stipulated in installation codes of individual equipment as well.FOREWORD 0. installation and maintenance of transformers : Part 2 Installations IS : IO1 I8 (Part 3)-l 982 Code of practice for selection.5 Specific requirements pertaining to standby generating stations and captive substations for multistoreyed/high-rise buildings are covered in Appendix to Part III of the Code. it was felt essential to cover them in a separate part preceeding the other parts which cover the requirements for specific installations. if any.6 This Part shall be read in conjunction with the following publications : IS : 1641-1960 Code of practice for fire-safety of buildings (general) : General principles and fire grading IS : 1646-1982 Code of practice for fire-safety of buildings (general) : Electrical installations IS : 2309-1969 Code of practice for the protection of buildings and allied structures against lightning IS : 3034-1981 Code of practice for fire-safety of industrial buildings : Electrical generating and distributing stations (/i’r.sr revision) IS : 3043-1966 Code of practice for earthing IS : 10028 (Part 2)-I981 Code of practice for selection.PART 2. 0.1 This part of the National Electrica! Code is primarily intend+_ to cover the requirements relating to standby generating stations and capttve substations intended for serving an individual occupancy.4 In the preparation of this Part. It is essential to take recourse to the assistance of local authorities for further details. even though to some extent the requirements stipulated herein could also be applicable to them.ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN ST iNDBY GENERATING STATIONS AND CAPTI\ E SUBSTATIONS O.as the fire-safety codes for generating stations and substations. As the general provisions relating to such installations are common and are themselves elaborate in nature. U. 0. 0. for generating and switching substations for individual buildings that might vary depending on the nature of the occupancy or the size of the building are enumerated in the respective Sections of the Code.3 Specific requirements. It is generally not feasible to draw very strict guidelines for the design and layout for such installations owing to the complexity of the needs of building installations and hence only the essential safety considerations are listed out for compliance.2 Generating stations covered by this Part are the standby or emergency supply and captive substations normally housed in or around the building in question. 0. installation and maintenance of switchgear : Part 3 installations .

etc. In the case of industries having continuous p r o c e s s e s .ricted areas not metint f o r u n a u t h o r i s e d p e r s o n s . This Part covers only the standby generating sets up to the capacity & I MW. and depending on whether the equipment are installed indoor or outdoor. information shall be exchanged. tCode of practice for fire-safety of industrial buildings. the definition given in Part I/Set 2 of the Code shall apply. including such building features as access doors. 5 kVA and above are normally driven by diesel engine as this drive is most economical. regarding the installation and location conditions. SELECTION OF EQUIPMENT 6.the C o d e c o v e r s e s s e n t i a l requirements for electrical standby generating stations and captive substations intended to serve a building or group of buildings. tlie rooms shall be well ventilated and provided with air exhaust equipment. 7. An assessment shall also be made of the civil construction needs of the station equipment keeping in view a possible expansion in future. 3.1 In determining the general characteristics of standby generating plants and building substations in a building. 5. multistoreyed construction may also be adopted. This Part also does not apply to stations BUILDING AND 5.1 For the purposks of this Part. lifting beams. foundation details for heavy equipment. 5.2 The capacity of the standby set for an installation should be such that in an event. : 2.room and the transport ways shall be agreed to between the architect and electrical contractor. During the planning of the building.b r e a k e r a n d transformers (except outdoor types) shall be housed preferably in detached single storey buildings of Type 1 construction. oil pumps. emergency lifts. Similarly the substatlons up to the capacities of 5 MVA and 33 _kV ‘are covered. Locating of substation in basements is generally not recommended. Doorway openings in seperating walls of transformer or switchgear rooms shall be provided with sills not less than 15 -cm in height. 102 of spread of possible fire exists. which are adequately advised or supervised by skilled persons to avoid dangers that may arise owing to the use of electricity. NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE . 4. 4.2 Switchgears. the essential loads can be supplied power.2 This part is not intended to cover ‘captive generator sets’ of very large capacities which-are main or supporting mode of power supply. Reference is drawn to IS : 3034-1981t where risks coming under the jurisdiction of the electric supply authority in a city or metropolis. Electrical generating and distributing stations f&r revision).1 Information shall be exchanged amongst the personnel involved regarding the size and nature of substation and supply station requirements to be provided for an occupancy So that the type of equipment and their choice.1 The selection of equipment shall be done in accordance with the guidelines provided in Part I /Set 9 of the Code. tCode for fire-safety of. etc. 5.2 Depending on the exact location of the station in the building premises.3 Construction of fire separation walls shall cunform with the requirements of relevant Indian Standards. EXCHAF*I.1. 7. In the case of built up areas in cities.1 In case of large capacity sets which generate appreciable heat.of characteristics of the buildings based on its occupancy shall be taken note of as specified in individual Parts/Sections of the C&je. TERMINOLOO\Y 2. intensive care units. *Code of practice for fire-safety of buildings (general)‘: General principles and fire grading. GENERATING SETS 7.4 The foundation of the standby generating sets shall preferably be isolated from that of the other structures of the building so that vmrations are not carried over. I. For instance in case of hospitals such loads comprise operation theatres and their supporting auxiliaries.3 It is generally presumed that generating stations and substations are rest. LAYOUT TRUCTION ASPECTS CONS- 5. 6. N OTE . interconnecting doors should be of fireproof construction.2 Before ordering the equipment. 3. the degree of external influence of the environme. 7. o i l c i r c u i t . a n d s u c h electrical operating areas fall under the category of BA4 utilisation for instructed Frsonnel (see Part I /Set 8). GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF STATION INSTALLATIONS 3. Icold storage in laboratories.of power failure.0 Stationary generating sets of about. as well as their installation shall be governed by the same.E OF INFORMATION 4. Smaller sets are driven by petrol. Construction of such buildings shall conform to IS : ‘l&6-1982$.nt shall be determihed based on the guidelines provided in Part 1’/Sec 8 of the Code. 3.1 The constructional features of all buildings housing the sta_tion installations shall comply with IS : 164l-1960* and IS : 3034-1981t.1 This Part of . the assessment . cable trenches. ventilating arrangement. the dimensioni of the power plant . buildings (general): Electrical installations.Noise level limitation for generator sets are under study. SCOPE I.

porcelain or glazed earthenware.I Reference is drawn to the requirements stipulated in IS : 101 18 (Part 3)-1982:. because of their size. all such equipment should be adequately separated.4 The batteries shall be so arranged on the bench that a potential difference exceeding 12 V shall not exist between adjoining cells. transformers and supports for resistance of lamps.2. 11. non-flammable material.4 The fuel oil storage requirements. In commercial premises and high-rise buildings.1. temperature risk. Such sets can either be manually started and switched on to essential loads with the use of changeover switches or they could be auto-start on mains failure and loads autochanged over to generator supply. the motor shall be provided with double or triple pole switches and fuses and an automatic battery and cut-out shall be placed in the generator circuit. or within 2. Similar is the case of essential loads in large hotels.5 All combustible materials within a distance of 60 cm measured horizontally from. The batteries not exceeding 20 V shall not be bunched or arranged in circular formation.Provision shall be made for sufficient diffusion and ventilation of gases from the. TRANSFORMER INSTALLATIONS 8.0 m measured vertically above. fuel oil pumps. installation and maintenance of switchgear and controlgear: Part 3 installation.0 Station auxiliaries could consist of: W b) cl 4 e) 0 batteries for standing diesel sets.2. Care shall be taken to ensure that direct sunlight does not fall on the batteries. 11.1 Motor generator sets and converters or rectifiers together with necessary switch and control gear shall be mounted separately and away from the batteries.1. batteries for short time emergency lighting.2 Transformer of capacity up to 1 MVA may be housed indoor or outdoor. a few lifts and circulation area lights and fire-fighting equipment have to be kept working by supply from standby sets.1 Batteries shall have containers of glass or any other non-corrosive. 11.1 Batteries 11.1.2 The charging circuit shall be provided with double or triple pole switches and fuses. The enclosure shall be free from dust and well ventilated. 7. 8. shall conform to 73 of IS :3034-1981*.4 As a transformer station normally has a high voltage and a low voltage switchgear. 11. are usually of outdoor type. STATION AUXILIARIES 11. 8. any battery shall be protected with hard asbestos sheets. The larger ones. *Code of practice for fire-safety in industrial buildings: Electrical generating and distrihuting stations CjTrsr revision). installation and maintenance of transformers: Part 2 Installation. non-absorbent. 7.3 The charging control panels shall be of durable. such as glass. I03 PART 2 GENERATING STATIONS AND CAPTIVE SUBSTATIONS . changeover to generator supply. :Code of practice for selection.1. Oil drainage facilities and partition walls between transformers and between transformer and other equipment such as oil circuit-breakers is necessary to reduce the risk of spread of fire. non-ignitable. nonconducting material and together with rectifiers. 11.3 Transformer housed in cabins will require adequate ventilation to take away as much heat as possible. LOW VOL?AGE SWITCHING STATIONS AND DISTRIBUTION PANELS 10. 11. 9. 11.2. non-absorbent and nonconducting material. 8. non-ignitable. tCode ot practice for selection.3 The’ batteries shall stand directly on durable. N OTE .1. battery charging equipment. battery to prevent the accumulation of an explosive mixture.6 All equipment of prime mover shall conform to relevant Indian Standard for construction.2 Batteries shall be installed in a separate enclosure away from any other auxilliary equipment or switchgear. 11.2 Battery Charging Equipment 11. 11. 7. If constructed of wood it shall be slatted and treated with anti-sulphuric enamel. either manually or through auto-ctiangeover contactors.such loads are required to be supplied with power all the time. Where a motor generator is employed. These materials shall rest on a bench which shall be kept dry and insulated from earth. 10.3 In case of large electrical installation in which essential loads are widely scattered it becomes necessary to run the generating set supply cables to these essential loads and in the event of mains failure.1 Reference is drawn to’ the requirements stipulated in IS : 10118 (Part 3)-1982:. HIGH VOLTAGE SWITCHING STATIONS 9. 7. ventilating euipment.1 Reference is drawn to the requirements in IS : 10028 (Part 2)-19817.. overload and performance.5 The requirements for oil and gas fired installations shall conform to IS : 3034-1981*. Any subcircuit shall be provided with a fuse in each live conductor. and fire-fighting equipment. 8.

1 The engine room shall be fitted with hot-air extractors. TABLE 1 RECOMMENDED VAtUEs OF ILLUMINATION AND GLARE INDEX bCATION ILL.3. TESTING AND INSPECTION 17. 11. it is necessary that such sets.f batteries are charged through resistance or lamps. 104 NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE . 15.3. I I. 15. 11.1 The provision of 17 of IS : 3043-1981* shall apply (see also Part 1 I Set 12). electrical generating and distribution stations uir. such resistance or lamps unless enclosed in metallic enclosure.2 The battery room shall be fitted with exhaust fans. t&de of practice for the protection of building and allied structures against lightning @r. For the purposes of station installations the values of illumination and limiting ‘value of glare index shall be as given in Table I.2 All wiring for automatic fire-fighting installation shall be of fire-resistant outer sheath. 14. If constructed of wood. are regularly checked run up and the mechanical and electrical system tested to ensure that the set isjn operable condition all the time. EARTHING 13. FIRE-SAFETY REQUIREMENTS 15. *Code of practice for fire-safety of industrial buildings. 13. BUILDING SERVICES 14. 11.1 Lighting 14. 11. WIRING IN STATION PREMISES 12.1 All cabling and electrical wiring inside generating’ or substation premises shall be done in accordance with the practice recommended in Part I /Set I I of the Code. Electrical generating and distributing stations yirsr revision). it shall be slatted and treated with anti-sulphuric enamel. battery room. In the case of diesel. 17.4. blowers. 12. switchgear and transfdrmer chambers c) Basements d) Control rooms : i) Vertical conlrol panels ii) Control desks _ iii) Rear of control panel Our&or Locations a) Fuel oil storage area b) Transformers.shall be on a bench which shall be kept dry and insulated from earth. sets which come into operation only in emergency as standby sets.rr wvision).UMINATION (1) indoor Locations (2) lux 200 100 70 200-300 LIMINTING GLARE INDEX (3) a) Standby generator hall b) Auxilliary equipment.rr m+.1 The provisions of 138 of IS : 230%19697 shall apply.3 Fuel Oil Pump 11.2 The electric cable provided to run the pump motor shall be protected with oil-resistant outer sheath.4 Ventilating Equipment 11.1 The guidelines provided in Part I /Set 10 of the Code shall apply.2 The luminaires used shall be of dust-proof construction.1 The provisions of IS : 3034-I 98 I* shall apply for station installations.sion).1 Fuel oil pump shall be installed close to the engine room or inside the engine room.2. *Code of practice for fue-safety of industrial buildings.4. The exhaust gases shall be let off to atmosphere where no other equipment is installed. shall be at least 60 cm away from the nearest battery.1 The general principles of good lighting for any occupancy shall be as given in Part I/ Set 14 of the Code.4 l. LIGHTNING PROTECTION 16. outdoor switchgear 2s I9 ix - 300 I50 1. 16. 14.1.

NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE PART 3 .

this Page is Intentionally Left Blank .As in the Original Standard.

an industrial complex would necessarily incorporate sub-units such as offices. residential quarters and support services which are housed or fall in the category of non-industrial buildings. and for typical buildings which do not strictly fall into any of these. 0. electrical installations in buildings have been broadly classified as those in non-industrial and industrial buildings. it would also be extremely difficult to classify electrical installations based on power requirement or the voltage of supply as large buildings of non-industrial use consume sufficient power to consider them at par with the consumption of light industrial establishments. 0. 0.PART 3 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN NON-INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS 0 FOREWORD 0.4 The various Sections of Part 3 cover requirements applicable to buildings which are of nominal heights less than 15 m. It is felt that a large number of occupancies would fall in one of the categories. The requirement stipulated in Part 3 and Part 4 of the Code would therefore require judicious application. It is therefore necessary to consider for initial assessment of the installation the guidelines given in Part l/Set 8 of the Code.3 Part 3 of the Code. which are better defined than the earlier terminology used for classifying installations.1 For the purposes of the Code. While a majority of installations could be categorically classified as non-industrial. therefore covers requirements for major types of nonindustrial occupancies. These are summarised in Appendix to Part 3. It is recognized that from the point of view fire-safety of buildings more than 15 m height require specific considerations.2 With the current trend in power utilization. recourse shall be made to the general guideliines stipulated in Part 1. .

1 Environment .’ GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF INSTALLATIONS 4.1 The electrical installations covered in this Section. 1. 3. 0. NOTE . mansions and chawls.The following environmental factors shall apply to electrical installations in domestic dwellings: Environmennr Characrerrsrics Remarks (1) (2) (3) Presence of water Probability of presence of water is negligible Presence of foreign The quantity or solid bodies nature of dust or foreign solid bodies is not signiticant Presence of corrosive or polluting substances The quantity and Applicable for most nature of of the locations corrosive or except for dwellpolluting subsings situated by tancer is not sea or in industrial significant zone in which case categorization AF2 applies (see Part I /SW 8) Impact and vibra. the definitions given in Part I/Set 2 of the Code shall apply.Household and tion of low similar conditions severity Depends on the location of the building Mechanical stresses Siesmic effect and lighting 4. CLASSIFICATION 3.These shall include any building or structure in which living quarters are provided for three or more families.(dormitorics) and the provistons of Part 3/See 5 sgall apply. bathrooms are separately covered in Appendix A to this Section. It may.If accommodation is provided for more than 0.2 Utilization -The following aspects of utiliration shall apply: Ulilizarion f-1) Capablity of persons Characrerisrics (2) Uninstructed persons Remarks (3) Applies to ail domestic installations These shall include any buildings in which sleeping accommodation is provided for normal residential (domestic) purposes with cooking and dining facilities. 4. such buildings are considered lodging or rootntng hottscs. For convenience. the characteristics defined below specifically apply. other considerations such as efficiency and reliability. namely. Such buildings shall be further classified as follows: a) One or Two Family Private Dwelling -These II Contact of persons Persons in normally conducting situations NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE .1 This Section of the Code covers requirements for electrical installations in domestic dwellings. convenience and provisions for future expansion are also valid. be noted that lodging and ro.. The optimum benefits from the use of electricity can be obtained onl if the installation is of suffkient capacity and axords enough fkxibility. b) Apartment Houses (Flats) . Use of ekctrical appliances. SCOPE 1.oming houses. however. 2. A brief description of the type of installations covered in this Section is given m 3. such as hotels.0 General guidelines on the assessment of characteristics of installations in buildings are given in Part I /Set 8 of the Code. are those in buildings intended for the following purposes: Domestic Dwellings/ Residential Buildings - 20 pqsons. These requirements also apply to similar locations in other occupancies. TERMINOLOGY 2. 10.1 For the purposes of this section.2 ‘The primary considerations in planning the electrical layout in domestic dwellings are economy and safety.1 Electrical installations in domestic dwellings and in buildings providing living accommodation for people are by far the simplest form of installation. Besides these. 0.3 Domestic installations are characterized mainly by a circuit voltage of 250 V to earth except in thecase of large power consumers where three-phase supply is given. FOREWORD shall include any private dwelling which is occupied by members of a single family and has a total sleeping accommodation for not more than 20 persons. For example apartment houses.SECTION 1 DOMESTIC DWELLINGS 0. living independently of each other and with independent cooking facilities.4 Specific requirements for installations in rooms containing a bath tub or shower ‘basin. these requirements form part of Section I. though uti)ized as living accommodation for short periods of time (by different occupants) are covered under the scope of Part 3/Set 5 of the Code. both portable and fixed has now become very common and popular even in slngk family dwejlings. 4. For the purposes of installations falling under the scope of this Section.

2 Number of Points in Branch Circuits The recommended yardstick for dwelling units for determining the number of points is given in Table I. SUPPLY CHARACTERISTICS AND PARAMETERS 5. etc.or low height used for one or two ditions of emergency. information should be exchanged between the owner of the building or architect or electrical contractor and the locdl supply authority in respect of tariffs applicable. TABLE 2 RECOMMENDED SCHEDULE OF SOCKET-OUTLETS D ESCRIPTION ’ N UMBER 5A OF SOCKETO UTLETS *I (1) Bedroom Living room Kitchen Dining room Garage For refrigerator For air-conditioner Varandah Bathroom (2) 2 to 3 2 to 3 : I ISA (3) : 2 ’ I per IU m2 I i 1 (for each) f PART 3 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN NON-INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS .1 General aspects to be taken note of before tubes: ’ 600mm I2OOmm I5OOmm Power socket outlcc (I5A) Fl~ore&ent Length 5.1 Branch Circuits Conditions of Low dcmity occu.I 2 3 $ Call-bell (buzzer) . 4. 5. 4 points with 3 fans are reco?mended. the work should start before finishing woik like plaster.For main dwelling unit of 55 m2.1 .0. In estimating the. the necessary conduits and ducts should be positioned after the shuttering is in place and before the concrete is poured.5.l fitimation of Load Requirements .0 Exchange of Information electrical installation are enumerated in Part I/Set 7 of the Code. Ceiling fans (see Nom below) 5A Socket outlets 2 3 4 5 7 ISA Socket outlets . 2 indicate the rccommcnded number of points and the number of fans. dl. fans and power. etc.1. general purpose socket+utlet. the following points shall be noted particularly in respect of domestic dwellings. . kitchen. Usually. 5. It is essential that adequate provision should be made for all the services which may be rEqutred immediately and during the intended useful life of the building. etc. installation. 5. however. T A BL E I NUMBER OF POINTS D ESCRIPTION FOR DWELLING UNITS SL No. For this purpose.2 Before starting wiring and installation of fittings and. both of which are not recommended. servicelines.I I I N~TE-T~~ tigures in table against SI No. (1) I. current to be carried by any branch circuit unless the actual values are known. painting.Apartment houses including highpstion.hIcult rise flats conditions of evacuation Nature of processcd or stored material No significant risks 5. provision being made lo protect conduits from damage. evacuation. A fundamentally safe installation may be rendered dangerous. and for total load requirement of lights. designing the 5. easy con. planning an 5.0. loo0 5. However.0. these shall be calculated based on the following recommended ratings: Irem Retwmmended Raring (in Watts) Incandescent lamps 60 60 loo 25 .. but where electric wiring is to be concealed withirl the structures. Light points 2-i 3_. for the householder may otherwise be tempted to carry out extension i of the installation himself or to rely upon use of multiplug adaptors and long flexible cords. types of a paratus that ma be connected under each tarif P requirement o? space for mstallmg ? meters.: .ing has begun.The extent and form of electrical installation i n domestic dwellings is basically designed to cater to light and fan loads and for electrical appliances ‘and gadgets.3 While consideration should be given to the anticipated increase in the use of electricity for lighting._.. 3.4 Electrical installation in a new building should normally begin immediately on the completion of the main structural building work._. Exumple . (2) 35 45 55 85 140 (3) (4) (5) (6) t7) * A REA OF THE M A I N D W E L L I N G U N I T (ml) .3 Number of Socket Outlets-The recommended schedule of socket-outlets for the various sub-units of a domestic dwelling are-given in Table 2.1. 5.Building of normal evacuation during ption. . accessories. family dwellings Low dcnsit occu. For conduit wiring system. heating. no installation work should start until the building is reasonably weatherproof.0. switches. sufficient coordination shall be ensured amongst the coqcerned parties. 2. work should begin before final finishing work like white washing. if extended in this way. For surface wiring system.

6 Balancing of circuits in three-wire or polyphase installation shall be planned beforehand.3 cm from aPy edge of the panel. The wiring for 15 A plug outlets (power Gircuits) shall invariably be carried out either in surface/ recessed conduit wiring system where genera1 wiring is on wood batten. their outer casing shall be weatherproof and shall be provided with glands or bushings or adopted to receive screwed conduit according to the manner in which cables are run.1. 6. damp s i t u a t i o n o r where In a 6. 4 Selection of Size of ConductorsProvisions of 3.10 No mounting shall be mounted within 2. recesged conduit wiring system may be adopted.8 Where so required.1.5 m of any washing unit in the washing room. 6. whether recessed or surface should be capable of easy inspection.5 .1. 5. with a master double-pole switch for the subcircuit in addition to the individual switches.5 Switch boards shall not be erected above gas stoves or sinks or within 2.1. the covers or access doors shall be clearly marked to indicate the voltage present. unless the front of the switch board is completely enclosed by a door. If the points between which a voltage exceeding 250 volts is present are 2 m or more apart.2 General Requirements of Switchboards 6. 6. changing of fuses or similar operations. All wiring shall be done on the distribution system with main and branch distribution boards located at convenient physical and electrical load centres. walkways. In all types of wirings due consideration shall be given for neatness and good appearance and safety. The depth of recess provided at the back for connection and the space at the front between the switchgear mountings shall be adequate. if aesthetics is the main consideration. the switch boards shall be recessed in the wall. a) Tough rubber sheathed or PVC insulated PVC sheathed wiring on wood batten. to drip. etc.5 cm of any edge of the panel and no hole other than the holes by beans ~. b) PVC insulated wiring in steel/non-metallic surface conduits.Any one of the following types of wiring may be used in a residential building (see Set I I. 6. Part I of the Code). carpark.1.1.2. SWITCHGEAR FOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION 6. floor. They shall not be placed in the vicinity of storage batteries and exposed to chemical fumes. 1 .7 It is recommended to provide at least two lighting sub-circuits in each house. However.1 The various live parts. 6.7 A switch board shall not be installed so that its bottom is within I. In each case.1. PVC and double flanged bushes shall be fitted in the holes of the switches for entry and exit of wires.5 ‘Power’ sub-circuits shall be kept separate and distinct from ‘lighting-and-fan’ sub-circuit. It is also recommended that a separate lighting circuit be u t i l i z e d ’ fFr all external lighting of steps.1.8 Wherever the load to be fed is more than I kW.f which the panel is fixed shall be drilled closer than 1.9 Equipments which are pn the front of a switchboard shall be so arranged that inadvertant personei contact with live parts is unlikely during the manipulation of switchgears.3 Main switch boards shall be installed in rooms or cupboards having provision for locking so a s t o s a f e g u a r d a g a i n s t o p e r a t i o n b y unauthorized persons. 5.1.1. it is recommended that all socket-outlets in a room are connected to one phase. NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE . it shall be controlled by an isolator switch or miniature circuit-breaker. 6.1. terrace.1. or the switch board is located in a position to which only authorized persons have access. Wiring for staircase lights and garage lights may be done in recessed conduit wiring systems.1. The arrangement of the gear shall be such that’ t h e y s h a l l b e r e a d i l y a c c e s s i b l e a n d their connections to all instruments and apparatus shall also be traceable.1. vapour or gas is likely to be present. unless they are effectively screened by insulating material shall be so spaced that an arc cannot be maintained between such parts and earth. 6. The conductors shall be so enclosed in e a r t h e d m e t a l o r i n c o m b u s t i b l e insu$ting material that it is not possible to have ready access to them. porch. 6. the swi!ch boards shall be totally enclosed or made flame-proof as may be necessitated by the particular circumstances.2 Selection of Wiring . 5. The surface wiring when run along the walls should be as near the ceiling as possible.25 m alone the. 5. driveways. if unavoidably fixed in places likely to be exposed to weather. All types of wiring. 6. and c) PVC insdlated wiring in steel/non-metallic recessed conduits. 6. 5. or to abnormal moist atmosphere.4 inflanimable or explosive dust.1.2 Open type switch boards shall be placed only in dry situation and in well ventilated rooms.6 Switch boards.1 Location 6.4 of Part I /Set I I of the Code shall apply.1 All main switches or miniature circuit110 breakers shall be either of metal-clad enclosed pattern or of any insulated enclosed pattern which shall be fixed at close proximity to the point of entry of supply.

6. except the glass window through which the readings are noted 01 should be mounted inside a completely enclosed panel provided with a hinged or sliding doors with arrangement for locking it.4.4 of Part 1 /Set 11 of the Code. The energymeters should either be provided with a protective covering.1 It is recommended to have two distinct circuits.2. each switchboard shall be marked to indicate the section of the installation and building it controls. 6. provisions of IS : 8061-1976 ‘Code of practice for design.2..5 All switchboards connected to medium voltage and above. 6.4.3. 6. installation and maintenance of service lines up to and including 650 V’ shall apply. Wooden hoards --~~ For small installations connected to a single phase 240 volts supply.1.2 In every case in which switches and fuses are fitted on the same pole. SERVICE LINES 7.4. The main switchgear shall be ma’rked as such.2. 1 In d w e l l i n g u n i t s .2.2. METERING 8.3 Means for isolating the supply to the building shall be provided immediately after the energymeter. 6.4.8 The main switch shall be easily accessible.4 Distribution Boards 6. it should preferably not be installed at a height less than I m from the ground. Each outgoing circuit shall be provided with a fuse or on the phase or live conductor. Where there is more than one main switchboard in the building. 6. Where use of triple pole distribution boards is inevitable.1 Distribution boards shall preferably’ be of metal clad type.6 The wiring throughout the installation shall be such that there is no break in the neutral wire in the form of a switch or fuse unit. enclosing it completely. shall be installed in accordance with 3.2 Energymeters shall be installed at such a place which is readily accessible to both the owner of the building and the authorized representatives of the supply authority. 7. At least one spare circuit of the same capacity shall be provided on each branch distribution board.4. 6.6.3 Types of Switchboards (see also Part I Set ll) 6 . Each outgoing circuit shall be provided with a fuse on the phase or live conductor.6 The distribution boards tor light and power circuits shall be different. All pedestal lamp fittings of metallic construction shall be earthed. F i x e d t. these fuses shall be so arranged that the fuses are not alive when their respective switches are in the ‘off’ position. 8.2 Main distribution boards shall be controlled by a linked switchfuse or circuitbreaker. it is recommended that they should be earthed.7 The neutral shall also distinctly marked.Such boards b) shall be suitable for large switchboards for mounting large number of switchgears and: or higher capacity switchgear. these boards may be used as main board or sub-boards. 6.2. 8. they shall be of HRC fuse type only. 9.2. cl Where a board has more than one switchgear. These should be installed at a height where it is convenient to note the meter reading. one of the pins being connected to earth. t h e m e t a l c l a d switchgears shall preferably be mounted on any of the following types of boards: earthed neutral conductor shall be connected to a common link and be capable of being disconnected individually for testing purposes.4. I5 A per way.2 Lighting Fittings If the bracket type lamp holders are of metallic construction.3 Branch distribution boards shall be controlled by a linked switchfuse or circuitbreaker.5 All distribution boards shall be marked ‘Lighting’ or ‘Power’ as the case may be and also with the voltage and number of phases of the supply.0 Means shall be provided for proper earthing of all apparatus and abpliances in accordance with Part I lSec 12 of the Code. each such switchgear shall be marked to indicate the section of the installation it controls. 6.3 No fuse other than fuses in instrument circuit shall be fixed on the back of or behind a switchboard panel or frame. 6. 6. 9.y . 6. III a) Hinged-t)pe metal boards ~ Such boards shall be suitable for mounting of metal clad switchgear consisting of not more than one switchgear and ICDB 4 way or 6 way.1 The relevant. These shall be of seasoned and durable wood with solid back impregnated with varnish with joints dove-tailed. The PART 3 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN NON-INDL'STRIAL Bl'ILDINGS . EARTHING IN DOMESTIC INSTALLATIONS 9.\‘pe metal board.4 All metal switchgears and switchboards shall be painted prior to erection. 6.4 Triple pole distribution boards shall not generally be used for final circuit distribution. 8.1 Plugs and Sockets .All plugs and sockets shall be of three-pin type. one for lights and fans and the other for high wattage (power) appliances particularly when the tariff is different for light and power. 9. 3 .

2 The power requirements. However. etc.3 Fans and Regulators . the design of lifts shall take into account the following recommendations.3.6 Radio Sets . 9. 103. Where separation is not easily achieved. hallways L. sinks and tanks shall be bonded together and earthed. Apparatus . the metal work of the electrical equipment. the occupant load (the number of persons within any floor area) expressed in gross area in mZ/person shall not be less than 12.2 Ak-Conditioning 10. gas-heated electricity-driven washing machines. 10. and b) Large flats (No.1 Lighting. then a separate earth wire shall be used for earthing these appliances. the inlet end of the gas supply shall be either fitted with a strong insulating bush. electric radiators. The covers of the regulators..For residential (domestic) dwellings. heaters.5. if it is not possible to have separate earth electrode.1. for example. designed to operate at low values of fault current.ts the estimated population that has to be handled m the buildings in the S-minute peak period. shall be earthed by the use of three-pin plugs. the following types of aircooling equipment are used: a) Evaporative cooler>. b) Packaged air-conditioners.2 Passenger handling capacity (H) Expressed . the passenger handling capacity for residential’ buildings shall be 5 percent. metal pipes.From the point of view of good reception it is recommended that radio sets should be earthed through an electrode different from that of the main earth system for other electrical appliances. etc. However. In such cases the addition to the motor control gear of a differential or currentbalance type of circuit-breaker.9.1. where it is desirable or necessary that metal work in proximity to electrical apparatus be bonded to ihe earthed metal work of the latter. 112 . shall be bonded to the metal or pipework of. or.Bodies of all table fans.5 ml s. The choice of lamps. substantial enough to stand a flash test of 3 500 V and so designed as to be difficult to detach. 103.The general rules laid down in Part l/‘&c 14 of the-Code shall apply. air-conditioners and coolers. shall all be earthed by the use. 10.3. ‘10. electric irons.1 Whenever lifts are required to be installed in residential buildings. as for example.7 Miscellaneous ances utilizing gas and electricity are in use. pedestal fans. and c) Room airconditioners. gas equipment. as in cases of direct-coupled motordriven 4as boosters and motorized gas valves.Where appli9. exhaust fans. radio sets may be earthed through the main earth system. would afford a desirable safeguard against fault current transfer specially where the rating of the plant is of a size and capacity which entails correspondingly high ratings for the normal overload protective devices. the lift may be placed NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 10. for example. For domestic dwellings.3. ovens and water boilers shall all be earthed by the use of three-pin plugs.2 Where a lift is arranged to serve two. 10. The refrigerators.~mg room Dming room Bedroom : General Dressing tables. lighting fittings shall be based on the recommended values of illumination given in Table 3.5 Bath Room -The body of automatic electric water heaters shall be earthed by the use of a three-pin plug or by a separate earth wire. of three-pin plugs.5 m/s.4 Domestic Electric Appliances .13 Car speed-Car speed for passenger lifts shall be as follows: a) In low and medium class flats 0.2. the gas supply shall be introduced through a non-conducting plastic pipe from a point not in proximity to earthed metal work. layout and design of electrical installation shall take into account the number and type of such equipment.1 The general rules laid down in Part l/Set 14 of the Code shall apply. 9. in kitchens. by and large. the general rules laid down in Part 1 /Set 14 of the code shall apply. if fixed wiring has been done. three or four flats per floor. toasters. BUILDING SERVICES TABLE 3 RECOMMENDED LEVELS OF ILLUMINATION FOR DIFFERENT PARTS OF DOMESTIC DWELLINGS LCWZAT~ON ILLUMINATION LEVEL IUX :: 150 300 200 100 E 300 200 :Ez :: 100 70 300 Entrances. of floors served 6. bed heads Games or recreation room Table games Kitchen Kitchen sink Laundry Bathroom Bathroom mirror Sewing Workshop Stairs Garage Study 10.2.Bodies of hot-plates.1 Occupant load .3 Lifts 10.12) 0. All non-electrical metal work including the bath fub. kettles. if fixed wiring has been used. 9.75-I . However. 10. if of metallic construction shall be earthed by means of a separate earth wire.

shall be earthed effectively. 13.2 S a f e t y R e q u i r e m e n t s --~ Some of the important safety requirements in electrical installations in domestic dwellings are summarized below: a) All outlets for domestic electrical appliantes shall be of three-pin socket type.3) Sl. II.85 0. d) Wiring for power outlets in the kitchen shall be preferably done in metallic conduit wiring. 9.82 0. e) The electrical outlets shall not be located above the gas stove.65 0.E 4 POWER FACTOR FOR SINGLE PHASE ELECTRICAL APPLIANCES AND EQUIPMENT (Clau. N e o n s. appliances and equipment used in domestic dwellings. or live conductor only.55 I . ii) 3 sroreys and ahove I) Floor area less than 300 m? ~ N o t required.5 to 0. 5. PART 3 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN NON-INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS II3 . NO.7 0.75 to 0. Fire not 13.8 0. TAB1. h) It is preferable to provide earth leakage circuit-breaker at the intake of power supply at the consumer’s premises (see Part I Set I2 of the Code). TESTING OF THE INSTALLATION 12.General guidelines on principal causes of low power factor and methods of compensation are given in Part I: Set I7 of the Code. FIRE PROTECTION 11. with the lift entrances serving direct on to the landings. f-l The clearance between the bottom most point of the ceiling fan and the floor shall be not less than 2. AVERAGE N A T U R A L P O W E R FAC.62 to 0.gn 2. 8. 13.6 0. MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS 13. 30 cm X I5 cm riser shall be provided for telephone wiring cables.4 m. (Conrim&) *Start dropping when compressor motor not in circuit. For guidance on ‘natural power factor available for single phase.68 to 0.7 0.5 to 0. Where the lift is to serve a considerable number of flats having access to balconies or corridors. third socket being connected to the earth.1 The provisions of Part I /Set IO of the Code shall apply.3 Guidelines on Power Factor Improvement in Domestio Dwellings .75 0. it may be conveniently placed in a *well ventilated tower adjoining the building. b) All the single pole switches shall be on phase cl The electrical outlets for apphances in the bathrooms shall be away from the shower or sink (see Appendix A). g) The metallic body of the fan regulator if any.8 0. Wmdow type air-conditioners 0. 12. see Table 3. In high rise residential buildings. 6.TOR (5) 0. Maximum (4) (W) 5 000 2 000.1 The following protection systems are recommended: a) One or Two Family Private Dwellings detection: extinguishing systems required. 4.\r 13. 2) F l o o r a r e a m o r e t h a n 3 0 0 m2 -Manually operated electric fire alarm.7 to 0.5 0.8 3.1 Tele hone Wiring ~~ Facilities for telephone wiring sR all be provided in all residential buildings where telephones are likely to be installed. 7. Hair dryers Liquidiser Mixer Coffee grinder Refrigerator Free7er Shaver Table fan Ceiling fan I50 2000 450 350 400 x00 I 000 250 I20 100 I 50 I50 200 200 600 x0 25 60 I I. 10. (1) APPLIANCL EQUIPMENT 0) .65 0.adjoining the staircase.6 to 0. b) Apurtment Houses/ Flats i) C/p to 2 storeys N o t r e q u i r e d . Minimum (3) (W) 500 750 POWFK OUTPllT h .

Zone I -.3) SL No.7 to 0. A-3. 16. Junction boxes are not permitted in Zones 0.6 0. in this Appendix are based on the dimensions of four zones as described in Fig. PROTECTION FOR SAFETY A-3. SCOPE A . IS. (1) APPLIANCE/EQUIPMENT (2) P OWER O U T P U T ’ Minimum (3) (W) 75 I50 80 300 25 IO 200 40 5 cleaner Maximum ’ (4) (W) 100 350 120 450 100 I5 450 100 IO A V E R A G E NATURAI POWER FA C T O R (5) 0. whatever the nominal voltage.7 0. C O D E .6 to 0.25 m above the floor.2 A local supplementary equipotential bounding shall connect all extraneous conductive parts in Zones I. In Zone 3.25 m above the floor. > A-4.2 In Zones 0.6 0.1 Electrical equipment shall have at least the following degrees of protection: ZoneO: IPX7 Zone I: IPX5 Zone21 IPX4 IP X 5 in public baths. by the vertical plane 0. A-3.is limited: a) by Zone 2 and the paraltel vertical plane 2.Conrd (C/uuse I 3.1 The requirements given.2(c)] PARTICULAR REQUIREMENTS FOR LOCATIONS CONTAINING A BATH TUB OR SHOWER BASIN A-l. Cabin fan Exhaust fan Sewing machine Washing machine Radio Night lamp Vac. protection against direct contact shall be provided by: a) barriers or enclosures affording at least the degree of protection IP2X. ELECTRICAl. 13.4 and 13. 1 The particular requirements of t h i s Appendix apply to bath tubs.is limited: a) by Zone I and the vertical parallel plane 0. and b) by the floor and the horizontal plane 2.8 0. Zone 2 . SELECTION OF EQUIPMENT A-4. CLASSIFICATION OF ZONES A-2. and b) by the floor and the horizontal plane 2. or for a shower without basin. 19. and b) by the floor and the horizontal plane.2. shower basins and the surrounding zones where susceptibility of persons to electric shock is likely to be increased by a reduction in body resistance and contact with earth potential.6 0. 17.40 m external to Zone 2. Zone 3 -.7 12.uum Clock Tube light APPENDIX A [Clauses 0. I and 2. 2 and 3 with protective conductors of all exposed conductive parts situated in these zones. Z o n e 3 : 1PX I shower basin.6 m from the shower head.7 0.60 m external to Zone I.I .is limited: a) by the vertical plane circumscribring the bath tub or shower basin. I and 2. A-4. or b) insulation capable of withstanding a test voltage of 500 V for I minute. 18.8 to 0. wiring systems shall be limited to those necessary to the supply of appliances situated in those zones. I and 2.5 0. NATIONAI.3 In Zones 0. A-2.9 to 0.is the interior of the bath tub or N OTE -The d i m e n s i o n s are measured taking account of walls and fixed partition. 20.TABLE 4 POWER FACTOR FOR SINGLE PHASE ELECTRICAL APPLIANCES’ AND EQUIPMENT .1 Where safety extra low voltage is used.25 m above the floor.5 0. A-4. Z o n e 0 . I and 2 no switchgear and accessories shall be installed. they are permitted if the necessary degree of protection is available. 14.

1 ZONE DIMENSIONS (Elevation) PkRT 3 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN NON-INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS .5 Any switches and socket outlets shall be at Bath Tub ZONE 3 ZONE 1 Shower Basin 2.4 In Zone 3. a) supplied individually by an isolating transformer.40 m ZONE 2 ZONE 3 [ZONE 1 i Shower without Basin but with Fixed Partition LFIXED PARTITION WALL FIG. .A46 In Zone 0. socket-outlets are permitted only if they are either: a distance of at least 0. A-4. or c) protected by a residual current protective device. In Zone 2 only water heaters and Class I1 luminaires may be installed.A-4. In Zone 1 only water heaters may be installed.60 m from door of the shower cabinet. or b) supplied by safety extra-low voltage. only electrical appliances specially intended for use in the bath tub are permitted.

116 2 Z ONE D IMENSIONS (Plan) NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE . Fixed Partition f SHOWER HEAD HEAD \ ZONE 3 \ YO 9 F I G.a) Bath Tub b) Bath Tuh with Fixed Partition ?f.LOn / 1’ I Z O N E 1 ZONE 3 _/ -_-c) Shower Basin d) Shower Basin with Fixed Partition e) Shower without Basin f) Shower without Basin but with.ffffffff f ZONEI Z O N E 3 2 I I I I I 2.

however. the definitions given in Part I Il Set 2 of the Code shall apply. b) Shopping/ Comtnercial Centresj Mercantile 6uiltling. 2.0 General guidelines on the assessment of charactuistics of installations in buildings are given in Part I /Set 8 of the Code.SECTION 2 OFFICE BUILDINGS. etc. 1. colleges and daycare purposes for more than 8 hours per week involving assembly of people for instruction and education (including incidental recreation). where the large number of amenities is to be provided calls for a more complex distribution system. NOTE L a r g e r a s s e m b l y b u i l d i n g s r e c r e a t i o n a l occupancies are covered in Part 3 Set 3 of the Code. TERMINOLOGY 2.1 Office buildings.C:CTRICAI. stores.~ (2) Presence of water Probability of presence of water is negligible The quantity or nature of dust or foreign solid bodies IS not significant Remarks (3) Presence of foreign solid bodies Presence of corrosive or polluting substances The quantity and Locations where nature of corrosome chemical sive or nollutine oroducts are substances is not handled in small significant quantities. wholesale or retail. etc. shopping and commercial centres and educational and similar institutional buildings. CLASSIFICATiON 3.s ~~ These include buildings used as shops. 4. departmental stores.1 This Section of the Code covers requirements for electrical installations in office buildings. etc.1 For the purpose of this Section. for display and sale of merchandise. research establishments data processing installations. they are identified at the relevant clauses. 3. producing serious pollution.2 In small buildings with comparatively moderate loads. and keeping in view the similarity with the type of buildings covered in this section. Reference may. Some of such buildings has to incorporate a standby/emergency power plant for essential service needs.4 It is not .3 For editorial convenience. professional establishments. Should any special provisions apply to them.. market. 4. banks.These include buildings used for schools. are those in buildings intended for the following purposes: a) Qffice Buildings] Business Buildings These include buildings for the transaction of business. S C O P E I. offices.The following environmental factors shall apply to office buildings. GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF INSTALLATIONS 4. an attempt has been made to identify the nature of the occupancy. the categorication A F 2 applies (WP Part 3 See 8). However. shopping and commercial centres can be of various types depending on the size of the civil structure or the extent of activity involved in the building. High-rise buildings housing office complexes are common.possible to define strictly the type of buildings covered in this Section except in broad terms. laboratories in schools and colleges) will be categorired as AF3. For office and other buildings covered by this Section situated b) the se. 0. 0. SHOPPING AND COMMERCIAL’ CENTRES AND INSTITUTIONS 0. for the keeping of accounts and records and similar purposes. INSTALLATIONS IN NON-INDUSTRIA’L BUILOIN(. Impact and vlbration of IOU Lererlt! Depends on the location ol the building Mechanical >t rc5\e\ Sekmlc effect and lightning PART 3 EI. 0. FOREWORD 0. cl Educational Buildings .S II7 . educational and other institutional buildings are also covered here. For the purpose of installations falling under the scope of this Section the characteristics defined b e l o w generally apply. calling for a coordinated planning while designing the electrical services therein. shopping and commercial centres and educational/institutional fluildings: C‘horacrerrsrrc.1 The electrical installations covered in this section. supply is normally at medium voltage and the distribution of power is less complex.1 Environment . (for example. or in industrial Tones. be made to 3 wherein a description is provided for the various types of installations covered in this Section. in the case of multistoreyed office-cum-commercial complex.

the interior decoration normally include false ceiling. etc Nature of proces. pumps for fire fighting. distribution boards. sockets. In special occupancies such as school or college laboratories. etc. n) zb. appliance and motor loads as well as special loads encourtpred in the types of buildings covered in this Section shall be taken into account. easy conditions of evacuation High density occupation. A complete drawing of layout of the electrical . the recommendations of the manufacturer shall apply. 4 Prospective short-circuit current at the supply intake point. b) Type of distribution system.. I ) Lighting. zonal indicators. . difficult conditions of evacuation High density occupation.5 Areas where corrosive or polluting substances a r e p r e s e n t i n t e r m i t t e n t l y o r continuously. However.d installation facility where appliP) Metering system for different loads. to avoid trailing of wires and use of multiple outlets from one socket. 8) Maintainability of the installation. etc. public address system for fire fighting. etc) 5. 5.2 The branch circuit calculations shall be done according to the general provisions laid down in Part 3/Set I of the Code. for special cases such as for communication networks. facilities. etc N OTE -. 2) Air-conditioning. telephones.1. office buildings. difficult conditions of evacuation Departmental stores m) CCTV for information display and security.No significant risk Small shops sed or stored In view of large Existance of fire material volume of paper risk and furniture (for example. clock systems.1. underground shopping arcades. central conrrol console. the following shall be considered: a) Maximum demand and diversity. installation shall be prepared together with associated floor plans indicating the details mentioned in (a) to (p) above.0.1 Branch Circuits 5. Contact of persons Conditions of evacuation during emergency Persons in nonconducting situations Low density occu. Wires shall not be covered by carpets. nominal voltages).6 Lighting circuits shall preferably be combined in switched groups so that lighting can N A T I O N A L EI.1.Small offices and shops pation. 5.4. location of sectionalized control switches.Efl R I C A . cable runs and their segregation from the other cable system. From the point of view of the design of the various installations. SUPPLY CHARACTERISTICS A N D PARAMETERS 5. the dc circuits be identifiable in the layout diagram. bells. and 3) Lifts. calculators.4 Adequate number of socket-outlets shall be provided for electrically operated office machines such as electric typewriter. 5.3 In offices and showrooms. persons Children Persons adequately advised or supervised by skilled persons Uninstructed of occupants Applies to schools Applies lo areas A major percentage such as building substations and for operating and maintenance staff k) Telephone circuits including extensions and intercom. frequency. Cl Nature of supply (current. Any wiring laid above the false ceiling should be adequately protected such as by drawing the wires in metallic conduits and not run in open. However.1 The general design of wiring of branch circuits shall conform to those laid down in Part l/Set II of the Code. such as school laboratories and other buildings located in high industrial pollution zones. fire-alarm systems.The following aspects of utilization shall apply: Urilizorion (1) Capability of persons Chorocrerisrics (2) Remarks (3) j) Other details as relevant such as. 5. h) Nature and details of building services. carpets and curtains. C O D E High rise office commercial centres. call-bells. lighting.1.1. mains and sub-mains.2 Utilization .pu. exhaust fans. 5. socket-outlets shall preferably be of metal clad weatherproof type with covers. furniture shops. 5.1. the specific demands of the lighting. building contractor and the electrical engineer on the various aspects of installation design. fire-alarm system and wiring for data-processing equipment.Five protection system shall include such details such as locations of detectors. ceiling fans. They shall be run at skirting level and encased for mechanical protection.1 Proper coordination shall be ensured between the architect.0 Exchange of Information 5. e) Division of the installation. 118 . The wiring diagram shall include outlets for lights. f-l Nature of the external influences (see 4).

automatic fire alarm systems are recommended for offices. INSTALLATIONS IN NON-INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS . water pumps. ‘dust. accommodation for substation equipment will be #required. 5. 5. 5. 5. it can be in the form of separate and independent feeder from the undertaking terminated in equipment isolated from the regular supply line. Shall be of weatherproof onstruction or 1 or cabin. Cubicle type boards shall be with hinged doors interlocked with switch-operating mechanisms. The power requirement of these essential loads is generally about 25 percent of the total power requirement of the building.0 Genera/ .1 .95 I.65 0. etc.3. 5.5 System Protection . a number of o Brices. the-meterroom normally is situated in the ground floor. requiring supply at high voltage. professional establishments. In case of standby supply from diesel generator sets.5.All current carrying equipment ishall he totally enclosed.2 The transformer power rating for the supply of the building shall be sufficient to cater to the highest simultaneous power requirements of the building. ventilation installations. etc. 5. installation and maintenance of service lines up to and including 650 V PART 3 ELECTRIC-AI.6 Selection of equipment shall be made according to the guidelines laid down in Part I/ Set 9 of the Code. functions.for general rules 5. Such pipes shall be properly sealed at both ends to reduce the possibility of rain water flowing through the pipes and flooding the trenches. Essential services include amongst others.3. For the purposes of office buildings.’ Cables leading from the substation to the main-building shall preferably be carried underground through ducts or pipes of adequate dimensions.3.and insect-proof.3. heating (air-conditioning) Power plant (drives) Lighting Lifts I .1 The type of buildings covered in.o 0. and for laboratories with II9 Ventilation. shopping and commerctal centres. manually operated electrical fire alarm and automatic fire alarm systems. These are governed by the rules and regulations of the respective authorities. essential lighting and lifts.4 Meterin . waterpressure pumps.3 The location and layout of building substation shall conform to the general rules laid down in Part 2 of the Code.Wherever emergency supply is considered necessary. 5.The designer of power supply for office buildings and commercial centres shall take into account the great concentration of power demand of the electrical loads. Typical proportions of power usage are given below: Purl of Elerrrrc~al in ~rallaritin Parr qf the Toral Power Requirement Percent 45 5 :: Diversirj Factor of mains failure. such occupancies have to be provided with their own substation with vertical and horizontal forms of power distribution.be limited to desks which are occupied.3. therefore. 5. Main switch room will serve feeders to various lpad centres such as air-conditioning plant.5.I Educational buildings (Group B) Educational buildings above 2-storeys having an area of more than 500 ml per floor shall have besides fire-fighting equipment.1. 5.. 5.4.1 In office buildings.In multistoreyed buildiggs.3 Building Substations 5. Boards . banks.2 Business buildings (tiroup E) Besides fire-fighting equipment.0 General.5 Switchboard9 and Panel. Consequently.2 Service Lines -The general provisions laid down in IS : 8061-1976* shall apply.3. Reference is also drawn to SP : 7-1983 on guidelines for fire protection of buildings.f k i o s Switchboards shall be of open type or cubicle type. miniature circuit-breakers of adequate capacity shall be preferred to switchfuse units. The substation room shall be well ventilated and inaccessible to birds and reasonably reptile-. All switches shall bear labels indicating their. Only authorized persons be allowed to enter the substation for operations/maintenance of any kind. and commercial centres occupy various areas. be decided accordingly. where the buildings are more than 2 storeys with floor area above 500 rn? per floor. a well ventilabed cabin segregated from the utility’s supply shall be provided.5. certain safety and essential services shall be supplied even in the case *Code of practice for design.4 E m e r g e n c y Supply . Typical fire fighting installation requirements are also covered therein. Group E (business buildings) and Group F (mercantile buildings) from the point of view of fire safety classification (see SP : 7-1983). The electrical needs for the appropriate type of installation shall. rodent. Other loads are taken to local distribution boards.0 5. Switchboards shall be located away from areas (likely to be crowded by the public. 5.The protection for safety laid down in Part I/Set 7 of the Code shall apply. Electrical load for each of them would have to be metered separately.and vermin-proof and if mounted outdoor.3. elevators.5. h o u s e d i n weatherpro0. this Section fell under Group B (educattonal buildings). The general rules given below shall apply. 5. They can also be effectively used in place of fuses in a distribution board. 5.1 If the load demand is high. Airconditioning in office buildings absorbs an especially high proportion of the total power used.3.

1.6 Building Services 5. etc. automatic sprinklers and automatic fire alarm systems are recommended for wholesale establishments. common rooms Corridors Stairs 5. Offices : a) Entrance halls and reception area b) Conference rooms.IMl?lNG GI ARt.1 Lighting 5. Banks : a) Counters. as well as for shopping areas inside buildings with area more than 500 rn? on each floor. magazines) c) Readirig tables d) Bodk repair and binding e) Catalogging. Shops and Storest a) General areas b) Stock rooms 19 22 22 I9 19 I9 I9 16 -- 200 I50 :: I50 :zz 300 200 to 300 I6 It I6 :: lo 16 (see SI No. 2 above) (see appropriate trades in 1:&3&G? (Part 2)-19y9*) 150 1. The choice of lamps.6. warehouses. lighting fittings and general lighting design together with power requirement shall be planned based on the recommended values of il!umination .f lighting in the vertical and horizontal planes. 5. Asthetics and interior decoration also play a part. (1) (2) I. Underground shopping centres shall be provided with atitomatic sprinklers. NATIONAL ElJX-TRICAl. For other I/Set I4 of the Code shall apply. 5. stock rooms 3. Libraries : a) Shelves b) Reading rooms (newspaper.3 Mercantile buildings (Group n’ ~ Besides fire-fighting eyuipment. INIWX (4) No.1‘2 In commercial premises.6.ighting d e s i g n i n s h o w r o o m s includes high level c.Manual exchange rooms (on desk) ii) Main distributton frame room 4.5. sorting. premises and shopping lines with central corridors open to sky. I9 -- : I50 to 300 200 :: *Code of practice for interior illumination: Part 2 Schedule for value of illumination and glare index. executive offices c) General offices d) Business machine operation e) Drawing offices f) Corridors and lift cars g) Stairs h) Lift landings j) Telephone exchanges: i). Colour temperature characteristics of the light source shall also be taken into account in the case of showroom lighting. transport booking agencies. depending on the merchandise exhibited. CODE . 5.1.1 -The general rules laid dotin in Part TABLE I RECOMMENDED VALUES OF l1. automatic fire-alarm systems shall be installed. L.delicate instruments as well as computer installations.lnd l i m i t i n g values of plarc i n d e x given in Table I.1~UMINATlON SL BUILI)ING A N D G L A R E INDKX ILLUMINATION (3) IUX ~. typing accounting book areas b) Public areas 70 150 300 300 I50 300 IS0 to to lo lo to I50 300 300 450 450 70 IFl 150 300 700 700 300 I9 I9 2. Schools and collenes : a) Assembly hallsi) General ii) When used for exams iii) Platforms b) ClaSs and lecture rooms : i) Desks ii) Black board Emb&idery and sewing rooms Art rooms Libraries Manual training Offices Staff rooms.6. a fairly high level of glare free lighting on working planes and s u b d u e d l i g h t i n g i n circulation areas are necessary. and their layout. tDoes not cover display (showroom lighting).

4 Clock Systems 7.2 Telephones/Intercoms 7.1 Group Control 7. wiring and other details shall be agreed to.6. The switching points may be combined centrally at the entrance.LANEOUS 7. In order to ensure proper coordination with design of the building for daylight use of devices such as photoelectric switches shall be encouraged for controlling lighting groups near windows.5 For office buildings.56.1 Adequate coordination shall be ensured right from the planning stages with the telephone authorities to determine the needs for the telephone system catering to the various units in office buildings.6.6. 7. The design of the air-conditioning system.6.3 Electric Call Bell System 7. multiple call system shall be preferred. it is advisable to have at least two lifts side by side at the main entrance and one lift each at different sections of the building for inter-communication.75 0.4.2 In simple installations. A visiblecum-audible indicator/bell panel shall be used. For private intercom systems. the type of equipment to be used.6.3.I 2 13-20 Shops and departmental atorea 0.1 The various tests on the installation shall be carried out as laid down in Part I See IO of the Code.1 The general rules laid down in Part l.y service staff may be called to a particular position by the caller.4 II IO-15 percent 15-25 pcrccnt Car speed -.4. All machines and switchgear may be housed in one machine room. When two lifts are installed side by side.3.1 The general guidelines laid down in Part I/ Set 14.5 5.3. PART 3 ELECTRICAl INSTALLATIONS IN NON-INDIISTRIAL Bl:II. 7. impulse clocks designed to operate at the same current may be connected in one series circuit. 7. the machine room shall be suitably planned. The layout in such a case would be determined by the size of building and staff. 6. passageways. 121 PROVISIONS 5.2 Occupant load.2 A simple call bell system is suitable for small offices whereb.These shall be as follows: a) Educational b) Business c) Mercantile : i) Ground floor and sales ii) Upper sale floor 4 IO 5.DINGS .3 Passenger handling capacit. TESTING OF INSTALLATION 6.75-1.2 In case of large air-conditioning installations (So0 tonnes and ahove) it is advisable to have a separate isolated equipment room together with electrical controls.2. 7.5 above I. of the Code shall apply.1 The lighting circuits shall preferably be combined in switched groups as well as coordinated to functional groups of desks in an open plan office. Depending on the final requirements of the type of occupancy.1 The general guidelines contained in Part l/Set I4 shall apply regarding installation and maintenance of master and slave clock systems. 7.3. the impulse clocks may be arranged in number of series circuits.6.2. entirely under the control of the user. In a more complex installation like multistoreyed office buildings with large number of slave clocks. Each of which is connected to a pair of contact on a relay which is operated from the contacts of master clock. When call points are too numerous on a single indicator panel. Time bell systems shall be installed in schools to give Start-work and Stop-work signals.‘Sec 14 of the Code shall apply. with a battery having sufficient voltage to ensure satisfactory operation. If this is not possible. These shall be as follows: 0tTice bullding 4-5 6. 5.2 Air-Conditioning 5. the design of lifts shall take into account the following recommendations.2.1 The general rules laid down in Part IiSec 14. However.3 Lifts and Escalators 5.1.3.\. shall take into account the requirements stipulated in the following clauses. MISCEI. All equipment rooms shall have provision for mechanical ventilation.3.5-0. 7. regarding installation of electric bells and call system shall be referred to.6. ( H) -These are expressed in terms of percent of the estimated population that has to be handled in the building in the 5 minute peak period as follows: Ouupanc~t a) Diversified (mixed) ol’f~ce occupancy b) Single purpose office occupancy 5.5 2-2. such as in large offices.6.3. it is necessary to preplan the coordination of external and intercom systems.’ it is desirable to have at least a battery of 2 lifts at two or more convenient points. 5.

7. Reference shall be made to good practice for installation of such facilities. 7.1 Commercial buildings may require the installation of CCTVs for one or more of the following purposes: a) Security.3 Master clock shall be placed in a dust free location.5. readily accessible for maintenance at all times.5 Closed Circuit T V 7.4. and b) Information display. Educational/institutional buildings may use CCTV as a teaching aid for pre-recorded educational programmes. 122 NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE .

3 Sports buildings. religious. the primary feature being a congregation of people of all age groups for a short period of ‘time during a day or a group of days. dance halls. CLASSIFICATION 3. recreation. I. exhibition halls.s Electrical operating areas Small thcatres and cinemas Multiple cinema halls. which are also basically assembly buildings. theatres. say. On the physical aspects of lighting and sound systems i n r e c r e a t i o n a l b u i l d i n g s .SECTION 3 RECREATIONAL. 0. Temporary installations shall also conform lo the additional provisions laid down in Part S/SK 2 of the Code.Theatres . are covered separately under Part 3’ Sec. 0.2 This Section does not cover sports buildings.2 Utilization . social or religious. cultural and theatrical buildings In view of large quantum of furniture and drapings P A R T 3 E L E C T R I C A L I N S T A L L A T I O N S I N NON-INDI:STRIAL BUILDINGS 123 .1 This Section of the Code covers requirements for electrical installation in buildings. motion-picture (cinema) houses.are also classified further as permanent (air-conditioned and non-airconditioned). social.2 The lighting design of such buildings are generally sophisticated. assembly halls. Buildings such as those catering to display of regular programmes demands a continuous power supply. restaurants. Presence of foreign solid bodies Presence of corrosive o r polluting substances Mechanical stresses Seismic effect and lighting following 4.1meJ.1 The electrical installations covered in this Section.The utilization shall apply: Uriliiarion (1) Capacity o f persons Characteri. museums. easy conditions of evacuation High density. t h e definitions given in Part I ‘Set 2 of the Code shall apply.1 Environment . it is recominended that assistance should be derived from specialists as such details are beyond the scope of this Code. 6 of the Code.0 General guidelines on the assessment of characteristics of installations in buildings are given in Section 8.1 NOTE -. 4.r (1) Presence of water Characrerbrics (2) Probability of presence of water negligible The quantity or nature of dust or foreign solid bodies is not significant The quantity and nature of coirosive or polluting substances is not significant Impact and vibration of low severity Depends on the location of the building Remarks (3) 0.The following environmental factors shall apply to recreational an’d assembly buildings: &n~Vro. such as those meant for recreational and assembly purposes.stics (2) Uninstructed persons Persons adequately advised or supervised by skilled persons Condition\ of evacuation during emergency High density occupation. theatres. auditoria. temporary or travclling depending on the nature or construction of the premises. civil and similar purposes. clubs. 2. GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF INSTALLATIONS 4. etc. educational or officecommercial-curzl-cinema c o m p l e x s h a l l a l s o comply with this Section. SCOPE 1. It shall also be noted that assembly buildings forming part of other building complex. For t h e purpose of installations falling under the scope of this section the characteristics defined below generally apply. are those in buildings intended for the following purposes: Assetnhl!~/ Recreational Buildings ~~ These shall include any building where groups of people congregate or gather for amusement.1 For the purposes of this S e c t i o n . difficult condltions o f evacuation Nature of processed or stored material Existence of fire risk aspects of Remarks (3) Majority of the 0ccupant. amusement. Part 1 of the Code. ASSEMBLY BUILDING!5 & F O R E W O R D A variety of buildings are being used for public a s s e m b l y f o r p u r p o s e s t h a t a r e recreational. places of worship. required to be properly coordinated with the electro-acoustic demands. auditoria and the like. T E R M I N O L O G Y 2. patriotic. certain specific safety and reliability considerations become necessary for the electrical installation. The type of buildings covered in this Section are enumerated in 3. These include cinema halls. for example. 1. in view of their unique nature. 4. In view of the nature of use of such occupancies. 3.

Nothing shall impede access to any part of the equipment or its controls. 5.1 Proper coordination shall be ensured between the architect. iii) Lifts.1. passage ways.1 Branch Circuits 5. rewinding room.1.1.1. Within the enclosure. b) For one half of the auditorium.3 The cabin shall be provided with two separate circuits. 5.1.1.14 For outdoor lighting. 5 . 5. ii) Ventilation installation.5 metres from each other. 5.15 The installation in a travelling cinema should generally c o n f o r m t o t h e a b o v e requirements a n d t h e b u i l d i n g s h o u l d b e sufficiently away from the near? conductor of power lines (. 5. c) Emergency supply. b) Lighting: i) In front of the theatre.1.2 of Part I I Set 7 of the Code). foyer. o n e f e e d i n g t h e c a b i n 124 and air-conditioning 5. stage and portable 5. 5.2 The control of the circuits in respect of the two halves of the auditorium referred to in 5. with controls near the stage motor. work place dressing rooms. and c) For the remaining half of the auditorium. 5.4 Wiring shall be of the conduit type. 5. the advice of the appropriate specialists shall be obtained.1. and ii) In the rear of the theatre for stage. Ends of conduits shall be provided with screwed bushes. Exchange of Information AND equipments and the other lights and fans. The reel insulators shall be spaced 0. in particular on the following aspects: a) Audio-visual systems. workshops and storehouses. passage ways. equipment terminal boxes. stairways. and auditorium.1. 5.8 Branch and main distribution boards shall be mcunted at suitable height not higher than 2 m from the floor level.25 m. it should be taken only at a point of NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE . control gears.Y(Y 2.1. building contractor and the electrical engineer on the various aspects of the installation design in a building intended for recreational or assembly purposes. For large projecis. exit and parts of the building open to the public.10 All the lighting fittings shall be at a height of not less than 2. SUPPLY PARAMETERS 5. 5.1.6 The cabin equipment shall be accessible at all times.1 shall be remote from each other. bulk head fittings shall be used.5 Temporary wiring shall not be allowed in cabin. 5.1.CHARACTERISTICS 5. etc.0. and c) General auditorium lighting and other special service needs.5 m from the floor. and iv) Additional power connections.1.16 The plug points shall be provided at a height of about 1. such as general lighting of outdoor.7 Linked tumbler switches shall not be used for the control of circuits. b) Stage lighting and control.1. 5.11 The single pole switches for the individual lights and fans shall be mounted on sheet steel boards suitably earthed.17 In case of travelling cinemas. audio systems lights. stairways. 5.12 Suitable socket outlets shall be provided on the side walls for tapping supply to screen focussing lights. the wiring for the ‘open yard lighting shall be done with weather-:proof cables threaded through porcelain reel insulators suspended by earthed bearer wire at a height of not less than 5 m from ground level. 1 The electrical lighting of the main building shall have atleast three separate and distinct main circuits as follows: a) For the enclosures (cabin) and hence through a dimmer regulator to the central lighting of the auditoriurp. 5. Ends of conduits shall enter and be mechanically secured to the switch.0.1. corridors and stairs.1. water-tight fittings shall be used and fittings may be so mounted without spoiling the aesthetic view of the recreation buildings. queue sheds and similar places. exit and parts of the building open to the public.0 The branch circuits shall-in general cater to the following individual load groups: a) Power installation: i) Stage machinery.0.1. in assembly buildings.2 The installation work shall conform to the provisions of Indian Electricity Rules as well as other Rules applicable for assembly buildings formulated by the State Authorities. 5. 1 .13 In the queue sheds. 5. 5.18 When a tapping is taken from the open yard wiring.9 Wood work shall not be used ‘for t‘he mounting of or construction of the framework for iron-clad switch and distribution boards and controlgear. all cables shall be enclosed in screwed metal conduits adequately earthed. 5. A front clearance of I m ‘should alsd be provided.1.1. PVC conduits may be used in the auditorium and other places.

the substation should be located away from the area where people and vehicles move about. supply at voltages above I kV is given for large theatres and auditoria.2 Separate feeders shall be taken to airconditioning units.4 In the event of a breakdown of the airconditioning plant.5. Reference may also be made to SP : 7-19837 on guidelines for fire protection of buildings.5 System Protection 5.LARE INDEX a) A s t h e r e w i l l b e c o n c e n t r a t i o n a n d movement of people.5 k 2. fixed to the supporting pole. Assembly and concert: a) Foyers. Building substations shall conform to the general requirements specified in Part 2 of the Code.note of while deciding the location of substation: i) Stage Automatic sprinkler Automatic fireii) Auditoria. Usually. green rooms. (1) (2) lux (3) (4) b) The substation should not be in the way of people and fire-fighting vehicles and personnel where they are -likely to attend to an emergency. TABLE 1 RECOMMENDED VALUES OF ILLUMINATION AND GLARE lNDEX SL NO. 5. 5. I. 5.1 Tile type of occupancies covered in this Section fall under Group D (assembly buildings) from the point of view of fire safety classification.6. 5. 125 PART 3 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN NON-INDlJSTRIAL BUILDINGS . auditoria b) Platforms c) Corridors d) Stairs 2.Service lines shall conform to the provisions laid down in IS : 8061-1976* 5.The above is meant for general guidelines apd does not include special lighting effects. preferably at the rear of the building. 5.1 Lighting . Museums: a) General b) Display 4. 5. The following shall be provided besides fire-fighting equipment: a) Buildings having a theatrical stage and fixed seats *Code of practice for design installation and maintenance of service lines~ up to and including 650 V +National Building Code.5.6 Building Services 5.6.2. Art Galleries: a) General b) Paintings 5. inside temperature shall be 25. corridor. The choice of lamps.3 Provisions shall be made to record the temperature inside the auditorium.0 The electrical power demand of an assembly building can vary from 30 kVA to more than I 000 kVA according to the. 5.2 Feeders 5. 5.2.2 In air-conditioned assembly buildings. alarm system canteen and storage b) Buildings without a stage but no permanent seating arrangement c) All other structures designed for assembly 5. I6 I6 :i I50 :: 100 IO IO - N OTE . P A R T OF BU I L D I N G ILLUMINATION Automatic fire alarm system Manualy operated electrical fire-alarm system L IMITING VALUE OF G.4 Building Substation 5.6.6. lifts and the lighting and fan circuits.support through-porcelain connectors housed in a junction box. 5. 5.2.6.3 Service Lines .2. Such occupancies can’ be further classified into groups depending on the capacity of the theatre/auditorium to hold the congregation (see SP : 7-1983*).2. Cinemas: a) Foyers b) Auditoria c) Corridors d) Stairs 3.1 Feeder circuits shall generally conform to the requirements laid down in Part I /Set I1 of the Code.2 Air-Conditioning 5.75”C. Typical fire-fighting installation requirements are also covered therein.1 The following aspects shall be taken . Theatres: a) Foyers b) Auditoria c) Corridors d) Stairs 100-150 450 70 I00 I50 :: I00 I50 Special Lighting - c) It is desirable that the transformer which contains a large quantity of oil is not located in the basement as there is risk of fire.6. The general rules given below shall apply.2.0 The rules for protection for safety laid down in Part !/Set 7 of the Code shall apply. size of the building.1 The general rules laid down in Part I/ Set I4 of the Code shall apply. alternate arrangements should be available for ventilation and air circulation.4.4.The general rules laid down in Part I /Set 14 of the Code shall apply. lighting fittings and /Igeneral lighting design together with power r&$nrement shall be planned based on the recommended values of illumination and glare index given in Table I.

dimmer-control equipment may be required. including portable light sources. The location of the standby supply shall preferably be on the ground level away from the auditorium so that noise from the generator reaching the audience could be minimised. the lighting operator shall have a good view of the stage in order to be able to follow the performance.4 Audio-Visual of amplifying and sound distribution systems shall conform. etc.Installation 7. 7. the design of the lifts shall take into account the following recommendations: a) Occupant load.2 Stage Lighting -On the stage of a theatre.1 Emergency Supply . the control-room shall be situated in a convenient position. TESTING OF INSTALLATION 6. 6.This shall be as follows: Occupancy. 7. The various possibilities of switching each fittings shall be kept in view while designing the lighting circuits. Gross Area in m2/ Person 0.1 In all recreational and assembly buildings. 7. MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS 7.See also Part 2 of the Code. However. with the provision for automatic switching-on in case of 126 NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE . 7.5. are required for illumination. For same lighting schemes.6 failure of main’ supply shall be provided.to the guidelines contained in Part I.3 G r o u p C o n t r o l --The lighting in the auditorium shall be suitably combined into control groups to facilitate group switching. Therefore.1 The various tests on the installation shall be carried out as laid down in Part l/Set IO of the Code. In the special case of stage lighting control. a great number of spotlights.5 b) Passenger handling capacity and car speed .3 Lifts and Escalators -The general rules laid down in Part I /Set 14 of the Code shall apply. 7. border lights.1.1. 14 of the Code. sufficient number of emergency lights fed from independent source or sources./ Set .As given in Part 3/Set 2.2 Depending on the total capacity required for-standby supply for the occupancy. Assembly halls with fixed or loose seats and dance floors Without seating facilities including dining rooms 1. Occupant Load. System . suitable standby generator set shall be installed. projectors. The changeover of supply arrangements should be reliable and easy to operate.6.

brine with gases. 9 H. 0. with contrast media.\drorherap.Room intended for application of endoscopic methods for the examination of organs through natural or artificial orifices. stored or computed. electrotherapy in water*.1. FOREWORD 2. The latter type will have 2.1. Examples of such methods are therapeutic treatments with water. mud. by signal transmission lines) between the rooms of such a group exists. 2 . several units functioning simultaneously with a variety of support services to cater to the needs of doctors and patients. if a conductive connectlon (for example.d in medical practice (Parts I to 3). inhalation therapy. 2 . water with gases. in water* Swimming pools for general use and normal bath-rooms are not considered as hydrotherap!. Bl’ILDlNGS 127 .Room in which the output signals of several patient monitors are displayed.1 Hospitals in the country vary in size from simple premises used for medical purposes in villages to a wekquip’ped. laryngoscopic. bronchoscopic. in which medical equipment and utensils are sterilized. and d) Specific locations in medical establishments d Electric and magnetic interference may disturb certain medical examinations or treatments.2 Safety requirements for electrical equipmen! used in medical practice are covered in IS : 8607 (in Parts)*.3 Central Monitoring Room . the breakdown of which may cause a dangerous situation. steam.Medically used room in which general inhalation anaesthetics are intended to be administered. multidisciplinary hospital in big cities. In the preparation of this Section considerable assistance has also been derived from IEC 62A (Secretariat) 55 ‘Requirements for electrical installations in medical practice’ issued by the International Electrotechnical Commission. i n j e c t i o n o f c o n t r a s t a g e n t s o r application of pacemakers.0 In addition to the definitions contained in Part I/Set 2 of the Code the following shall apply. 1 . 2 . 2. 8 Hemoclial~~sis R o o m ---. which is normally an important protection against harmful electric currents is bypassed in certain examinations or treatments.1.Koom in n hich patients are treated by hydrotherapeutlc mcthodh. *General and safety requirements for electrical equipn nt .Room.a medical establishment intended to connect patients to medical electrical equipment in order to detoxicate their blood. slime. operating preparation room. 7 H e a r t Catheterizarion Rooter -~. Additional safety provisions in the electrical installations of medically used rooms and medical establishments are covered in this Section of the Code. NOTE .4 Central Sterilization Room . methods are E x a m p l e s o f endoscopic cystoscopic. rooms ‘With o r wIthout addfitl\cr c) Medical electrical equipment may often be used to support or substitute vital body functions.6 Endoscopic Room .Room in which the actual birth takes place.I. NOTE . 2.R o o m intended for the examination or treatment of the heart using catheters. 2.1 Anaesthetic Room .SECTION 4 MEDICAL ESTABLISHMENTS 0. T E R M I N O L O G Y 2. sand. drawing of blood samples. etc. massage thermotherapy and thermothcrap!. if necessary. Room in .1 This Section of the Code applies to’ the electrical installations. 2.2 A n g i o g r a p h i c E x a m i n a t i o n R o o m Room intended for displaying arteries or veins. This Section is based on the following considerations: The patient may not be in a condition’ to react normally to the effects of hazardous events. 1 . clay. operating plaster room and surgeries. gastroscopic and similar methods. brine. 0.1 Rooms 0. in medical establishments. PART 3 ELECTRICAL INSTAI.* Room .5 Deliver. These are enumerated in 4.1.1. 1.A central monitoring room is considered to be part of a Room Group. where flammable atmosphere exists. 2.1. not spatially connected to a medically used room. b) The electrical resistance of the skin. performed under anaesthesia. 2. SCOPE 1. 1 . This Section is also applicable to rooms for veterinary medicine and dental practice.ATlONS IN NON-INDI’STRIAI.3 The basic aspects of the safety philosophy for installations in hospitals have been standardized at the IEC Level.Anaesthetic room comprises for instance the actual operating theatre. Examples o f a p p l i e d procedures are measurement o f a c t i o n p o t e n t i a l s o f t h e haemodynamics of the heart. call for special treatment.v Roonr -.

R o o m i n w h i c h patients are prepared (waiting) for delivery.Room in which utensils required for an operation are sterilized.Room intended for the use of ionizing radiation for display of internal structures of the body by. Group of medically 2. to the operaring room group NoIt a n d I\ .I5 Medicall. respiration) may be stimulated. 2.R o o m in which patients are connected for the purpose of intensive examination.Room in which bed patients are monitored independently of an operation by means of electromedical equipment.Room in which minor operations are performed on ambulant or non-ambulant patients. treatment or monitoring of persons or animals.I4 Medical Estahlishmenr -. 2. Room .Room 2. transport.ramination R o o m .1.1.l. 2.R o o m i n which plaster of Paris or similar dressings are applied while anaesthesia is maintained. 2. Room .26 R o o m G r o u p used rooms linked with each other in their function.Establishment for medical care (examination. 2. 2.\.Room in which the patient under observation recovers from the influence of anaesthesia. heart circulation.22 Operating Wash Room .1. or ..24 Radiological Diagnostic Room .rture Mixture of a flammble anaesthetic vapour with oxygen or with nitrous oxide in such a concentration that ignitign may occur under specified conditions. or in any other medical establishment.1 OFlantntahle Anaesthetic A t m o s p h e r e Mixture of a flammable anaesthetic vapour and or a vapour of a flammable disinfection or cleaning agent with air in such a concentrStion that ignition may occur under specified conditions.1.nt enclosure where ieakage may occur because such parts are: .1. 2.Room in which patients are prepared for an operation.2. such as X-ray equipment.19 Operating Recover.1 I Intensi~~e E.vsiotherapj. NOI1 Such a room helong~ IO the operating a n d I\ u~uall! \patiall) connected to I I room group 2.18 Operating Preparation Room .parlally connected IO i t . etc) of human beings or animals. 2 .1. by their designated medical purpose or by intcrconnectcd medical electrical equipment.1.1113 Lahour R o o m . 2. 2. R o o m .2. 2.23 Ph. nursing. 2.Room in which surgical operations are performed. gamma radiation or corpuscular radiation or by the use of radio-active isotopes.12 Intett.25 Radiologkal Therapy R o o m . monitoring. for example. means of radiography or fluoroscopy or by the use of radio-active isotopes or for other diagnostic purposes.. 2. 2. Where the leakage occurs into another enclosure which is not sufficiently (naturally or forcedly) ventilated and enrichment of the leaking mixture may occur.28 Ward . Body actions (for example. 2 F l a m m a b l e Anaeslheric Mi. Such a room belong.unprotected and liable to be broken. 2 . Used intended to be used for medical.subject to a high rate of deterioration.Volume in a medically used room in which continuously or temporarily small quantities of flammable anaesthetic mixtures may be produced. electromedicai measuring or monitoring devices.Room in which medical staff at an operation can wash for disinfection purposes.. endoscopic equipment and highfrequency surgery equipment. such an enclosure \ and possibly the surroundings of it (subject to possible leakage) up to a distance of 5 cm from said enclosure or part of it is regarded as a Zone G. 2.1 . if required. NOT k Such a room IS usually very close room group but not necessarily part of it.21 Operating Thearre .R o o m i n w h i c h diagnostic or therapeutic procedures are performed on the urogenital tract using electromedical equipment. 2.2 Zones of Risk --(see also Appendix A). Room .3 Zone G . by administering anaesthetics.10 Intcwsi\v Care Room . treatment.si\y Monitoring Room R o o m i n which operated patients are monitored.17 Operating Plaster Room -. Body actions may be stimulated if required.1.27 Urolog. guided or used including the surroundings of a completely or partly enclosed equipment or equipment part up to a distance of 5 cm from parts of the equipme. if necessary using anaesthetics or analgesics. 2. 2.Room in which patients are treated by physiotherapeutic methods. Nort Such a room belongs 10 the operating room group and is spatially connected IO It. .1. Nork Such a room belongs 10 the operating room group and is spatially connected to it.20 Operating Sterilization Room . IO the operating 2. 128 .16 Minor Surgical Thearre .1 .R o o m intended for the use of ionizing radiation to obtain therapeutic effects on the surface of the body or in internal organs by means of Xradiation.4 Zone M -~ Volume in a medically used room in which small quantities of flammable anaesthetic atmospheres of flammable N A T I O N A L E L E C T R I C A L COL)E 2.Medically used room or room group in which patients are accommodated’for the duration of their stay in a hospital.liable to inadvertent disconnection.2.1. using electromedical equipment. dental or veterinary examination.2.1.1.1. but not for the purpose of several simultaneously to treatment.1.1.1.

0 General guidelines on the assessment of characteristics of installations in buildings are g i v e n i n Part I/Set X. sanatoria and nursing homes.v a n d Sonaloria This includes any building or group of buildings. 2 .Circuit for supply of equipment which is kept in operation during power failure.Hazard current of an isolated system with all supplied equipment.3. 4. 3 .9 M e d i c a l Safe07 Extra. CLAGSIFICATION 3. connected. 2.4 H a z a r d Currenr .6 I n s u l a t i o n M o n i t o r i n g D e v i c e Instrument indicating the occurrence of an insulation fault from a live part of an isolated electrical supply system to the protective conductor of the installation concerned. 2 . 2.3.2 Essenrial Circuir ~.3. Where a Zone M is caused by leakage. mental hospitals. except the line isolation monitor.5 Insularion I m p e d a n c e M o n i t o r i n g Device . 2. A Zone M may be caused by leakage of a flammable anaesthetic mixture from a Zone G or by the application of flammable disinfection or cleaning agents. etc. 3 .Self-contained energy convertor including all essential components to Supply electrical power (for example. NOTE ~ T h i s c u r r e n t i s e x p r e s s e d in milliampere\.3. including the line isolation monitor.1 Equipotenrial Bonding .Hazard current of the line isolation monitor. NOTE Provisions f o r s u p p l y o f such arcuat wparatcl! f r o m t h e r e m a i n d e r o f t h e electrical lnbtallation arc prcwnr likelihood of discontinuity of supply in case of a failure tb earth in the isolated power source or in equipment connected to it. Fauh hazard curren! . This also includes infirmeries.ded for the following purposes: 2. Cusrodial In.A n y a r e a up t o I. F o r t h e purpose of installations falling under the scope of this section. the characteristics given below apply.Hazard current of an isolated system with all supplied equipment. home for the a g e d a n d i n f i r m . 4.3. G E N E R A L C H A R A C T E R I S T I C S O F MEDICAL ESTABLISHMENTS 4. convalescents and the aged.anaestneucs with air may occur. for example.This includes any building or. The following hazard currents are recognized: Tolal hazard current . 7 I n s u l a t i o n . 2. between simultaneously accessible parts. 2.yfijrmer -Electrical equipment used in medical practice intended to supply isolated power to medical electrical equip.A device measuring the ac impedance at mains frequency from either of the conductors of an isolated circuit to earth and predicting the hazard current that will flow when an earth fault occurs and providing an alarm when a preset value of that current is exceeded.group of buildings which is used for the custody and care of persons.1 Environment ~~~ The following environmental factors shall apply to hospitals: PART 3 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN NON-INDIbTRIAI.3. 2. Voltage appearing.3. Resislance Moniroring Dellice . . 2. 2. such as children -(excluding schools).Electrical connection intended to bring exposed conductive parts or extraneous col’ductive parts to the same or approximately the hame potential.I n s t r u m e n t m e a s u r i n g t h e o h m i c resistance between the monitored isolated circuit and earth providing an alarm when the value of this resistance becomes less than a given limit. Bl:ILDINGS I29 . 3.3 Special Terms 2.isolated conductor and earth. convalescent homes.3. connected.11 Patient Environmen! .3 Generalor Se. Moniror hazard current . 8 M e d i c a l I s o l a t i n g Tran.3.Total current for a giveh set of connections in an isolated power system that would flow through a low impedance if it were connected between either. injury or disease. it comprises the space srrounding the leakage area of a Zone G up to a distance of 25 cm from the leakage point 2.Value of a residual current causing a protective device to operate under specified conditions. age. which is used for housing treating persons s u f f e r i n g from physical limitations because of health. engine driven generator).3.s~i~utions .Voltage not exceeding a nominal value of 25 V ac or up to and including 60 V dc or peak valee at rated supply voltage on the transformer or convertor between conductors is an earth-free circuit isolated from the supply mains by a medical safety extra-low voltage transformer or by a convertor with separate windings.12 Touch Volrage during an insulation fault. orphanages.vpira1.10 Operaring Residual Current .5 m distance from the intended location of the paticnl in which intentional or unintehtional contact between patient and equipment or some other person touching the equipment can occur (sre Appendix H).1 The electrical installations covered in this section are those in buildings inten. of the C o d e .ment in order to minimize the a) Ho.LoHv V o l t a g e (Mselv) .

spcctfic locations like. In its completed lorm the equipotential sAl-Ios. Ail accessible extraneous conductive parts in the zone shall be connected to this potential equalization bar. at least a potential equalized zone around the patient shall be provided with a patient centre bonding bar to which the protective and functional earth conductors of the equipment are connected. Presence of corrosive or polluting substances Locations where some chemical products are handled (for example.0 General 5. where potential differences.0 In the context of this Section ‘installation’ means any combination of interconnected electrical equipment within a given space or location intended to supply power to electrical equipment used in medical practice. X-Ray block fall under BE 2 and BE 3 (. Seismic effect and lightning - Depends on the location of the building 4. etc Applies to hospitals in general. depending upon the nature of the examinations or treatments performed: a) A d d i t i o n a l requirements concerninp. orphanages.1 As such. For this purpose a combination of earthing of equipment and potential equalization in the installation seems to provide the best solution. some parts of the installation may be present in the patient’s environment. meaning pi-. In addition the following provisions may be required.2 Generally a power supply system including a separated protective conductor is required (TN-S-system).such a system is that in the case of an insulation fault in circuits directly connected to supply mains. casualit) mcdtcine store. etc.wc~ P a r t 1 St2 X ol the Code) cl Restriction of the potential equalization d) If more than one patlent is present in an‘ a r e a . operation thcatre. that could lead to excessive currents through the patient.tctic:tll! around one operation table or around one bed in an intensive care room. Since a reduction of such a voltage drop by the application of increased cross-sectional areas of protective conductors is usually impractical.0. laboratories in hospitals) will be categorized as in Part l/Set 8 Mechanical stress Impact and vibration of low severity. connection 01 lhc Iarious p o t e n t i a l equalization ccnIrc\ to ‘a central potential equali/nrion hu4har.\i. sanatoria. 5. nursing homes. the fault current may cause a considerable voltage drop over the protective earth conductor of the relevant circuit.irc. w h i c h s h o u l d prcferahl! he connected to the protective earth >!. must be avoided. where the occupants are not in command of all their physical and intellectual abihties Applies to areas such as building substations. available solutions are the reduction of the duration of fault currents to earth by special devices or the application of a power supply which is isolated from earth. solid Characteristics (2) The quantity or nature of dust or foreign solid bodies is not significant The quantity and nature of corrosive or polluting substances is not significant Remarks (3) - 5. A disadvantage of.t. Restriction of voltage differences by supplementary equipotential bonding. operations and matntenance staff Persons adequately advised or supervised by skilled persons Contact of persons with earth potential Persons do not in usual condttions make contact with extraneom conductive part\ or stand on conductmg surfaces b) Conditions of evacuation during emergency Nature of process or stored materials Difficult condttionr Apphes in general to of evacuation ho\pual\ and stmtlar buildings. 5. SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS 5. zone to the /one around one patient.2 Utilization .Environmen: (1) Presence of fcci~.The following aspects of utilization shall apply: Utili:arion (1) Capabthty o f persons Characrerrtrtrs (2) Children in locations intended for their occupation Handicapped Remarks (3) Applies to child-care homes.0. During the application of equipment with direct contact to the patient.~tcrn 01 the po\\er s u p p l y f o r t h e gl\cn . irrebpectivc of denbtty of occupation Fire or risk M a n y locarton\ rn hospnal butldtngs tn gcncral uould fall under category B E I of no stgnificant fire or explosion risk.0. E L E C T R I C A L CODE I30 . protective conductors and protective devices to restrict continuous voltage differences.

shall be applicable for all medically used rooms. Connections shall be made to the -following parts by bonding conductors : 5.3 Guidance on the application of the provisions are given in Table 2. 6. BUILDINGS 131 PART 3 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN NON-INDUSTRjAL . The power supply is taken over by these devices in a short time.1 Circuit Installation Measures for Safety Provisions -(See Table I. equipment as life-supporting equipment and operating room lamps. d) the conductive water supply line. 5. or b) patients do not come intentionally in contact with medical electrical equipment during 4 lightning-conductor. l3) Monitoring of a first insulation fault to earth in an IT-system (the secondary side of an isolating transformer) with sufficiently high impedance to earth. shall be applicable to all buildings containing medically used r o o m s . signal transmission lines.0 Exchange of Information 6. 6 . 6. or c) only medical electrical equipment is used which is internally powered or of protection Class II. 6.4 A typical example of an installation in a hospital is given in Appendix C.bonding network may consist partly of fixed and permanently installed bonding and partly of a number of separate bondings which are made when the equipment is set up near the patient. T-T or IT power system. N O T E. The necessary terminals for these bonding conne**ions should be present on equipment and in the installation.2. The device may consist of rechargeable batteries possibly combined with convertors or special generating sets.1 S a f e t y measureS a r e d i v i d e d i n t o a number of provisions as given in Table I. The necessary special features of installations shall be ascertained beforehand with reference to Table 2.2 Provision PI : Medical TN-S system 6.1. The conventional touch voltage limit (UL) is fixed at 50 V ac. building contractor and the electrical engineer or the various aspects of installation design.2. need not be complied with if: a) a room is not intended for the use of medical electrical equipment.1 The conventional touch voltage limit (LIL) is fixed at 25 V ac.4 A main equipotential bonding with a main earthing bar shall be provided near the main service entrance. j) Safety supply system for major parts of the hospital.1 All buildings in the hospital area which contain medically used rooms shall have a TN-S. where medical electrical equipment is not used. doctor’s examining room (office. SUPPLY CHARACTERISTICS AND PARAMETERS 6. k) Special safety supply system for critical 6.1 Proper coordination shall be ensured between the architect.1.1.1.1. 2 P r o t e c t i v e c o n d u c t o r s inside a medically used room shall be insulated: their insulation shall be coloured green-yellow (see Part I 1 Set 4 of the Code).1.0.1. 6. r) Continuity of power supply to certain equipment in the case of a first insulation fault to earth and restriction of transient voltage differences by application of isolating transformers. 5.3 Exposed c o n d u c t i v e p a r t s o f equipment being part of the electrical installation used in the same room shall be connected to a common protective conductor. co1 3.1 Safety Provisinw $1. Recommendations for essential cirouits to be connected to it. diagnosis or treatment.) 6. usually a diesel-powered generator. 1 . ‘b) earthing systems of the electric power distribution system.. Other requirements of this Section. Limits for magnetic fields of mains frequency are necessary tor a number of sensitive measurements. consulting room).2 Provision PC.1.The use of TN-C-S system (in which the PEnconductor may carry current in normal condition) can cause safety hazards for the patients and interfere with the function of medical electrical equipment.1 Provision PO : General 6. 5.1. etc. 4 Restriction of the duration of transient voltage difference by the application of residual current operated protective devices (earth leakage circuit-breakers). data processing equipment. 2 . The rooms mentioned under (a). anti-static precautions and careful layout of the installation.1.2. general wards. h) Prevention of ignitions and tire in rooms where flammable anaesthetics or flammable cleaning or disinfection agents are used by ventilation. Provision P. (b) and (c) may be massage rooms. c) the central heating system. Suppression of electroma netic interference achieved by the layout o fg the building and wiring a n d p r o v i s i o n o f s c r e e n i n g arrangements.

TABLE I SAFETY PROVISIONS (Cbusr 5.1.1) PllovlsloNs (1) PO PI S P RINCIPAL R~QUIRHUIENT~ (2) Dupm~f touch voltages ratricted to 8 As I?0 but 8dditiorully : touch volt8ga in p8tient environment restricted to 8 s8fe limit As PI but 8dditiotully : Resist8nce between extmn&us conductive parts md the protective conductor bus b8r of the room not exceeding 0.1 fl INSTALLATION Msluurn (9 TN-S, m or IT system Addition81 to p0 : Supply system with additional requirements for protective cuthing. etc Additiorul to PI : Suppkmentrry quipotenti8l bonding

I

As P, or Pz : Meuurement neccas8ry. A s PI or Pz but 8ddition8Uy : Potenti difference between expo&d conductive p8rts, rtion possibly neccssuy exttmneous aDnductiw p8rts md the protective conductor bus brr not exceeding t0 mV in normal condition (WC Note b&w)

corrective

p1 A P6

As PI or A. Addition81 protection ryinst ckctric shock by ,limit8tion of dironnccting time Continuity of the timins su ply m8intllined in cue of 8 rurt insuktion P rult to earth and currents to euth restricted Reduction of f8ult currents 8nd touch volt8ges in case of 8 f8ult in ths b8sic insuktion Prevention of dangerous touch voltages in norm81 condition rnd in singk f8ult condition (WC Note below) No interruption of the power sup ly of the or essential circuits of the hospit8l P more th8n 15 seconds N? interruption of ,the power supply of \;e-ss%po$mg qurpment for more th8n No in~rruption of the power supply of the oper8tmg kmp for more thur 0.5 seconds Prevention of cxpbsions. fue and ekctrostatic c barges

Additions1 to PI or P2 : Residual current oper8ted protective device Addition81 to PI, 4, or Pa : kol8ted supply system with isol8tion monitoring Additional to P, or P2 : Medical isolating transformer supplying one individually piece of equipment Additioilal to PI or P2 : Supply with medical S8fCty. extra low voltage spfety supply system

P7

G E

El

Special safety supply system

4
A. I ~

Special s8fety supply system for operating lamp Measures concerning explosion and fire hazards Layout of building nnd installation, scmning

No excessive interference from ekctric and
nugnetic folds

NOW - Normal condirlon means .without any fault’ in the installation. TABLE 2 EXAMPLES OF APPLICATION OF SAFETY PROVISIONS (Clausr 5. I .3) SL Ms0ICAL.Lv USED R00M P~~TE~w~E MEASURES , P./A Pa (4) 0 X 0 x X x X X 0 P, (3) M w8sh M M M * I S AFETY SUPPLY SYSTEM h E XPLOSIONS M EASURES AND F I R E AGAWST EM FIELDS

.

P4
(5)

Ps

P6
(6)

A
(7) (8) 0 0 0 0 0 0

GE
(9) xx x x x x 0

EI

El

A
(13)

I
(14)

(0
I. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

(2)
Murage room Operating room w8rd general Delivery room ECG. room

(lo) (11) (12)

x

0

0 X

EEG, Q4G M room

Endoscopic

M X

0 (Conrinued)

132

NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE

TABLE 2 EXAMPLES OF APPLlCATlON OF SAFETY PROVISIONS-Conrd SL No. MEDICALLY USED RoOM PROTECTIVE MEWIRES SAFEN SUPPLY SYSTEM E XPLOSIONS U EAWRES AND F IRE A GAINST EM F IELDS A (13) I 04)

p.1 PI

S
(4) 0 X 0 X

P3

P.

6
(7) 0 0

P6

Pl
(9) 0 0 0 0

GE

El

(1)

(2)

(3) M M M M

(5)

7. Examination or tratmcnt room 8. hbour room 9 . Opcmting rtixiliition room 10. Urology room (not
being an operating theotre)

(6) X X X X X

(8)

(10) X X X X X

(11)

& (12) 0

0

0

I I.

Radiological diagnostic and therapy

M

X

0

room, other than mentioned under SI No. 20 and 24 12. Hydrotherapy
room 13. Physiotherapy room

M U

X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X

X X X X X
Xl Xl Xl X,
0 X X X X X X X X X X X X X

0’

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X
X X X X X X X X 0 X 0 X X X X X X X X 0 X
0 0

14. Anaesthetic room 15. Operating theatre 16. Operating preparation room 17. 18. 19.
20. 21. Operating plaster room Operating recovery room Outpatient operating theatre

U U
U

0 X X
0

X X X X X

U U U U U
M U U
M M

X

XI X,

X X X X
0

Heart catheterization room Intensive care room Intensive examination room Intensive monitoring room Angiographic examination room Hemodialysis room Central monitoring room (see Note)

X 0 0 0 0 X 0

XI
Xl

22. 23. 24. 25. 26.

X
Xl XI Xl XI

X
0

0

0

N OTE - Only if such a room is part of a medical room group and therefore m\talled III the same way as an intensive monitoring room. Central momtoring room having no conductive connection 10 the medically used room (for example. by use ol isolating coupling devices for \~gnal tran\m~\von) ma) hc ln\talled ab non-mcdlcally used room (provl,lon PU only).
Explanation: M = X= X, = 0 = Mandatory measure. Recommended measure As X, but only lor equlpmenr de\crlhed III 6 . 1 . 6 . 7 . AdditIonal measure. ma! he con\ldered desirable.

e) the conductive parts of the waste water Ilne: f, the conductive parts of the gas supply; and g) t h e s t r u c t u r a l m e t a l f r a m e w o r k o f t h e building, if applicable.

Main euuipotential bonding conductors shall

have cross:se&tional areas not-less than half the c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l a r e a of the largest p r o t e c t i v e
c o n d u c t o r o f t h e i n s t a l l a t i o n , -subjict to a

minimum of 6 mm?. The cross-sectional area need
BUILDINGS 133

PART 3 ELECTRICAL INSTAI.I.ATIONS IN NON-INDIISTRIAL

not, however, exceed 25 mm* if the bonding conductor is of copper or a cro~s-s&ctional area affording equivalent current-carrying capacity in other metals. 6.1.2.5 Each medically used room or room group shall have its own protective conductor bus bar. which should have adequate .mechanical and electciCal properties and resistance against corrosion. This bus bar may be located in the relevant power distribution box. The leads connected to terminals of such a protective conductor bar shall be identified and shall be similarly designated on . drawings of the installation system. 6.1.2.6 The impedance (Z) between the protective conductor bar and each connected protective conductor contact in wall sockets or terminals should not exceed 0.2 n. if the rated current of the overcurrent protective device is 16 A or less. In case of a rated current exceeding I6 A the impedance should be calculated using the formula: Z+ fl, in all cases Z shall not exceed.0.2 0.

- 2.5 mm2 if mechanical protection is provided, and - 4 mm2 i.f mechanical protection is n o t
provided. 6.1.28 It may be necessary to run the protective conductor separate from the phase conductors. in order lo avoid measuring probkms when recording bioelectric potentials. P2 : Supplemenrary 6.1 .3 Provision Equiporenrial Bonding 6.1.3.1 In order to minimize the touch voltage, all extraneous conductive parts shall be connected lo the system of protective conductors. An equipotential conductor bar shall be prqvided. It should be located near the protective conductor bar (see aho 6.1.2.5). A combined protective conductor and equipotential bonding bar may be used, if all conductors are clearly marked according to 6.1.2.5 and 6.133 (e). 6.1.3.2 Connections shall be provided from the- equitiotential bonding bar to extraneous conductive parts, such as pipes for fresh water. heating. gases. vacuum and other parts with a &onductive surface area larger than 0.02 rn? or a linear dimension exceeding 20 cm. or smaller parts that may be grasped by hand. Additionally the foilowing requirements supply:

. I

where I, = rated current of overcurrent protective device in amperes.
The measurement of the protective conductor impedance should be performed with an ac current not less than IO A and not exceeding 25 A from a’source of current with a no-load voltage not exceeding 6 V. for a period of at least 5 seconds.
Non --

a) Such connections need not be made to:
I) Extraneous conductive parts inside o f walls (for example structural metal frame work of buildings) having no direct connection to any accessible conductive part inside the room. and 2) conductive parts in a non-conductive enclosure.

a r e a o f the 6.1.2.7 The cross-sectional protective conductor shall be not less than the appropriate value shown in Table 3.
TABLE 3 CROSS-SECTIONAL AREA OF CONDUCTORS
CRCKS-SEUIONAL A R E A OF PIME COND~UW S. mm’ MISIMI!M CROSS-SM.TIONAL AR E A O F TllE CORRESWNDING PROTWTIVE CONMKTOR. PE. mm?

b) In locations where the position of the
patient can be predetermined this provision may be restricted to extraneous conductive parts within the patient environment (see Appendix B)

Sd 16

c) In operating theatres. intensive care rooms,
heart catheterization rooms and rooms intended for the recording of bioelectrical actiol potentials all parts should be connected to the equipotential bonding bar via direct and separate conductors. 6.1.33 The following requirements shall be fulfilled:

16 < S G 35 s > 35

; -r

N O T E - If the application of this table produces norm standard si7es. conductors having the nearest standard crosssectional area are to be used.

The values in Table 3 are valid only if the protective conductor is made of the same metal as the phase conductors. If this is not so. the crosssectional area of the protective conductor is to be determined in a manner which produces a conductance equivalent to that which results from the application of Table 3. The cross-sectional area of every protective conductor which does not form part of the supply cable or cable enclosure shall be, in any case, not less than: 134

a)

T h e i m p e d a n c e betwe’en e x t r a n e o u s conductive parts and the equipotential bonding bar shall not exceed 0.1 fI.

I

N OTE - The measurement of this impedance should be performed with a current not less thin IO A and not exceeding 25 A during not less than 5 seconds from a current source with a no-load potential not,exceeding 6 V ac.

b)

All equipotential bonding conductors shall be insulated. the insulation being coloured green/ yellow.
NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE

NorI. lnbulation of the equipotential bonding cqnduclor4 IS necessary. lo avoid loops by contact and 10 avoid picking up of stray currents.

b) d

insulated so that it is not possible to touch them unintentionally, and provided with isolating joints at those places where they enter and leave the room.

cl Equipotcntial

conductors between permanently installed extraneous conductive parts and the equipotential bonding bar shall have a cross-sectional area of not less than -4 mm’ copper or copper equivalent.

Exposed conductive parts of permanently installed equipment may be isolated from the conductive building construction. 6.1.5 Provision PJ : Application tif ResidualCurrent Prohrive Devices 6.1.5.1 The use of a residual-current protective device is not r&ognized as a sole means of protection and does not obviate the need to apply the provisions P I and Pz. 6.1.5.2 Each room or each room group shall be provided with at least one residual-current protective device. 6.1.5.3 A residual-current protective device shall have a standard rated operating residualcurrent I A N < 30 mA. 6.1.5.4 A medical isolating transfbrmer and the circuits supplied,from it shall not be protected by a residual-current -protective device. 6.1.5.5 Electrical equipment such as general lighting luminaries. installed more than 2.5 m above floor level need not bc protected by a residual-current protective device. 6.1.5.6 Fixed and permanently installed electromedical e q u i p m e n t .wit h a p o w e r consumption requiring an overcurrent protective device of more than 63 A rated value may be connected to the supply mains by use of a residual-current protective device with I A N d 300 mA’. 6 . 1 . 6 Pro\isiou P5 : Metlicul IT-S,wem 6.1.6.0 The use of a medical IT-system for the supply, of medically used rooms for example operatmg theatres. may be desirable for different reasons :

4 The equipotential bonding bar. if any,
should have adequate mechanical and electrical properties. and resistance against corrosion.

e) T h e c o n d u c t o r s c o n n e c t e d t o t h e
equipotential bonding bar shall be marked and shall be similarly designated on drawings of the installation system. A separate protective conductor bar and an equipotential bonding bar in a medically used room or in a room group shall be interconnected with a conductor having a cross-sectional area of not less than 16 mm? copper or its equivalent (see also 6.1.3.1). An adequate number of equipotential bonding terminals other than these for protective conductor contacts or pins of socket outlets should be provided iq each room for the connection of an additional protect& conductor of equipment or for reasons of functional earthing of equipment. 6 . 1 . 4 Pro\si.siorl PJ : R e s t r i c t i o n of Touch Voltage irr Roon~ Equipped ,fiw Direct Cardiac Application 6.1.4.1 The continuous current through a resistance of I 000 R connected between the equipotential bonding bar and any exposed conductive part as well as any extraneous conductive part in the patient environment shall not exceed IO PA in normal condition for frequencies from dc to I kH7. For a description of patient environment. see Appendix B. Where the measuring device has an impedance and a frequency characteristics as given in Appendix D, the current may also be indicated as a continuous voltage with a limit of IO mV between the parts mentioned above. - During the test it is assumed that fixed and permanently installed medical electrical equipment is operating. -- ‘Normal conbitions* means ‘without airy fault in the installation and in the medical electrical equipment’.
N OTE -- To comply with this requirement it pay be
necessary lo apply one or more of the following methods:

a) A medical IT-system increases the reliability
of power supply in areas where an interruption of power supply may cause a halard to patient or user;

b) A medical IT-system reduces an earth fault
current to a low value and thus also reduces the touch voltage across a protective conductor through which this earth fault current may flow;

cl A medical IT-system reduces leakage
currents of equipment to a low value. where the medical IT-system i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y symmetrical to earth. It is necessary to keep the impedance to earth of the medical IT-system as high as possible. This may be achieved by: I) restriction of the physical dimensions of t\he medical isolating transformer. 135

Extraneous* conductive parts may be: a) connected to the equipotential bonding bar by a conductor of a large cross-sectional area in order to reduce the voltage drop accross sueh a conductor.
PART 3 ELECTRICAL INSTAI.LATIOP;S

IN NON-INDUSTRIAL Bl;ILDINCS

4

restriction of the system supplied by this transformer,

checking the response of the monitor to a fault condition as described in 6.1.6.4.

3) restriction of the number of medical electrical equipment connected to such a system, and 4) high internal impedance to ‘earth of the iinsulation monitoring device connected to such a circuit. If the primary reason for the use of medical ITsystem is the reliability of the power supply, it is not possible to define for such a system a hazard current and an insulation resistance monitoring device should be used. If,on the other hand the restriction of leakage current of equipment is the main reason for the use of the medical IT-system. an insulation impedance monitoring device should be used. 6.1.6.1 For each room or each room group at least one fixed and permanently installed medical isolating transformer shall be provided. 6.1.6.2 A medical isolating transformer shall be protected against short circuit and overload. In case of a short circuit or a double earth fault in parts of opposite polarity of the medical ITsystem the defective system shall be disconnected by the relevant overcurrent protective device. If more than one item of equipment can be connected to the same secondary winding of the transformer. at least two separately protected circuits should be provided for reasons of continuity of supply. 6.1.63 Overcurrent protective devices shall be easily accessible and shall be marked to indicate the protected circuit. 6.1.6.4 An insulation monitoring device shall be provided to indicate a fault of the insulation to earth of a live part of the medical IT-system. 6.1.6.5 Fixed and permanently installed equipment with a rated power input of more than 5 kVA and all X-ray equipment (even with a rated ower input of less than 5 LVA) shall be protected 1 y provision Pd. Electrical equipment such as general lighting, more than 2.5 m above floor level. may be connected directly to the sup’ply mains. 6.1.6.6 General requiremenrs ./or insulorion mohiroring devices - A separate insulation resistance or impedance monitoring device shall be provided for each secondary system. It shall comply with the requirements given below: a) It shall not be possible to render such a device inoperative by a switch. It shall indicate visibly and audibly if the resistance or impedance of the insulation falls below the value given Gn 6.1.6.7 and 6.1.6.8. The arrangement may be provided with a stopbutton for the audible indication only.

cl The visible indication mentioned in (a) of
the insulation monitoring device shall be visible in the monitored room or room group.

d)

The insulation monitoring device should be connected symmetrically to the secondary circuit of the transformer.

6. I .6.7 lnsulorion resi.wonc*e monitoring device-The ac resistance of ,an insulation resistance monitoring device shall be at least 100 kR The measuring voltage of the monitoring device shall be dc exceeding 25 V. and the measuring current (in case of a short circuit of an cxtcrnal conductor to earth) shall not exceed I mA. The alarm shall operate if the resistance bctwccn the monitored isolated circuit and earth is 50 kfI or less. setting to a higher value is recommended. impedance m o n i t o r i n g 6. I .6.8 lnsulolion device - An insulation impedance monitoring device shall give readings calibrated in total hazard current with the value of 2 mA near the centre of the meter scale. The device shall not fail to alarm for total hazard currents in excess of 2 mA. In no case. however. shall the alarm be activated until the fault hazard current exceeds 0.7 mA.
N O T E - T h e v a l u e s o f 2 mA or 0.7 mA a r e b a s e d o n practical experience with I10 IO I20 V power supplies. For a 220-240 V power supply it may be necessary IO in’crease these values to 4 mA and 1.4 mA because of the higher leakage current of equipment.

During the checking of the response of the monitor to a fault condition the impedance between the medical IT-system and earth shall not decrease. 6. I .7 Pro vision Pf. : Medical Elecrricol Seporor ion lndividuol

6.1.7.0 Individual electrical separation of a circuit is intended to prevent shock currents through contact with exposed conductive parts Which muy be energized by a fault in the basic insulation. 6.1.7.1 The source of supply. shall be a medical isolating transformer. 6.1.7.2 Only one item of equipment shall be connected to one source of supply. 6.1.73 The voltage of the secondary circuit shall not exceed 250 V. 6.1.7.4 Live parts of the separated circuit shall not be connected at any point to any other circuit or to earth. 6.1.75 To avoid the risk of a fault to earth, particular attention shall be paid to the insulation of such circuits from earth. especially for flexible cables and cords.
NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE

b) A test button shall be provided to enable 136

2 Wiring 6. *Code of practice for design.8. shall either be physically separated from those of any other circuit or where this is impracticable.6 Live parts of circuits at medical safety extra-low voltage shall be electrically separated from other circuits. Where locked cabinets are provided. b) Conductors of circuits at different voltages shall he separated by an earthed metallic screen or an earthed metallic sheath. Advjce of equipment manufacturers shall also be sought in their installation. conductors shall preferably be brought into the building underground to reduce the possibility .7 Medical safety extra-low voltage circuit conductors.4. one of the following arrangements is required: a) Medical safety extra-low voltage circuit conductors shall be enclosed in a nonmetallic sheath additional to their basic insulation.1. cannot attain a voltage exceeding medtcal safety extra-low voltage.2. electrical separation not less than that provided between the input and output windings of a medical safety extra-low voltage transformer shall be provided between the live parts of electrical equipment such as relays.4.2.1. for the highest voltage present.6 In corridors and spaces accessible to public provisions shall be made for lighted signs.1. 6. : Medical Sqfkts Errra-Low Vu/rage ( M S E L V ) 6.7.Sec I I of the Code shall apply. auxiliary switches and any part of a circuit with . 6. enclosed in metal cabinet. 6.1 The general design of wiring shall conform to Part I /Set I I of the Code.8.1.8 Pt-m*isiorl P. all locks should be keyed alike.of interruption of power supply.2 All panel boards and switchboards shall preferably be of dead front type.4 Service Lines 6.8. conductors. The lighting points shall be so grouped so that minimum lighting may be switched on during night time. 6.7 Special convenience outlets in corridors spaced about I2 m apart are desirable for portable treatment equipment and cleaning machines.1.3 Feeders-The general provisions laid down in Part I . or where electrical equipment is inherently required to be connected to extraneous conductive parts.I higher \.1. 6.oltagc.1.2.8 Plugs and socket-outlets shall comply with the following requirements: a) Supply systems ot different voltages or different kinds or nature shall not have interchangeable plugs and sockets.2.8. 6.8. 6. or b) protective conductors or exposed conductive parts of another system. Arrangements shall ensure electrical separation not less than required between the input and output of a medical safety extra-low voltage transformer.83 A source of medical safety extra-low voltage other than . a) earth. 6.1.2. and b) Socket-outlets shall not have a protective conductor contact. In particular.2.8.8.4 Live parts at medical safety extra-low voltage shall not be connected to live parts or protective conductors forming part of other circuits or to earth.1. 6. d Where circuits at different voltages a r e contained in a multi-conductor cable or other grouping of conductors. PART 3 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN NON-INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS 137 . 6.8.2.6. 6.2 The main supply.1.1. 6.1 Medical safety extra-low voltage shall not exceed 25 V ac or 60 V dc peak value.4 Inside the wards only silent type waH mounted switches should be used to reduce noise. basr-insulation of any conducto-r should comply only with the requimments for the voltage of the circuit of which :t is a part. individually or collectively. 6.3 Circuit-breakers are preferred to switchfuse units in power and lighting feeders. 6.In he above arranBcments. 6. 6. All conductors shall be physically separated from those of other circuits.5 Exposed conductive parts shall not intentionally be connected to: NOTI+. it is ensured that those parts. 6.7. 6. diathermy.5 Separate circuits shall be provided for Xray. Switchboard and panel boards shall be installed in non-hazardous locations.1. electrocardiograph.1 The general provisions laid down in IS : 806l-1976* shall apply.6 Flexible cables and cords shall be visible throughout any part of their length where they are liable to mechanical damage. etc. electrotherapy.2 A supply transformer for medical safety extra-low voltage shall comply with relevant Indian Standards.a transformer shall have at least the same separation and insulation to other circuits and earth as required for the transformer under 6.7. 6. medical safety extra-low voltage circuits shall be insulated. c) extraneous conductive parts except that. installation and maintenance of service lines up IO and including 650 V.2.

Restricted paging system arrangement with sound alarm/ indicators in the duty rooms/nurses rooms shall be made. These measures include mainly the use of antistatic flooring. 6. . the fire-fighting pump motors are generally large and they draw heavy current. Reference should be made to SP : 7-1983* for guidelines for fire-protection of buildings.6.1 The type of buildings covered in this section fall under Group Cl (hospitals and sanatoria).Where electrical equipment contains pipes or tubes of combustion supporting gases. -6.1.1 Explosion Protection : General a) When the administration of flammable anaesthetic atmospheres or flammable anaesthetics or flammable cleaning and/or disinfection agents with air or oxygen and nitrous oxide is intended. such as oxygen or nitrous oxide. in normal use or in case of a fault. NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE b) . The additional rules given below shall apply.~XI.OGeneral. besides fire-fighting equipment manually operated electrical fire alarm system and automatic firealarm system shall be provided.A~7~:’ Power R EQUIREMENT (2) Pcrcclit 5 (1) Lgtrting.6.6 System Protection 6. Table 4 giv.5 Euilding Substation 65.3 For guidelines on selection of fire detectors. fulfilled gas-tight separation shall be provided between the electrical wiring and the tubes for gases. for example in a common conduit for channel. TARLE 4 POWER REQUIREMENT PART OF EL~C:CTRICAL INSTALLATION from other wiring..~N D.2 The location and layout of building substation shall conform to the general rules laid down in Part 2 of the Code. The wiring for fire-fighting systems shall be segregated *National Building Code. special measures to avoid ignitions and fire are necessary.1 While calculatin the power requirement.es reference values of power requirement and drversity factor for the different parts in a hospital installation.common enclosure.ro~nta\h~ospitals. The main supply point shall be located in the main building of the hospital. If the load demand is high voltaT high 2 * * sugPlY at aceommrr X:. b) cl P~.Bof su station eauipment will e required. and similar buildings) fire-safety classification point of view.5.6. REQUIREMENTS 7. &.5. the diversity factor for different electrical appliances and installations shall be considered.1 Provision A : Explosion and Fire Protection 7.6.0 General. 6. the following additional requirements apply: 4 Gas outlets shall be located at least 20 cm away from electrical components which. For guidance. The effectiveness of a ventilation:system may be subjected to National Regulations. Effective ventilation and the application .dtttoning Sterilizer kKdv Ekctromcdical installations and other loads (3) 4 6. The gas-flow shall not be directed towards such electrical components. Emergency and standby -power-supply needs of hospital buildings shall also be taken into account in designing the building substation. C2 (custodial institution) and C3 (panel institutions .2 In hospitals and similar buildings. 6.The design of power supply for hospital and similar buildings shall take into account the concentration of power demand for the various electrical loads.fo. T h e g a s . 6. with tubes for combustion supporting gases. Sufficient care shall be taken to ensure that the supply to such motors is maintained properly. such as oxygen or nitrous oxide if in the relevant circuit the p.We. I3g e) Where electrical leads are close to a pipeline guiding ignitable gases or oxygen. could generate sparks. Electrical wiring shall only be allowed to be run in a .t i g h t s e p a r a t i o n s. 6.roduct of the no-load voltage in volts and the short-circuit current in ahtperes does not exceed IO. see Appendix B of SP : 7-1983*.haII be electrically conducting and shall be connected to the protective earth busbar. FOR HAZARDOUS LOCATIONS IN HOSPlTALS ADDITIONAL 7.to reduce risk of damage to them in the case of fire.The general rules for protection for safety laid down in Part I of the Code shall apply.of a suction system on anaesthesia equipment assists in reducing llammable concentrations of flammable anaesthetic mixtures in the patient environment.7 Fire-Protection .6. If the requirements in (c) cannot be. For high-rise buildings. a shortcircuit of these leads or a short-circuit of one lead with a metal duct or pipeline shall not result in a temperature which may cause ignition. the anaesthetists working-place and the operating table.

’ BUILDING SERVICES (SQQ Part 3iSec 2 of the Code) 2oot 25 *Care shall be taken to screen all bright light and areas from view of patients in bed. 7. I) SL BUlLDtNCS Zones of risk exist only when flammable anaesthetics or flammable cleaning and/or disinfection agents are used. Guide for contrdl of undesirable static electricity. shall be 15.4 Car Speed . Where antistatic floors are used in cotijunction with non-antistatic floors marking should be provided. power distribution boxes and similar devices. corridors h) Dispensaries Doctors S Surgeries a) Consulting rooms b) Corridors c) Sight testing (acuity) wall charts and near vision types bundries/ Dry-Ck=aning Works a) Receiving.2 The resistance of an antistatic floor shall not exceed 25 MR at any time during the lifetime of the floor when measured according to IS : 7689-1974t.0. which should be described in the application code. 8. I. 8. the design of lifts in hospitals and similar buildings shall be made taking into account the criteria given below *General and safety requirements for electrical equipmenl used in medical practice: Part I General. 8. switches.3 If floors of low resistance (< 50 kR) are used.3 Lifts 8. . tSpecial local lighting required over kitchen equipment. mending. drying b) Dry-cleaning.2. which may cause ignition shall be kept outside zones of risk. washing. (2) a) Receptioo and waiting !i? I50 loo IS0 I6 13.75 0.1 The general rules laid down in Part I/Set I4 of the Code shall apply. e) Mains plug connections. rooms b) Wards i) General ii) Beds c) Operating thcatrcs/ Dental surgeries i) General ii) Tables/chairs 7. The resistance of teraz7o floors increases.1 The general rules laid down in Part I /Set -14 of the Code shall apply.1 Antistatic floors shall be used in rooms where zones of risk occur.3 O c c u p a n t L o a d . The choice of lamps.5 .The fact that during the lifetime of the floor the resistance may change should be taken into consideration.2 Antistatic Floor 7. 8. qf Floors Car Speed Served mfsec 13-20 I(ft 4-5 - Above I.3.2. to zones of risk in operating theatres or other anaesthetic rooms.2 Di&nsions . sorting. a r e under consideration. 8.5 to 0. Provisions Ps and/or Ps shall be used to ‘effectively limit the effects of fault currents. for electric lifts (firsr rivision). the occupant load expressed . while that of PVC floors decreases with time.2 Air-Conditioning . despatch 4. Hospital passenger No. pressing. marking and documentation of medical electrical equipment of category AP or APG are given in IS : 8607 (Part I)-1978*. N O T E . No.3.For the types o f ‘Gldings covered in this Section.’ hospitals lifts shall conform to those laid down in Table 3 of IS : 3534-l976* 8.1 Lighting 8. 8. Kirchens ( Sgial lighting) 300 I: :: I50 70 450 200 200 300 25 25 25 7.These shall be as follows: T. 5. (1) I.1. Allocation of equipment of the categories AP or APG.pe qf Lift . lighting fittings and the general lighting design together with the power requirement shall be planned based on the recommended values of illumination and glare index given in Table 5.3. are given in TARLE S R E C O M M E N D E D VALUES OF ILLU- MINATION AND LIMITING GLARE INDEX (Clouw 8.2.d Limits of zones of risk Appendix A. PART 3 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN NON-INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS I39 .25 Hospital bed Ilfts Short travel lifts in small hospitals Normal Long travel lifts in general hospitals OK5 *Outline dimensions.The-provisions of Part I Set I4 of the Code shall apply. bulk machine work c) Ironing.IS gross area in m* per person. However. d) Laboratories e) Radiology department 1) Casualty and outpatient department g) Stairs. spotting.3. Provision shall be made to induct fresh air to avoid entry of explosive gases from one room ‘to another.The outline dimensions of . Hospitals ILLUMINATION LIMITING GLARE INDEX (4) 4 Requirements on construction.

It is convenient to position the hospital passenger lifts near the staircases. 9.2 Provision EZ : Special Sqfety Supp!~ System.1. life support and basic hospital operation during the time the normal electrical service is interrupted (see also Appendix E). 4 Testing of the insulation resistance between live conductors and earth in each separately fused circuit. Short Break 10.1 A special safety supply system shall automatically take over the load within 0.5 second and operartion shall be maintained tor at least 3 hours.8 The taking-over procedure shall not start earlier than after a period of 2 seconds has 10.ple.4 Operation of a safety supply system shall not impair the function of protective measures.2.d socket outlets shall be marked clearly as such.5 All parts of essential circuits shall be 10.2.1.1. e) Testing of the general safety supply system. in particular breathing equipment.A special safety supply system shall automatically take over the load within I5 seconds after a failure of the power supply at the medical establishment containing life-supporting equipment. the main feeders for the safety supply system shall be segregated from the normal system wherever possible.1 Electrical establishments shall comprise essential circuits capable. 10. Systeq carried out as laid down in Part I /Set IO of the Code.1. of supplying a limited amount of lighting and power service which is considered essential for safety.5 second after a failure of the power supply at the operating lamp. within I5 seconds and to maintain operation for a period of 3 hours subsequently.1. 10. for exam.1.1 Provision EI : Special Sqfet.8 shall apply. 10.1. 10.2.2 It shall be possible to resume operation of equipment for maintaining important body functions.2.3 Where the rating of the special safety supply system issufficient the circuits of a medical IT-system according to 6.2.1 The rated power of the source of a special safety supply system shall not be less than required by the connected functions.1 The various tests on the installation shall be elapsed during which the system voltage has dropped below 90 V of the nominal value. 9.. 10.2. Return to normal power supply should be delayed.6 may be connected to it. 10.3. 10. 10.2 Operation of at least one operating lamp shall be resumed after a switchover time not exceeding 0.2.1.2. 0 Testing. For diesel-generators the delay should be at least 30 minutes.1.2 All medical establishments containing lifelsupporting equipment shall be provided with a safety supply system. 10. TESTING OF INSTALLATION 9.1. marked.1 .2 The initial testing of the installation shall-also include: a) Testing of the effectiveness of protective measures (provisions PO to P7).2.23 Common Recommendations for the Provisions EI and Ez. Medium Break 10.2 Provisions EI and EI : Special Safety Supply 10.3.2.1 Provision GE : Standby and Safety Supply System medical for systems 10. 10. via a-battery with inverter or via a motor driven generator.4 Where not all socket outlets in a medically used room are connectled to the special safety supply system the c0nnecte.5 Position . 10. At least the load which require continuity of supply shall be connected to the special supply system. and shall be completed within 15 seconds after the starting of the taking-over procedure.l* Supp!~* System.2. b) Testing of the resistance of protective conductors and of the qquipotential bonding. 10.7 A safety supply system shall be capable of automatically taking over the load of essential circuits in the event of a failure of the normal power supply. NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE .9 To prevent simultaneous damage.1.1.1. 10. There shall be sufficient space near the landing door for easy movement of stretcher/trolley. SAFETY AND SPECIAL SAFETY SUPPLY SYSTEM 10.83. For diesel-generators the requirements of 10.2 Operation of a special safety supply system shall not impair the function of protective measures.3 Essential circuits shall provide facilities for charging batteries of a special safety supply system.1. STANDBY. and 10.2. or equipment for resuscitation. Hospital bed lifts shall be situated conveniently near the ward and operating theatre enterances.6 An example of safety supply systems of a hospital is given in Appendix F 10. 4 Testing of the resistance of antistatic floors. of the special safety supply system. 10.1.

8 The charging device shall be designed so that. NOTE .9 It’ shall be possible to supply .1.Ballasts incorporated in fluorescent lamp fittings generate an alternating magnetic field.m 6 m 29 m d) catheterization rooms. 10. to the equipotential bonding system.2. Suggested minimum distances are: Conductor CrossSectional Area Distance. In some cases it may be necessary to remove ballasts of a certain type from the lighting fitting and to mount them at sufficient distance. have a negligible external field if _the load is correctly distributed between phase or between phase and neutral but in practice faults between neutral and earth or incorrectly distributed loads between lines and neutral.3.2 Measures Against Interference Caused by Mains-Induced Electric Fields 11. so that the special safety supply system batteries can be charged even during a failure of the normal power supply. floor and ceiling of the rooms concerned should be screened by means of metal shielding of cables or by metal conduits for cables and wiring.6 Operation of the special safety supply system shall be indicated by visual means in all rooms concerned. 11. it is recommended to shield the room or a part of the room against electric fields by installing a room screening within the wall structure. If such metal shielding is applied it should be connected to protective earth at one point only. b) intensive examination rooms. 11.1 Measures Against AC Interference 11. 11.2. c) intensive care and monitoring rooms. 11. will. 10. i 1. and subsequently to rechange during 6 hours after which it shall be possible to discharge once more for 3 hours under the conditions mentioned above. 11.2.5 The special safety supply ‘system source shall be located outside the medically used rooms. N OTE 2 -The values apply only to twisted cables. 11.1 It is recommended to provide sufficient distance between electrical components and equipment which may.3.1 In rooms where measurements of bioelectric potentials are performed measures against interference in the room and in the surrounding area should be effected if such interference may cause incorrect measurements. cause magnetic interference and the place for the examination of patients.2.3.. Such rooms are: a) rooms intended for measurement of bioelectric potentials (EEG. The distance should be 3 m or more.2 Sufficient distance should be provided when installing units with strong stray magnetic fields such as transformers and motors.3. and permanently installed electrical equipment of Class 11 and Ill (such as of lighting fittings) should be connected.3. and kakage currents will cause alternating magnetic fields’in the vicinity of power cables. 10.1 cannot be applied and ECG and EEG monitoring is to be undertaken.. either 3. and single phase or three phase. ECG.3 Where adequate measures according to 11.3. 11. for ECG recording.3. for .starting from the fully charged conditions. 11.2. In practice the following values of magnetic.3 Voltage deviations under normal conditions shall be less than IO percent for periods of time exceeding 5 seconds.4. 10. 10. and 2 X lO’T.It is recommended to provide additionally a total load indicator in each room connected to the same special safety supply system.4 Frequency deviations shall be less than I percent for periods of time exceeding 5 seconds.EEG recording.2. so that physical damage to the cables connecting the source to the distribution point is unlikelv.0 Powerful radio frequency fields may cause interference in sensitive electromedical equipment. Min IO to 70 mm2 95 to I85 mm2 240 mm2 N OTE I -Cables. those on the ceiling of: the room immediately below the examination room are the ones most likely to cause interference. etc).the charging circuit of a special safetv supply system from the safety supply system.2 Metal enclosures or parts of enclosures of fixed.7 Automatic means shall be provided to keep batteries optimally charged. W h e n bar systems or separated single cables are used. e) angiographic examination rooms.4.2.1 The electrical wiring on both sides of or inside walls. the distances may have to be substantially larger. it is possible to discharge continuously during 3 hours at nominal output.3.3.1 Normally such fields exist only where short-wave diathermy or surgical diathermy 141 PART 3 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN NON-INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS .2.2. 0 operating theatres. N OTE--. MEASURES AGAINST INTERFERENCE: PROVISION I 11. 10.3.1 should not have large power cables passing through or adjacent to them.10.3 Measures Against Interference Caused by Mains-Induced Magnetic Fields 11. This applies also to the isolating transformer of provision Ps. if possible close to the relevant distribution point.3 The rooms listed in 11.2. field strength have been found to be sufficiently low to avoid magnetic interferance: 4 X lO’T.4 Measures Against Interference from Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Fields 11.

It is recommended that electrtcal call and signal system should be provided in all hospitals so that patients may receive prompt servia and the doctors. The number appear on annunciators located in all sections of the corridors.f. N~TE-T~~ construction of such a screened room should be entrusted to a s cialist. suitable pull cord switches shall be provided inside bath and water-closet. At each bed there could be 4 push buttons. nurses and attendants may work more efficiently. If ‘the measures described here are not sufficiently effective it may be necessary to use sensitive equipment with a screened room. 12. Appropriate measures according to 11. and ’ c) In-and-out register.. When any patient presses the push button the indication is at the central control room from where intimation to nurses can be sent. If the patient needs further help of a doctor then the nurse again presses the fourth push button and the central. 12. second for ‘i?lurse Present’.1. message to the doctor for that particular bed. Two or more lights in the ceiling’of the corridor at the 142 .2 Nurses call system may also be of the intercommunicating type with a microphone and loudspeaker at the bed connected to the nurses’ station. admintstrators. The same number of numerals at least three. These flashers may also be used for other general calls such as ‘fire’ with a red ‘F’ and buzzer.1.i.51 Electric heating cables of any type should not be used in rooms where’ bioelectric potentials are recorded. the nurse presses the resetting button which puts the whole equipment to the original condition. il. this system should include all the features described in 12. ‘Calling Nurses’. NOTE .1 For emergency call of nurse by the patient when he/she is inside a bath or watercloset. An attenuation of 40 dB over the frequency range I5” kHz to 30 MHz is considered to be 0 adequate.7.2 and 11..1 These paging systems could be used for calling interns. Additional w measures are t* inclusion of r. 12. clinics on which doctors’ numbers can be sounded or the flasher type which indicates the doctors’.1. The following are the important call and signal system: .1.1.1 Nrirses’ Cd Sysrem . 11.0 The following requirement applies to electric heating cables embedded in or attached to surfaces in buildings. b) A central control panel should be set up preferably on the ground floor incorporating a set of indicating panels according to the number of wards.1. It simultaneously lights a dome light over the door of the room_from_.l to 12. a) Nurses call. The NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 12. heads of departments and their assistants and engineers.2. For maximum benefit and service. The loudspeaker and other audible calls should not be used as they may disturb the patients and attendants. The simplest measure against such interference is to locate uipment’which causes it kell away from areas “xere sensitive equipment is used.equipment is used and close to transmitting aerials used for such purposes as staff location and amb(ulance communications.1 Call Systems 12.which the call orginated.1.1.T h e nurses c a l l system should be a wired electrical system whereby patients may signal for a nurse from the bed site. should be used for each doctor so that a burnt out lamp may be located. nurses’ station to indicate the direction from which the call came are desirable for the latter arrangement. that the electric and magnetic fields will interfere with the recording of bioelectric potentials. First for.control panel operator sends. 12.1. After reaching the bed site the nurse presses the ‘Nurse Present’ button which gives an indication to operator at the central control panel that the nurse is available near the particular bed. numbers. rejection circuits in sensitive equrpment and the use of short-wave c&!~.this may consist of loudspeakers located throughout the hospital.1. *<2. MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS 12.2 Doctors Paging Sysrem .1 for the one-way signal system in addition to the intercommunicating features.rmy equipment with a low modulation ~ . It does not apply to removable appliances which may be mounted on the surface of walls. Each indicating panel should have a number of small lamps according to the number of beds.Due to the construction of such heating cables it is very likety. b) Doctors’ paging.consists of a keyboard and flasher at the telephone switchboard.0 Electrical call and signal system when provided in hospitals should comply with the requirements given in 12. untility room and floor pantry of the nursing unit. The’ telephone operator may set the board to flash as many as three doctors’ numbers automatically in rotation. The flasher system. These switches when operating will give an indication at the central control panel from where intimation to nurse can be sent.5.3 should be taken. After attending the patient. The signal at the nurses station may be in the form of an annunciator with a buzzer or a single light with a buzzer. The patient can signal for a nurse or speak to her and receive an answer.5 Electric Heating Cables 11. Two types of systems are recommended: a) A simple one-way’signal system which connects the bed side call stations with a signal at the nurses’ station. third for ‘Setting Combination’ and fourth for ‘Call for Doctor’. Nois .

ultraviolet rays or sterile ray lamps in ceilings of operating and delivery rooms around the operating light.2 Telephones 12. The general guidance provided in Part I iSec I4 of the Code shall apply.2.4. any ty.The doctors’*inand-out register permits the doctor to register ‘IN’ and ‘OUT’ with the minimum of effort and delay. 12. Clocks in operating and delivery rooms should have sweep second hands.4 Other Special Installations 12. 3 C l o c k s ~~ Electric clock system whet? provided. 12. or called to the telephone by push-buttons in the office which operate buzzers in the rooms. 12.< TRIC’. The register consists of a board.1.\I.At all special and important beds. that is. This flasher unit. For this reason the flasher system should be supplemented with loudspeakers at points where interns.4 In-and-Out Register .pe of general wiring may be acceptable. offices. to reduce the bacteria count. doctors’ rooms. in doctors’ lounge.0 Interconnecting telephones should be provided for all heads of departments.flasher call system has its shortcomings as the individual may fail to see the numbers when flashed. operating and delivering suites. The main office buzzers may be connected through a selector switch so that serial rooms or sections may be called by one button. telepholie jacks should be installed so that a telephone may be plugged in any time. called for duty. housekeeper. The room called can answer by pushing a b u t t o n w h i c h r e g i s t e r s o n a n annunciator in the office.1. will actuate a flashing light at the doctors’ name on all register boards which indicates there is a massage for the doctors. Call back systems are used for nurses’ and interns’ bedrooms: With such system the nurses and interns can be awakened. laboratory and engineers’ office and such other areas where the calls may not disturb the patients. it is recommended to install register system with a board at two or more entrances and at the telephone switchboard.DINCS 143 .1 Except in very small hospitals. main lobby.2. upon entering or leaving. kitchen.3 VHF Paging System -This system consists of a low powered transmitting station from which calls are broadcast throughout the hospital to miniature receiving sets which the doctors and others may carry in their pockets. record rooms and diet kitchens. In other places. f’AR1 3 b:l. and d) Luminous signs. nurses’ station.5 m from the floor as anaesthetic gases are heavier than air and gravitate to the floor. staff dining room. 12. b) Television sets in wards.4. laundry.1 The list of other special circuits in installations in hospitals are given below: a) Closed-circuit television in surgery department (for teaching purposes). The switch controls a light at or back of the name on all boards connected in the system. as well as in the operating and delivery rooms.1. operates a switch opposite his name which indicates whether or not he is in the building. at one or more entrances. concealed wiring should be provided to avoid risk of contamination. The clocks should be of the recessed type. telephone switchboard. 12. INSTALI. 1 2 .l-. having a motor driven interruptor.1 In case of operation theatre and rooms where surgical operations and dressing is done. dining room and boiler room. and attracts the attention of doctor upon entering or leaving the building. controlled at the telephone switchboard. Such a system should include a recall feature which consists of a flasher unit.2 The concealed wiring and switch-socket outlets in the operation theatres shall be kept at a minimum height of 1. cl Short-wave. These may be connected on a d i a l s y s t e m w h i c h p e r m i t s i n t e r n a l communication through the hospital switchboard without the assistance of the operato. on which all staff doctor. 12. preferably with a narrow frame. assistants.2.ATIONS IN NON-INDl:STRIAL BlMJ. heads of departments and doctors may congregate. 12. should have clocks at nurses’ stations.

2. gases (for example. vacuum and exhaust ventilation system for medical electrical equipment. 6. . Anaesthesia apparatus. Operation lamp. 7. Exhaust system for anaesthesia gases. Operating table.1. Additional Zone M due to use of flammable disinfection and/or cleaning agents. I I.2 and 7. 9. Equipment. 4. 3. Exhaust ventilation system.APPENDIX A (Clauses 2. IO.1) ZONE OF RISK IN THE OPERATING THEATRE WHEN USING FLAMMABLE ANAESTHETIC MIXTURES OF ANAESTHETIC GASES AND CLEANING AGENTS ZONE G ZONE M Legend I. 5. 144 NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE . oxygen). Ventilation syste’m. Ceiling outlet with sockets for electric power. Foot switch. Parts unprotected and likely to the broken. 8.

‘\ a.1.__ 1 0 2 0 w--w* / .1 1.3.I’ A’ OPERATION TABLE MEDICAL ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT PART 3 ELECTRICAL INSrALLATIONS IN NON-INDUSTRIAL BUlLDINGS 145' . 6.4) PATIENT ENVIRONMENT / / / /-----------.2(b) and 6.3.A P P E N D I X B (Clauses 2.1. I \ \ I \ \ \ l \ --.

Lightning protective system 20.APPENDIX (Clause 5. Socket . Main distribution board 2 7 13. Joint Water meter 1? Gas meter 17: Waste water 18. Earth electrode 19. General ward Hospital bed Heating and water pipes 8: Medical IT. Medical tsolatmg transtormer 1 I.1.4) C EXAMPLE OF AN ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION IN A MEDICAL ESTABLISHMENT a L e g e n d Heating popes :: Water supply Gas supply Distribution board 5. L = = EC PE Phase conductors Neutral conductors = Bonding conductor = Protective conductor NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 146 . From public electric power system L2.system for Operation Theatre 9. Insulation monitoring device . IO. . Main earthing bar 14.outlet 12.

Equipotential conductor bar Terminals for equipotential bonding :. Protective conductor bar 23. enclosure connected to the protective conductor bar) Alarm device for the insulation monitoring device (example) Operating tabte (electrically driven) 17. Feeder from the main service entrance (main :.. Stopbutton for buzzer 31.window-frame Metal cabinet for instruments Metal washing-basin and water supply Ceiling stand with outlets for gas supply Ceiling stand with mains socket outlets (with terminals for equipotential bonding. Red 29. Residual-current protective device 22. 98. L3 = Phase conductors = Neutral conductor N 147 PART 3 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN NON-INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS . EZ Special safety supply system. 4: 5.: Operation Warning .---i !P j’ Legend 1. Green 28. 15. 6.-. 10: 1':: 13. 14. Lz. Operating lamp 18. t: L3 PE . 7. Sterilizer 21. distribution board) Distribution of the floor Operating thea!re distribution panel Safety supply system Medical isolating transformer Insulation monitoring device Special safety supply system. X-ray equipment 20. El Central heating Metal..1. Buzzer 30. 16.1) SCHEMATIC PRES E NT A T I O N 0~ PROTECTIVE CONDUCTORS AND EQUIPOTENTIAL BONDING IN OPERATING THEATRES.4.APPENDIX D (Clause 6.. Testbutton = Protective conductor = Equipotential bonding L. Ampere meter for special safety supply system 19.

4) LIGHTING D EPARTMENT OR ARkA LO<‘ATION GRADt OF LIGIITING Major Operating Sires Operating theatre Critical working Operating theatre General working Anaesthetic rooms General working General working Post operative Circulating areas Intensive care room Deliver. and the crItIcal working areas in the delivery room and recovery rooms. E-l.3 Three grades of emergency lighting are suggested. External emergency lighting will normally be restricted to the accident and emergency entrance areas. As a general guide. Interruption of normal electrical service in medical establishments may cause hazardous situations. sufficient properly reduced stanqard of lighting. Suites Delivery rooms area area area area Grade Grade Grade Grade Grade A B A A C Crltical working area Grade A Grade B Other nursing areas Circulating areas Grade C Awidenr and fher~enc~~ Deparrmmrs Operating theatres Critical working area Grade A Critical working area Grade A lntenslve care General working areas Grade B rooms Circulating areas Grade C Our-Parlmr L~epartnwnt Operating theatres Treatment rooms Consulting rooms Pathological department E-1. etc. at entrances and exits. Emergency lighting may be needed in areas not mentioned in the table. In some medically used rooms a special safety supply system should be provided additionally.LIGHTING E-l. etc. The safety supply system is intended to supply electrical energy for a longer period of time to essential circuits of the medical establishment if the mains supply fails by external causes. E-l. safety lighting should be provided to enable essential movement of staff and patients to be carried out in reasonable safety. It supplies life supporting equipment and the operating table lighting for 3 hours only. for about half the normal standard.nts. Even in these areas. In some instances.. Ample socket-outlets connected to essential circuits should be available to enable portable lighting fittings to be used for any tasks outside the critical working area. to enable essential activities to be carried out. TABLE 6 EMERGENCY ( C/OUSP E-I . Levels for Grades A. considerable reduction in the general lighting may be acceptable.which require a higher standard of lighting. B and C are under consideration. depending on the importance and nature of the work. normal supply condition& b) Grade B example. the degree and quality of emergency lighting should be approximately equal to that of the normal lighting. I) SAFETY SUPPLY SYSTEMS E-O. ESSENTIAL SERVICES . for example. Safety lighting should also be provided in public waiting spaces.2 No general recommendations can be made for the emergency lighting arrsngements for stairs and corridors as needs will differ considerably according to the design and size of the hospital. and Priority is given to all aspects ensuring safe working conditions in medically used rooms. ambulance staff. operating table lighting in operating suites.1 Essential lighting requirements will vary considerably in different locations. that is. namely: a) Grade A lighting of intensity and quality equal or nearly equal to that provided under 148 Critical working area Grade A General working areas Grade B General working areas Grade B Circulating areas Grade C Essential working areas Blood bank Transfusion laboratory Grade B Grade A Grade A Diagnostic X-ray department General working area Grade H (where portable X-ray machines may be used) Circulation areas Grade C Treatment areas Public circulatmg areas Dispensing areas Laboratory Grade A Grade C Grade B Grade B Radiotherapy department Pharmacy (Conrrnued) NATIONAL ELECTRICAL. c) Grade C safety lighting of a m&h reduced standard but sufficient to allow the free movement of persons.APPENDIX E (Clause JO. it is necessary to provide for continuity of power supply for vital services at all times. 1.1 This appendix contains recommendations for the design of the safety supply system in medical establishme. however. for a relatively short time if the mains supply or the safety supply system fails or the switch-over time cannot be tolerated. E-1. Therefore.4 Table 6 is intended as a general guide. and in corridors used by members of the public. trolleys. CODE . GENERAL E-0.

7 Any mains-energized alarm and control circuits should be so arranged that they are 149 Essential working areas Grade B E-2. Pathology laboratories - Wards where essential equipment such as suction apparatus will be used Grade C Grade C Grade C No~t -~ It is reasonable to assume that only essential equtpment ~111 be used in these areas during periods of power failure. The recommendation that all sockets. E-2. Special baby care units Special. Table 7 is intended as a general guide. PART 3 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN NON-INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS . thus ensuring air supplies of approximately 50 percent of the normal rate.2 Socket outlets’in operating rooms for the connection of X-ray .4 Blood banks and other clinical refrigerators are usually equipped with temperature retaining facilities which will satisfactorily sefeguard against power failures of several hours’ duration.should be supplied from an essential circuit.6 Safety supply systems for facilities for ventilation and air-conditioning purposes will usually apply only to plants which serve areas which are entirely dependent on mechanical ventilation and have no facilities for natural ventilation or where mechanical ventilation services are. etc.4) D EPARTMENT L OCATION OR TABLE 7 SOCKET-OUTLETS IN ESSENTIAL CIRCUITS (Clause E-2. E-2. including automatic controls. pro rata. they shall be supplied from an essential circuit. E-2. Changeover switches.equipment for fluoroscopy . to enable either of the plants to be connected to the emergency service.5 Motors of surgical suction plant should be connected to an essential circuit.1 Socket-outlets should be so distributed that in each area where essential equipment will be used. should be provided.are connected to the Essentral Circuits provide the most convenient choice of sockets outlets at any time. &by Core Units General working Nurseries Psychiatric wards General working Treatment rooms General working General working Other nursing areas Grade B Grade B Grade A Grade C (nightlighting) All All All All All Cenrrol Sterile Sup&l General working area Grade B Deperrmenr Elepphone Exhnges Essential working area Grade B Operattws Robm Li/rS Lift cars Entrance and efiit of elevators General Circulating A rea3 Public entrances and exits Corridors and staircases forming recognized means of escape Corridors and circulating spaces of deep planned designs Assemb!v Areas Assembly rooms and associated exits Public waiting space Plant rooms housing essential plant Kitchens Grade A Grade A Grade B Ail 2 2 sockets outlets for wards containing I to 4 beds and. ( Ckruw E-I . Operating suites Grade B Grade B Intensive care room and operating rooms in accident and emergency department Delivery rooms Post-anaesthetic recovery rooms Intensive therapy units Radiological diagnostic room Ward accommodation set aside for patients dependent on electrically driven equipment.essential for clinical reasons. Where ventilation requirements are met by duplicate plants it will usually only be necessary for one of the plants to be supplied from the emergency source.TABLE 6 EMERGENCY LIGHTING-Conrd. E-2. Nevertheless. where the number of beds exceeds 4. artificial kidney machines. socket-outlets connected to at least two separate sub-circuits are available. E-2. rocking beds. for example. Grade C _~ Working area Grade C Grade B E-2. ESSENTIAL CIRCUITSSOCKET-OUTLETS E-2. following an interruption of supply. which are essential for the safe operation of sterilizing equipment in operating theatre and the central sterile supply department should be supplied from an essential circuit. however. I) NUMBER O F SOCKET O UTLETS CONNEVTED TO E SSENT IAL Cm-rrm (see N OTE) All All AREA G RADE OF L IGHTING Grade A DEPARTMENT Wurd Areas Intensive therapy units intensive nursing area Other nursing areas Nurses’ station or duty room area area area area. respirators.3 Electrical services. and to simplify installation. It is desirable that the motors should be so arranged that once they are switched on they will restart automatically.

It may be desirable for one deep-freeze refrigerator at each hospital to be supplied from the essential circuits where this can be conveniently arranged. all refrigerators should be supplied from an essential circuit.6 Communication equipment should be connected to essential circuits. PARTS OF ESSENTIAL CIRCUITS E-3.3 Where electrically operated pumps are used to maintain essential water supplies (including that for fire fighting purposes) it will be nec’essary to make suitable arrangements for the pumps to be connected to the safety supply system. These lifts will be regarded as emergency or fire lifts. E-2. E-3. E-3.automatically connected to the safety supply system in the event of a power failure. is usually energized from float charged batteries having sufficient capacity for at least 24 hours normal working.8 Emergency supplies for computers should be examined in each case.8 In biochemical laboratories and in the pharmacy about 50 percent of the normal load should be supplied from essential circuits.2 3 ° C a n d b e fitted with a temperature alarm device to give a warning when the refrigerator temperature approaches the upper safety limit. and should be suitably indicated by markings at each landing.4 Telephone exchange equipment. E-3.1 0 t o . Under normal supply conditions the emergency lifts only will be connected to the essential circuit of the installation. 150 NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE .5 Where lifts are provided for the movement of patients it is desirable that one lift in each separate section of the hospital should be so arranged that it is normally connected to the essential circuits of the installation having automatic changeover facilities. E-3.7 All boiler house supplies should .2 In milk kitchen. E-3.be fed from essentia! circuits. E-3.1 peep-freeze refrigerators and food storage refrigerators will normally operate within a temperature range of . E-3. E-3. Suitable manually-operated switching arrangements should be provided to enable the general safety supply system to be switched from the emergency lift to each of the other lifts in turn to eliminate the possibility of occupants being trapped in the lifts during power failures.

.

For the purpose of this Code. clubs and motels. the characteristics defined below generally apply.1 The electrical installations covered in this Section are those in buildings intended for the following purposes: 4 b) cl 4 4 r) Supply intake. 4 Channelized music. coupled with the demand by guests for a variety of comforts. 4. Presence of water Probability of pre. Increasing competition in the hotel industry as such.1.1 Hotels lodging or rooming houses are of a 3. P) 4) r) s) Service lifts and passenger lifts.2 The electrical installations in hotels covered in this Section include the following services: 0. the actual power requirement expressed in terms of per-unit area or per guest room. calls for an electrical installation in a h o t e l w i t h i n c r e a s e d sophistication. distinct from single or two family private dwellings which are covered in Part’3/Sec I of the Code. Ventilation and exhaust systems.Majority of locations in hotels. h) Swimming pool and filtration plants. Offices. ranging from simple dormitory type accommodation for guests. t) Gardens and parking lots and illumination systems therein.1 The following environmental factors apply to Hotels: Environmenr (1) Characrerisrics (2) Remarks (3) a) Lodging or Rooming Houses - These include any building or group of buildings in which separate sleeping accommodation for a total of not more than 15 persons on either transient or permanent basis with or without dining facilities. N O T E . the definitions given in Part I /Set 2 of the Code shall apply.-who are primarily transient such as hotels. j) Restaurants and bars. Laundry. sence of water Traces of water negligible appearing for short periods are dried rapidly by good ventilation rn NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE . TERMINOLOGY 2. say sports buildings. 0. Mam distribution centre. u) Illuminated signs. inns. For the purposes of installations falling under the scope of this Section.SECTION 5 HOTELS 0. 4.1 Forthe purposes of this section. F O R E W O R D wide variety.2 The electrical needs of a hotel depend on the type and extent of facilities being provided and the rating of the hotel:The system design would in general be identical with that of any other large building. CLASSIFICATION 3. GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF INSTALLATIONS 4. Banquet halls and conference facilities. b) Hotels -These include any building or group of buildings in which sleeping accommodation is provided with or without dining facilities for hire to more than 15 persons. 2. 03 Specific requirements for installations in swimming pool are covered in Appendix A to this section. Kitchen. 1. g) Health club. n-4 Telephones. display lights and decorative illuminations. restaurant? other than those forming part of a large hotel are treated as assembly buildings and are covered in Part 3/Set 3 of the Code. N OTE -The above is.1 Environment 4. Cold Storage. these specific requirements form part of this section of the Code. SCOPE 1.1 This Section of the Code covers requirements for electrical installations in buildings such as hotels and lodging houses.0 General guidelines on the assessment of characteristics of installations in buildings are given in Part I /Set 8 of the Code. These requirements also apply to swimming pools in other occupancies. Fire protection and alarm systems. ki Interior lighting. where only a common bath is provided with no facility for dining/kitchen to the sophisticated star hotels. For editorial convenience. 3. and v) Emergency system. but without cooking facilities for individuals. is provided.

If so..1.as manent and total swimming pools *covering by water Possibility of Presence of . t h e recommenda!ion of the manufacturer shall apply. ducting. These shall be connected in a circuit separate from the circuits for the guest rooms. laundr!.I\ well as in areas s u c h a s k i t c h e n . For such reception. for ‘special cases such as for . 5. The socketoutlets shall preferably have covers. false ceiling and chilled water lines should be obtained. The specific demands of the lighting. fire-alarm system. 5. DepepJs on the location of the building.3 In hotel buildings.2.ir~~ll-hoards -The provisions of Part I Set I I 01 the C o d e s h a l l apply. If so. building contractor and the electrical engineer on the various aspects of installation design.communication networks. such as building substation and for operating and maintenance staff Contact of persons with earth potential Persons in nonconducting situations Low. SUPPLY CHARACTERISTICS AND PARAMETERS 5.1.1. 5.1 Branch Circuits 5. e t c .Applies lo lodging Condition of .) Whether telephone and TV facilities are by the sea or industrial zones. per.1. in each room.1 The general provisions for th-c design of wiring of branch circuits shall conl‘orm to those laid down in Part l/Set I I of the Code. appliance and motor loads. They shall be run at skirting level and encased for mechanical protection. to reduce the need for altcr:\tlonh and extensions of wiring after the hotel building is completed. use of a central radio receiving system wired with multi-channels piped music system to each room is recommended so t h a t t h e occupa?t m a y c h o o s e o n e o f t h e broadcasts. C. layout of hot water pipe-line be obtained.2 The branch circuit calculations shall be done as laid down in Part 3/Set I of the Code. layout of fire-fighting installation should be obtained. If so.ri>tirs Remarks (3) indentified in other sections. the interior decor normally includes false ceiling. layout of air handling units. quantity or nature of dust or foreign solid bodies is not significant The quantity and For hotels.1.1. intended.v/ic:r (2) Ordinary. 5.Environmenr (1) Chara. high-rise buildings. other cateaorization applies (see Part i/Set 8 of the Cede) nature of corrosive or polluting substances not significant d) Whether centrally heated hot water system is intended. situated b) Whether centrally controlled fire-fighting is intended. Wires shall not be laid under carpets.1 Proper coordination shall be ensured between the architect.0. If so. fan coil units. nouses evacuation auring parlon. foreign solid bodies Presence of corrosive or polluting substances The.5. 5.2 Utilization 4. as well as special loads encountered in hotel building shall be taken into account.4 Panel Boards and S\c. In addition to the general aspects which require coordination and PART 3 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN NON-INDUSTRIAL .0 These should hc pro\lded in all places where plug-in service I\ I~hcl! to be required. information shall be obtained on the following services : Possibility of jets Applies 10 gardens of water from any direction. 5. 5.Locations suctr. special aerials and BUILDINGS 153 4. etc.5. . such as by drawing the wires in metallic conduits and not run in open. High density occupation difficult conditions of evacuation Nature of processed or stored material No significant risk Contamination risks due to presence of unprotected food srulfs Applies to kitchens Large hotels. density occu. Any wiring laid above the false ceiling should be adequately protected. Duplex or other suitable outlets should be provided as required in the offices and work places for fans.. Mechanical stresses Seismic effect and lightning Impact and vibration of low severity. lamps and appliances. 4 Whether central air-conditioning system is intended.s (3) A major proportion of occupants in Hotels Applies lo areas. uninstrutted persons Persons adequately advised or supervised by skllled persons Re:nurk. carpets and curtains.1.5 Socket-outlets trtltl I’llcp\ 5.1 The following aspects of utilization shall apply: Utilizarion (1) Capability of persons Characreri. easy conditlons of evacuemergency ation. Corridors and staircases shall be provided with sufficient socket-outlets for floor cleaning appliances.1 If provided. However.0 Exchange of Information 5. layout of the telephone installation and TV circuits should be obtained.

Both manually operated and automatic fire-alarm systems shall be provided in large fiotels. It shall be provided with proper ventilation and lighting arrangement.3 In bathrooms.6.4 Lighting in banquet halls shall be given special consideration in view of its multipurpose utility such as fairs. TABLE 1 RECOMMENDED VALUES OF AND GLARE INDEX ILLUMINATION FOR HOTELS SL No. lobby 2. — — — Bedrooms: a) General b) Dressing tables. it shall be possible to switch the general lighting not only from the entrance but also -from the bedside (see aho 7.5. 12. 5. Aerial outlets at rooms are reauired for ttortable radios in arqas and buildings’ where re.2 In guest bedrooms.1 The general rules laid down in Part I /%c 14 of the Code shall apply. Adequate plug-in sockets at proper locations should be provided in banquet halls and other meeting places for flood lights and other appliances. swimming pool. 5.2 Feeders — the general provisions laid down in Pan 3/See 11 of the Code shall apply. 5. conferences. installation and of service lines up to and including 650 V. Reference should ti made to SP :7-19831 1’ guidelines for fire protection or of buildings. Separate feeders shall be provided ~.6. loads. 5. 14. The main distribution equipment of the hotel shall preferably be located next to the substation. NATIONAL ELE~RICAL CODE 154 . Entrance halls. 3. lighting of main building and other essential.3 Service Lines— The general provisions down in IS :806”1-1976* shall apply. 4. 5. manually operated electric fire-alarm system shall be *Code of practice for design.4. The choice of lighting fittings and general lighting design shall be together with power requirements planned based on the recommended values of illumination and limiting values of glare index given in Table 1. Care shall be taken to ensure that there is no gla[e. 5. toilets and utility rooms for use of appliances. the lights should be mounted at head level on both sides of the mirror. 5.4. heads. tNational Building Code.1 H the load demand is high which requires supply at voltage above 650 V a separate indoor accommodation.1. 150 300 100 150 Reception and Dining Lounges rooms accounts (tables) . kitchens.1. They should be of the 3-pin type. !1. as near the main load centre of fhe hotel as possible shall & provided to accommodate switchgear equipment of supply undertaking and Indoor/outdoor accommodation for the transformers. etc Writing Corridors Stairs Laundries Kitchens tablks bed 100 200 300 6.5. laundry.5. Heavy duty sockets should also be provided in pantries. 5.4. 70 100 — 200 200 70 100 100 150 to 300 25 25 — — — 22 is the Goods/ passenger lifts Cloakrooms/ Bathrooms Shops/stores toilets N6TE — The lighting of some of these locations determined primarily by aesthetic considerations and ubovc viilues should be taken as a guide only.1 Genera/ — The general rules for protection “for safety laid down in Part 1/ Sec 7 of the Code shall a ply.4 Building Substation 5.2 For lodging and rooming houses of 3 storeys and above. The accommodation for substation equipment as well as for main distribution panel shall be properly enclosed so as. 7. provided. 5. 13.1.6.2 Special convenience outlets in corridors at suitable locations are desirable for use o f portable equipment such as floor cleaning appliances.2).1. fashion exhibition or concerts. 5. shows.related wiring are required. 5.5 System Protection 5. maintenance 5.6 Building Services 5. 10. Sufficient number of controlled socket-outlet circu’its sha~l be combined in a switching station from which the entire hall shall be visible.1.2 The supply line should preferably be brought into the building underground to reduce the possibility of interruption of power supply.6. (1) BUILDING “ILLuhfb NATION (3) hlx laid (2) LIMITING GLARE INDEX (4) 1.1 Lighling 5. suitably rated with one-pin earthed. EL 9. dances.eption is poor but in general the aerial buht in the set may be adequate.6. with a floor area more than 200 m~ with central corridor and rooms on either side.for major lbads like central airconditionlng. kitchen. to prevent access to any unauthorized ~son. besides fire fighting equipment.

4 Emergency Supply . the design of lifts shall take into account the following recommendations.4.3 Clock Systems. 7. If this is not possible.3 Car speed.5. The call system should be a wired electrical system whereby customer may signal for attendance from his room. and Cold storage. and 4-5 0.4 For hotel buildings. e) Banquet halls.1 In the event of a failure of supply. A part of the lighting in each room. and the standby power supply shall feed essential and safety installations in the hotel.2 Air-condirioning --. staircases and other circulation areas shall be connected to emergency supply.6 For particular requirements’ foi locations containing a bathtub or shower basin. However.1 The various tests on the installation shall be carried out as laid down in Part l/Set IO of the Code. d) Dining room. 6.6.The passenger handling capacity expressed in percent of the estimated population that has ‘to be handled in the 5 minute peak period shall be 5 percent for hotel buildings.6. Each indicating panel should have a set of small lamps according to the number of rooms.6. b) Main lobby. 7.. 5.3.s b) A central control panel shall.(see a/so Part 2 of the Code).$ts and Escalarors 5.0 The general rules laid down in Part I / Set 14 of the Code shall apply. it is desirable to have at least a battery of two lifts at convenient points of a building. the attendant presses the resetting button which puts the whole equipment to the original condition. b) c) d) e) Lighting in banquet halls. MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS 7. lt simultaneously lights a dome light over the door of the room from which the call is originated.5 gross area in m2 per person is recommended. 155 PART 3 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN NON-INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS . 7. and one lift at different sections of the building for intercommunication.attending the customer. care shall be taken to ensure that disturbing glare does not reach the rooms of the guest’s.For hotel buildings.6.5 Other Special Installations -The list of such installations is given below: 5. it is advisable to have at least two lifts side by side at the main entrance. f) Kitchen.2 Part of the kitchen.6.1 Call System -The general provisions for electrical bells and call system shall conform to those laid down in Part I /Set I4 of the Code. Fire-fighting system.2 Telephones . 7.3. telephones may be required to be provided. c) Telephone switchboard.6. storage and refrigeration rooms in the hotel shall also be supplied by the emergency supply.5 In designing outdoor lighting installations. a) TV sets at main assembly areas and in guest rooms.3. 5. The signal at the attendant station may be in the form of an annunciator with a bu77er or a light with a buzzer. telephone jacks shall be installed so that a telephone may be plugged in any time at any convenient location. After.2 Passenger handling capacity .75 g) Restaurant and bar rooms.The provisions of Part l/Set 14 of the Code shall apply. 5.3. 7. Swimming pool (see Appendix A).3 L. These may be connected on a dial system which permits internal communication through the hotel switchboard without the assistance of the operator. The following locations may be provided with clocks: a) Guest rooms. see Appendix A of Part 3/Set I of the Code.4.1 Occupant load .The general provisions for clock systems shall conform to those laid down in Part 1 /Set 14.6. Emergency lighting shall be confined to essential areas. an occupant load of 12. 7. 7.6. At all the rooms.This shall be as follows : Occupancy Passenger lifts for low and medium class lodging houses Hotels Floors Served Car Speed m/s 0. 5. Parallel telephones may be provided in the bedrooms. a large standby power supply usually a diesel driven generating set could be used to partly or entirely supply the loads in the hotel.For internal communicatiofi.1. be set up preferably on the ground floor incorporating a set of indicating panels according to the number of wings. Two types of systems are recommended : a) A simple one-watt signal system which connects the room side call sfatims with a s i g n a l a t t h e a t t e n d a n t s t a t i o n .5-0. 7. TESTING OF INSTALLATION 6.3. cdrridor. 5.

A-2.50. and Zone 1 . or cl protected by a residual current protective device. A-5. m around the diving boards. A-5. In Zone 2. spring boards.50 m above the highest surface expected to be occupied by the persons.Where the pool contains diving boards.50 m from the former.50 m above the floor or surface. PROTECTION FOR SAFETY A-3.2 All extraneous conductive parts in Zones 0. spring boards and starting blocks.is limited by a vertical plane 2 m from the rim of the basin by the floor or the surface expected to be occupied by persons and the horizontal plane 2. Electrical equipment shall have at least the following degrees of protection: Zone 0 : IP X 8 Zone 1: IPX4 Zone 0 -is the interior of the basin.1.3 In Zones 0 and 1 no switchgear and accessory shall be installed.1 In zones 0 and 1 wiring systems shall be limited to those necessary to the supply of appliances situated in those zones.1 Where safety extra-low voltage is used. A-5.1. In Zone 2 socketoutlets are permitted only if they are either : Zone 2 . protection against direct contact shall be provided by barriers or enclosures affording at least a protection of IP2X. whatever the nominal voltage.6) PARTICULAR REQUIREMENTS FOR SWIMMING POOL A-l. and by the horizontal plane 2. or insulation capable or withstanding a test voltage of 500 V for I minute. they are permitted provided they have the necessary degree of protection as given in A-4. NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE .50 m above the floor of the surface.1 Reference is drawn to Fig. starting blocks or a chute. SELECTION OF EQUIPMENT A-4.3 and 7. IP X 4 for outside swimming pools. WIRING SYSTEMS A-5. CLASSIFICATION OF ZONES A-2. A-3. Zone 2 : IP X 2 for inside swimming pools. N OTE . A-3.is limited by the vertical plane external to Zone 1 and a parallel plane 1. by the floor or surface expected to be occupied by persons and the horizontal plane 2. 4 supplied individually by an isolating transformer. or b) supplied by safety extra low voltage. 1 and 2 shall be bonded with protective conductors of all exposed conductive parts situated in these Zones. Zone I comprises the zone limited by a vertical plane situated 1. 1 and 2.2 Junction boxes are not permitted in Zones 0 and 1. A-4.A P P E N D I X A (Clauses 0. SCOPE A-l.1 This appendix applies to the basins of swimming pools and paddling pools and their surrounding zones where susceptibility to electric shock is likely to be increased by the reduction of body resistance and contact with earth potential.

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1 The design and erection of e l e c t r i c a l installation in a sports building have to take into account a multitude of factors. indoor and outdoor. d) Based on Audience-factor i) Stadia/halls meant for exhibition purposes-where groups of people congregate. that are unique to the type of use to which it is put. F O R E W O R D sports and games are characterized by the criteria that large number of people congregate. Assessing the need for adequate strength of a standby supply for essential services requires special considerations. A large sports complex may include the following subunits: a) Supply intake/voltage of supply. It is recommended that assistance of experts shall be sought in the design of the installation at the early stages itself: 1.r amusements as well.SECTION 6 SPORTS BUILDINGS 0. TERMINOLOGY 2 .4 It is to be noted that a sports stadia should preferably be designed for use for other purposes as well. 0. 0. c) Based on utilit_v i) Stadia meant for games only. 2. telex. only broad guidelines are outlined in this Section. this Section of the Code has been set aside to cover such of those specific requirements applicable to sports buildings from the electrical engineering point of view. 159 f) PART 3 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN NON-INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS . ii) Multipurpose stadia for oth&. 0. The type of building shall therefore be classified as follows: a) Based on Type of Building: i) Indoor stadia ii) Outdoor stadia : Stadia meant for use in daylight Stadia meant for use during night under artificial lighting b) Based on Type of Game/Sport i) Single game spprts hall/stadia. t h e definitions given in Part I/Set 2 of the Code shall ~-. In a way the electrical power needs and the external influences in a sports building are quite identical to those for theatres and other multipurpose buildings for cultural events excepting that for international events exacting standards of services and flexibility had to be provided in a multipurpose sports stadia. if any. 3.5 With the advent of sophisticated stadia in the country as well as keeljing in view the accent on sports. shall however conform to the special requirements of this Section. and not likely to be utilized for other purposes. e) Communication facilities (telephbne. ii) Stadia/halls meant for training and passtime -.2 Several stadia. ii) Multigames hall/stadia. 0. telegraph.1 Reference should be made to 5. The design of illumination system in a sports building therefore requires consultations with a specialist and the guidelines provided in this Section are purely recommendatory in nature in this respect. 4 Electrification of restaurant. 0.where audience may not normally be present. Taking note of the f&t that the type of buildings and their needs for the purposes of sports and games would be quite differqnt between them. data processing TV.apply. Fire protection services. especially those of the indoor type are meant for staging a variety of games which between themselves require varying standards of lighting levels. health. such as the staging of cultural events and this aspect shall be borne in mind while designing the electrical needs of the complex so as to ensure optimum utilization of the facilities.5.1. clubs. 1 F o r t h e purpdses o f t h i s S e c t i o n . c) Central control room/ switch rooms.1 The buildings for the purposes of conducting 3. radio and press facilities). NOTE ~ Classification d(i) includes stadia meait for staging tournaments and events and d(ii) includes games halls in educational institutions and the like where normally no exhibition is intended. Sports complexes not basically meant for exhibition purposes.1(a) to (d) above. such as -for staging special or cultural events. offices and other support structures.3 In indoor stadia where large number of people congregate it is essential to inbuild adequate fire precautioris from the point of view of safety.1 This Section of the Code covers requirements for electrical installations in sports buildings and stadia. 3.1. SCOPE 1. b) Main -substation and satelite substations. CLASSIFICATION OF SPORTS BUILDINGS 3.2 for classification from lighting consideration.2 The electrical installation needs in sports buildings would therefore be governed by the type of use indicated in 3. hospitals.

For the purposes of installations falling under the scope of this Section. ation. In sports stadia the sportsmen and spectators fall under this category. restaurants. 4.. from supply arrangements exists. water supply systems. Nature of proces. switchrooms. storm water drainage. 1. stored material CHARACTERISTICS 5. easy con. -Large multipurpose High density stadia for exhioccupation. supply system including uninterrupted power requirements. transformers. the capacity and locations of main plants. SUPPLY PARAMETERS 5.0 Exchange of Information AND Presence of water Submersion. switchgear. Capability of persons Uninstructed persons. Stadia and games cbmplexes situated by the sea or industrial zones require special consideration. exposure of equipment is present.Locations such as sibility of perma. 4. sewage disposals and the pump capacities.the like where ditions of evacupeople do not congregate. k) Dewatering arrangements.Due to furniture and false floor for risks. 5. diffi*cult conditions of bition purposes evacuation.0~ density occu. ml Gas/oil arrangements for sports flame if required. etc. sed or playing area. Direct exposure Lighting towers in or hazard from outdoor stadia.1) type of installations. the covered portions like offices.2. tioning is required and if so. number of substations and their preferred locations. b) In case of indoor stadia. 0 Requirements. Indirect exposure Installations suppto lightning. layout. e) Locations of substations. microphone outlets. and n) Miscellaneous requirements for power- socket. locations. ducting. etc.Existence of fire.2 Utilization 4. lied by overhead where hazard lines. sewage disposal. GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SPORTS BUILDINGS 4. 160 c) Details of fire fighting system/fire alarm d) Details of water supply arrangements. the following data shall specifically be obtained: 4 The total electric power needs of the stadium including the standby power arrangements. which will decide the voltage of supply. score-boards. Covers majority of cases. In addition to the genera1 aspects which require coordination and identified in other sections. are to be air-conditioned or not and their details as above. etc. capacity of diesel engine generating sets for standby supply. In case of outdoor stadium. public address/security. system envisaged. the characteristics given below shall apply.0 Genera1 guidelines on the assessment of characteristics of installations in buildings are given in Part 1 /Set 8 of the Code. lake fountains (if any). 4.swimming pools nent and total where electrical covering by equipment is perwater manently and totally covered with water under pressure greater than 0. electrical operating areas are accessible to instructed persons only. voltage stabilisers. service routes. air-handling units. e i g n s o l i d b o d i e s nature of dust or foreign solid bodies is not significant Presence of dust in significant quantity Presence of corro.the electrical engineer on the various aspects of the installation design. pos.g) External electrification ot gardens and parking lots. sive of polluting substances Outdoor stadia. etc. distribution boards.0. route of chilled water lines.1 The following environmental factors apply to sports buildings: Environment (1) Characteristics (2) Remarks (3) Conditions of evacuation in an emergency.Training halls and pation.1. etc.1 bar.1 Environment 4. However. Covers category d(ii) (see 3. Presence of forThe quantity or Indoor stadia. whether air-condi- Lightning Negligible.1 The following aspects of utilization shall apply: Utilization (1) Characteristics (2) Remarks (3) _i) Audio systems.1 Proper coordination shall be ensured between the architect building contractor and .Negligible. pumps. of audio-communication NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE . h) Emergency electric. uninterrupted power supply requirements.

1t5. telecommunication. k) Requirements for power outlets. centralized clock system.1 The Utility shall be consulted as to the type of service available.4 Socket-outlets and Plugs . The need for special convenience outlets shall be considered for services enumerated in 3.of luminaires and conduit/ cable installations for various services. Usually HV supply is used for large multipurpose stadia where power demand is in excess of 500 LVA. in playing arena and field. All electrical operating areas. etc. speaker outlets.1 Branch Circuits 51. In large stadia.1. path way and external electrification. Utility socket outlets shall be provided at a height of about 0. TV. c) Wiring diagrams showing &itching sequence of luminaires. From the pqint of view of appearance and minimum interference. and 0 Site plan ‘indicating the location of pump houses for storm water drains. This . the provisions of Part 3/Set 3 of the Code shall apply. Whenever floodlight luminaires of more than I 000 W are installed. 5. j) Requirements of lighting. h) Special requirements of press. public announcement.3 m from the floor exce t in field/arena. whether primary or secondary. etc. it is preferable to have individual branch. car calling system.1 The general rules as laid down for other large assembly buildings (see Part 3/Set 3) and as laid down in Part I of the Code shall . the areas covered by the services shall be segregated into zones and the subdistribution and distribution boards shall be so arranged and marked keeping in view their accessibility in times of need. etc.3.2.For small stadia] halls. 5. systems. 5. and control rooms shall preferably be segregated from public routes for the sporting events.3 Some installations may justify a separate transformer on each pole of the floodlighting tower with primary wiring to each tower. ducts/grill layout. tirealarm system.3. it may be more economical to reduce the number of transformers by serving 161 4 Single line diagram for electrical distribution.3. 5. voltage stability. chilled water piping routes.2 The following drawings are recommended to be prepared before commencing the installations work: g) Details of score-boards -that is whether to avoid temporary wiring in electrical central control room. etc. ambulance call. l&e1 of illumination required for various stages like training. restaurants. according to the size of the Installation. games federations. the underground system is more desirable where large playing areas are involved. water supply. In smaller installations.2 The main substation for a sports building shall prefereably be located in such a place that does not interfere with the movement of people congregating. intercom stations. the location of lighting luminaires. etc’.system for the stadium which includes public address system. radio. etc. fire service call. type of light source. gas/oil requirements for flame and their controls. etc. TV (black and white dr colour) coverage. and their power needs. b) Complete layout drawings indicating type and mounting . fountain lighting system. d) e) Layout of public address system envisaged. 5.1 The electrical needs of sports stadia may vary from 30 kVA to 1 000 kVA. microphone outlets. 5. This shall be prepared in coordination with civil and structural engineers.2(e). 5. etc.The provision of Part I /Set 1 I of the Code shall apply. sewage and fire fighting systems. wireless paging system. layout of pln.3 Panel Boards and Switchboards .3 Building Sdbstation 5. manual or automatic. Junction boxes shall be installed near the luminaires from which connection to the light source may be taken by flexible conduits. It is preferable PART 3 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN NON-INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS .0. 5. These shall be of weather-pro0 P type..2.2 Outdoor floodlighting installations can be made with either overhead or underground distribution feeders.. inter-stadia communication facilities. etc. circuits to each of the luminaires after considering the economic aspects.2 Feeders 5. 5.1. 5. ml Other micellaneous items like electrification of ancillary buildings in the sports complex.will help maintenance work to be carried out without disturbing the positioning of the lighting fittings. The design of substation shall conform to the requirements specified in Part 2 of the Code.apply. In Zase of air-conditioning.2.2 Wiring installations for general purpose lighting and ventilation needs of the sports buildings shall conform to the requirements laid down in Part 1 /Set I of the Code. with the proposed source and route of power supply. single-phase or three-phase star or delta. car park. computer-aided results information. 5.3 The underground system shall either be cables directly buried or cables in conduits.1.

which are aerial in handball. 5. Automatic firealarm system.4. 5. a) While selecting and installing high intensity discharge or fluorescent lamps in multipurpose stadia. especially m large stadia require considerations of not only the objects to be seen.5 Miscellaneous considerations for lighting cl High intensity discharge lamps . Automatic firealarm system. squash.Where necessary. the objects of regard are not fixed.2 For’ the purposes of artificial lighting design. Where a quite surroundmg is required in order to avoid ballast hum.1. 5. occupancy Same as above. A horizontal illumination in excess of 300 lux is considered adequate for operation of black and white TV and film recording. 5. arena. b) Low level (games which are close to the ground level) Archery. Small halls.These are a) Observers have no fixed visual axis or field of view. 5.5. overvoltage operation can be used to advantage especially as in sports installations. Colour recording calls for more NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 162 . billiards.1 Special design . community centre halls and other multipurpose areas. but the observer’s location in the grandstand as well. tennis and part or whole) volleyball. field houses.Design of sports lighting. b) Fluorescent lamps . bowling.For sports lighting.4 For buildings staging national or international sport events. for less than 1000 persons.1 Sports buildings are classified as ‘assembly buildings’ (Group D) from fire-safety point of view (see SP : 7-1983*).4.. and the loads it is intended to serve. the lighting systems are used for less than 500 h a year. b) Efforts shall be required to coordinate the lighting design for sports events with the illumination requirements for TV or film coverage.3 Levels of illumination . the inherent time delay for full glow when first energized or when there is power interruption may necessitate use of incandescent lighting system to provide emergency standby illumination in spectator areas.4 Sekction of light sources . include.3.1 Lighting 5. in offices and automatic firealarm system in rtndia. etc.1.1. it shall be ascertained whether duplicate power supply would be required together with its capacity. 5. the background brightness. and mostly moving in a three-dimensional space. Same as above. Grandstands. swimming and boxing.for example tennis. the recommended values of illumination are as given in Table I. Besides fire fighting equipment fire-detection and extinguishing system. trampoline and a varietv of indoor sports. ctc 5. the nature of sports shall be divided as follows: a) Aerial sports (sports Badminton. Small indoor games halls for less than 300 persons. use of fluorescent mercury lamps is recommended. even the ceiling and luminaires are likely to come into the line of vision.5. basketball. For the purposes of lighting design. Ma:rually operated firealarm systems. mitchinc room.features .5.5.5 Building Services 5.1.4 System Protection 5.For some representative types of sport. However. health clubs. control room.1. hockey.5.1. 5.several locations from a single transformer through secondary wiring. gymnasiums. remote mounting of . it is necessary to connect lamps on alternate phases of supply to avoid flicker on rapidly moving objects. of sport play into general areas for more than one sport and areas for particular sport. b) While the game is in play. During the shifting of sight. shall be provided as recommended below: Description dig halls for over 5 000 persons.5.Advantageous where mounting heights are low and short projection distances are acceptable . c) It is important for observers to be able to estimate accurately the object velocity and trajectory. For sports events. etc. The following shall be taken Into account: characterized by long life and high luman efficiency. where colour rendition is important. Automatic sprinkler. stadia for outdoor gathering.0 The general rules laid down in Part I I Set I4 of the Code shall apply. it is recommended to divide the location *National Building Code. bowling. indoor with or without fixed seats corridors for about I 000 persons.5. areas General gymanasiums. F i r e Derecrion System Automatic sprinkler and alarm system. fencing.ballasts shall be considered. the following light sources are advantageous together with the considerations indicated against each: a) Incandescent lamps (including tungsten halogen) .0 The general rules for the protection of safety laid down in Part I/Set 7 of the Code shall apply. 5.

4 Clock System . These shall be considered before designing the electrical services of the same.1 The various tests on the installation shall be carried out as laid down in Part I /Set IO of the Code..2 Air-conditioning 552. For film/TV coverage. C l a s s I V -~ 5 000 . c) Grouu switching . the effect of time . Class 11 ~~ 10 000-30 000 spectators. 5.1 Electrical Audio Systems . In large grandstand stadia. and iv) Separate switching for playing arenas.5. *Levels recommended are for incandescent lamps. Colour filming may also need lamps having correlated colour temperature of between 3 000 K to 7 000 K. over 30 m minimum distance. iii) Requirement of lighting for tournaments with film and TV coverage. TESTING OF INSTALLATION 6. 540 220 320 540 540 540 1 100 540 320 220 540 320 220 320 220 540 (vertical) 1 IO 54 540 100 W/m’ of surface area 220 60 . ii) Exposure time.The power requirements for such equipment would depend on the type of equipment to be installed.The various communication needs of a large stadia is normally met with by electronic equipment centrally controlled.5. The following classification is therefore described: Class 1 . In order that the installed flux is not wasted the walls of the pool basin shall be given a high reflectance surface finish.t of 540 320 540 220 NOTE 1 . 7.30 000 spectators.For football. stringent requirements. For discharge lamps W/m’ would be reduced depending upon the efficiency of light source.1 5 m minimum distance.TABLE 1 RECOMMENDED VALUES OF ILLUMINATION (Clause 5. 7. after considering thefollowing factors as well: i) Separate switching for lighting outside the stadia.1 0 0 0 0 s p e c t a t o r s . MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS 7. This shall be avoided in taking proper precautions in the design of electrical audio systems.yo6’. o v e r I O .khihirion Underwater* Tennis (lawn) Indoor Outdoor Table tennis Volleyball 9 Camera senitivity.1.Group switching of luminaires is recommended to have maximum energy saving. o v e r I O m m i n i m u m distance.Reference shall be made to the provisions in Part I iSec 14 of the Code. 7.It is generally conceded that the distance between the spectators and the play is primary consideration for football. 6. of lighting for training purpose.1 The requirements for air-conditioning and ventilation as laid down in Part I /Set 14 of the Code shall apply. 5. IV Gymnasiums Matches General exercising Hockey (field) Racing Bicycle Horse Rifle (outdoor) T a r g e t s Firing point Range Swimming a ) /r&or Exhibirion Underwater* b) Our&or E.3 Electrical/Electronic Score Board . over 15-30 m minimum distance. (see NOTES I and 2) :I. and other installation conditions.The general provisions for the installation of public address systems shall be as laid down in Part l/Set 14 of the Code. The technical requirements for these systems concerning voltage and frequency stability are very high.3) SP O R T (I) Archery Target Shootinn line Badminton Basketball Billiards (on table) Boxing and wresthng Fo~(a”. ii) Requirement.spectators.5. Guidelines of the manufacturer shall be adhered to. as well as the potential seating capacity of the stand. NOT. requiring specific power supply. and iii) Effective aperture.delay for the sound from the loudspeakers to reach different sections of the audience would be significant.2 Control Room .“1. Class III ~~ 5 0 0 0 . 7. unifgrm illumination shall be provided at ground level as well as vertically for 15 m above ground.3 L[fts and Escalators-The general rules laid down in Part I/Set 14 of the Code shall apply. data on the following shall be necessary: PART 3 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN NON-INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS 163 . This would call for special wiring systems with sychronizing systems. 2 .

b) Distribution of electric power. on his part had to ensure that the fire hazards from the use of electric power is kept to the lowest possible limit. 2.. etc. 4 Internal wiring for lighting. SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS 3. SCOPE 1. 5.4 While designing the electrical services. outlets for appliances. ventilation.1 For the purposes of this Appendix.1 The detailed requirements of the owner shall be assessed at the planning stage. 4. the civil design aspects are more stringent for high-rise buildings than for buildings of low heights. While on the one hand.2 It is necessary that right at the planning stages. e) Fire safety. Part 1 /Sec. The requirements as laid down in Part I/Set I5 of the Code shall be complied with. For editorial convenience. 1. fans and other outlets and the position for their switch controls to take care of functional utility and flexibility.APPENDIX TO PART 3 SPECIFIC REQUIREMENTS FOR ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN MULTISTOREYED BUILDINGS O.0 The general characteristics of buildings depending on the type of occupancy are assessed NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE. 0.8 Runs of roof conductors and down conductors for lightning protection shall be coordinated with the architects of the building. 2 of the Code shall apply. such details have been stated in this Appendix where the major non-industrial occupancies have been covered. fl L. 0. 4. h) Clock system.3 Multistoreyed buildings are usually in framed design. Care shall be taken to provide adequate and where necessary. independent spaces for the equipment for electrical services for different functions. and j) CCTV. 164 . Coordination with the architect is required in evolving suitable layout of lights. I.FOREWORD 0. EXCHANGE OF INFORMATION 4. 4. 4. blowers.1 The design and construction of electrical installations in multistoreyed buildings call for special attention to details pertaining to fire-safety of the occupancy. the electrical design engineer. 4. due consideration should be given for conservation of energy. note shall also be taken of the nature of occupancy of the high-rise buildings and a judicious choice of alternative features shall be made.5 The voltage of supply and location of energy meters (especially in multistoreyed buildings meant for residential purposes) shall be agreed to between the utility and the owner of the building. ASSESSMENT OF CHARACTERISTICS OF MULTISTOREYED BUILDINGS 5. cl Generators for standby electric supply.7 The local fire brigade authorities shall be consulted in the matter of system layout for fire detection and alarm systems to comply with local bye-laws. 4.3 In applying the provisions of this Appendix. etc.1 This Appendix is intended to cover specific r e q u i r e m e n t s for electrical installations in multistoreyed buildings.2 In drafting the requirements of electrical installations in various occupancies it was felt that a separate compendium giving the specific requirements applicable to multistoreyed buildings should be brougnt out. 3. the definitions given in Section 2. t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f s p a c e f o r accommodating the distribution equipment for the various electrical services and openings required in slabs for vertical risers for such services are assessed and incorporated in drawings in due coordination with the architect and structural designer. battery. pumps. 4. The locations of control panel and indication panel shall be decided in consultation with the owner. for the telephone services. 4 Telephone wiring. and are specifically applicable for buildings more than 15 m in height.2 The requirements specified here are in addition to those specified in respective sections of the Code. 4.1 Special considerations shall have to be given in respect of the following requirements for the electrical installations in multistoreyed buildings: g) Common antenna system. power and control wiring for special equipments like lifts. Spaces for accommodating the distribution and metering equipment of utility should be accordingly provided for by coordinating with the architect and licensee. TERMINOLOGY 2.ightning protection. call bell system.6 The telephone authorities shall be consulted for the requirements of space for accommodating the distribution equipment.

re shall be at least two rising mains located in separate shafts. the basement. together with those given in Part I/Set 8.2.3 The fault level at the point of commencement of supply should be obtained from the licencee and fault levels at salient points in the distribution system assessed. 6.0. 6.1 For the purposes of rnultistoreyed buildings in addition to other external influences depending o n . 6. If transformers are housed in the building below the ground level. The anticipated increase in lpad shali also be given due consideration.2.1.1.1 Building Substation 6. hodpitals. 6.2. t h e e l e c t r i c a l installation engineer shall specifically take note of characteristics BD2. 6. data processing areas. shall be protected by an automatic high velocity water spray system.1. it may be desirable that cables feeding adjacent floors are interconnected for use when distribution cables in either of the floors fail. r) g) Electric lifts. Adequate spare capacity should be provided for every component in the distribution system. Each floor shall have a changeover switch for connection to either of the two mains.1 The electrical load shall be assessed considering the following: a) Lighting and power loads. 6. 6. 6.2 Distribution System 6. preferably from outside.0.more than 2 000 litres of oil shall not ordinarily be located in the basemlnt where proper oil drainage arrangements cannot be provided. 5.3 The transformer. The entrance to the room shall ‘be provided with a fire-resisting door of 2-hour fire rating. 6.3 It is essential to provide independent feeders for installations such as fire lift.2 Suitable demand factors and diversity factors shall be applied depending on the operational and functional requirements.1 The provisions contained in Part 2 of the Code shall apply. The switchgears shall be housed in a room separated from the transformer bays by a fire-resisting wall with fire resistance of not less than 4 hours. 6.7 Soak pit of approved design shall be provided where the aggregate oil capacity of the apparatus does not exceed 2 000 litres.5 When housed at ground floor level. standard ratings. c) Air-conditioning/evaporative cooling/ heat4 Water supply pumps.6 Oil-filled transformers shall not be housed on any floor above the ground floor.2 When cables are used for distribution to different floors.based on the guidelines given in relevant sections of the Code.1. 6. they shall necessarily be in the first basement in a separate fire-resisting room of 4-hour rating. security. if housed in basement. b) Special loads of equipments as in laboratories. The distribution equipments shall be selected by adopting. 6. the.1. ing services. Where the oil capacity exceeds 2 000 litres. Direct access to the transformer mom shall be provided. A curb (sill) of a suitable height shall be provided at the entrance in order to prevent the flow of oil from a ruptured transformer into other _. and Outdoor and security lighting.1. fire alarm. d Fire fighting pumps. 165 PART 3 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN NON-INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS .2.1 In multisloreyed buildings where large number of people gather (for example office buildings). totally segregated from other areas of the basements by 4-hour fire-resisting wall/ walls with an access directly from outside. The transformer may be exempted from such protection if their individual oil capacity i’s less than 5 000 litres.0 Capacity and number of system components and the electrical distibution layout should be decided considering the likely future requirements. Distribution system component should be selected to satisfy the same. etc. grade of service desired and economics.4 In case the transformers are housed in the basements.2 A substation or a switch-station with apparatus having . basement.0 Load Assessment and Equipment Selection parts of ttie. etc. DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER 6.the t y p e o f o c c u p a n c y . 6. 6. fire pumps. they may be protected by carbon dioxide or BCF ( b r o m o c h l o r o d i f l u r o m e t h a n e ) o r BTM (bromotrifluro methane) fixed installation system.1. it/they shall be cut off from the other portion of premises by fire-resisting walls of 4-hour fire resistance. a tank of RCC construction of capacity capable of accommodating entire oil of the transformers shall be provided at a lower level to collect the oil from the catch-pit in case of emergency. The room shall necessarily be at the periphery of.0. 6. The pipe connecting the catch-pit to the tank shall be of non-combustible construction and shall be provided with a flame-arrester [see LS : 10028 (Part 2)-19811. BD4 and CB2 given in Table I of Part I /Set 8 of the Code. The choice between cables and metal rising mains for distribution of power should be done depending on the load and the number of floors to be fed.

6. the conductor sizes shall be suitably designed to keep the voltage drop within limits (see Part I /Set I I of the Code). telephone lines. above false ceiling. corridors. \\ NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE a) Easy access for purpose of movement of equipment in and out of the substation including fire fighting vehicles. 6.2 The vertical distribution mains should be located considering the following aspects: 4 Proximity to load centre. the utility’s cables shall be segregated from consumers’ cable by providing a partition in the duct. near the load centre. provision of substation at intermediate floors may be necessary for case of distribution.3. 6.4. 4 Avoiding proximity to water bound. 166 . c) Avoiding crossing of expansion joint. In such cases.4.mains.9 The inspection panel doors and any other opening in the shaft shall be provided with airtight fire doors having the fire resistance of not less than 1 hour. 6. inter-corn lines. if any. etc.6 The electric distribution cables/ wiring shall be laid in a separate duct. The false ceiling.3. 6.4. 6. etc.4 In the case of residential buildings.10 Medium and low voltage wiring runuihg in shafts. but copper conductor may be required for fire-alarm. sanitary/airconditioning shafts. service and alternative supply cables.5 Twin earthing leads of adequate size shall be provided along the vertical runs of rising mains.1 The electrical wiring shall be carried out in conformity with Part I /Set I I of the Code.7 Water .4. 6. and g) In the cases of certain high rise buildings. such as room air-conditioners. and within false ceiling shall run in metal conduit. gas pipes or any other service line shall not be laid in the duct for electric cables.4. Woodwork shall not be used for the construction. non-inflammable cooling medium shall be used for substation equipment from the point of view of fire safety. The duct shall be sealed at every alternative floor with noncombustible materials having the same fire resistance as that of the duct.412 If the utility agree to provide meters on upper floors.4.4. the same should preferably be at ground floor level of the multistoreyed building itself. e) Transformer hum (and noise and vibration from diesel generating sets where provided as part of the substation). and Feasibility to provide distribution switchboa& in individual floors vertically one over the other. b) Ventilation. Low’ and medium voltage wiring running in shaft and in false ceiling shall run in separate conduits. telephones. of switchboards. water coolers. 6. Any 230 V wiring for lighting or other services.2. submain wiring to the flats/apartments shall be independent for each flat/apartment. Easy maintainability from common areas like lobbies. staircases and corridor lighting and blowers for pressurising system shall be provided directly from the main switchgear pane1 and these circuits shall be laid in separate conduit pipes. etc. shall have 660 V grade insulation.1 The following aspects shall be considered in deciding the location of electric substation for mdtistoreyed buildings: 6.4. 6. The doors provided for the service room shall have fire resistance of not less than 2 hours. etc. b) Avoiding excess lengths of wiring for final circuits and points. 6. shall be of noncombustible material.4 Wiring Installation 6.4. lifts. including all fixtures used for its suspension. In the case of a complex with a number of buildings. 63 Siting OT Distribution Equipment 6. r) Where a separate building for substation is not possible. by horizontal runs df wiring. areas like toilets. as far as possible.4 The type and capacity of control switches shall be selected to suit the loading.3 Where excessively long lengths of wiring runs are inevitable to suit the building layout. group contol of fluorescent lights. the substation should be located. Master switches controlling essential service circuits shall be clearly labelled.8 Separate circuits for water pumps.2 Normally aluminium conductor is used for wiring cables. 6. oil soak pits (for large transformers) and entry of utility’s cable(s). 6. Meter rooms on upper floors shall not open into staircase enclosures and shall be ventilated directly to open air outside. control circuits.5 All switchgear equipment used for maindistribution in multistoreyed buildings shall be metal enclosed.2. cl Avoidance of flooding by rain water.4.411 An independent and well-ventilated service robm shall be provided on the ground floor with direct access from outside or from the corridor for the purpose of termination of electric supply from the licensees. 6.6. water coolers. 4 Feasibility of provision of cable ducts (keeping in view the bending radius of the cable). so that fire in one circuit will not affect the others.

cable and rising main shafts. 8. b) Fire fighting a r r a n g e m e n t s . b) The call boxes shall be of the ‘break-glass’ type where the call is transmitted automatically to the control room without any other action on the part of the person operating the call box. The mechanism of operation of the call boxes shall pceferably be without any moving parts.boxes shall be decided after taking into consideration the floor plan with a view to ensuring that one or the other call box shall be readily accessible to all occupants of the floor without having to travel more than 22.3. the conduit runs for telephone wiring should be designed in consultation with telephone department. m in height may beexempted from the installation of automatic fire alarm system provided the local fire brigade is suitably equipped for dealihg with fire above I5 m height and in the opinion of the Authority.15 Suitable arrangements shall be made by installing double throw switches to ensure that the lighting installed in the staircase and the corridor does not get connected to two sources of supply simultaneously. It should be of MCB type of switch so as to avoid replacement of fuse in case of crisis.3.l The following loads shall be fed from the standby generating set.13 The staircase and corridor lighting shall be on separate circuits and shall be independently connected so as it could be operated by one switch installation on the ground floor easily accessible to fire fighting staff.1. 167 PART 3 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN NON-INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS . Double throw switch shall be installed in the service room for terminating the standby supply. 7. e) Security lighting.1 Manually operated electrical fire alarm system shall be installed in a building with one or more call boxes located at each floor. PROVISION OF STANDBY GENERATING S E T 7. . smoke extraction and damper systems.4. d) First-aid fire fighting appliances. g) Water supply pump. lift lobbies. b) Fire lift. this should be coordinated with the architect and the telephone department. at. where any moving part is incorporated in the design of the call box.64. any time irrespective of the position of the individual control of the light points. ied 9. such building does not constitute hazard to the safety of the adjacent property or the occupants of the building itself.1 Consideration in respect of the following provisions is necessary from fire safety point of view: a) Fire detectors and alarm system. staircases. it shall be of an approved type.call boxes shall conform to the following : The location of call . 8.3 Suitable provisions should be made for cable entry and spaces for distribution components. e) Construction of lift shafts. etc.2 Lighting.4. Any regulations of fire safety by 1 al municipal/fire authorities shall also be camp?c with.1 On the basis of assessment of demand of direct telephones and PBX lines. provisions for wiring for the same may also be made. etc.-1983* shall be applicable in respect of theabove aspects. 9. 4 Fire alarm control panel.2 Provisions contained in Part I/Set 14 of the Code and SP : 7. and h) Any other functional and critical loads. 9. For assembly institutional buildings of height less than 24 m. Where telephone wiring is intended to be taken on any other method.3 The following specific guidelines shall be kept in view. 8. c) Fire fighting pump. apartment and office buildings between 15 m and 24. lift shafts.1 for buildings exceeding 24 m in height. 6. c) ‘Fire lift. substation.4 Where the layout of intercom telephones is known in advance. ventilation and flooring in battery rooms should be designed in accordance with the guidelines in Part 2 of the Code. However.1 All buildings with heights of more than 15 m shall be equipped with manually operated electrical fire alarm (MOEFA) system and automatic fire alarm system. to enable continuity of supply in the event of failure of mains : a) Lighting in common areas. 6. 6. 9. namely corridors. f-l Obstruction light(s). from fire safety consideration% and f) Provision for pressurisation of stairwells. *National Buikiing Code. 8.5 m. TELEPHONE WIRING SYSTEM 8. entrance hall. common toilets. etc. the alternative source of supply may be provided by battery continuously trickle charged from the electric mains. fobbies.14 Staircase and corridor lighting shall also be connected to alternative supply as defined in 7. lobbies.4. The . However. if any.16 Emergency lights shall be provided in the staircase/corridor. 9. FIRE SAFETY 9.

For guidelines for selection of tire detection reference may be made to relevant Indian Standard.1. NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE . d) The call boxes shall be arranged to sound one or more sounders so as to ensure that all appropriate occupants of the desired floor(s) shall be warned whenever any call _ box is actuated. LIGHTING PROTECTION 1 0 . N OTE 2 -No automatic detector shall be requtred in any room or portion of building which is equipped with an approved installation of automatic sprinklers.Several types of tire detectors are available in the market. Location of call boxes in dwelling units shall preferably be inside the building. but the application of each type is limited and has to be carefully considered in relation to the type of risk and the structural features of the. N OTE I . The circuit may be connected to alternative source of electric supply. e) The call boxes shall be so installed that they do not obstruct the exit-ways and yet their location can eastly be noticed from either direction.2 The installation of call boxes in hostels aod such other places where these are likely to be misused. 9. 10. c) All call boxes shah be wired in a closed circuit to a control panel in the control room in accordance with good practice so located that the floor number/zone where the call box is actuated is clearly indicated on the control panel. building where they are to be installed. The battery shall be arranged to be continuously tricklecharged from the electric mains. The base of the call box shall be at a height of I m from the floor level. The circuit shall also include one or more batteries with a capacity of 48 hours normal working at full load. the Code. 1 Provisions of lightning protection of multistoreyed buildings shall be made in conformity with Part I /Set I5 of. shall as far as possible be avoided.so that there shail be no malfunctioning of the call box.3.

NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE PART 4 .

this Page is Intentionally Left Blank .As in the Original Standard.

FOREWORD 0.1 Electrical networks in industrial buildings serve the urpose of distributing the required power to the consuming points where it is usedP a multitude of purposes or in the. Keeping in view the tariff structures as also the economic necessity of conserving power to the maximum extent.4 Locations in industrial buildings which are by their nature hazardous. industry. ull limitations in a simple and economic manner. it is hoped-would help identify the specific nature of each industry and the locations therein. 0.of electrical installations therein. 0. 0. ensuring at the same time P protection to human life and loss of property by fire. power’ factor compensation assumes special importance. Such a classification. in Part 7 of the Code and these shall be complied with in addition to the general rules specified in this Part 4 (see also Appendix D.standby and emergency supply sources/networks had to be designed.PART 4 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS O. an attempt has been made to classify industrial installations depending on the specified eriteria therein. Such special rules for hazardous areas are covered. . 0. The design of electrical installation in industrial premises is therefore more complicated than those in non-industrial buildings. The needs of such systems would depend on the type and nature of the industrial works. assisting the design engineer in the choice of equipment and methods. Part 7 of the Code).3 A particular feature of electrical installations in industrial buildings is the reliability of supply to essential operations for which . require special treatment in respect of design . The network layout should also facilitate easy maintenance and fault localisation.2 Industrial installation has to take care of load requirements and sup ly.5 In clause 3 of this Part.

light pressings. Such installations including such high hazard locations in Group G classification shall comply with the special rules of Part 7 of the Code. *Terminology based on IS : 732 (Part 2)-1982 Code of Practice for electrical wiring installations: Part 2 Design and Construction (second revision). Buildings under Group G are further subdivided as follows: a) Subdivision G-l-Buildings used for low hazard industries .2. assembled. boilers. workshops. or fire from some external source. NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE .1 to’ 3. tobacco. furniture. motor cars.2. such as office buildings. electrical loads of varying requirements are to be met. dry cleaning plants.Average factory installations are set apart from heavy industries in that the former has no coriditions requiring specialized or exceptional treatment. pottery. manufacture or processing of highly combustible or explosive materials or products are being carried out. 3. chemical factories.(Under consideration). etc. etc “. 1. fumes or smoke. pumping stations.classification given in Table 2 shall be referred to. BUILDINGS 2.2 Classification Based on Power Consumption 3.Buildings used for moderate hazard industries . aircraft.3 This Part also does not cover locations in industrial sites that are by nature hazardous for which the provisions of Part 7 of the Code apply. fabricated. electrical manufacturing and textile (see N OTE below) Heavy electrical equipment. rolling mills. for design and construction of electrical installations in industrial buildings. includes Group J buildings for such locations where storage. TERMINOLOGY 3. factories for metal extraction from ores. manufactured or processed. 3. etc. 172 TABLE 1 CLASSIFICATION BASED ON POWER CONSUMPTION D ESCRIPTION * (1) Light industries Average industries A VERAGE P OWER R EQUIREMENT (2) kVA up to 50 EXAMPLES (3) Hosiery. 3. structural steel works. refineries.1 Classification Based on Fire Safety 3.3 Classification Based on Pollution . SCOPE 1.2 Loads within the industrial site could be divided depending on their nature and size. For the purpose of this part. Industrial installations are of various types and in a single industrial site. the.1. For guidance. C L A S S I F I C A T I O N O F I N D U S T R I A L 3. industries are classified based on three criteria as given in 3.2 This Part does not cover specific areas in industrial sites. in which products or materials of all kinds and properties are stored. medical facilities. distilleries. canteen annexe. engine fitting.1 This Part of the Code covers the guidelines cl Subdivision G-3-Buildings used for high hazard industries . locomotives. *National Building Code. the definitions 3.Includes any building in which the contents are of such low combustibility and the industrial processes or operations conducted therein are of such a nature that there are no possibilities for any self-propagating fire to occur and the only consequent danger to life and property may arise’ from panic. for which requirements stipulated in the relevant sections of Part 3 of the Code apply.2 Examples . 3. workers rest rooms. glass. tube making.Includes any building in which the contents or industrial processes or operations conducted therein are liable to give rise to a fire which will burn with extreme rapidity or from which poisonous fumes or explosions are to be feared in the event of fire.1.1 Industrial buildings are classified into Group G from the fire safety point of view in SP 7 : 1983*.3. tailoring and jewellery Machinery. 2. dairies. chemical plants. 1. given in Part l/Set 2 of the Code shall apply. steel works.Includes any building in which the contents or industrial processes of operations conducted therein are liable to give rise to a fire which will burn with moderate rapidity and give off a considerable volume of smoke but from which neither toxic fumes nor explosions are to be feared in the event of fire. handling. for example.“:g 5a up tQ Heavy industries Above 2 000 N O T E.0 Industrial buildings by definition include any building or part of buildjng or structure. shipbuilding and repairing.SP 7 : 1983. assembly plants. N OTE -. laboratories.1 Industrial buildings are also classified depending on the quantum of electric power requirements for its services as given in Table I.1 Far the purpose of this Part.See Appendix A. steel plants. b) Subdivision G-2. saw mills.1. foundries.

chemical works.1. wires. etc tion to corrosive or polluting chemical substances being used or produced 2 0. or conductmg ducts Intermittent or Factory laboratories accidental subjec.7 Continuous pollution Machanical stress Impact/vibration of medium severity Impact/vibration of high severity Chemical works Usual industrial conditions Industrial installations subject to severe conditions Depends on the location of the buildings 3 Heat treatment shop. easy conditions of evacuations applies to buildings of normal or low height (Continued) 173 Presence of corro. For negligible.2) Characlerisrics (2) Remarks (3) polluting substances SRotiPs T Y P E OF LOAD EXAMPLES POWER F ACTOR (4: 0. cement works where the I Repair shop. For include possibifurther details lities of presence of foreign solid see Part I/%X 8 bodies of various of the Code sizes likely to affect electrical equipment (such as tools. dust.2.Negligible pollusive tion (Conrinued) PART 4 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS .1 The following aspects of utilization shall apply: Ulilizarion (1) Characrerisbcs (2) Remarks (3) 4.boilers and tanks roundings and for whom the possibibility of interupting contact is limited Conditions of evacuation Low density occu. insulati?g.1 The following environmental factors shall apply to industrial installations: Environmenr (1) Characrerisrics (2) Remarks (3) Persons with tech. GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS 4. For the purposes of installations falling under the scope of this Part.This category pation.Closed operating areas nical knowledge and sufficient experience (engineers and technicians) Presence of water Presence of water Depends on the location. However persons (operatmg and maintenance staffl specific zones or operations involving uninstructed persons shall also be kept in view 4. spinndistributed over ing mill. weavthe whole area ing mill and loaded constantly during the working day (precision mechantcal engineering) Loads fairly evenly distributed over the whole area.Enviyymenr TABLE 2 LOAD GROUPS IN INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS (Clause 3.6 0. Majority of persons adequately aduttlising the indu‘svised or supertrial installations vised by skilled are in this category. Capability of persons lnsttatcted persons.4 0.6 0.1 Environment 4.2. Small and large loads fairly evenly automatic lathe. raw material industry) Tool making Press shop Machine shop Welding shop pollution arises due to abrasive. but varying loads and with peak load at different times (for example metal working industry) Loads having very high power requirement in conjunction with smaller loads of negligible size compared to the total load (for example.2 Utilization 4. etc) Contact of persons with earth potential Persons are frequently in touch Locations with extraneous conwith extraneous ducting parts. or further details ossibilities of Pree falling drops see Part l/Set 8 of the Code or sprays Presence of foreign solid bodies Depends on the These conditions location. conductive parts either numerous or stand on con. the characteristics given below shall apply.0 Gineral guidelines on the assessment of characteristics of installations in buildings are given in Part I of the Code. workshop.6 Atmospheric where the presence of corrosive the sea. steel works.or large area ducting surfaces Persons are in Metallic surroundpermanent contact ings such as with metallic sur. rolling mills 0.boiler rooms.9 Seismic effect and lightning - 4.

4 Maintainability . switches and fuses may also be used for this purpose. 5. 5.3 In case of connected load of 100 kVA and above. an assessment shall also be made of any characteristics of equipment like’ly to have harmful effects upon other equipme. transformers being oil-filled apparatus.0.1 . pro.4 Localion qf and SHitchgear . 4 Better control .just outside the building. 5~0.1. a separate substation should be set up. It would also be desirable to locate the LV switchgear directly above the transformer. a bus-trunking arrangement may be desirable. be straight.4 In very large industrial buildings where heavy electric demands occur at scattered locations. as close as possible to the main load centre.factories. textile mills.An assessment shall also be made of the frequency and quality of maintenance the installation shall be receiving (see Part I /Set 8 of the Code). 5.A s p e r convent\onal prictice. etc or storcessin age o F flammable materials. which requires supply at voltages above 650 V.JMgtio Nature of processed or stored materials Charatgrdics Remarks (3) Existance of fire.nt or other services (SCP Part I /Set 8 of the Code).Wood-working shop. Though the use of high vohage s u p p l y e n t a i l s t h e provision of space ahd the capital cost of providing a suitable transformer substation on the consumer’s premises. as far as possible. It shall be provided with proper ventilation and lighting. SUPPLY CHARACTERISTICS AND PARAMETERS 5. etc. 4. however. furnaces. For an outdoor substation general guidelines as given in Part 2 of the Code shall apply.1.1. These trunkings should.1 Industrial Substations 5. 5. a separate indoor accommodation.0 The general requirements for substation installations given in Part 2 of the Code shall apply in addition to those given below. however it may often be found desirabte to avoid cable joints and connect the transformer directly to the switchgear placed on either side of the transformer. it may be considered desirable to locate the transformer also inside 1 the room. and more constant supply voltage.The arrangement of the electrical system in industrial plants and the selection of electrical equipment depends largely on the type of manufacturing process. For reasons of safety. 5.3 4. the relative advantage of high voltage three-phase supply should be considered.hydrocarbon point materials stores including presence of explosive dust distribution and high voltage plant is a matter for expert judgement and individual assessment in the light of experience by a professionally qualified electrical engineer. paper risks. it is also possible to locate NATIONAL ELECTRICAL Compatibility .In industrial installations. 5.1.6 F o r s m a l l s u b s t a t i o n s up to 1 6 0 0 kVA/ I I kV capacity.5 In order to ensure the reliability and safety expected of industrial substations. b) More effective earth fault protection for heavy current circuits.3 In cases where the load currents are very high. The relative economy attainable by use of medium or high voltage 174 CODE . the economics of electrical distribution at high voltage from the main substation to other subsidiary transformer substations or to certain items of plant. such as large motors. it is desirable to have circuit-breakers as the main switching e l e m e n t s o n b o t h s i d e s o f t h e transformer. should be considered. the following advantages are gained: 4 Advantage in tariff. special means should be available for remote operation of t h e m a i n switches/circuit-Breakers i n a n emergency created by explosion/fire in the transformers. welding plant. age of low-tlash. etc. However.1.2 The supply conductors should preferably be brought into the building underground to reduce the possibility of interruption of power supply.Oil refineries.supplies to other consumers permitting the use of large size motors.0. and also as short as possible on economic grounds.1. The accommodation for substation equipment as well as for main distribution panel shall be properly chosen so as to prevent access by any unauthorised person. the greatest possible reliability of supply and adequate reserve of electrical capacity are the most important factors to avoid interruption of supply. For bringing the supply into the factory building. however.of voltage regulation and 5.0. 5.0 General 5. The transformer could be connected to the switchgear by cables for small loads.1. and the transformers are located .2 All electrical apparatus shall be suitable for the voltage and frequency of supply available. c) Elimination of interference with . are preferably located outdoors while the associated switchgear is located in a room of the building ne%t to the transformers. should be provided to house the switchgear equipment.1 If the load demand is high. 5. where load currents are less than 100 A on high voltage side and 600 A o n low voltage side. where manufacture. Transfbrnlers 5.l. including presence of dust Processing or stor. For oil-filled transformer.

preferably. and d) Overhead bus bar system with tap-off holes. c) In installations other than those referred to in (a) and (b) or where overloading of circuits may be considered unlikely to occur.3:s Certain applications may necessitate location of the switchboards on the factory floor itself. etc.2. 5. 5. Where necessary the control rooms should be designed to avoid wide fluctuations in ambient temperature. c) Accessibility for repair/checking. the transformer shall be of the non-flammable synthetic oil type (these oils need care in handling). the main circuits shall be protected by metal-clad circuit-breakers or contactors of air-break or oil-immersed type fitted with suitable instantaneous and time delay over current devices together with earth leakage and back-up protection where necessary. bedded and armoured cable.2. and when capacitors are to be installed advice of capacitor and switchgear manufacturers shall be sought. without a separate r o o m .3. furnaces or other heavy electrical equipment is installed. the switchboards shall be specifically designed and protected against hazards mentioned above. use shall preferably be made of: 4 metal-sheathed.2 It may be necessary to provide for connection of capacitors for power-factor correction. In suchlcases. or through further load centre substations as would be the case with bigger installations.3. The choice between alternative types of equipment may be influenced by the following considerations: a) In certain installations where supply is from remote transformer substations. In such cases.3. c) Local fuse distribution boards.2 In every layout.2. and against entry of excessive dust or corrosive gases.3. served. armoured and PVC- sheathed cable installed overhead/underground.3.1 From the main receiving station. 5. arm’oured and PVC-sheathed cable installed overhead/ underground.going circuits forming main distribution system may be effected by means of circuit-breakers.2. fuse switch or switch fuse units shall be used or fuses with switches forming part of the mean switchboard shall be used: 5. Where means for isolating main circuits’is required.For installations where the system voltage exceeds 650 V. 5.2.0 All switchgear equipment used in industrial installations shall be metal enclosed. or 4 X L P E i n s u l a t e d . in order to ensure effective earth fault protection. d) Easy identification. 5. and b) protection against entry of factory material like cotton. 1 . it may be necessary to protect main circuits with circuit-breakers operated by earth leakage trips. be located in separate control rooms to ensure: a) adequate protection against weather elemknts like heat. *Code of practice for electrical wiring installations: Part 2 Design and construction (second revision). H RC type fuses will normally afford adequate protection for main circuits. and e) Fault localisation. or cl PVC-insulated. or b) mineral-insulated metal-sheathed cable. 5.2.2 Distribution of Power 5.2.3 Main Distribution 5. b) Where large electric motors. and on other similar factors.1 For power distribution from a substation or main switchboard to a number of separate buildings. power is taken to the loads.2. distance to be covered. Distribution is possible through one of the following: a) Wall-mounted distribution boards.the substation at the load centre. water during cleaning. 7 I s o l a t i o n qf Switchgear . 5 . etc. Distribution is done on HV or LV depending on the quantum of load to be transferred. b) Fire/explosion hazards. Sufficient additional space shall be provided for anticipated future extensions.3 Switchgear 5.4 Switchboards should.1 lsolation and protection of out. or fuses or switchfuse units mounted on the main switchboards.2. laid overhead/direct in the ground. T h i s y i e l d s considerable economies in cost. 5. however. 5. 175 PART 4 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS . Reference should be made to the same for guidance regarding isolation depending on the type of supply system. dust. specific care shall be taken for: a) Human safety. the typical circuits and the recommended location ot lsolatlng switches-in such circuits are illustrated in IS : 732 (Part 2)-1982*. corrosion. either directly as in the case of small factories.3. wood dust. b) Floor mounted distribution boards. without separate rooms. served with PVC.3 Adequate passageways shall be allowed so that access to all switchboards for operation and maintenance is available. Woodwork shall not be used for mounting off switchboards. installed overhead/underground.

4. cables may be conveniently run or perforated metal cable trays.4. addition to the main pins required for the purpose. place of a three-wire sub-main previously installed.4 In industrial installations. corrosive elements being taken into account in conjunction with the protective coverings available. trunking. unless the maximum current.6 Earthing in Industrial Premises 5.10 Individual sub-mains shall be installed to suppl’)~ passenger and goods lifts from the main or sub-main switchgear. keeping in view the requirements of human safety. a neutral conductor may preferably be provided in all submain circuits even when there is no immediate requirement for the supply of single-phase circuits. structural conditions.5 Selection of Wiring Systems -The selection of a wiring system to be adopted in a factory depends upon the factors enumerated in part 1 /Set 11 of the Code.4. cable sheaths.3 In machine shops and factories w h e r e alterations i n layout may repeatedly occur.2. 5. the branch distribution boards shall be totally segregated for single phase wiring. In workshops and factories where alterations and additions are frequent. The marker should necessarily indicate the voltage level. In this case earth continuity conductor shall be bonded to each section of ducts or trunking to provide permanancy of the electrical continuity of the joints of the ducts. as a precaution against accidents. keeping in view the particular circumstances of each ciiht having regard to: a) location.1. 5. and the lift manufacturer shall be consulted as to the appropriate rating of cables to be employed.7 Where non-luminous heating appliance is to be used. motors and all other parts made of metal shall be bonded together and connected to an efficient earth sy~ Em.6 In industrial premises. Cables at voltages above 1 000 V should be laid at the lowest level in trenches. liability to mechanical damage and the possibility of corrosion.3. the u. 5. for example. 5. it may be economical and convenient to install wiring in ducts or trunking. and at the highest level on walls. 5.6.3.4.5.4. 5. In industrial installations. fluff. 5. Selection from a group of alternative systems shall be made in accordance with Appendix B. with sufficient additional space to provide for anticipated future extensions.4. starters. The electricity regulations made under the Fa tories Act require that adequate precautions NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 176 . These shall be of metal clad type. distribution fuse boards. Alternatively.4. 5. and d) presence of dust. where demand presents sufficient diversity. requirements in Section 2 of IS : 732 (Part 2)-1982*. The cable routes where buried should be properly identified by route markers. to which subcircuit are connected through fused plugs in tapping boxes wherever required. Where the supply is taken from such a distribution board. and clearly identified.2 Cable trenches shall be made. socket outlets of rating 30 A and above shall be provided with interlocked type switch. nature of the c) occupancy of the building. by the use of conduits. consideration shall be given to the replacement of local distribution boards by overhead bus-bar or cable systems. the socket outlets shall be so selected as to obviate inadvertent wrong connections.4 Subcircuits 5.se of ringcircuit system of wiring is usually advantageous from the point of view of providing an adequate member of outlets.2 Cables at different voltage levels should be laid with adequate separation.1 In 3-phase distribution systems. 5. the motor circuit shall be clearly labelled. b) protection against corrosion. including the starting and accelerating current.0 The subcircuit wiring shall conform in general to the.4. Control devices are often designed for connection between one phase and neutral and considerable extra cost may be involved if a fourwire sub-main has to be installed i?.4. 5. pilot lamps shall be arranged to indicate when the circuit is live.1. 5.4. 3-phase and neutral socket outlets shall be provided with earth terminal either of pin type or scrapping type in *Code of practice for clcctrical wiring installations: Part 2 Design and construction (zcw~rtl rrlGiotl).5 Where more than one distribution system is necessary. The supply to small hoists and service lifts shall not be taken from a distribution board controlling final sub-circuits for lighting. moisture and temperature conditions.4.9 In some installations. or should be adequately protected against mechanical damage. of the motor i_s less than 20 percent of the total rating of all the ways of the distribution boards.3.1 Cables shall not be laid in the same trench or alongside a water main.0 In factories and workshops all metal conduits. switchgear. The wiring system available for general use are Ii&ted in Appendix B. 5. 5. 5. 5.8 Final subcircuits for lighting shall be so arranged that all the lighting points for a given area are fed from more than one final subcircuit. should either be with armouring. Cables laid unde’rground or at low working levels.

6. in certain cases. PVC and tough rubber sheathed cables the sizes of the earth-continuity conductors shall be in accordance with relevant Indian Standard. cables. IO mm? if of aluminium.5.6. 5.3. overload protective devices may be used as earth leakage protective device. A separate earth wire shallFe p’rovided either inside or outside the flexible conduits which shall be connected by means of earth clips to the earth system at one end and to the equipment at the other end. having one or more substations.5 mm2 for copper and 2.6. In larger installations.6. 5.5 Additional security may be obtained by arranging the earth-continuity conductor in the flexible cable between the socket outlet and the portable appliance in the form of a loop through which a light circulating current provided by a small low-voltage transformer is passed when the appliance is in use.2. 5.5 Earth leakage protection . provided the minimum size of earth-continuity conductors is not less than 1. 5.3. etc. As regards the sizes of galvanized iron and steel earth-continuity conductors.0 Portable appliances and tools having reinforced or double insulation need not be earthed. 5.Irrespective of’ the size or type of machine tools. The transformers and separate regulators forming multioperator sets and capacitors for power factor correction. With a good earth electrode.6.1 All components of electric arc welding equipment shall be effectively bonded and connected to earth.5 mm2 for aluminium and need not be greater than 70 mm2 for copper and 120 mm2 for aluminium.5 mm? if of copper. be introduced with advantage by providing the delay in the operation of an earth-leakage trip.2. 5. the size of the earth-continuity conductors should be equal to the size of the currentsarrying conductors and for metal sheathed. In addition to the advantage of sensitivity gained by such methods. the circuits may be 5. 5.3 A single pole switch shall not be connected in the earth conductor.2 It shall be ascertained that the fixed wiring at the appliance inlet terminals has been done correctly and in accordance with relevant Indian Standard.3.3 Earthing of Portable Appliances and 5. bolt. the tough rubber or PVC sheathed cables may be used in which case they shall incorporate an earthcontinuity conductor.1 Good electrical continuity between the body of a portable appliance and the earthcontinuity conductor shall always be maintained. that is.4 No twisted or taped joints shall be used in earth wires. 5. if used.6. may be used in industrial premises.Any of the earth electrodes as mentioned in Part I of the Code except cable sheath.4 Earthing of Electrically! Driven Machine Tools.6.3 Conduits may be used as ‘earthcontinuity conductors provided they are permanently and securely connected to the earth system. they may be equal to the size of the current carrying conductors with which they are used. and I6 mm’ if of galvanized iron or steel.For flexible 5.2 Earth-continuity conductors and earth wires contained in the -cables . it is recommended to parallel all earth-continuity system. 5. 5.6. as the generator is not connected electrically to a motor and therefore the welding circuit is electrically separate from the supply ctrcuit including the earth.6.5. 5. Any discontinuity in this loop will interrupt the circulating current and can thus be caused to operate a relay and disconnect the supply from the portable appliance. shall be included in the bonding. controlling a larger part of the installation.2 Earth Continuity Conductor the earth-continuity conductors should be correlated with the size of the current carrying conductors.6. 5.6. the bed plate of the machine shall be earthed by means of a strip or conductor of cross-sectional area not less than 6. The size of earth-continuity conductors to be used along with aluminium current-carrying conductors should be calculated on the basis of equivalent size of the copper current-carrying conductors.4 Flexible conduits shall not be used as earth-continuity conductors.shall be taken to prevent non-current-carrying metal work of the installation from becoming electrically charged. where by nature of the process. 177 PART 4 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS .6.2. the sizes of earth-continuity conductors should not be less than half of the largest current-carrying conductor.6.1 Earth Electrodes.3.2. 5. However.6.6. The strip or conductor shall be securely fastened to the bed plate by means of a.6.Use of earth leakage protection shall be made where greater sensitivity than provided by overcurrent protection is’ necessary. so that earth faults on smaller subsidiary circuits protected by fuses have time to clear and prevent the opening of the circuit-breaker.6.2.3.1 Earth-continuity conductors and earth wires not contained in the cables -The size of relieved of the thermal and mechanical socks associated with the ‘clearance of heavy faults. Tools 5. Some degree of discrimination may.5 Earthing of Electric Arc Equipment Welding 5.2 All terminals on the output side of a motor generator set shall be insulated from the car case and control panel.3. metal conduits cannot be used as earth-continuity conductor on account of corrosion.6.

7. SYSTEM PROTECTION 7. special precautions are necessary.5.6. when an oscilloscope is being used on a circuit where the negative is above earth potential and also connected to its metallic case. The metal of the furnace charge is earthed by electrodes connected at the bottom Of the charge. EMERGENCY/STANDBY POWER SUPPLIES 6.5. discrimination in operation may be achieved by adjusting the protective devices of the sub-main circuit-breakers to operate at lower current settings and shorter timelag than the main circuit-breaker. independent source of supply for emergency service in particular installations may be provided. 7. This capacitor shall be securely earthed. which for welding purpose are double wound.1 Besides fire fighting equipment.4 If rcwirable type fuses are used to protect subcircuits derived form a main circuit protected by HRC type fuses. without danger.3 High frequency induction heating apparatus shall be earthed by means of separate earth wire by as direct a route as possible.2 Where circuit-breakers are used for protection pf a main circuit and of the subcircuits derived therefrom.shall be provided.1.2 Fire-safety Requirements 7.1. and the protective apparatus shall be capable of interrupting any short-circuit current. that may occur.1 Any industrial electronic apparatus which derives its supply from two-pin plugs incorporates small capacitors connected between the supply and the metal case of the instfument to cut down interference. 7. The ratings and settihgs of fuses and the protective devices shall be co-ordinated so as to afford selectivity in operation where necessary. the oscilloscope shall be earthed by a conductor entirely separate from that used by the source of high frequency power.1 Protection of Circuits 7.6. in the event of short circuits exceeding the breaking capacity of the circuit: breakers. When leakage current attains a certain set maximum it becomes necessary to take 178 NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE .1.6. 7. 5. 7.5 In case where direct earthing may prdve harmful rather than provide safety.6. the earth detection circuit gibing a continuous review of the conditions for the furnace lining.6. In such a case it is recommended to mount the equipment ori a large sheet of copper or copper gauze.1. 5. This is due to the presence o f s t a n d i n g w a v e s o n t h e e a r t h conductors which besides being dangerous can result in energy being radiated to the detriment of communication services.3 In case of transformer sets. 7.6 If necessary. the following fire detection and extinguishing systems are recommended for industrial buildings: a) Buildings for low hazard industries .3 Where HRC type fuses are used for backup protection of circuit-breakers. 6. for higher level either cartridge or HRC fuses shall be used. the earth conductor being connected to it at several points.6. A relay is connected by a detection circuit which itself is earthed to the coils. a quarter wavelength is nearly 250 cm and an earth wire of this length or odd multiples of it is capable of being at earth potential at one end but several hundred volts at the other end.6. Provision shall also be made for control of general lighting and other emergency services through separate main circuits and distribution boards from the power circuits.1. 5. and the furnace coils are connected to the mains supply but are unearthed. 5. 6 Earrhing qf Apparatus Industrial Electronic _~ the furance out of service and to re-line. ihe earthing of the oscilloscope is not possible. Precautions shall be taken that in such a case the oscilloscope is suitably protected from other apparatus.6. although discrimination may be achieved in respect of overload currents. The use of rewirable fuses is restricted to the circuits with short-circuit level of 4 kA. an ‘earth and work’ terminal.2 When an oscilloscope is being used to examine the wave-form of a high frequency source. The object is to prevent dangerous break-through of hot metal through the furnace lining.4 Dielectric loss heating equipment work at frequencies between IO MHz to 60 MHz according to its use.5. However.5.6.6. 5 . the H RC fuses shall operate earlier than the circuit-breakers.1 Appropriate protection shall be provided at switchboards and distribution boards for all circuits and subcircuits against overcurrent and earth faults. These should not be directly earthed.1. but for smaller overloads within the breaking capacity of the circuitbreakers.6.6. 6 . the main circuit fuSe shall normally blow in the event of a short-circuit or earth fa’ult occurring on a subcircuit.1 The provisions of Part 2 of the Code shall apply.6. 5. for example.Not required 5. the circuit-breakers shall operate earlier than the HRC fuse. 7. high’ frequency and mains frequency coreless induction furnaces.0 The earthing of these apparatus shall follow normal practice but attention shall be paid to the points discussed below. In single phase sets this terminal shall be connected to one end of the secondary winding and in case of three-phase sets this shall be connected to the neutral point of the secondary winding. for example. or where HRC fuses are used for protection of main circuits and circuit-breakers for the protection of subcircuits derived therefrom. At 30 MHz.

8.2 Safety in Electra-Heat . tSafety requirements in electro-heat installations. b) Car-speed. lighting contribute to the utmost as’ a safety factor in preventing accidents.1. c) Appliances for direct and indirect resistance heating. Installations lndustrial process include in many instances. d) Medium and high frequency induction e) Infra-red radiatum heating appliances. 8.1 The electrical installation meant for the services such as air-conditioning heating and ventilation in industrial buildings shall conform to the requirements given in Part 1 /Set 14 of the Code.f. With each of the various visual task conditions. *Code of practice for fire safety of buildings (general): Electrical installations.2 The location of lifts in factories.1. therefore. However:.3. The speed of many manufacturing operations might alsd be hampered due to poor lighting. *Guide for the control of undesirable static electricity. Physical hazards exist in many manufacturing processes.1 Equipment for Lighting -The choice of light sources and luminaries shall be governed by the guidelines given in IS : 6665-19727. Reference should be made to the guidelines given in SP : 7-1983:. PART 4 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS 179 . The specific needs of individual locations reqliiring these services in each factory shall be ascertained in consultation with the concerned personnel before designing the electrical system. lighting should be suitable for adequate visibility.2.2.5 m/s Lifts serving many floors -1 m/s 8.3. railway slidings. or where it may be ‘exposed to extreme temperatures shall be avoided.b) Buildings for moderate i) Area up to 750 m* ii) Area above 750 m* hazard industries: Automatic ‘firealarm system Automatic sprinkler or automatic fire alarm system a) Occupant load-the occupant load expressed in terms of gross area in m*/person shall be 10 for industrial buildings. etc. $Nationa’l Building Code. For safety requirements in such ‘electro-heat installations referrence shall be made to IS : 9080 ( P a r t s 1 to IV)t. b) Induction furnaces. For specific guidance for installations covered by this part. heating and dielectric heating appliances. and 0 Microwave heating.3.3 Lifts ‘8.1 Lighting 8. operating conditions and economy. 9. See Appendix E. tCode of practice for industrial lighting. T h e recommended values of illumination and limiting va!ues of glare index are given in Appendix D for guidance. r. 9.3 Power Factor Compensation heating. BUILDXNC SERVlCES 8. position of loading platform. the design of lifts in industrial buildings shall1 take into account the following requirements: 4 Arc furnaces.2 Air-conditioning.These shall be as follows: Normal load carrying lifts-2-2. The general considerations for design of lighting in industrial areas are enumerated in . 8 . 8. MISCELLANEOUS/SPECIAL PROVISIONS 9.for goods Ilfts .1 The general rules laid down in Part 1 /Set 14 of the Code shall apply regarding lift installations. The placing of a lift in a fume or dust laden atmosphere. warehouses and similar buildings should be planned to suit the progressive movement of goods through the buildings having regard to the nature of processes carried out.0 Industrial lighting encompasses seeing tasks.2 Reference is also drawn to 1s : 16461961* regarding rules and regulations relating to electrical installations from the point of fire safety.1 Control of Static Electricity . The selection of electrical equipment shall be such that they are suitable to meet the conditions involved.1 ‘The provisions of Part 1 /Set 17 of the Code ‘shall apply. Appendix C covers specific requirements for fire safety for representative industries. Specific control methods are also given for some industries therein. 9. Where it is impossible to avoid extreme environmental conditions.IS : 6665-19727.Reference should be made to IS : 7689-1974* r e g a r d i n g recommendations for controlling static electricity generated incidentally by processes in industries which may pose a hazard or inconvenience. Heating and Ventilation 8. electro-heat installations such as: 7. 9.

factories Essential oil distillation plants Flour mills Garment makers Ghee manufacturing premises Ginning and pressing factories Grains and/or seeds disintegrating factories Grease manufacturing works Hat and topee factories Hosiery factories Incandescent gas mantle manufacturers Jute mills and jute presses Mineral oil blending and processing works Mutton tallow manufacturers Manure and/or fertilizer works (blending. detergent factories Sugar candy manufacturers Sugar factories Tanneries Tea colouring factories Umbrella factories Vermicelli factories Wire drawing works A EXAMPLES OF INDUSTRIES BASED ON FIRE-SAFETY goods factories Boat builders and ship repairing docks Button factories Candle works Canvas sheet manufacturers Cardboard box manufacturers Carbon paper manufacturing premises Carpet and durries factories Carpenter’s workshops Camphor boiling premises Cashew nut factories (using open fire) Gnmng and pressing factories Cloth processing works Coffee curing premises Coffee roasting and grinding works mixing a n d / o r b l e n d i n g Colouridyes factories Coir factories Cork factories Cork stopper and other cork products manufacturing premises Collieries Chemical manufacturers Cotton mills Dyeing and dry cleaning works Electric wire and cable manufacturing premises EnameJ. The following is a representative list of industries classified according to the degree of fire hazard enumerated in 3. mixing and granulating only) Mattresses and pillow making premises Oxygen plants Paper mills Pencil factories Plastic goods manufacturers Printing press premises Pulverising and crushing mills (hazardous materials) Rice mills Rope factories Rubber goods manufacturers Sheliac factories Spray painting works Starch factories Synthetic fibre manufacturing premises Tea factories Thermal power stations Tobacco (chewing). kimam and pan NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE b) Moderate Hazard Arecanut/ betelnut factories Atta and cereal grinding premises Bakeries and/or biscuit factories Beedi factories Book binders and paper cutting premises Book sellers and stationers’ shops Boot and shoe factories and other leather 180 .2) A-l.APPENDIX (Clause 3. I .1 .l: a) Low Hazard tndustries Abrasive manufacturing premises Aerated water factories Agarbatti manufacturing premises Aluminium copper and zinc factories Asbestos steam packing and lagging manufacturers Battery manufacturers Bone mills Breweries Canning factories Carbon dioxide plants Cardamom factories Cement factories Cement and/or asbestos or concrete products manufacturing premises Ceramic and crockery factories Clay works Clock and watch manufacturing premises Confectionery manufacturers Electric generating houses E l e c t r i c l a m p s a n d fluorescent t u b e manufacturers Electronic goods manufacturing premises Electroplating workshops Engineering workshops Fruit products and condiment factories Gold thread factories/gilding factories Glass factories Gum and glue factories Ice candy and ice cream manufacturing premises Ice factories Ink factories (excluding printing inks) Milm pasteurising plants and dairy farms Mica products manufacturing premises Potteries/tiles and brick works Rice mills Refractoriesiworks and firebrick kilns Salt crushing factories and refineries Silicate (other than sodium silicate) factories Soap and. zarda.

insulated cables laid around a galvanized steel catenary wire. protected as necessary against mechanical damage and corrosion. Rubber-insulated braided and compounded or PVC-insulated cable installed in metal trunking or ducts.-. WIRING SYSTEMS FOR GENERAL B SELECTION OF WIRING SYSTEMS APPLICATIdN 4 Bare solid or tubular conductors supported on insulators in metal or incombustible structural ducts or chases (main connections). h) Rubber-insulated braided and compounded insulated NOTE.Incombustible insulated trunking and ducts provide an alternative and where these are used a bare copper or copper-alloy earth-continuity conductor may be required. g) Grid suspension wiring system comprising rubber-insulated or PVC. braided overall or otherwise protected to withstand corrosive conditions where necessary.Where a lead-sheathed cable has plumbed joints a separate earth-continuity conductor may not be required. with appropriate protection where cable passes through floors or walls. manufacturers Surgical cotton manufacturers Tar distilleries Tar felt manufacturing premises Tarpauplin and canvas proofing factories Timber and woodworkers’ premises Tin printers (where more than 50 percent of floor area is occupied as engineering workshop this may be taken as moderate hazard risk) Terpentino distilleries Tyre retreading and resoling factories Woodmeal manufacturers APPENDIX ( Clause 5. fodder and bhoosa (chaff) pressing’ factories Match factories Oil mills Oil extraction plants Oil and leather cloth factories Paint (including nitrocellulose paints) and varnish factories Petrochemical plants Plywood factories Printing ink manufacturers Resin and lamp black manufacturers Rubber substitute. or rubber-insulated aluminium-sheathed cable.Polythene-insulated PVC-sheathed cable provides an alternative having the advantage of high insulation-resistance. say. buried in plaster or installed in concrete ducts. NOTE . L Rubber-insulated lead-alloy-sheathed cables incorporating an earth continuity conductor. k) Mineral-insulated metal-sheathed cable with or without protective shearhing with suitable watertight glands. hay. cable is to be preferred where the situation may be damp or long hfe is required. N OTE . 4 Rubber-insulated braided and compounded or PVC-insulated cable installed in heavygauge screwed conduit.5) B-1. N O T E.or other insulated conduit and provided with a bare copper or copper-alloy earth-continuity conductor as necessary. Rubber-insulated braided and compounded or PVC-insulated cable installed in PVC. or PVC-insulated cable installed on cleats.musalu making premises Tobacco grinding and crushing and snuff manufacturing premises Tobacco’ curing and redrying factories Tobacco pressmg works Upholsterers Weaving factories Wooilen mills Wool cleaning/pressing factories Yam gassing plants.The use of galvanized conduit and PVC- 3 4 Rubber-insulated braided’ and compounded eS or PVC-insulated cable installed in lightgauge steel conduit with lug grip. ?ART 4 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS 181 . C) High Hazard Acetylene plants Alcohol distillers Aluminium and magnesium powder plants B i t u m i n i s h e d p a p e r / hessian cloth manufacturing premises Bobbin factories Cinematograph film production studies Calcium carbide plants Cotton waste factories Coal/coke/charcoal ball and briquettes factories Celluloid goods manufacturers Cigarette filter manufacturers Cotton seed cleaning or deliniting premises Duplicating and stencil paper manufacturers Fertilizer plants Explosive manufacturers Fireworks factories Foam plastics and foam rubber goods manufacturers Grass. b) Tough rubber-sheathed or PVC-sheathed cables protected as necessary against mechanical damage.

sheathed cable or PVC-insulated and PVCsheathed cable. l e a d . SPECIAL RESTRICTIONS B-4.ml P a p e r . cable mounted on insulating non-hygroscopic cleats affixed to treated. installed in underground earthenware ducts or metal pipes. ii) Where ambient temperature is likely to be above 55°C at sometime or other durmg the year. teak battens by screws of corrosion-resisting material. SELECTION OF WIRING SYSTEMS FOR FACTORIES B-3. The cables shall be carried through holes in the barriers. nium-sheathed cable or PVC-insulated and PVC-sheathed cable. steel tape or wire armoured cable or PVC-insulated steel tape or wire armoured and PVC-sheathed cable with cleat or hook suspensions. it is recommended that trenches of more than I 000 cm2crosssectional area be divided by incombustible barriers at intervals not exceeding 45 m. tough rubber-sheathed cable. which shall be made good thereof to prevent the passage of tire beyond the barriers.Precautions should be taken against the drainage of oil and in certain instances cables of the non-draining type are required. iv) The combined cross-sectional area of all conductors or cables shall not as far as possible exceed 40 percenl of the internal cross-sectional area of the trench. iii) Where atmosphere is likely to -contain flammable gases or vapours. steel wire armoured. or v) Where conductor operates at voltage above 650 V. served and impregnated cable or PVC-insulated and steel tape or wire armoured and PVC-sheathed cable buried directly in the ground or used in special conditions. b) Paper-insulated. such as Monel metal or phosphor-bronze. Wiring System (see Restrictions B-l. This system shall not be permitted in locations: i) where exposed to severe physical damage. ii) Top of trenches shall be covered with chequered plates or concrete slabs. following locations unless the cable is of (P) and (v) PVC-sheathed type. or v) In concealed spaces. and battery rooms. B-4. or iv) in concealed places. Rubber-insulated braided and compounded or PVC-insulated cable installed in galvanized solid-drawn screwed conduit with flameproof couplings and inspection fittings. unless it is of type conforming with wiring system (1) and shall not be permitted in locations: i) Where wiring height is less than 2. and shall not be permitted in locations exposed to corrosive fumes or vapour. NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE B-2. iii) In case of long trenches.i n s u l a t e d . rubber-insulated. lead-alloy-sheathed or aluminium-sheathed. and v) The cable trenches shall be kept ‘free from accumulation of water.o r a l u m i n i u m - sheathed cable with steel wire or tape armour as necessary. (h) and fs) These systems should only be permitted for voltage below 250 V and that too only if use of such system is essential. Same as in case of wiring system (d). c) Paper-insulated lead or lead-alloy or alumi- d) Paper. B-3. ii) They are exposed to corrosive vapours. lead-alloy sheathed or aluminium-sheathed. (n).5 m above working floor level. iv) Where wet processes are carried out. dusts and waste materials. steel tape or wire armoured.1 Wiring systems suitable for installations in different categories of factories are given i n Table 3. Ordinary steel conduits shall not be permitted in areas where flammable vapour may be present. N O T E. in (m). and so installed as to be protected against mechanical damage. lead-alloy or aluminium-sheathed cable. h) Rubber-insulated. ci) Armoured cables shall not be permitted. mounted on porcelain or hardwood cleats or in trenches or ducts. It shall be permitted only where voltage is below 650 V and in locations where the atmosphere is unlikely to contain any flammable vapours or gases.1 Even though guidance may be taken from the selection chart (Table 3) for wiring systems. iii) where wet processes are carried out. iv) Where atmosphere is likely to contain flammable gases or vapours. ADDITIONAL WIRING SYSTEMS PARTICULARLY SUITABLE FOR USE IN FACTORIES AND THE LIKE a) Paper-insulated. Varnished cambric insulated cables without metal sheath should be used only for short connections on switchboards and the like in dry situations. unless protected against mechanical damage. B-2) tb) and (g) If the ducts are in the form of under floor trenches then the following provisions should be observed: i) Cables shall preferably be so mounted on insulated racks or other supports as to be at least 75 mm above the bottom. iii) In concealed spaces of combustible construction. NOTL -. Itad-or aluminium- e) Tough rubber-sheathed or PVC-sheathed g) Varnished-cambric insulated. Same as in case of wiring system (d). Trunking or ducting systems for cables above (c) ground shall not be used where: i) They are exposed to physical damage. the following restrictions to their use apply: 182 . ii) where exposed to corrosive vappurs. The barriers shall be at least 50 mm in thickness and of the same height as of cable trench.

ISS MOTORS O THER E Q U I P M E N T (1) J&e spinning and (2) (3) (4) F ITTINGS (5) MISCELLANEOUS (6) Sup ly shall be at < 4SO V in jute godowns IS : 3836 weavmg. c.. b.. dust-tight locations shall be drip-proof -do- Li hting fittings s 1 all be dusttight All equipment in Vapour-proof lighting fittings the Xanthation area and finished in areas where disulphide plant corrosive gases . contacts liable for corrosion shall be cadmium plated Textile mills using cotton. man made Ji bres or any grouping of these Places where paints and varnishes are stored or processed Machines for singeing yarn shall be protected lo ensure that heating elements are not switched on while yarn is stationary IS : 9109 Provisions shall be made for switching off the whole factory at more than one control point. 4 r L Y Sub-main distribution lo local distribution boards a C : P V h f ff P V f S b q r k t Sub-circuit wiring C C f f V N O T E- f k V g b h j C f s k t For description of a. from outside the smgemg rooms. Lighting fittings of enclosed type All current carrying parts.shall comply with are evolved Part VII of the Code IS . lap air for variable ment shall be speed motor taken flamqproof in gas breaking.ising building.3079 Totally enclosed Dust-tight lightMetal clad and type.5.TABLE 3 SELECTION CHART FOR WIRING SYSTEMS FOR INSTALLATIONS IN FACTORIES ( C l a u s e s 5. jute rope. 183 PART 4 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS . mixing. APPENDIX (Clause 7. blow and ra.v see B-l and B-2. Equip. cotton waste regenerated cellulose.ing fittings at willowing. carpet making factories Cotton ginning cotton seed delintering and pressing factories Plants making viscose rayon yarn or staple fibre or both IS : 2726 All motors shall All equipment be totally enclosed shall be metal type and in wet clad.2.1 a n d Bf4.. 2nd Ye : i g V (1) Main distribution at medium or low voltage 2nd Choice (7) P V 2nd Choice (9) . waste opening. the ‘cooling dust-tight. I) S EC T I O N O F INSTALLATION . Stop motion rooms devices provided on frames snail be dust-tight Wiring in steel conduits.2) T+PE O F C REQUIREMENTS FOR FIRE SAFETY IN SPECIFIC INDUSTRIES INDUSTRY R E F. G g C ATEGORY Heavy Industry OF FACTORY Chemical industry _ 1st Choice (8) S Light industry 1st Choice (6) 5 k r C I St Choice (4) a k qt a C f k P r :: j Factories InvolvinG?e (10) k . Average Factory 7 2nd Choice Choice (2) (3) a k i .

IS ture factories. Plywood hardwood. car parks. armoured or mineral insulated type ‘of wiring - Use of flexible cables to be kept_ to the minimum IS : 4886 Where. 1% (2) IS : 4226 MOTORS (3) Motors shall be flameproof dustprotected (see Part 7 of the Code) Totally enclosed. flammable sheathed cable. fire works to be ositioned not bePow 45 cm or explosives are stored below roof. immersion type or totally enclosed low temperature type with external surface below 92°C Saw mills.ing troughs and other control aquipment shall be dust proof type. Flexible connection to the stacker through rubber compound sheathed trailing cable with hard cord braiding Screwed steel cbn.temperature allowed Godowns. furni. switch and socket shall be watertight. outdoor storage sites formmg part of industrtal complexes or others: cold storage buildings IS : 3594 Driving motors for overhead cranes totally . totally enclosed type Fan motors of dryers and wither. etc : 6329 Motors shall be totally enclosed or pipe ventilated All equipment shall be dust-tight and where spray painting is done shall comply with Part 7 of the Code APPENDIX (Clause 8. magnesium and their alloys are processed or used Coal. Only conduits. practicable..Q I AVERAGE ILLUMINATION lux I50 100 100 20 L IMITING G LARE IN D E X I. Factory outdoor areas: Stockyards. as also equipment. duits mineral insulated.1. enclosed All switchgear equipment metal enclosed. wood flour. dustproof (see Part 7 of the Code) OTHER EQUIPMENT (4) All equipment of the enclosed type FITTINGS (5) Wiring in steel conduits. warehouses. Flexible lighting pendants or portable lamps not allowed Electrical heaters shall be metal cased. corridors. For mains operated electrical stackers. internal factory roads 114 - NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE . A clearanoe of not less than 75 cm to be provided from highest stacking level. totally enclosed. copper outside godown or aluminium where fibrous goods. INDMTRIAL RtItLotNGs AND PRO~‘ESSE. stairs 2.1) D RECQMMENDED VALUES OF ILLUMINATION AND LIMITING VALUES OF G&ARE INDEX-INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS SL No. General factor areas: a) Canteens b) Cloakroom. coach and body build works. upholsteries and other wood working shops. powders of aluminium. exit roads. Enclosed lighting fittings h’t IsCELLANEOUS (6) -do- Factories where. etc. Temperature of eqqipment IO’C ovq normal working . wood wool. flameproof. pulverising mills. insulation boards. main entrances. therein for power generation cole or briquette making Tea factories IS : 3595 Lighting fittings shall be dusttight. nitroLighting fittings cellulose. liquids.All control equipment switches.T YPE OF IN D U S T R Y (1) R E F.’ c) Entrances.

I% 3. sheet aluminium layout and template work. punching and stitching. finishing e) Shoe rooms Breweries and distilleries: I 000: 700 IO00 :3 100 GLARE INDEX 450 300 25 25 300 IS0 300 700 I &lo* 25 28 25 22 I9 4. TSupplementary local hghtlng may be requtred lor gauge lasses and instrument panels. for example. barley. :. tufting. Chocolate’ and confectionery factories: a) Mixing. crushing and refining. assembly of very small precision mechanisms. lasting and bottoming. bean cleaning. 20 to 25 w 20 50 7. etc c) Control rooms: i) Vertical control panels ii) Control desks 14. stitching d) Bottom stock preparation.B the light. rice. topping. milling. miscellaneous machines c) Finishing. packing iii Special lighting 450 :: :E 300 450 200 450 450 :: - II. mechanical driers. engine assembly. gauges. $pecial attention should be paid to the colour quality o. 5. jacquard and cutting. cream making c) Hand decorating. riveting. a) General working areas b) Brewhouse. mending. oven rooms. boiling b) Chocolate husking. 13. for example. I NDUSTRIAL B UILDINGS AND PROCFSSE~ OVERAGE LIMITING ~LIUMINATION lux Aircraft factories and mainmnance hangers: a) Stock parts productions b) Drilling. final assembly. typewriter and office machinery-assembly d) Very fine work. :: 22 8. inspection Ceramics -see pottery and clay products Chemical works: a) Hand furnaces. percolators. stationery driers. bottling and canning plants c) Bottle inspection IO. - IS0 w 200 to 300 300 28 - 28 :: *Opiical aids should be used’ where necessary. trimming c) Canned and bottled goods: retorts d) High speed labelling lines e) Can inspection Carpet factories: a) Winding. setting pattern. b) Binding and folding. etc b) Preparation: kettle areas. sub-assembly. frame assembly. blending. blocking and in laying Boot and shoe factories: a) Sorting and grading b) Clicking and closing. cowling welding. for example. fat extraction. inspection c) Maintenance and repairs (Hangers) Assembly shops: a) Rough work. hemming. assembly of heavy machinery b) Medium work. 25 :: - 12. mechanical cleaning. inspection. fringing c) Weaving.Designing. filtration plants. dicing. values. mechanical crystalizing bleaching. beaming b). PART 4 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS 185 . feeding. sorting. preparatory operations c) Cutting table and presses. :: 22 2s 25 - 9. wrapping. cutting. screw fastening. boiling tanks. Canning and preserving factories: a) Inspection of beans. wrapping rooms b) Decorating and icing Boiler houses (industrial): a) Coal and ash handling b) Boiler rooms: i) Boiler fronts and operating areas ii) Other areas c) Outdoor plants: i) Catwalks ii) Platforms Bookbinding: a) Pasting. for example. stationery or gravity crystalizers. machined parts. instruments Bakeries: a) Mixing and make-up rooms. electrolytic cells b) Controls. extractors. evaporators. :: - 6. nitrators. vehicle body assembly c) Fine work. wing sections. winnowing. radio and telephone equipment.

Collieries (surface buildings): a) Coal preparation plant: i) Working areas ii) Other areas. junction towers g) Control rooms: i) Vertical control panels ii) Control desks iii) Rear of control panels iv) Switch houses h) Nuclear reactors and steam raising plants: i) Reactor areas. coal conveyors. Dairies: a General working areas bf Bottle inspection c) Bottle filling 18. boiler and turbine decks h) Transformers and outdoor switchgear 22.SI. ‘grey’ perching b) Wet processes c) Dry processes d) Dyers’ offices ‘e) Final perching 20. Dye works: a) Reception. boilers. soot and slag blowers d) Boiler house and turbine house e) Basements f) Conveyor houses. conveyer gantries. Engraving: a) Hand b) Machine (see Die sinking) 4502 :z :z 450 1000 I 500 450 1000 I 500 I50 :: I50 lo0 I50 I50 100 2001 Special lighti. feeders. Clothing factories: a) Matching-up b) Cutting sewing: i) Light ii) Medium iii) Dark iv) Pressing c) Inspection: i) Light ii) Medium iii) Dark d) Hand tailoring: ~’ i) Light ii)dedium iii) Dark 16. No. iii) Picking belts iv) Winding houses b) Lamp rooms: i) Main areas ii) Repair sections iii) Weigh cabine c) Fan houses 17. NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE .. battery rooms. :: 25 200 lo :z I50 I50 I50 I50 200 _ 1000 I9 - l 186 Spectal attention should be paid to the colour quality of the light. I NDUSTRIAL B UILDING S AND P ROCESSES AVERAGE ILLUMINAT!~N IUX L IMITING G LARE I NDEX 15. preciprtators. Die sinking: a) General b) Fine 19. I9 :: 22 22 I9 I9 I9 I9 I9 I9 25 25 IE 750 lW 2w .g: 200 100 70 to loo 100 70 70 to loo 25 I9 I9 .. switchgear and transformer chambers c) Boiler houses (including operating floors) platforms. galleries ii) Gas circulator days iii) Reactor charge/discharge face 2 I. Electricity generating stations: Outdoor locations a) Coal unloading areas b) Coal storage areas c) Conveyors d) Fuel oil delivery headers e) Oil storage tanks f) Catwalks g) Ptatforms. Electricity generating stations: Indoor locations a) Turbine halls b) Auxiliary equipment. tSupplementaty local lighting may be required for gauge glasses and instrument panels. blowers auxiliary generators. pulverizers.

shaking out. finishing ironing. 23. ‘Go’ and ‘No-go’ gauges. oil gas plants. drawing. gauging and inspection of small intricate parts e) Minute work. sizing. instruments d) Very fine work. forming (blowing. water gas plants. booster and exhaustor houses c) Open type plants: i) Catwalks ii) Platforms Gauge and tool rooms: General Glass works and processes: a) Furnace rooms. rolling) c) Cutting to size. \ PART 1 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS 187 . silvermg) e) Brilliant cutting f) Inspection: i) General ii) Fine L Glove mating: a) Pressing. pits c) Repairs Gas works: a) Retort houses. sifting and packing floors b) Wetting tables Forges: General Foundries: a) Charging floors. 7oot 28 28 :: I9 I9 I9 22 :: 22 31. greasing. for example. polishing. for example. 26. radio and telecommunicat. pouring. refining forming. 32. cutting out.SL No. inspection Garages: a) Parking areas (interior) b) Washing and polishing. for example. for example. 1:: 300 :i 25 28. tSupplementary local lighting and optical aids should be used where necessary :Optical aids should be used where necessary. annealing lehrs b) Mixing rooms. compressor. for example. I50 22 iii 700 :: 22 33. I50 300 28 25 21. liglit. calibrated scales. knjtfing. etc b) Medium work. decorating. pouncing. meter. counting. cleaning. INDUSTRIAL B UILDINGS AND ‘PROCESSES hllTlNG G LARE INDEX Farm buildings (dairies) a) Boiler houses b) Milk rooms c) Washing and sterilizing rooms d) Stables e) Milking parlours Flour mills: a) Roller.: 29. purifiers. 25. and hand finishing. b) Sewing: i) Light ii) Medium iii) Dark Hosiery and knitwear: a) Circular and flat knitting machines universal winders. 30 to 50. general servicing. precision mechanisms. cutting b) Sowing: i) Light ii) Medium iii) Dark Hat making a) Stiffening. sorting. sub-assemblies c) Fine work. 28 25 *Supplementary local lighting should be used at important points. 30. 300 300 450 I :g 700 450 I50 300 ‘700 :z$ 22 :: 22 I9 I9 I9 34. tumbling cleaning. bending. rough moulding and rough core making b) Fine moulding and core making. etching. very small instruments 150 300 I50 - u 25 25 25 28 24. purifier. braiding. coke screening and coke handling plants (indoor) b) Governor. rough checking of stock parts. dark e) Linking or running-on Inspection shops (Engineering) a) Rough work. grinding. flanging. folding and pressing b) Lock stitch and overlocking machines: i) Light ii) Medium iii) Dark c) Mending d) Examining. toughening d) Finishing (bevelling.ion equipment. medium. pressing. 100 :.

rough grinding.g: I Soot 300 450 I9 IO I9 I9 38. tinning. inspection mending. tanning. firing rough spraying b) Rubbing. calendering pulp mills. labelling. cold strip mills. medium buffing and olishing c) Fine bench and machine work. gan. coating and laminating processes ii) Associated printing Pharmaceuticals and fine chemicals works: a) Raw material storage b) Control laboratories and testing c) Pharmaceuticals manufacturing: grinding. NA’FIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 188 . iiz :: 25 28 28 22 22 I9 28 25 300 I50 200 39. . spraying and finishing c) Fine painting. sheet and plate finishing. melting shops. galvanizing. containers and paper sack manufacture. cap ing. blast furnace working areas. Machine and fitting shops a) Rough bench and machine work b) Medium bench and machine work. granulating. splitting and strafing SL I NDUSTRIAL B UILDINGS AND Pttoc~~!im AVERAGE ILLUMINATION IUX LI M I T I N G G LARE I N D E X 28 150 200 300 Special lighting 28 28 _ 36. spraying and finishing d) Retouching and matching Paper-works: a) Paper and board making: i) Machine houses. fleshing and stuffing b) Finishing. spotting Leather dressing a) Vats. staking.Leather working a) Pressing and glazing b) Cutting. 40. cartoning and wrapping. mechanical plants. chassis assembly. 200 W 28 I9 25 :: 300 % *Optical aids should be used where necessary. drying. car assembly b) Final inspection c) Trim shops. ingot stripping soaking pits. me fine buffing and polishing Motor vehicle plants a) General sub-assemblies. rolling and wtre_mills. balance rooms b) Electrical and instrument laboratories Laundries and drycleaning works a) Receiving. cleaning. cutting. picking and cleaning lines. 44. scarfing sewing c) Grading and matching 41. setting Laboratories and test rooms a) General laboratories. *Special attention to colour quality of light may be neassary. ordinary automatic machines. finishing. mixing and drying. Paint shops and spraying booths: a) Dipping. cartons. body sub-assemblies. polishing. inspection d) Fine chemical manuPacture: i) Plant processing ii) Fine chemical ftnishing :: 25 I9 mt 45. ironing (calendering). stretching. preparation of solutions and filling. . sterilizing and washing. despatch b) Drycleaning bulk machine work c) Fine h&d ironing. preparation plants. trimming ii) Inspection and sorting (over hauling) b) Paper converting processes: i) Corrugated board. works a) Marshalling and outdoor stockyards b) Stairs. body assembly d) Spray booths Paint works a) General automatic processes b) Special batch mixing c) Colour matching 450 700 1000* 700 300 450 300 450 200 450 700’ I50 300 450 22 42. :: 25 43. ordinary painting. power blower houses e) Slab inspection andsonditioning. mills motors rooms.gw ays! basement< quarries. pressing. . loading docks c) Slab yards. Iron and steel. medium grinding. washing. tableting. cutting. 35. 200 300 25 22 46. sorting.No. . P automatic machines. machine and roll shops f) Plate inspection g) Tinplate inspection Jewellery and watchmaking a) Fitte processes b) Minute processes c) Gem cutting. pump hauses d) Mould preparation.

pressing. spreading. Rubber processing: a) Fabric preparation creels b) Dipping. slubbing. burnishing b) Final buffing and polishing 49. roving. finishing. slashing. fine counts light iii) Plain ‘grey’ cloth Cloth inspection -. iv) Proof reading d Electrotyping: i) Block-making.St. etching. decorating 50. filter pressing. No. filling and packing granules: i) General areas ii) Control panels. stamping. dressing and dyeing. washing. Soap factories: a) Kettle houses and ancillaries. heckling. cutting and drying. soap milling. extrusion ii) Moulding-compression. spinning. granules making. imposing stones ii) Presses iii) Composing room . pressing. Textile mills’ (cotton or linen): Bale breaking. I N D U S T R I A L . 28 I9 :ii :ii 450 300 200 300 200 300 700* 200 I50 200 25 22 :: I9 I9 :: 25 25 I9 2 25 25 5 200 Special lighting 25 I50 200 to 300 :: :: I50 200 to 300 200 to :E! I50 u 25 I50 300 25 25 - I. doubling (fancy). polishing. hand and machine casting ii) Front assembly. kiln rooms. buffing. spinning (ordinary counts). machines d) Edible products processing ‘and packing 54. I50 450. punching shearing. continuous indoor soap making. glycerine evaporation and distillation. injection iii) Sheet fabrication: I) Shaping 2) Trimming. moulding. sorting b) Printing plants: i) Machine composition. colouring. machining. Sheet metal works: a) Benchwork. plodding: i) General areas ii) Control panels. compounding calendars c) Tyre and tube making 52. routing d) Photo-engraving: i) Block-making. I9 - -*Special attention should be paid to the colour quality of the light. blowing. Pottery and clay products: a) Grinding. -z 200 300 200 I50 Special lighting :: :: 25 25 _. electroplating. Plastics works: a) Manufacture (see Chemical works) b) Processing: i) Calendering. trimming. fine counts dark ii) Patterned cloths. firing b) Enamelling. winding. glazing. scribing. cabling Warping. wrapping and packing. BUILDINGS AND PROCESSES AV E R A G E ILL~~~~NA~!oN IUX LIMITING GLARE INDEX 47. polishing 3) Cementing 48. cleaning. key equipment c) Soap stamping. plants: i) General areas ii) Control panels b) Batch or continuous soap cooling. carding. masking ii) Finishing. PART 4 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS . folding b) Sheet inspection 53. routing e) Colour printing: Inspection area 5 I. backing ii) Moulding. granules storage and handling. Plating shops: a) Vat and baths. Structural steel fabrication plants: a) General b) Marking off 55. spinning (fine counts) Healding (drawing-in) Weaving i) Patterned cloths. Printing works: a) Type foundries: i) Matrix making. moulding. dressing type.

gilhng. planning. flat. twisting. Textile mills (woollen): a) Scouring. spinning. roving. medium machine. 198 NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE . radio valves 63. tentering.IN D U S T R I A L B UILDINGS l%. Textile mills (silk or synthetics): a) Soaking. brazing and spot welding. AND PROCESSES A VERAGE ILLUMINATION lux L IMITING G L A R E INDEX 56. winding. and bench work. carbonizing. fugitive tinting._ d) Very fine soldering and spot welding. preparing. for example. fine woollens iii) Heavy woollens r) Burling and mending Lx) Perching: i) Grey ii) Final 25 25 25 :: 19 I9 I50 iOO 450 700 700 450 :z 25 25 25 - dc. Upholstering. Tobacco factories All processes 60. for example. quality slashing: i) Light thread ii) Dark thread d) Warping e) Healding (drawing-in) f) W. Warehouses and bulk stores: a) Large material. tSpecial attention should be paid to the colour quality of the light in all processing areas. rough sanding. raising. jacquard carpet looms. carding. combing (coloured). combing (white). coliditioning or setting of twist b) Spinning c) Winding. furniture and vehicles 61. racks c) Packing and despatch 62. Textile mills (jute): a) Weaving. 2z* 200 I50 3001 300 25 25 22 22 58. Woodworking shops: a) Rough sawing and bench work b) ‘Sizing. rough spot welding b) Medium soldering. loading bays b) Small material. veneering. back-washing.eaving g) Inspection 57. twlstmg Healding (drawing-in) e) Weaving: i) Fine worsteds ii) Medium worsteds. warping. for example. instruments. cop winding b) Yarn calender 59. gluing. Welding and soldering: a) Gas and arc welding. pressing. drying. teasing. brushing. domestic hardware c) Fine soldering and spot welding. crabbing and blowing b) Blending. rewinding and coning. cropping Spinning. cooperage c) Fine bench and machine work.. fine sanding and finishing Iii 150 I50 2”: 25 28 25 22 19 22 300 700 150 I50 :E :: *Special attention should be paid to the Solour quality of the light. radio set assembly .

The reference to speed of motor ha\ been made 51ncc the manufacturer\ pro\ idc inlnrmat~on on that bawls.80 0. 15.92 to 0.52 (2) Cold storage and fisheries Cinemas Metal pressing Confectionery Dyeing and printing (textile) Plastic moulding Film studios Newspapers Heavy engineering works Rubber extrusion and moulding Pharmaceuticals Oil and paint manufacturing Silk mills Biscuit factory Printing press Food products Laundries (1) 18.5 9 Ii.61 0. 25.87 to 0.5 6. 12.73 to 0. For guidance. .80 0.72 to 0.5 II 13 IS 2j 29 35 4x 60 6X 500 re\ min (7) 2.75 St.70 T A B L E 5 C A P A C I T O R R A T I N G S AT RATED VOLTAGE R ATED OI’TPIT OF MOTORS (11 kW 2.5 4 5 6 8. 28.5 4. 26. PART 4 E L E C T R I C A L I N S T A L L A T I O N S I N INDUSTRIAL B U I L D I N G S I91 .7 7.87 0.60 0.5 5.7 22. 14. to guard ‘against c\cc\\ tramlent torque\ and o\cr\olt+!c\. I I.5 37 57 I:: 150 I87 CAPA(.5 4 5. 24.5 3 4 5 s II No~I.5 9 10.80 to 0. TYPE OF IN S T A L L A T I O N N ATIIRAI. The recommended capacitor ratings at rated voltage. (2) Flour mills Gas works Textile mills Oil mill Woollen mills Potteries Cigarette manufacturing Cotton press Foundries Tiles and mosaic Structural engineermg Chemicals Municipal pumping stations Oil terminals Telephone exchange Rolling mills Irrigation pumps to 0.75 to 0. 4. 5. 22.70 0.68 0.58 0. NOTE 3 Should a consumer desire to impBo.48 0.51 0.5 4.63 0.59 0.66 0. 20.2 G.5 Il. PO W E R FACTOR (3) 0.58 0.61 0. 13. 32. then he may install the calculated capacitor LVAR a\ a \cparate cltcult with its independent controlgear.57 0. 27. T YPE OF IN S T A L L A T I O N NATI’HAL. No. the natural power factor for some three phase electrical installations are given E POWER FACTOR IN INDUSTRIAL INSTALLATIONS in Table 4.5 6 9 IO I6 21 26 36 45 53 IN kVAR tom Moron Srttn * 750 600 rev min rev min (5) (6) 2 3.59 to 0.72 0.77 0.7 5. for direct connection to ac induction motor in industries are given in Table 5.64 0.69 to 0. NOTI: 2 The capacitive current supplied bv condenser\ directl! connected acre\\ Induction motor terminal\ should not exceed the magnetising current of the induciion motors. 21.75 0.5 7.83 0.51 0.74 to 0.5 :: 33 42 50 RA T I N G I 000 rev min (4) I. 12. 17. 19.60 0.61 0.ITOR I 3 000 rev min (2) I 500 rev min (3) I 2 3 4 5 6 . 31. 34. TABLE 4 POWER FACTOR FOR THREE PHASE ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS SL No (1) :: 3.87 0.5 I2 IX i3 2x 38 47 55 2.5 3.25 3. 33. 30.48 0.72 0.76 Or78 0.53 0.75 0.I .60 0.65 0. 23. 6.57 0.86 to 0.5 2.68 to 0. 7.APPENDIX (C/uuse 9) The general guidelines for power factor compensation is giver in Part I /Set 17 of the Code.65 0.5 :: 32 40 55 67 76 i 2.e the power factor bqond a \aIuc which ih limited b! con\idcration\ 01 magnetising kVAR of the motor as stated in Note 2. POWtR FACTOR (3) 0.: IO.65 0.86 0. 16.68 to to to to to to to 0. 29.63 0.80 to 0.

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NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE P A R T 5 .

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Merence should be made to relevant parts of the Code.3 Even though.F 0 R E W 0 R Da 0.2 Keeping the above in view. namely. thereby calling for special considerations in their design. 0. however. Temporary installations are those which are erected to serve for a small duration of time after which. be noted that small outdoor locations around building installations (example. Part 5 of the Code has been set aside to deal with installations erected outdoor. In the case of the latter. lighting or for meeting the needs of heavy machinery (example. For convenience. the duties would be more onerous than those normally encountered in indoor situations. outdoor installations ati distinct in nature by virtue of their.being exposed to moderate to heavy environmental conditions. . 0. In addition.PART 5 OUTDOOR INSTALLATIONS 0. and keeping other aspects of safety provisions in view. installations for lighting of public thoroughfares are permanent in nature. This part basically deals-with two types of outdoor installations. this duration is defined as not exceeding six months. Permanent outdoor installations are those which are generally ‘in use for longer periods of time. . gardens around hotel installations or storage yards in industries) do not fall under the scope of Part 5.they are meant to be dismantled. they are dealt With separately in Section I. electric power in outdoor installations is normally utilized for specific purposes such as. 0. For requirements pertaining to this. temporary and permanent.1 As compared to the various types of indoor installations covered in other parts of the Code. open cast mines).4 It may.

concrete or other rigid material formed at the edge of a carriageway. 3 Carriage. 2.3 The requirements given in this Section are. 2. 1 .1.2. reflector. 2. 2.T h a t p o r t i o n o f a highway intended primarily for vehicular traffic.1 Terms Relating to Highways 2. NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE .5 Central Reserve .1 This Section of the Code covers requirements of public lighting installations in order to provide guidance to those concerned with the preparation of public lighting schemes. 1.A border of stone. FOREWORD 0.1. 2. housing for one or more lamps.A. such& those which apply for parks. 0. luminaires. for example. 2.A longitudinal space dividing a dual carriageway.The vertical distance between the centre of the luminaire and the surface of the carriage (see Fig. comprising a body and any refractor.) 2. shopping enclaves. 7 Cjxcle Truck .1 Lighting Installation -The whole of the equipment provided for lighting the highway comprising the lamps.2 Terms Relating to Lighting Installation 2.11 Rqfuge -.a\* .r cesigning on efficient and economical lighting Installation.9 Verie . 1.A way for the passage of vehicular traffic over which such traffic may lawfully pass. 2.2 Lighting luminaires having a characteristic light distribution. 1 . SCOPE 1.1 High\csj.1).The unpaved area flanking a carriageway.3 Luminuire .2. . 196 2. 2.A subsidiary road between a principal road and buildings or properties facing thereon and connected only at selected points with the principal road. cut-off. their installation and maintenance.SECTION 1 PUBLIC LIGHTING INSTALLATIONS 0.other t h a n t h e s u r f a c i n g o f t h e carriageway. it has been found necessary to lay down guidelines fo.I. (Lighting systems are commonly designated.1 One of the most common forms of permanent outdoor installations is the public lighting installations intehded for lighting of public thoroughfares.The distance measured horizontally between the centre of the column or wall face and the centre of a luminaire (see Fig.0 For the purpose of this Section. 2 .That portion of a road reserved exclusively for pedestrians. 2.A strip of highway adjacent to and level with the main carriageway to provide an opportunity for vehicles to leave the carriageway in an emergency.1.1.2 This Section of the Code is intended to cover general principles governing the lighting of public thoroughfares and to lay down recommendations on the quantity and quality of lighting to be provided.2. 1. 1 . 2. etc.1. The actual details of design would entirely depend on the local circumstances.1. as far as p r a c t i c a b l e a l i g n e d w i t h [he recommendations of the International Commission on Illumination (CIE) modified to suit the local conditions and regulations.5 Overhung -The distance measured horizontally between the centre of a luminaire mounted on a bracket and the adjacent edge of the carriageway (see Fig.4 D u a l Curriugewu. Sj’stenl -.12 Kerb . 2. etc.\.A way or part of a highway for use by pedal cycles only.10 Shoulder .2 Lu~wt All those physical features of a h i g h w a y .1.1). diffuser or enclosure associated with the lamp(s). flood lighting of routes and structures of architectural importance.A n array of 2.v . semicut-off.1. 2 . forming part of the highway and substantially at the same level as the carriageway. 2 .3 This Section also does not cover exterior lighting installations. 2. Section 2 General illumination lighting fittings and lighting for traffic and signalling.6 S e r v i c e R o a d . the following terms together with those provided in IS : 1885 (Part 16: Set 2)-1968* shall apply.6 Mounting Height . TERMINOLOGY 2. 8 FOO~N~U. each reserved for traffic in one direction only. means of support and electrical and other auxiliaries. l Electrotechnical vocabulary : Part 16 Lighting.A raised p l a t f o r m o r a guarded area so sited in the carriageway as to divide the streams of traffic and to provide a safety area for pedestrians. by the name of the characteristic light dis!ribution.2 This Section deals onl with electric lightin sources and does not inclu Je gas or other types o f lighting. 0.A layout of the separated carriageways.1.2.2.1). which have to be taken into account in planning a lighting installation.2.4 Outreach . sited in a manner concordant with this distribution. 2. With the availability of variety of light sources for such insfallations and the need for proper illumination of a variety of traffic routes and city centres.

between a Juminaire on one side of the carriageway and the next luminaire. IS intensity per unit projected area of a surface. which is on the other side of the carriage.T h e l u m i n o u s f l u x incident on a. 2.The downward.A curve traced on an imaginary sphere with a source at its centre and joining. illumination is the lumen per square metre (lux). (Converse 2. 2. namely the spacing.8 Light Distribution .all the points corresponding to those directions in which the luminous intensity is the same or a plane projection of this curie.5 Luminance (at a Point of Surface and in a Given -Direction).3. measured along the centre line of the carriageway.I(.2.T~:.8 Span -That part of the highway lying between successive luminaires in an installation. the luminance in this direction is l/D candelas per unit area. containing the maximum intensity.KIS. 1).The ratio of the maximum intensity to the mean hemispherical intensity of the light emitted below the horizontal. IV7 Location of columns h = Mounting height of luminaires d = Width of the carriage way p = Outreach s = Overhang c = Clearance 0= F I G. The unit of 2.3 Photometric Terms 2. staggered. flux divided by 6.The distribution of luminous intensity from a luminaire in various directions in space.14 Beam -.3. the candela (cd): 2.4 Illuhination . 1 SITING OF I.3.7 Light Output-The luminous flux emitted by a luminaire.vmmetrical) Distribution .3. 3 L u m i n o u s Intensitv -The q u a n t i t y which describes the light-giving power of a luminaire in any particular direction. The unit of luminous intensity is.) Ratio (in a Particular 2.2.An assymmetrical dist.Luminosity.The lumil.‘ntensitv . The usual unit is the candela per square metre (cd/ mz).2.The distance between kerb lines measured at right angles to the length of the carriageway (see Fig.3. surface per unit area. 2.15 Beam Centre.2 Lower Hemispherical Flux or Dotinward Flux-The luminous flux emitted by a luminaire in all directions below the horizontal.2.12 Mean Hemispherical . 2. but no intensity less. 2.3. If a very small portion of a surface has an intensity I candelas in a particular direction and its orthogonal projection (that is. 2.3. It is some time called brightness. The unit of the luminous flux is the lumen (lm). than 90 percent of the maximum intensity.The inter-related linear dimensions and characteristics of the system. ‘2. DIMENSIOSS I’\HT 5 0I’TI)OOH I\S’I \ I I \‘UIOUS .~K:\(.l. between successive luminaires in an installation (see Fig.16 Isocandela Curve -. 2.3.(.11 Peak Intensity Ratio . It is not the distance measured on the diagonal joining them.6 Luminosity . Direction) -T The ratio of an actual intensity from the luminaire (in a particular direction) to the mean hemispherical inrensity.13 1ntensit. along the centre line of the carriageway.A direction midway between the directions for which the intensity is 90 percent of the maximum in a vertical plane through the maximum and on a conical surface through the maximum.3. 2. 2. opposite.7 Spacing -The distance. nor the distance between successive luminaires on the same side of the carriageway. 2.1 Luminous Nux . 2. 2.11 Geometry (of a Lighting System) . for example.The light given by a light source or a luminaire or receivtd by a surface irrespective of the directions in which it is distributed.The portion of the light output of the luminaire contained by the solid angle subtended at the effective centre of the luminaire .3.riPution I in w h i c h t h e dlrections o f m a x i m u m l u m i n o u s intensity lie (do not lie) in vertical planes substantially parallel to the axis of the carriageway.10 Axial Non-axial) Distribution . 2.3.10 Arrangement --The pattern according to which luminaires are sited on plan..MISAIRI:S: CII.2.9 Svmmetrical (Converse As. mounting height. width.I. NOTES In a staggered arrangement.3.28 (2 7r ). 2 .The attribute of visual sensation according to which an area appears to emit more or less light. 3 . overhang and arrangement. ‘the distance is measured. 23. axial. its projection on a plane perpendicular to the given direction) has an area D.2. N OTE . (This is the average intensity in the lower hemisphere. I).9 Width of Carriagewav .3.3.is the visual sensation which correlates approximately with the photometric quantity ‘luminance’.A distribution of luminous intensity which is substantially symmetrical (conversely asymmetrical) about the vertical axis of the luminaire.

2 Roads in Residential Areas. speed of traffic and comfort to drivers are the only consideration.Curve of 2. arterial roads . The system of lighting. Subgroup BZ C D E F G NOTE I .1 The classification of lighting installations in public thoroughfares given in 3.4. together with any refractor. Curve . speed and composition of the traffic using them. CLASSIFICATION 3.17 Isocandela Diagram . Residential and unclassified roads. where special lighting requirements are to be met in addition to compliance with general principles. Luminaire . 2. brightness and other lighting characteristic the source. from good engineering point of view as well as economy should take into account all the relevant factors. Roads with special requirements (see NOTE 3). igriiters. It is left to the local engineer to decide upon the category of the lighting for the given road.1.T h e m a i n consideration while designing the lighting in city centres (Group E) :Is proper illumination of footpaths for pedestrians. Further amplification of the types of thoroughfares can be had from Appendix A. wherein description bf terms are given for guidance. both from the points of view of traffic safety and comfort. 2.3. consideration has to be given to ensure that the lighting is soft and does not cause glare. GENERAL PRINeIPLES 4. dispersive surround or other enclosure which may be associated with the source in order to modify the light distribution in a desired man&r and protect the light s o u r c e from weather conditions and insects and/or for the sake of appearance.A housing for a light source or sources. character of the street (whether a shopping area or a ring-road in non-built-up area). Grade separated junctions. roads are classified as given in Table I.4.18 Polar distribution using polar co-ordinates. 3. Secondary roads with comparatively light traffic. 4. Tunnels (roads underground). N OTE 2 --Such areas are set apart in view of the fact that their standard of lighting is different from and higher than that described for other groups. However integrally with the body of the luminaire. Other main roads with considerable mixed traffic like main city streets. boulevards. N OTE 3 -Grouo F includes roads in the vicinitv of aerodromes.5 Post Top Luminaire . Secondary roads-Roads which do not require lighting up to Group A standard.etc.2 Types of Roads .4.0 Ideally.2 is based on volume.An array of isocandela curves. _ Luminaire .3 R o a d s i n Cit.For the purposes of this Section.1 Street Lighting Luminaire .Luminaire 2.Luminaire 2. Centres.2 Cut-off employing the techmque used for concealing lamps and surfaces of high luminance from direct view in order to reduce glare. reflector. bridges are classified short or long when their lengths are less than or greater than 60 metres. a high standard of lighting is advisable on all roads. B and Dj is to permit users of the roads at night to move about with greatest possible safety and comfort so that the traffic capacity of the road at night is as much equal to that planned for day time as possible.. These are roads not included in Groups’A and B. Towards this end consideration has to be given while designing the lighting on road junctior)s and pedestrian crossings so that these can be easily identified by the drivers.2. bends or long straight stretches and overhanging trees. shopping streets.T h e principle aim of public lighting along roads in residential areas (Group C) is to provide light along the stretch of carriage way and footpath for safety and comfort of road users mainly the pedestrians. promenados and such other places which are the focus of special activities after dark. 3.For the purposes of lighting installations.1. etc. besides the comfort of NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE . 2.4.1 Main Roads .4. aesthetic considerations.The aim of public lighting 198 Subgroup A I Subgroup A2 B Subgroup BI Secondary roads of considerable traffic such as principal local traffic routes. 4.. railways: docks and navigable waterways.Lumina’ire with all its accessories such as ballasts. along main roads bridges and flyovers (Groups A. the properties of the carriageway surface.1 Aims of Public Lighting Installations 4. Town and city centres and areas of civic importance (see NOTE 2).4 Terms Relating to Luminaires iight A TABLE 1 ROAD CLASSIFICATION GROUP (as in IS : 1944) D ESCRIPTION (1) (2) Main Roads : Very important routes with rapid and dense traffic where safety. suth as the presence of factories.3 Semi-out-off employing the techmque for concealing lamps and surfaces of high luminance from direct view in order to reAuce glare but to a lesser degree than cut-off luminaire. the existence of lumps.4 Integral Luminaire . etc. capaciters. places of public resort.Lummaire with arrangement for mounting the same svmmetrically on the top of the coloumn. bridges and elevated roads (see NOTE 2). 2. starters. 4. 3..1. Group E also includes important shopping streets.3.

comprises.This provides visual comfort for the driver.structuraI design 199 b) Rail~~a~~s and Docks . It is necessary that none of the street lamps cause either glare to the driver or is mistaken by the driver for track signals.A good visual guidance is required especially in long stretches of the road and even ‘ m o r e o n c o m p l i c a t e d intersections.2 Principles of Vision in Public Lighting 4.3. it is in practice the requirements of the drivers which are more stringent. 4. Also care is required to easily identify flow of traffic and road deviders.2. Good contrast should always be produced: a) Between the carriageway and all objects which indicate its boundaries: and *Code of practice for lighting of public thoroughfares yirsr re\Vsion). acceptable level. Most of the long range guidance is offered by the luminaires. 4.3. including the bright luminaires.Separate considerations are required to be given for each of the following: b) Between any obstacles which may be present and the background against which it appears. 5. islands. which may interfere with his judgement.1 regarding illumination values to be provided on the road surfaces..2.0 The following four factors contribute to the fundamental criteria of quality of public lighting : a) The level of illuminance.3 Criteria of Quality 4.It is required to control the glare due to luminaires at a value which keeps the visual d&omfort below a. roundabouts.The driver of the 4. 4.2.0 Though public lighting has to satisfy both drivers and pedestrians.1 Requirements qf Drivers . The spacing may be governed by the. Other factors that can lead to glare are presence of undersirable large surface of high reflection factor. b) The uniformity of luminance. b) The surrounds to the road. b) Visual guidance on the alignment of the road. would a pilot mistake the stretch of the road as airport landing strip at night time.4 Roads (Group F) . etc.2.The phenomenon of visibility is directly related to contrast. in order of a) The carriageway. .4 V i s u a l G u i d a n c e . 4.The design and column heights for flyovers are governed by the layout of flyovers. and d) The optical guidance.2 Visual Field qf the Driver-The visual ~.s qf L u m i n a n c e .These are as follows : a) Visibility of the whole of the road and its details such as entry of side-roads.1. railway is required to observe a number of signals along the tracks in the course of his work. height above normal ground level and the width of the low level roads.the drivers.3 Limitation of Glare . d) Good seeing condition by silhouette vision.T h e level of luminance should be adequate to provide visibility which guarantee for the user a maximum of safety and sufficient visual comfort. etc. Similar considerations are applicable to navigators in the vicinity of docks. including signs.3 Visibility . The following principles are considered essential [see also IS : 1944 (Parts I & 2)-1970*]. 4.24 Glare and Visual Comfort -Glare in public lighting is generally caused b y t h e luminaires.3. the calculation and measurement of luminance are likely to present difficulties. It is obvious that it is the road surface luminance rather than the illumination level which provides for an accurate measure of the effective light in a street lighting installation. e) Continuity and uniformity of lighting. 4. any factor which tends to increase contrast should be exploited.2 Uniformity of Luminance . c) The limitation of glare. Also the lamps should not cause glare to the pilot either while taking off or more specifically while landing. 4 . 4. PART 5 OUTDOOR IkTALLATlONS . excessively bright shop windows. since the characteristics of the obstacles may vary over a very wide range. etc. of roads in the vicinity of airports is to ensure that under no circumstances. traffic signs. roundabouts. specular surfaces.2 Layout for Flyovers. 1 Leve1. and f) General or special lighting of signs. Mith Special Requirements 4. 5. and c) The sky. Typical layouts for various road width are given in Table 2. with the present state of technique and the knowledge of reflection properties of road surfaces. Reference may be made to 7. 4. 3 .3. 4 Airports ~ The tn main consideratton designing lighting. However. spacing and column heights are governed by the road-width and the classification of the roads. advertisement signs or road direction signs. c) Clear visibility of objects in time. DESIGN 5.1 Layout for Roads-The design.et_~~a~~gt~~p~~t~~~e.

2 S TANDARD L AYOUTS FOR R OADS (Cormi) NATIONAL EL.RICAL CODE 200 .& -w-ec .L6 TO 9 m L9 TO 12m 2B s I’ w-m _-- __________ ----------- ------------ 6 -__________ ----------- ----------- Ll2 T O 2Om 2c h8 TO 206 2D ~--------~ c~-------cI _ _____w_____ A _ _ _ _ -‘c- 35 _____________________--_______ __----------.ECI.O F I G.

3 S T A N D A R D LAYOUTS FOR F L Y O V E R S ( FOUR A L T E R N A T I V E S) 201 PART 5 OllTDOOR INSTALLATIONS . recommended with layout 5. 5.5-3.1 The level of illumination of the junction should be substantially different from the nearby ‘2 .0 H 3.-_________ -- mm -or= = = a =..I 12 r TABLE 2 CLASSIFICATION OF ROADS AND RECOMMENDED ARRANGEMENT OF COLUMNS W IDTH OF C ARRIAGE WAY CROUP MENT AS IN A R R A N G E .CO L U M N H EIGHT FIG.OO . 53.-.5 H 2SH 2.0.--_ _ _ a----a-_-_xc .0 H 3.a~-_. e-m _-- ‘p-.Spacing of the junction columns should be 50 to 75 percent of the normal spacing of.2.0 H 2.~~~2 ~-_-z_--_~--_ = = 92-_= ._ Le.L_---_____--_____-_----___2F S = Spacing between columns F I G.1 The arrangements. 2 .5 H 3. 2 3D) IO < I.-Q _ -9. 2c 2c 28 2B 28 ‘28 2c 9 9 9 9 Y 9 7 7 3. 2.2 The layouts with recommended arrangements.5 H 12 A2 BI 82 C B2 C C 3c 3A) II < 10 m 3D 3C) IO < .3 Junctiods . 0 = Location of columns R OADS 2 STANDARD L AYOUTS FOR ( SIX A LTERNATIVES ) of the flyovers. column heights and spacing for various road widths on flyover are given in the Table 3. 5.5 H 3.0 H 2. column heights and . I’he layout of typical flyovers is given in Fig. 3A to 3D.-. These columns may be installed on the traffic islands located at the junctions. columns on the main roads. = z~YL-_-_~-c_-_-~= z--z= = --w--e s Q. < 20 m 1~ < 20 m : 4-z: 3B) r: < 10 m l2 < 10 m 11 < 10 m F I G.H (1) m 24 18-20 (2) Al A2 Al A2 BI (3) (4) m 9-14 9 9-14 9 E 2D 2c 2%o~H 2.2.5 H 2c.TE A 1 ___-_-___--I_-. SPACING s (5) .0 H 3. _ .spacing for various road widths of low level road are given in Table 4.H.

(2) D D junctions would generally’ be proiided with traffic island at suitable locations to regulate 7-! __-___._____ --. roads.5 H 4A Over 2C D IO to 20 up lo IO : :“D 9 14 9 3A *Above low level road.5 H 2. OF GROUP MENT A R R A N G E .2.T h e s e & 2-2.The size of columns adopted at the junction should be higher than those adopted on roads. F I G.H 2 H . 4B TABLE 5 RECOMMENDED VARIATION IN HEIGHT OF COLUMNS OF JUNCTIONS H EIGHT ON OF COLIJMNS ROADS m 7 9 14 R ECOMMENDED HEIGHT OF C OLUMNS AT JUNCTIONS m 9 14 High mast c) Change ._r-mm-* 9 D *Above the flyover road level.5 H 1. I b) Change in height c$ column: . Recommended sizes are given in Table 5.2. The junctions may be lighted by either of the following methods : __-_-__-_ 4 Higher level of illumination . 0 = Location of columns 4 S I M P L E T w o RO A D J U N C T I O N S ( TH R E E A L T E R N A T I V E S ) 202 NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE . (Cluuse 5. the junction could be lit by HPSV lamps or vice versa 5. SP A C I N G (S) 2.1_ e-v---- GROuP (2) A R R A N G E .2) CARRIAGEWAY (1) In W IDTH OF 1.in the colour of the light source In case the main road is lit by HPMV lamps.CO L U M N AS IN H E I G H T * FIG.5 H 2.1) CARRIAGEWAY (1) In 12 W IDTH The design would depend upon existence of traffic islands at the junctions.In case this scheme is adopted the level of illuminations should be 150 percent of that of the roads. (3) 3c 38 3A (‘4: m 9 9 9 SPACING b) Juncfion of IWO m a j o r r o a d s . 4A to 4C.. TABLE 4 RECOMMENDED ARRANGEMENT OF COLUMNS ON FLYOVERS (LOW LEVEL ROADS) IClause 5.. be illuminated by locating the columns in such configuration that the iunction is noticed by fast moving traffic._______.3.TABLE -3 RECOMMENDED ARRANGEMENT OF COLUMNS ON FLYOVERS.:_. (3) (Z m .e shown in Fig.2 The different types of junctions commonly encountered are discussed below in details as they require special consideration : 4 S i m p l e tM)o road juncrion -This type of junction should.COLUMN MENT AS IN H E I G H T* FIG.. Typical layout of such junctions a1.

The following points should.4 Roundabouts 5. a) Islands which are clear or have on1.1 General Requirements -.ds which have gardens or other construction which would be obstruction to line of vision of traffic .5. 6A to 6C. 5. 5 J UNCTION O F T w o MA J O R R O A D S ( THREE A L T E R N A T I V E S ) 203 .. b) lslan. if the junctions are too wide or.5. Special consideration will have to be given to the design of lighting of such junction.. The lighting columns could be located in the islands to advantage. the traffic islands design would change from location to location. 5. 7A and 7B or semi-high mast lighting as in Fig. At such junctions invariably entry for traffic may not be permitted.W h e n a proposed road lighting scheme is within 5 km of the boundary of an aerodrome it is essential that appropriate aviation authority is consulted regarding any restrictions and precautions to be observed that may be necessary.. the islands do not permit planting of poles within the desired spacing..4. 8A or conventional lighiing as in Fig.5 Road Lighting in the Vicinity of Aerodrome 5. 5A to SC. Two types of roundabouts are discussed below. the mounting height. the width of the various roads and most important.flow of traffic..v parking l o t s . However. the traffic conditions..T h e lighting of these could be advantageously achieved by use of high mast as given in Fig. 8B and 8C..The lighting of these could be either by semi-high mast as in Fig. PART 5 OUTDOOR INSTALLATIONS .. 5.2 The aviation authority may have a specific interest in the pattern of the layout..0 Multiple road junctions with roundabouts are much easier to design as a definite central roundabout is available to locate the columns. the colour a n d i n t e n s i t y . Similarly. Typical layout of such junctions are shown in Fig.. be kept in view while designing lighting scheme in the vicinity of the aerodromes: a) The light provided in the vicinity of an aerodrome shall be properly screened so as -to avoid any glare which may otherwise endanger safety of an aircraft arriving and departing from an aerodrome. Typical layout of such junctions are shown in Fig... therefore. distribution of iight emmitted above the horizontal so that lighting installation does not present anv danger to the air navigation. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ -s -7 i 3 n 0 0 u 5c 0 = Location of columns F I G. c) Mtiltiple road junctions -The lighting of multiple road junction would depend upon the geographical layout of the roads. 7C and 7D.on all the roads. special considerations are required.

6 C . 0 = Location of Columns 6D FIG.'~ MULTIPLE R OAD J UNCTIONS ( FOUR ALTERNATIVES) 204 NATIONAL ELEtXRICAL CODE .

MAST LUMINAIRES F I G. SE M I .HI G H .MA S T LU~INAIRES I N R O U N D A B O U T S ( FO U R A L T E R N A T I V E S ) PART 5 OUTDOOR INSTALLATIONS 205 . 7 US E OF HI G H M A S T .

SE M I .\ SEMI-HIGH MAST LUMINAIRES ~SEbll-HIGH MAST LUMINAIRES 1 I i a a I F I G. 8C 8 IN U SE OF.MAST OR C ONVENTIONAL L I G H T I N G R O U N D A B O U T S ( THREE A L T E R N A T I V E S) NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 206 .

SELECTION OF EQUIPMENT 6. 1 Requireyenrs . it may be necessary to employ screening to obviate the interference even though the colour of the light source is not objectionable.6. If these cannot be avoided by re-siting.If the road is bordered by water (lake. c) High pressure mercury vapour lamps with clear or fluorescent bulbs. river or canal) and if the lighting is single sided.6. These provisions should be met in a way that is mutually acceptable so that they may be incorporated at the design stage. it is essential that this interference is avoided. 6.For new 6.6. 6. 2D is not recommended. because of the colour of the light source may iriterfere with the proper recognition of signal svstem.4 Glare and Masking.The position of individual light source on the road may fall in line with signal lights and even when fairly remote may mask them or make them difficult to recognize or may hamper the vision because of glare.113 High pressure mercur>> vapour lamp3 (HPMV) .1. siting of luminaires or the use of appropriate screened luminaire at certain points arid heights. 5 . Following conditions should be ensured : i) In case roads are not parallel to landing strips. The choice between high pressure 207 . 6.1. 5.1. but local conditions vary so widely that it is not possible to lay down any rigid code applicable to all circumstances.* 5. 3 C o l o u r --~ Where any form of road lighting is emploved there is a risk of confusion with signal light. 2) Arrangement of mounting columns on opposite as in Fig.I.6 Road Lighting in Vicinity of Railways. They are not usually employed in traffic routes. They are sometimes used for residential streets when initial cost is to be kept low.1.1 . on the waterside.1.b) Lights mounted on the electric poles: pylones shall not cause an obstruction to the arriving and departing aircraft from an aerodrome in terms of obstacle limitation specified by the airport authorities. 6.These lamps may sometimes be employed in modernizing an installation to obtain higher levels without the need for ballasts required for discharge lamps. High pressure mercury vapour lamps with fluorescent bulbs are suitable for installations where colour appearance and colour rendering are important.0 G e n e r a l . c) Dimensions of the light sources.. and 8) High pressure sodium vapour lamps lamps . and d) Colour characteristics.6 Siring -. following 5 .1 The sources normally used in public lighting are : a) Incandescent lamps.1 Incandescenr installations the employment of incandescent lamps is very limited in practice. 6 . b) Mixed incandescent and high pressure mercury vapour lamps. 5. 5.2 Consultafions --.1 Electric Light Sources 6.1.v lamps . 6 .1.T h e requirements are likely to apply in all places where roads are so located that their lighting installation may affect the operation of railways. e) Sodium vapour lamps.5 Screening ~~ In all cases where screening of a light source is required this should preferably PART 5 OUTDOOR INSTAI. It is essential that prior consultation is made with the appropriate authorities regarding any special provision that may be necessary. c) It is particularly important to ensure that lighting of the road cannot ever be confused with the ground lighting of the flight paths by the pilots. This may necessitate careful selection of light SOUXCC.ATIONS be achieved by means of properly designed luminaires and not by addition of unsightly screens to normal luminaires.2 Mixed incandescent and mercur.These lamps have high luminous efficiency and long life. 6. Docks and Navigable Waterways 5.1 . docks and navigable waterways.These -lamps have higher luminous efficiency and longer life than mixed incandescent and mercury lamps. 1) Uniform design and spacing of columns is not recommended. if possible.4 Tubular fluorescent lamps -.In lighting for roads in the vicinity of railways. docks and navigable waterways. b) Economy (determined by lumens/watt and life). no lighting should be provided on the stretch of road near the landing strip. They are suitable for installations where colour appearance and colour rendering are important and where large multiplelamp luminaires are acceptable. it is recommended that the columns be sited.0 The choice of source for public lighting is guided by the following considerations : a) Luminous flux. These are suitable for installations where colour rendering is less important and where high powers are needed. ii) In case roads are parallel to landing strips.. 56. f-l Mercury-halide lamps. d) Tubular fluorescent lamps.6.

d) Whether the luminaire Is open or closed type. The principal advantage of the semi-cut-off system is a greater flexibility in siting. bridges.A luminaire whose light distribution is characterized by a less severe reduction in the intensity in the region 80” to 90”.1 The following three fundamental forms of 208 NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE . The intensity at the horizontal should not exceed IO cd per I 000 Im of flux from the light sources and the intensity at 80° is of the order of 30 cd per 1 000 Im. The direction of the maximum intensity may vary but should be below 75”.1. that is. selected according to the relative importance of the above mentioned factors. f-l Few intersections and obstructions. 6. b) Buildings close to carriageway. The principal advantage of the cut-off system is the reduction of glare and its use is favoured under the following conditions : 4 Matt carriageway surfaces.1.2. f-l Protection against collection of dust and . 6. c) Light output ratio. 6. It is also particularly suitable under foggy conditions.2 Luminaires 6.1. c) Cut-off integral luminaires. e) Slight humps. cl Presence of large trees.A luminaire whose luminous intensity in directions making an angle equal to or greater than 80” from the downward vertical is not reduced materially and the intensity of which at the horizontal may exceed the values specified for the semi-cut-off distribution.2.6 Mercur)) h. but the attention of lighting designers may be drawn to the fact that the most economical i_nstallation can be achieved only by the choice of the most suitable luminait‘e.7 High pressure sodium vapour lamps These lamps are improved versions of sodium vapour with efficiency of the order of to 100 Imi W with colour rendering satisfactory and of dimensions suited to fittings of small size and accurate light control.1. Their colour is sometimes useful to provide visual guidance. and c) Many intersections and obstructions. The direction of. e) Semi-cut-off integral.A luminaire whose light distribution is characterized by a rapid reduction of luminous intensity in the region between 80” and the horizontal. soiling and corrosion. f) Non-cut-off tubular luminatres.2.hen a certain amount qf glare may be accepted and when the luminaires are @-large size *Subject to a maximum value of I 000 cd whatever is the luminous flux emitted.2. especially those of architectural interest. lide lamps .1 Cut-c![f luminarie . j) Presence or absence of auxiliaries. however.0 The luminaire has double role of protecting the light source from the weather and redistributing the luminous flux of the source.2 Semi-cut-of luminaire -. b) Absence of buildings. 6. 6. d) Cut-off non-integral luminaires. k. Non-cut-off luminaires are permissible on/J. h) Ease of installation and maintenance.1.2. There is.1. but should not nevertheless exceed I 000 cd. 6. one essential characteristic of luminaires the choice of which directly influences the quality of the lighting. the weight and area The influence of all these factors varies according to local circumstances and it is difficult to recommend one solution rather than another. d) Long straight sections.insects. e) Resistance to heat.mercury vapour fl*uorescent lamps and fluorescent tubes is in general determined by local considerations of aesthetics and cost of installation. k) Fixing arrangements.1. b) Post top non-integral luminaires. the maximum intensity may vary but should be below 65’.1. 6. the general form of its distribution curves of luminous intensity pai%icularly in directions near the usual directions of vision.5 Sodium vapour lamps --The use of s o d i u m l a m p s i s convenient when colour rendering is not important and when a high luminous efficiency is desired. 8) Resistance to atmospheric conditions. The intensity at the horizontal should not exceed 50 cd per I 000 Im of flux from the light sources! and the intensity at 80’ is of the order of 1 000 cd per I 000 lm.1. and exposed to wind pressure. b) Nature of the optical arrangements and the light distribution which they provide. and 4 Nature and power of the source or sources.3 Non-cur-@ luminaire . In the choice of the luminaire the following points should be considered : light distribution are considered according to the degree of glare which is acceptable : a) Post top integral luminaires. 6.These lamps are improved versions of HPMV lamps and having very much higher efficiencies in the order of 80 Im/W c o m b i n e d w i t h g o o d ’ c o l o u r characteristics. and g) Flood-lighting luminaires. and its use is favoured under the following conditions : a) Smooth carriageway surfaces.

*Code of practice for lighting in public thoroughfares. Several criteria may not be satisfied for want of data such as characteristics of surface. Ratio minimum.2 Tables 6 to 8 give a summary of recommendations on the various types of thoroughfares. percent 0. particularly in certain directions.5-9 5.4 0.3 0. 7. NOII 3 Mounting heights less than 7.5 .1 Lamps and Luminaires 8. 8.1 The electrical design aspects of public lighting lighting and those are enumerated for guidance in various parts of IS : 1944*.1.3. the cut-off qualities of the luminaires and in certain situations (for example. m 6. cable ducts. etc. In certain cases they have some advantages in increasing the illumination of facades. should be employed with care.5 m are undesirable except in special cases.4 Inclination -. GUIDELINES FOR SPECIFIC LOCATIONS 7. TABLE 6 LIGHTING INSTALLATION IN GROUP A (Clauses 4.4 0.3 33 33 20 20 Cut-off 4.Attention given to the inclination of luminaires.2. III Group A lighting. P A R T 5 0l:TDOOR INSTALLATIONS 209 . 7. etc) this inclination may lead to unexpected glare. F and (Ii lighting are under consideration. 8. the level and uniformity of illumination shall be as high as possible and the glare strictly Nor1 2 In Group B lighting. etc. when there are roads at several levels.2) SI No (1) D~SC. Too great an inclination of. Maximum spacing of luminaire height ratio 9-10 Cut-off = 3 Semi-cut-off = 3. Type of lumlnaire Cut-off Semi-cut-of1 9-10 : Semi-cut-off Cut-off or Semi-cut-off Non-cut-off 7. Recommendations are made on the various components of design of public lighting installations and those require detailed calculations of the level and uniformity of illumination on the road surface and of glare.RIPTIO~: (2) GROI’P A l (3) 30 GROUP AND B ROADS A2 GROI‘P BI GKOI‘P HZ (6) 4 (4) I5 (5) 8 I Average Ifvel of illumination on road surface.9 Cut-off or Semi-cut-off Non-cut-off 7. it may be preferable to make a installations not only take into account the i!lumination principles. To get some idea of the extent to which the installation would perform. though for a detailed guidance reference should be made to the relevant part of IS : 1944*. An upward inclination which is generally called for reasons of aesthetics.1. which may be justified by the character of the road\ and by the presence of facades. roundabouts.5 Non-cut-off = 4 No1t I reduced.1 Several factors contribute to good public temporary trial installation of a few luminaires on a stretch of road to be lighted. These shall be used as ready reckoners.1. but also economic considerations giving allowance for cost of electrical control units.the luminaire may modify. Mounting height. lux 2.1 and 7.clnd of reduced brightness.1.5 Cut-off = 3 Semi-cut-off = 3. NOTE ~ Recommendations for Groups C. average illumination ratio 3 Transverse variation of illumination. should be 6.1 All’ lamps and luminaires and other fittings used in public lighting installations shall conform to the relevant Indian Standards. bends. such as lighting of residential roads or road\ bordered by trees. greater tolerances on uniformity and glare arc admitted. POWER INSTALLATION REQUIREMENTS 8. switching.

iunction boxes by looping rather than ‘T’ joints. Grade Separared Junctions i) Lighting by conventional street lighting technique Complex junctions: I) General principles 2) Mounting height. A typical street lighting pillar with control circuit is shown in Fig.4 Underground cables of suitable sizes should be utilized for the purpose of control.2 The cable circuits for each section of the roads shall be so designed as to prevent important section of the roads from being completely off in case of a fault on the underground cables. i) Main squares [see IS : 1944 (Part 6)1981’]: I) Average level of illumination.2. As in IS : 1944 ( P a r t s I & 2)-l970* IO-12 cut-off HPMV or HPSV lamps 5-6 Special considerations Not less than 20 see IS : 1944 ( P a r t s I & 2)-1970’ Normal street lighting techniques with minor adjustments [.be lit by two independent circuits. NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE *Code of practice for lighting of public thoroughfares: Part 1 General prmclple>. lux 3) Mounting height.4 R EMARKS (2) D ESCRIPTION (1) A. lux 2) Average horizontal illuminancc (under canopies).s i il) Pedtwrial p recinc’ts I ) Average horizontal illuminance (footway level). 9. the lamps shall be divided into at least two circuits in such a way that in case of fault on one circuit the entire junction. 8. B and D.2) IN TABLE 8 LIGHTING INSTALLATIONS IN GROUP E ROADS (Clause 7 . lux 4 6 Special considerations apply Q IO Not greater than I Not greater than I2 Tubular fluorescent lamps. m i i ) Sho/IL>inR srree/. For roads under groups A I.s/ promenar1e. m 4) Choice of luminaire B.yeB IS Floodlight luminaires on high masts 11) L. The recommended sifes of the cables for various installatidn are shown in Table 9.2. For junctions also. 2 ) DESGZIPTION (1) A.2.\ee IS : 1944 (Part 5)-19X1+] . separate mains shall be laid for group control of lamps on these roads. preferably emanating frop two separate street lighting pillars. v) Foot-bridges I) Illumination.s (above grotind) I) Average hoti/-ontal illuminance. The pillars shall be provided with electrically operated contactors of suitable current rating. _tux C. each stretch of road shall . 8. lux 2) Mounting height. dustproof. robust *Code of practice for lighting of public thoroughfares: Part 6 Lighting of town and city centres and areas of civic importance (Group E). bridges and elevated road (Group D). A2 and D. c’ar parh. Part L Lighting of main roads firs1 revision) tCode of’ practice for lighting of public thoroughfares: Part 5 Lighting of grade separated junctions. m 3) Luminaire 4) Light sources ii) Lighting by tigh-mast lighting I) Minimum service level value (lux) 2) Uniformity ratio $ Sd\L 3) Height of masts. m Separation between rows of lighting. B and D. 8. Auxiliary terminals of these contactors could provide facility of return indication in case of 210 . verminproof. For roads under groups A.3 in case of roads in groups A. The contactor circuits shall be provided with externally mounted switches for local manual operation.2. Bridges i) Short bridges (> 60m) 30 0.TABLE 7 LIGHTING INSTALLATIONS GROUP D ROADS (Cbuse 7. EIevored Roads I) General lighting 2) Choice of luminaire Similar to heavy traffic road\ Cut-off Not less than 6 supervisory remote control. The street lighting cables shall be terminated ia separate junction boxes or street lighting pillars. 8. or a section of it does not become completely dark. Iux 2) Luminalres preferred IO 20 50 R EMARKS (2) 20 IO-15 Special consideratlohs. the cables shall preferably be terminated into the column .ong bridges (> 60m) Iii) Bridges of historical importance iv) Parapet lighting: Mountmg height.2 Cables 8. m 4 ) Luminaires i v ) Public. m Choice of lamps : 1944 (Part 5)-19Xlt I) Average level of illuminance (surface of footbridge). lux 2) Average level of illuminance (subways).1 Underground cables shall be laid for power supply !o the street lamps. HPSV lamps or other linear sources of luminance weatherproof.

With suitable design these could also be utilised to switch off unwanted lights after peak traffic hours are over. the entire area could be switched off by ripple control impulse. The contactors shall be controlled by electrically operated switches mounted for external manuali local operation. This could be programmed to switch off on demand by a pre-determined control frequency signal.1 The contactors may be provided with additional circuitry for remote/automatic control. The fqllowing controls are recommended.-On main roads the luminaires adopted could have tw. Applying reduced voltage to such lamps would automatically reduce the illumination to any desired level. In case of discharge lamps this scheme would not be suitable.This could be advanta- a) may be control . The photoelectric switch shall be mounted so as to be free from the glare caused by head-lights of motor vehicles and protected from the weather. 4-tore 3-phase. with one year seasonal variations. it would be possible to programme alternate (or any other combination) lamps to respond to specified ripple control signals. brown-out could be effected by switching off alternate lamqs and complete black-out by switching off all the lamps. When the need arises.control is necessary in vulnerable cities with heavy vehicular traffic at the time of war.Black-out control may be required to be adopted in case of war in vulnerable areas. In case of electrical operation the time switches should be of electricallywound mechanically-operated variety so as INSTALLATIONS geously adopted in areas where the source of lighting is filament lamp. Ripple Control-. use of telephone cables) to give control impulse to group control points.4. 8. C) A”: BI 82 c D 3-phase. T i m e SM. ing to predetermined control frequency could be installed at each switching point. 3-phase.2.TABLE 9 RECOMMENDED TYPES AND SIZES OF CABLES R OAD G R O U P (1) SIZE OF CAHLES (2) T YPE OF CAHl.In case special control cables are not available. Following schemes for remote control are recommended: 4 Remote Control . B and D. This could be achieved by either of the following schemes: 8.ES mm? 16-25 16-25 16-25 IO-25 IO-25 16-25 (3) to prevent their being affected by variations in supply frequency.4 Control of Street Lighting Installations 8.5 The junction boxes with suitable sized contactors with independent fuses shall be provided for each phase. This scheme enables return indication of the operation by auxiliary contacts of the contactors.Special control cables are laid (alternatively. b) 8.The contactors may. be controlled automatically by use of auto-control devices. each controlled either PART J 0l:TDOOR 211 . these would need to be regulated from time to time due to seasonal variations.3 Power Supply .itc*hes .4. Ripple Control -. M u l t i p l e L a m p Luminaire5 --. rt-core 3-phase. However.3 Black-out Control .4. complete black-out would be necessary at the time of possible air raids.Electronic relays respond- a) Special Re/aj% C o n t r o l . Special relays operated by normal supply or electronic impulses may be provided.Brown-out . b) 4 UHF Control .4.2 Automatic* Control . Following alternatives for brown-out control are recommended: 8. 4-core 3-phase. where complete black-out is not practicable. Even in such cases.In case ripple control is adopted. 4-tore Single phase. 8. These could be installed for each individual lamp. The time switches may be manually spring wound or electrically operated.This may be achieved by injecting audio frequency impulse through suitable power supply network and installing suitable sensors at control points. should preferably be by underground cables laid specially for street lighting purposes. 8. ripple control equipment could be used with suitable sensing devices at the control points. The control could then be utilized to switch off the lamps instantaneously on demand by civil deferice authoriries. b) b) Ripple Control. alternately. The supply to lamps on roads under groups A.street lights may be either through overhead wires 01 underground cables.The local electrically operated contractors may be controlled through time switches.The supply to the .4 BroMsn-out Control .q-phase.T h i s m a y b e achieved by special control cables laid up to the street lighting pillar. In case of necessity.It should be possible to instail pre-programmed electronic micro-processors.o or more lamps. In case overhead wires are employed these should also be specially for street lighting purposes.This Photoelectric achieved by installing suitably mounted photoelect&c switches near the control points. 4-core Single phase. 4-tore Electronic Control Suitches . a) voltage Control -.

the unit formed by the luminaire and its support should be considered. Aesthetic considerations should relate to the unit formed by the luminaire and its support and the situation in which it is placed. the wattage of the lamps could be reduced by replacing the same with lower wattage lamps. This. MISCELLANEOUS CONSIDERATIONS 9. or alternately alternate lamps be switched off by suitable ripple control signals. Firstly. though could not be achieved on short notice is recommended in case of prolonged operations. either one or two phases could be switched off. Half of / CANOPY HINGE / HANDLE WELDED TO DOOR \ CDOUEILE HINGED DOORS / L O C K 9A Street Lighting Pillar F I G. therefore. In case of necessity. PILLAR-ccmfd. d) Replacement qf Lamps -. the time.by different phase or by separate ripple control signals. the lighting installation serves no useful ! purpose.1 Aesthetics-The aesthetics of a lighting installation are principally judged by day. are aesthetic. an attractive or at least a non-disturbing daytime appearance which harmonizes well with the surroundings is. There are no simple or universal rules for aesthetically satisfactory design and layout since every city.In case of prolonged brown-out operations. town and village has its own character 9. 212 NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE . of great importance. Secondly. 9 A T Y P I C A L S T R E E T LIGHTIN‘~. the siting of the luminaires in the scene may lead to even if the luminaires unpleasant effects themselves considered in isolation.

FUSEWAYS FUSEWAYS FUSEWAYS I CONTACTOR 1 9B Inside Layout K 5 N 11 CD a m K IL 8 L2 L3 9C Typical Contactor. 9 A TYPICAL S TREET L IGHTING PILLAR-CO&.Wiring (Manual) F I G. PART 5 OUTDOOR INSTALLATIONS 213 .

A motor vehicle involved in an accident frequently leaves the carriageway and the probabijity of this happening increases with the speed of the vehicle. I n exceptional cases a smaller clearance may be used. Ther6 is evidence to suggest that the number of such collisions decreases with the increase of distance of the column from the edge of the carriageway. a) b) cl 4 Design and siting. bracket and luminaire. Where there is a footway close to the carriageway.2 Lighting Columns as Hazards . The points of general application are: 9. 9 A T Y P I C A L S TREET L I G H T I N G P I L L A R and what may look well in one place may be in&ngruous in another. If the vehicle collides with a lighting column the severity of injuries to the occupants is likely to be increased. and e) Assembly of column. Arrays of luminaires. n 8) Material and colour.5 m.ROTARY SWITCH (EXTERNAL) ROTARY SWITCH ( INTERNAL 1 ‘r’ RELAY 9D Typical Wiring for Remote/ Auto Control F I G. Columns and surroundings: Size and type of luminaire. NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE . Normally the clearance between column and carriageway should be at least 1. the column s h o u l d b e s i t e d b e h i n d t h e footway. Form of bracket.

but lacking some feature of a motorway.APPENDIX (Clause 3. and giving access to premises That portion of a road reserved exclusively for pedestrians A way. usually pirallel to the major road. I) TLRM (1) Road Street Dts(. or IO which is assigned. a lesser traffic value than that of a major road A road round an urban area enabling traffic tc avoid the urban centre Radial road A road providing direct communication between the centre of an urban area and the outer districts Street with frontages comprising a high proportion of commercial premises (usually unlit at night). Service road Footway Cycle track Ring road P A R T 5 0I:TDOOR INSTAI. accessible only from interchanges and on which.ATIONS . A main route in the through communication system of a country A road which has. reserved for use only by bicycles Commercial street Motorway Shopping street Express road Residential street Collector road Distributor road Local street All purpose road Trunk road! Major road Minor road. or part of a road. stopping and parking are prohibited.KIP7loh o t T Y P E (2) KOAD TERM (1) A TERMINOLOGY FOR ROAD TYPES OF DESCRIPTION p2. and with a high proportion of heavy goods vehicles in the traffic stream Street with frontages comprising a high proportion of shops or other premises which may be lit at night and with heavy pedestrian (and possibly pedal cycle) traffic Street with the majority of froritages comprising private houses A link between the radial or ring roads and the local access streets Street giving direct access to buildings and land with a minimum of through traffic A subsidiary road. for example: ~~ not dual-carriageway __ not fully access-controlled _~ not all intersections grade-separated Road usable by all traffic (including pedestrians and cyclists) Used to distinguish other roads from motorways. TYPF: OF R O A D A general term denoting any public way for purposes of vehicular traffic A road which has become partly or wholly defined by buildings along one or both frontages A road reserved for’motor trafiic.I. in particular. Roads of this type should have two or several separate and one-way carriageways ’ A road similar to.

1 This section of the Code covers the requirements for outdoor electrical installations bf . Installations . demolition sites needs of building construction work such as lighting and power loads. 2.These include fairly larg loads such as for exhibitions.0 For the purposes of this Section.for Durations not Exceeding 45 Da. 2. N OTE I -Construction site installations for very long periods of times. En\ironnWnr (1) CLASSIFICATION Characterrrsrics (2) Remarks (3) External lighting fittings. extension or demohlion of existing buildings: and c) Public engineering works. For the purposes of installations falling under the scope of this section. S u c h i n s t a l l a t i o n s a r e g e n e r a l l y unprotected from environmental hazards as compared to installations in buildings. Exceeding 24 Hours . religious and other public function.s -.Construction site irstallatlons arc thobe which include sites where the following are carried out: a) Construction of new building.These include temparary installations which cater to loads for the purposes of marriages.2 The major risks in the use of power in such installation arise from short circuit resulting in fire accidents and exposure to live wire resulting in shock.SECTION 2 TEMPORARY OUTDOOR INSTALLATIONS 0.In special cases. SCOPE 1. 4 Temporarll Installations . intended to be used for a temporary period not exceeding 6 months. 1. fairs.1 The following environmental factors shall apply to temporary outdoor installations: electrical installation open to sky or partially covered. and the general guidelines for outdoor installations under heavy conditions from the point of view of selection and use of equipment given in Part S/Set 3 shall also be referred to.1 Temporary Installations (Outdook) . reception. erected in the vicinity of construction sites solely for the purposes of supplying the electrical Presence of water Possibility of splashes from any direction Possibility of jets Temporary installaof water in any tions in parts direction Partial or total covering by water Presence of foreign Presence of small objects solid bodies Presence of dust in significant quantity Impact High severity Construction. 216 N A T I O N A L ELEaRICAL C O D E . imperative to lay down the necessary precautions to be observed for such installations from the point of view of safety. alternation.1 Electrical installations are often required to be designed and erected for use for short periods of time ranging from a few hours to few months alld are connected to the supply source in open ground. The construction site installations are also characterised by frequent modifications.3 Temporary installations covered in this section are enumerated in 3 and are classified based on the duration of their existence in use. construction site equipment. It may be noted that this section basically intends to lay down additional safety measures to be adopted in the design of temporary installations. etc 3. 1. the guidelines specified in this Section shall be applicable for longer durations subject to fresh inspection and tests with the prior app!oval of the supply authority (see a/so 8. 0.form to the requirements in Part S/&c 3 of the Code. b) Temporary. cl Temporary.3). therefore.1. NATE . TERMINOLOGY 2. the following definitions in addition to those given i n Part I /Set 2 of the Code shall apply. NOTE ~ Exhibition or fair site lighting installations of the permanent type shall conform to the requirements specified in Part 5 Set I of the Code.b.0 General guidelines on the assessment of characteristics of installations in buildings are given in Part I /Set 8 of the Code.1 Environment 4. b) Works of repair.temporary use./or Durations not Exceeding 7 Dajcy ~ These include installations site of temporary nature intended for a week long public function or outdoor lighting installations of buildings and parts in view of festival and other reasons. GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF TEMPORARY INSTALLATIONS 4.An NOTE 2 -. etc. Installations . 3. 0. where the equipment are quite similar to those in heavy conditions shall con. etc.for Durations not 4. the characteristics defined below generally apply.1 The temporary outdoor electrical installations covered in this Section are those intended for the following purposes: a) Temporary Installations for Durations not Exceeding6 Months -Outdoor installations ‘open to sky or partially covered. FOREWORD 0. It is.

2 If the equipment used in temporary and provisional places of work in the open. If overhead line is laid up to the temporary substation. materials of the line. 6.2.Circus.1. such a s building sites are similar to those used in surface mining applications.1 Supply Intake Arrangements 6. in particular.In case the loads at construction sites or to exhibitions. One construction site may be served by several sources of supply. etc. The power supply authority’s line should be brought up to the substation in a separate enclosure.inSide pation. cabinet or distribution board shall consist of only components belonging to one and the same installation except for circuits for standby supplies. conductors. GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR TEMPORARY OUTDOOR INSTALLATIONS 5. in respect of wiring of circuits. Section I Design. of overhead power lines: Part I kV. in 6. small animals) Solar radiation Solar radiation of hbrmful intensity and/or duration Depends on the location of the installation Hazard from exposure of equipment Generally applicable for installations located outdoors Seismic effects 6. of overhead power lines: Part I kV. All the circuits supplied from the same point of supply comprise one installation and it is impoy. Depending on the availability of s are ca acity. insulation and the method of stringing the conductors and the mechanical strength of the line as a whole shall conform to the relevant provisions of IS : 5613 (Part I /Set I)-1970* and IS : 5613 (Part l/Set 2)197lt. demolitions sites equipmrnt.p&es to operating adequately advised or supervised by skilled persons Contact of persons with earth potential Conditions of evacuation during emergency Frequent Construction sites Low density occupation easy conditions of evacuation Small gatherings. difiicult an enclosure. etc. Such as wooden cloth structures in tents Structures which are weak or . or d) A tapping form one of the existing serviceconnection. then the ‘supporting poles. references shall be.tant to clearly differentiate them. such as for marri.0 The type of outdoor itMallations will depend on the magnitude and duration of the installation. b) A HV feeder and step-down transformer. birds.1 Commissioning of Substation . laree oublic gatherings. 6. installation shall in general conform to the requirements stipulated in the relevant Section of Part I of the Code. location and installation of PART 5 OUTQOOR INSTALLATIONS 217 . ages and similar functions Hieh densitv bccu. Section 2 Installation and installation and maintenance Lines op to and including I I installation and maintenance Lines up to and including II maintenance. c’ircuses.subject to movement such as tents. of the existing distribution system.Environment (1) Vibrations Chorocteristics (2) Medium severity Remorks (3) Constructions. 5.2 Utilization 4. tRe suppP y intake arrangements could be through either of the following: a) A HV feeder. tents The nature of construction materials used in temporary installations may be combustible. signalling or control. removable partitions etc Structural design flexible or unstable 5. a smgle distribution point. ADDITIONAL REQUIREMENTS FOR TEMPORARY OUTDOOR INSTALLATIONS Presence of flora! No harmful mould growth hazard Presence of fauna Hazard from fauna (insects. Lightning 4. c) A service line at voltages below 250 V. are large and the power supply authority has no network in the vicinity of the temporary installation that could be utilized then it would be necessary to establish a temporary substation where the switchgear and transformer can be installed.1. Additional requirements are giver.1 Temporary. etc conditions of evacuation Nature of processed Construciion o f structure Fire risk Combustible Shamianahs. made to the guidelines contained in Part S/Set 3 of the Code. tCode of practice for design. In case supply at voltages above 650 V *Code of practice for design. The substation site shall be so selected that it is as close to the load centre as possible.1 The following factors of utilization apply: Uiilization (1) Capability of persons Characteristics (2) Uninstructed persons Remarks (3) Majority of occupants say in an exhibition circus fairs Instructed persons Asy. including fixed or mobile power generators.

6. 6.1(b).2 Power Distribution 6. 6. etc. covered with sand.5 The main switches shall be located at a height not exceeding 1. 6. The main switch shall be installed in an enclosure or a wooden cupboard and as close to the metering point as possible (see also 6.1. When laid underground.2. With this type of arrangement it shall be possible to switch off the supply at the intake point or at the distribution point. or alternatively.2.11 In cities and towns. 6. 6. circuses. In case overhead wires are used in the installation they should conform to the relevant Indian Standards mentioned in 6.1 A device shall be provided on the incoming cable to each supply unit and each distribution unit for switching and isolating. 6.2 The main switch shall be adequately protected from ingress of water. 6.2.10 For temporary installations in cities and towns for.i. 6.1.9 In cities.3 The enclosure or the which the main-switch is installed that the equipment within shall be the environmental conditions (see cupboard in shall be such unaffected by 4.2. the cables shall either be cleated with saddles of proper sire along the walls of a permanent structure if available.1.1. The switch room shall be accessible at any time of the day or night to authorised persons. b) mixed wiring.2.5 m so as to be accessible in emergencies.1.2. they shall be cleated along the walls of structures with proper saddles. it shall be laid in whole or split pipes. When laid overground. transmitted to it from any portion of the cables and wires.2 Subcircuit 6.1.2.2 Control of Circuits 6. 6.6 The cable shall be laid either underground or supported in the air. the underground part of the installation and the overhead part of the installation shall separately conform to the requirements as mentioned in this Section. 6.overhead wiring. Alternatively.1.1 At the origin of each installation a unit containing the main controlgear and the principal protective device shall be provided.1.7 In selecting the equipment and cables. shall be laid at a depth of 900 mm. a suitable enclosure to install the switchgear and the metering arrangement shall also be erected.28 The supply intake point shall be placed outside the periphery of area which is accessible to the general public. In case the cable passes underneath the passages. Crossing of the road shall preferably be avoided.2.1. at exhibitions. it shall be supported on rigid poles. bare conductors shall not be used. the rating shall be decided taking the environmental conditions into account.4 There shall be adequate ventilation in the room where main switches are installed and there shall be operational space around the switch in accordance with good practice. The incoming and outgoing cable/wires of the main switch shall be firmly supported so that cable and wire ends connected to the main switch shall not be subjected to any mechanical force. Precautions shall be taken to ensure that this cable when laid underground is done so with the same meticulous care as is done for a permanent installation. The switches shall be mounted on a firm support and shall be at a height between I ‘m and 2 m from the floor level. 6. The height of the cable shall not be less than 2 m when run inside the compound and at least 5 m when run along or across road. cables shall be used. then: 6.2 Means of emergency switching shall be provided on the supply to all current using equipment on which it may be necessary to disconnect all live conductors in order to remove a hazard. it is advisable to wire up the installation with insulated wires including for main circuits in open compounds or running along or across roads. if the premises where temporary electric supply required is isolated.2.1.2.1 On large temporary installations like those on construction sites. For main circuits. 4 mixed wiring o f i n s u l a t e d a n d b a r e conductor .1.2.2.2. preferably laid underground.1.1 Main Circuit 6.is required. Only in the case of load for purposes mentioned under 3. (c) and (d).1. bricks and earth for providing mechanical protection.2.1. which can withstand the mechanical vibrations created at the installation site as well as the wind pressure at the location. The subcircuit switch shall be so spaced that there shall be a minimum clear distance of 60 mm “--tween the NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE .3 The main switch shall be installed on a firm and vertfcal surface.2. depending upon whether they are single phase or 3 phase circuits. 6.2. partly underground and In such an event.1. An independent earthing shall be established inside the installation premises.1(a) especially outside cities and town bare conductors are permitted.4 The main switch on the installation shall be connected to the point of supply by means of an armoured cable and the termination of this cable shall be adequately protected from rain water.1. towns and thickly populated localities. and partly overhead may be used. purposes described under 3. the outgoing end of the main switch shall be connected to busbar of adequate size and various subcircuits shall be connected to this busbar through double or triple pole switches.2. 6.1.1. the cable 218 6.2.1).2.1).

PROTECTION AND SAFETY 7.4 Ta ed joints shall not be used at heights less t Ran 3 m. The earth continuity wire shall be a single core insulated wire and shall be connected to the locab earth plate and taken along the cable connecting the supply intake point and the mainswitch on the installation. the distribution board shall be placed in a cubicle. In the case of installation described’ in 3. (b) and (c) shall be ready at least 24 hours prior to connection of supply. 6. On this drawing different points where various from appliances/equipment are intended to be used.2 Temporary supply is generally used at public places and for public functions and. the armouring shall be connected to earthing arrangement of Power Supply Authority. so as to properly test the installation and find the loads in different subcircuits. In a 3 phase circuit the loads on the 3 phases shall be balanced.1 The installation as a whole shall be protected against overload. The Icad wires connected to the subcircuits switches shall be suitably supported on wall with clips and shall not be left hanging. shall be indicated beforehand and in case the electric supply is required at construction site for pipe lines. The ronnection from this earth continuity wire shall be taken to various subdistribution boards and terminated on a busbar.2.6 Installation at construction sites The enttre area where the temporary supply will be used.6.2. Subcircuit distribution board shall be installed.1 All appliances and equipment on temporary installation shall be connected to a system of duplicate earthing one of the Power Supply Authority and one local. 6.3. suitable fire extinguishers shall be kept at the supply intake point and near the main switch of the installation.3.2 Ihe outgoing wires from the subcircuit \\+itches inside the enclosure shall be cleated firmly on wooden battens’ or taken through cc)nduits which are fixed by means of. an independent earth continuity wire stiall be used. 6.23 The distribution boards the subcircuits shall be at an accessible height but not less than I m.2. 7. with the. If such a place is not available. All appliances and equipment connected to subdistribution board. sockets and fixed appliances shall be protected from rain by enclosing these in cubicles. All switches. The taped joints shall be properly supported and preferably clamped on either side of the joint so that the joint is not subject to a strain. 7. extreme care shah be taken to ensure that there is no risk of any type of hazard either from electrical shock or fire. may also be indicated.3 When the specified duration of use of the installation as defined in 2. protection of persons against indirect contact shall be assured by automatic disconnection of supply appropriate to the system of earthing. the guidelines specified in this Section shall be applicable subject to fresh inspection and tests as above. In construction sites. The distribution boards shall be fixed on firm supports or on pole firmly planted in the ground. 6.2. Wherever armoured cables are used.2. No flammable material shall be stored near the service intake point or the operational area of electrical equipment or appliances.2. shall get their duplicate earth connection from the earth continuity busbar on the sub-distribution board. 6. 8.3 Earthing 6.1 is required to be extended beyond the stipulated period of 6 months.2. at a place where it is safe from atmospheric conditions.2.1(c) there should be a period of at least 6 hours after compl&ion of the work and prior to connecting supply for the purpose of testing the installation and visual inspection. For local earthing.2. therefore. Socket outlet shall either be protected by residual current devices having operating current not exceeding 30 mA or be supplied by safety extra-low voltage or electrical separation of circuit each socket outlet being supplied by a separate transformer. PART 5 OUTDOOR INSTALLATIONS 219 .2. 8.2. 6. etc. For series lights used f o r decorative purposes no taped joint shall be used. exhibitions. then a drawing may also be given to the electric supply authority.2 For local earthing the earth electrode shall be burried near the supply intake point.2.saddles to the masonry wall or wooden partition wall.5 A broken bulb of a lamp in a series circuit is a risk and therefore series lamps shall not be strung or hung at heights less than 3 metres. TESTING AND COMMISSIONING 8. For large public functions. prior approval of the supply authority.2 The various tests on the installation shall be carried out as laid down in Part I /Set IO of the Code.1(a). A defective series lamp shall not be allowed to remain in its position and shall be immediately removed. Spans more than 2 m shall have guide wire support. short circuit and earth leakage by suitable protective devices. 8.1 Supply to all temporary installations should be connected by a specific date for the user and therefore the installation work meant for types of installations in 3. At the point of supply the load on the neutral shall not be more than 20 percent of the computed value of the load in the phases.

1 Operations (Electrical) . etc. transportation and storage conditions.An area accessible only through the use of a tool or key. i n c l u d i n g t r i p p e r carriages. Jz) Control.An accessible only by the opening of a door or the removal of a barrier. SCOPE 1. shovels and other excavators.3 Electrical Operating Area .1 Outdoor installations of the permanent nature require special treatment as compared to temporary installations of short durations (less than 6 months) primarily owing to the continucus exposure of the former installation and equipment forming part of it to heavy conditions of service at site. The working level and/or working area may change location with the progress of . 0. stacking and primary processing. as well as the special and arduous environmental.6 Winning and Stacking Machinery . d) Associated pumping and water supply systems. The area shall be clearly and visibly marked by appropriate signs. controlling and supervision. 2. The object of this Section is to set out the guiding principles so as to ensure the safety of persons. means alterations. area 2. operational. signal supervisory and communication system.4 In the preparation of this Section considerable assistance has been derived from IEC Publication 62 I ‘Electrical installations for outdoor sites under heavy conditions (including open-cast mines and quarries). SECTION 3A GENERAL 1. e) Haulage trucks. e) Loading stations.The process of performing work through the controlled application of electrical power. including hoppers and surge bins. The design and selection of equipment and components have to take into consideration the expected loading. d) M o b i l e c o n v e y o r s .operations.SECTION 3 PERMANENT OUTDOOR INSTALLATIONS O. They include the following: a) Excavators. 2. the definitions given in Part I together with those given below shall apply: 2. c) Transport conveying. and h) Ancillaries. 9 Power generating and distribution systems.2 This Section does not cover temporary and provisional places of work of durations less than 6 months for which reference shall be made to Part S/Set 2 of the Code.4 Closed Electrical Operating Area . These machines are designed to be able to change location according to operational requirements. operating characteristics and cycle duty. 9 Floating dredgers.That part of an open-cut mine or quarry on which machinery and/or rolling stock are in operation. livestock. issued by the International Electrotechnical Commission. 220 Nwt ~~ However this Section shall be applicable to building sites and earth-moving sites as far as the equipment used therein are similar to those used in surface mining application. 2.A movable or stationary mechanical item of plant designed for NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE .FOREWORD 0. switching. property and the proper functioning. namely: bucket-wheel excavators. It is intended to provide necessary guidelines for such installations in this Section for the purposes of the practising engineers and the relevant authorities. b) Secondary processing. c) Mobile conveyor bridges. ditch bunker loaders. This process includes: Operaring : which means. removal of faults and testing. 2.Winning and stacking machines are used in the process of uncovering or detaching materials from the earth’s surface or stacking such material. draglines. bucket-chain excavators. 0. 0.5 Working Level (Bench). Area . b) Spreaders and stackers.7 Transport Conveying System . adjusting. Servicing : which maintenance. reclaimers.An area accessible to operating personnel in the normal performance of their duties. 2. 2.1 This Section of the Code covers requirements for permanent outdoor installations. for operations of equipment and machinery therein _ used for the purposes such as: a) Winning. TERMINOLOGY 2.2 Operating. and I31 Mobile electric drills. 1. the area shall be clearly and visibly marked by appropriate signs.2 This Section of the Code attempts to cover the general requirements applicable to equipment and auxiliaries for a variety of permanent outdoor site installations which are enumerated in 3.0 For the purpose of this Section.3 The general characteristics of permanent outdoor installations are enumerated in 4.

1 cannot be made uniformly applicable to all such installations.the installation.29 Safety Circuits and Devices . 2.17 External Power Supply . c) Bucket conveyors. of the transformer and/or generator. 2. 2. Machinery .28 Return Conductors .An insulated cable specially designed to be towed by a mobile machine. 2. for example. with its electric power source disconnected. 2.26 Overhead Collector Wire . locomotives) by means of a collector or pantograph.contained or external power supply.21 Movable Distribution Cable .An interconnecting electric line between distribution substation and load point. 2. operating handles.An open air sire for the extraction of materials or minerals such as coal. 2. 2. exposed conductive parts are walls of enclosures. 2.ations covered by this Section: a) Open-cuf or Open-cast Mine .An insulated cable specially designed to be frequently reeled on and off a cable drum or reeler mounted on a mobile machine. 2.An electrical installation in which the generation and utilization plants are not housed within the same structure.24 Overhead Traction (Trolley) Wire . Depending on the site conditions and the nature of the operation involved.19 Earthable Point . PART 5 OlJTDOOR INSTALLATlONS . 3.10 Fixed Apparatus .27 Overhead Distribution Line (Feeder) .11 Portable Apparatus .8 Primary Processing machinery necessary to prepare material won from the earth prior to its transport to the final processing or utilization areas.20 Insulation Monitoring and Warning Device . 2. e) Screw conveyors.An electrically powered vehicle usually operating on rubber tyres used for transport of materials and which may have a self. 2 . and f) Hydraulic conveyors systems.C o n t a i n e d P o w e r S u p p l y .14 Haulage Truck . 2. 2. etc. 2.An apparatus or assembly of apparatus which is too heavy to br portable but which is capable of being moved without discontinuity of electric power during use.Conductors (which may be rails) used for carrying the. 2.the conveying of materials continuously from one location to another. 3. d) Paddle or scraper conveyors.Circuits and devices designed to prevent danger to personnel or livestock and damage to plant in the event of abnormal or unintentional operation.An electrical installation in which the generation and utilization plants are housed within the same structure.25 Overhead Distribution Traction Line (Feeder) ‘-~~ An line having electric bare conductors used for the interconnecting line between the power source and traction wire. such as a reclaimer. 2.An electric line used for supplying moving machinery. which would be connected to earth if the system were to be earthed. No’rE Cables are net included as part of apparatus. 2. a judicious estimate has to be made of the environmental factors that influence the performance of.18 Exposed Conductive Part -A conductive part which can be touched readily and which normally is not live but which may become live under fault conditions. 1 6 S e l f .An apparatus or assembly of apparatus which is permanently installed in a determined place and which is not normally moved during or between periods of use. b) Cham conveyors.13 Movable Apparatus. iron-ore.An insulated cable that may be moved from time to time according to the operation without necessarily following the movements of the machinery.That point of the power system. material won from the earth.15 Movable System 2 i4 railway Railway system which is designed to be tiovable to another location without dismantling.Any machinery necessary to process at a point remote from the open cut or quarry. etc. bauxite. 221 2.An apparatus or assembly of apparatus which is too heavy to be portable.A device which causes a signal to be given in the event of reduced insulation resistance to earth. but which is moved between periods of use.An electric line having bare conductors used for supplying vehicles (for example. T Y P E S O F P E R M A N E N T O U T D O O R INSTALLATIONS 3.Any 2.1 The following are the types of permanent outdoor install.22 Drum Cable -.An apparatus or assembly of apparatus intended to be normally held in the hand during use and which can be carried by ‘a person.0 The types of permanent outdoor installations covered by this Section are given in 3. by means of a collector. They include the following: a) Belt conveyors. return current. The general characteristics and service conditions enumerated in 4. 2. 2.12 Mobile Apparatus .1.23 Trailing Cable . N OTE .9 Secondary Processing Machinery . NOTIl-he earthable point may be the neutral point depending on the type of power system.--Typical.

1 Selection of Equipment and Ancillaries 5.0. location and installation conditions under which they would operate. b) Quarry .igned to meet such conditions as vibration.The electrical specifications of ail components shall be not less than that required by the relevant Indian Standard. 5.An open air site for the extraction of materials such as limestone. etc. acceleration. intended to accommodate aircraft for the purposes of loading and unloading passengers. 5.1. repair docks. altitude. wind pressure. operational.1 Some of these conditions. jetty’s.1 Rotating Machines . b) they are totally enclosed. should be gathered by the engineers responsible for their procurement.includes loading and unioad- ordering electrical equipment for outdoor sites. dust or liquid) is present in such quantity as to create a hazard and contact is possible between any exposed part of the component and the combustible material. etc. are listed below which may differ from their normal values: a) Altitude. coils. and ml Ecological impact.0 General 5. Supply frequency variations. mail or cargo.1. gas.N OTE ~ Underground mines are excluded from the scope of this Section. atmosphere. operating characteristics and cyclic duty taking into consideration the protection required in special and arduous environmental. 5. railway yards. SECTION 3B EQUIPMENT A N D AUXILIARIES 5. b) c) d) e) Low and/or high ambient temperature.3 Materials ~ Materials used in component construction shall be appropriate f o r t h e environmental conditions.or in expected fault conditions.1 E x c h a n g e qf Information .. rotating machines shall be so located or guarded to prevent inadvertant contact with moving parts.Transformers shall be so selected that: ink areas. transportation and storage conditions: 4. information regarding the duties.A defined area on a land aerodrome. 5. atmosphere. clay.0. cl Dockyards . Insecure powrt supply and transients.2 Transfi~rmers .0.A yard with facilities for receiving classifying and dispatching railway roiling stock ( see also Section 3E). refueiiing parking or maintenance.Protection shall be provided against damage and/or overheating during normal operation. moisture. Airport Aprons . etc.0. including rodents or other small animals. Necessity for special measures may be decided in consultation with ail concerned.8 Noise Limitations ~ Consideration shall be given in the design to limit the noise level in accordance with local rules. kS Localities prone to natural calamities.6 Site Conditions .5 Operating Conditions .he Code. 5. r) g) Environment (dust. hostile environment. blocking of ventilation ducts.Components shall be des. container terminal.0. stators. to the extent that the operations therin are identical with those described in 1. GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF PERMANENT OUTDOOR INSTALIJATIONS 4. the temperature of the exposed part shall not exceed the limits specified in Part 7 of t. reversing or braking may be employed shall be so selected that they are capable of withstanding the expected stresses on parts such as rotor windings or cages. etc. internal leads and the tank of transformers on mobile and movable installations are capable of withstanding vibrations.Components shall be installed so that design features such as cooling systems shall not be impaired by external factors such as position. e) Railwyav Marshalling Yards . RULES FOR EQUIPMENT A N D AUXILIARIES 5.4 Protection -.0 The design and the selection of components shall be on the basis of expected loading. gravel.2 Relevant Standards . High or low humidity. 5.Rotating machines used in applications where high acceleration. including temperature. However surface installations of underground mines are covered by this Section. stator end windings. passenger berths. and c) diy type transformers including cooling NAT-IONAL ELECTRICAL CODE . marine h) Flammable and/or explosive material/or j) Vermin. 5. etc).0.0. installation and maintenance so that the electrical equipment or apparatus is procured to suit those conditions. Supply voltage variations.1. 4. overspeed. 5.0. 5. siewing and angles of inclination (tilting and mounting) which may occur under expected operational conditions.7 Combustible Materials ~ If combustible material (for example. deceleration. shafts and couplings.Before 222 4 the bracing of the core.

where necessary. Such measures may consist of a) metallic screens. and d) Suitable installation precautions to prevent hazards to personnel from electric areas.3 Static Converters ---.5. measures shall be provided to minimize internal partial discharge or to render such effects harmless (for example. short-circuit current and duration o f f a u l t .1.5 Protection against partial discharge -For flexible cables having nominal voltages greater than 4 000 V. lay.5 Cables 5. 5. and transient overvoltage conditions.1. b) Use of flame-retardant cooling medium.Selection of phase conductor size should take into consideration the expected load current. considering the type of insulation. or b) substantial semiconductive elements in contact with the protective conductor. The voltage drop should be calculated for both starting and maximum load conditions. nication or electrical control equipment.4 Switching Devices --. b) Ensuring.Lvrs -. and fl Measures to limit harmonics.Where cables are fitted with substantial longitudinal semiconducting layers for the purpose of providing a current path to the protective conductor in the event of a fault. high frequency monitoring or other means. elongation.All multicore *Code of practice for selection.5. and provided that the armour conductivity is at least equal to that of a protective conductor of the required nominal cross-sectional area which would otherwise be required. 5.3. drum and trailing types. is not exceeded under expected short-circuit fault conditions.The following measures are recommended for switching devices for outdoor sites: a) Selection of proper design that no unintentional switching may be caused under expected operational and risk conditions.1. the armouring may. 223 voltage.1.1.5. where required suitable means to cl Suitable labelling of switching devices which are not meant for interrupting load or fault currents.system are protected against harmful ingress of dust.5. etc.1. 5.5. b) Protection against interference with commuc) Protection against spurious operation due to electrical coupling with other apparatus. etc ) is at least equal to that of all the conductors. (0 minutes) rms current expected. For certain classes of movable distribution cables. output and control circuits.4 Limiting temperatures under short circuit -~ Cables shall be selected so as to ensure that the maximum allowable conductor temperature. d) Protection against interaction between earthing systems of the input. and c) Protective in measures as specified 15 : 1 0 0 2 8 ( P a r t 2)-1982* for transformers with flammable cooling medium. 5. This may be achieved by either: 4 monitoring the protective conductor against increase in resistance by the use of pilot cores. s h a l l c o n t a i n a protective conductor. e> Feedback supervision. 5.1 Phase conductors . v o l t a g e d r o p a n d t h e mechanical strength required for the expected method of handling. automatic movement of the mechanism. subject to the requirements of 5. The following additional protective measures are suggested from fire: a) Use of dry type transformers. the current-carrying capacity should be based on the long time (for example. installation and maintenance of transftirmers: Part 2 Installation. enable isolators to be locked. In high voltage systems.1.1. the metallic armouring of a movable distribution cable may be used as a protective conductor provided that the security against breakage of the armouring (taking irito account strength. PART S OUTDOOR INSTALLATIONS . Suitable protective measures shall be applied to reduce the touch and step voltages. field gradient control). 5. Adequate precautions shall be taken to prevent spillage of the cooling medium causing pollution.5. or b) cables should be specially designed and used in accordance with the requirements of relevant Indian Standard whether or not they are used on a drum. Where supplying cyclic loads.2 Protective conductor . a) Protection against harmful effects of over- The protective conductor may be in the form of core(s) and/or screen(s). form the protective conductor.6 Semiconducting la. the resistance between the semiconducting element and the protective conductor should be :ested to ensure that it is suitable to carry the prospective fault current. 5.1.53 Armouring as protective conductor Where : the cross-sectional area of a single composite strand of the armouring is greater than 6 mm2. special measures shall be taken to guard against deterioration of the earthing circuit. 5.1.The precautions are recommended: following cables of the movable distribution.

12 Sheathing.i. Multicore cables containing power and control cores shall comply with the following requirement as appropriate: 1) Any cable containing pilot.ahks Flexible cables shall be terminated in such a way that their ends are not under stress or under tension effects. 000 V shall have pilot. the pilot. 1 . the only control core(s) which may be included in a multicore cable. these means o f special insulated requirements shall apply only for voltages above 4 000 v. in which the protective conductor is insulated.wreen.the protective conductor is insulated.Cables may be laid directly on or in the ground provided that tte outer sheath is designed for the operating 224 conditions.13 Segregation of’ pobcler and control cores a) Single-cure cables Single-core cables which are installed in a common duct.tiL~cJ 5. In cases where cables are handled only by tools. 5 .1.5.11 Pwar cable tbl. Cables having extruded metallic sheaths. all conductors of a given circuit shall follow the same magnetic path to neutralire the resultant magnetic flux. 5.1 Plo~~ision (?f . for example. b) Mlrlticore cables -~ For voltages up to and including I 000 V. 5. drum cable and trailing cable shall be tested by the cable manufacturer for partial discharge. shall not be used where fatigue may occur. multicore cables may be used for several circuits.1. the other colour covering the remainder of the surface. protrc. 5 . For voltages above I 000 V. and that excessive bending and compressing are avoided. pilot. both power and control. both power and control. for either system. control or supervisory cores may be used for reeling drum applications. ratios may be reduced to 25 and 50 times respectively.Multicore cable which contain power.5.st lin7itation Where the normal mode of operation of the machine requires infrequent rotation through an arc of up to 360” in either direction.1. they shall have metallic screens and:‘dr armouring or shall be provided with conducting elastomeric screens of substantial cross-sectional area and so placed as to limit the touch and step voltages that may arise in the event of a cable fault. in which .10 T e r m i n a t i o n s o f ’ fle. or outer taping. Where the normal mode of operation of the machine requires frequent rotation through an arc of up to 360’ in either direction. frequent handling or ground movement. 5. such insulation or outer taping shall at least be identified at each end by the green yellow colour combination applied in accordance with the foregoing paragraph.5.5. 5. the above.rihle c. conduit or sleeving may be used for several circuits.1. control or supervisory cores separated from power cores by conductive rubber screens if on an unearthed system or metallic screens if on an earthed system. and b) For cables rated at above I 000 V.8 Identification of cwnd~rc~tor Unless o t h e r w i s k required. Suitable supplementary identification may also be used. conduit or sleeving. shall be the earth continuity check pilot. the distance between the clamping supports of the cable shall be not less than 50 times the largest cable diameter in the cable run. such insulation. 9 P a r t i a l dischar~qe pet~fowiance F o r cables rated at above 4 000 V each production length (minimum length I50 m) of movable distribution cable. When using single-core cables for alternating current circuits.1. 2) Cables operating at above I 000 V in an unearthed system shall have either metallic screens or individual conductive rubber screens separating the power cores from the pilot core(s). NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE .5. cl Composire multicore cables on reeling drums .s and/or atmouring fiw ~ahle. Alternatively.5. the following applies: a) For cables rated at ap to and iticluding I 000 V. control or supervisory cores shall be insulated to a voltage level equal to that of the power cores. shall be distinctly and indelibly colourcd green and yellow also see Part I : Set 4 of the Code over its whole length so that in any I5 mm length one of these colours shall cover at least 30 percent and not more than 70 percent of the surface.s aho\v I 000 I/‘~ Where flexible cables are handled manuaily while energized. 3) Cables operating at above I 000 V in an earthed system shall have metallic screens separating the power cores from the pilot core(s). the distance between the clamping supports of the cable shall be not less than 100 times the largest cable diameter in the cable run. All such cables (except bare earthing conductors) shall be insulated for the maximum voltage applied to any cable in the duct.1. and 4) Cables operating at up to and including I. control and supervisory cores shall have such cores insulated from all other conducting elements of the cable. due to vibration. cables with lead alloy or aluminium sheaths or mineral-insulated metal-sheathed cables.5. Where cables designed specially for this purpose are used.

NATE 2 -Tables I and 2 take into consideration the fact that the system voltage may vary up to 20 percent from the rated operating voltage.Any safety circuits shall incorporate fail-safe principle PART 5 OUTDOOR INSTALLATIONS as far as reasonably possible.1 The minimum electrical clehrances in air between field installed bare conductors and between such conductors and earthed paris (such as barriers and enclosures) Shall.FOR PROTECTION IN OUTDOOR INSTALLATIONS 6. and eight times the cable diameter for cables which are constructed in accordance with 5. b) proving function operation principle. NATE I -These tables need not apply within electrical apparatus wiring devices or manufactured assemblies nor when the installation is covered by other sections of the Code.s no hazard to personnel created by automatic restarting.1.6 Cable Connectors Where plug and socket connectors are used at voltages above 1 000 V.6. 6.1.5. and taking into account their nature. 6. N OTE 3 .Where and bolted plug/sdcket connectors or bolted connections are used.5(a) or (b). The measures under (b) are intended as a safety feature and should not be used for normal isolation purposes. the socket while the’circuit is energized. Some of the principles suggested are: a) closed circuit principle. measures shall be taken to limit the leakage and capacitance --currents that they shall not exceed 70 percent of the drop-out currents. etc. opening or withdrawal without the use of a key .1.r both of the following: 4 The provision of isolating switches which are interlocked with the plug/socket so as to prevent connection or disconnection while the circuit is energized and to prevent switching the circuit when the plug/socket connection is incomplete. GENERAL RULES . opening of enciosurrs.1.1. these shall: a) necessitate the use of key or tool.6.or tool necessitates previous switching off of all live parts. they shall have sufficient stability and durability to resist the strains and -stresses likely to occur in outdoor conditions.5(a) or (b.2 Use qf bolted plug/socket connectors bolted connections . interlocking is not required provided suitable and adequate operational procedures are implemented.5. or by other means.1.1.7 Control Circuits and Control Devices Control circuits and control devices shall not automatically reset after tripping unless resetting of the control device either does not cause automatic restarting of the device or there i. The additional requirements applicable for permanent outdoor installations are given in the following clauses. an insulation monitoring device shall also be provided for safety. 6. For unearthed control delrices.1. tray or duct. and c) fail-safe principles with solid state switching devices. or 225 . or disengaged from. 6.1.15 Bending radius for jlexible cables over 2.13 Barriers and enclosures shall be firmly secured in place. etc. voltage. 5.4 Where access to the install&ion is necessary by removal of barriers. or b) involve provision of an interlocking device such that the removal.5. SECTION 3C PROTECTION FOR SAFETY 6.1. the degree -of mutual interference shall be considered. The measures shall consist of one o. as enumerated in Part I /Set 7 of the Code are applicable for outdoor installations of permanent nature covered by the scope of this Section. 5.14 Separation of cables in racks Where power and control cables. size and arrangement. 5. multicore ar?d single-core are used on a common rack.0 The general rules for protection for electrical installation inside buildings.5 mm diameter-The recommended 5.1.).1 Protection Against Direct Contact 6. diffeient voltage levels in the same area nor extreme environmental conditiorq.8 Safety Circuits and Safety Devices .subject to the voltage limitations given in (b) above provided that the cable is specially designed for such reeling duty.5.1. 5. by high frequency monitoring.2 All live parts shall be inside enclosures or behind barriers providing at least the degrees of protection’ in accordance with Table 3.1. minimum bending radius for flexible cables during installation and handling in service is six times the cable diameter for cable not constructed in accordance with 5. or fire. 5.1. b) The provision of protective conductor monitoring by means of either a pilot core.1 Use of plug/socket connectors - N OTE 4 -These minimum clearance distances in Tables I and 2 do not take into consideration such factors as creepage distances.1.Tables I and 2 may be used to indicate clearance distances between conductors and earth in a TN or TT system by using the phase-to-earth.1. For unearthed control circuits. 5.be in accordance with Tables I or 2.1. measures shall be taken to prevent the plug from being engaged with.1 Complete Protection by Means of Barriers or Enclosures 6.

I. I. by means of protective barriers or handrails.1. up *For electrical operating areas and closed electrical operating areas. NATE 2 .1) Maximum rms value of rated operating voltage.AI. the voltage bands in the above table may be increased In the ratio of to I 500 V and above. 226 NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE .2) VOLTAGE WITIII~: OP E R A T I N G A R E A S (21 B AND ( A C ) (1) WITHIK ELECTHIC. mm 1 40 3 65 6 90 IO 115 20 21s 30 325 45 520 60 700 110 I loo 950 Minimum distance for instal40 lations protected against overvoltages or connected to cables. This applies in particular to those parts of enclosures which might serve as a standing surface See Note I No protection IPOX if L1<6m V Partial protection IPOX* if u > 660 V or no simultaneously accessible parts at different voltages are situated within arm’s reach See Note I LI>loooV Complete protection IPSX within arm’s reach Complete protection IPSX within arm’s reach Partial protectiofi IPIX* Partial protection IPZX Partial protection IP 1 X* beyond arm’s reach beyond arm’s reach U = rated voltage of the installation between lines NOTE I . namely.1. N OTE 3 . kV Minimum distance for installations subject to overvoltages. from contact with moving parts or to prevent ingress of so Id foreign bodies.1. I : I . such as dust. OP E R A T I N G AREAS W ITHIN C~.ostn EL E C T R I C A L OP~HATISG AR E A S (4) (3) Partial protection IP IX* if UG 660 V or no simaltaneously accessible parts at different voltages are situated within arm’s path Complete protection IP2X if CJ> 660 V or IWX if U > 660 V for top surfaces or barriers or enclosnres which are readily accessible This applies in particular to those parts of enclosures which might serve as a standing surface See Note I 50 < I/G 1 000 V Complete protection IP2X* or IP4X for top surfaces or barriers or enclosures which are readily accessible.IS0 160 270 380 520 950 1 350 I 850 TABLE 3 MINIMUM PROTECTION AGAINST DIREKT CONTACT BY BARRIERS OR ENCLOSURES (APPLICABLE TO LIVE PARTS ONLY) (Clauses 6.1.In the case of dc voltages. kV Minimum distance for installations subject to overvoltages. see IS : 2147-1962 ‘Design of protection provided by enclosures for low voltage switchgear controlgear’. protection equivalent to IPIX is also considered to be achieved by placing out of reach or by the interposition of obstacles. for example. Additional protection may be required for protection .The use of floor plug and socket connector is not precluded but such sockets shall be covered when not in use. mm IO 150 20 21s 30 325.TABLE I CLEARANCE DISTANCES FOR INDOOR INSTALLATIONS (Clause 6. As used in the present standard. 45 520 60 700 110 I 100 150 I 550 220 2200 . the IP classification is intended to specify only the degree of protection required to protect persons from contact with live /! arts . mm Minimum distance for installations protected against overvoltages or connected to cables. I ) Maximum rms value of rated operating voltage.S. mm 60 70 90 160 270 380 520 TABLE 2 CLEARANCE DISTANCES FOR OUTDOOR INSTALLATIONS (Clause 6.For details on IP classifications.

4 Supplr.The following recommendations apply to drives with a periodic or cyclic duty as well as to certain other drives with a continuous duty. which may result ir.The effects of equipment starting and of the duty cycle on voltage levels. and inherent ac motor oscillations due to transient load changes. special protective connections to the structural parts of the installation are not required if the connecting surfaces between the electrical equipment housing and structural parts provide an adequate conducting area. 7. 7 .2 Protection Against Indirect Contact 6.It is important that the equipment manufacturer and user mutually understand whether the voltage specified is under no-load or full load conditions.1 The provisions of Part I /Set 7 of the Code shall apply. 6.Under 7. SECTION 3D REQUIREMENTS FOR INSTALLATIONS 7.2 QJ.see Table 3.When the supply of electrical energy is self-contained within stationary. sockets.stem design . etc.1. etc. regeneration. 7. such equipment need not be connected to the general mass of the earth. an insulation monitoring device is not required for power circuits which are supplied by a. etc) where the protective conductor is not monitored nor visible.9.1. the device is fitted with ‘out of step’ protection.1.2 Partial Protection by Placing Live Parts Out qf Reach -see Table 3. shall take into consideration the starting requirements and cyclic nature of the load. 6. limit switches.1. limit switches. rms load and frequency stability.In IT systems. 7.1. automatic reclosing or transferring devices should not be used in the power distribution system unless such device has sufficient time delay to allow motor disconnection.stem voltage .1. insulation monitoring devices are not required for vulcanizing heating platens where the power circuit is supplied from a transformer having electrically isolated windings.1.. 7.1 M o u n t i n g qf’ Components . a visible main equipotential bonding conductor shall be provided between such auxiliary equipment and plant. 9 .1.Consideration should be given to the need for special and/or additio. PART 5 0l:TDOOR INSTAl..2 Supp(v systems -The effect of load fluctuations on the supply system shall be considered. Hand Lamps .1 -Effect on voltage levels . taking account any restrictions imposed by the electricity supplier.7.2 Overcurrent protection --. REQUIREMENTS FOR PERMANENT OUTDOOR INSTALLATIONS 7.4 S.In the case of an IT system. a separate protective conductor shall be connected to motors. o r m o v a b l e i t e m s o f equipment and there is no external supply.1 S. cables.the power generation systems shall meet the requirements of motor starting. 7. t o off’hoartl eyiiip~)t~‘tIt When power 1s suppiled to off-board nroh~lt~ . For protection requirements see 6.1.c) ensure automatic disconnection when removal.1 Winning. or the combination of supply system and motor design characteristics is such as to permit automatic re-energization.. In such cases. 3 E a r t h i n g .6 Electric consideration. 7.2.1.1.9.\stems -.7.For mobile and movable off-board auxiliary equipment (such as welding equipment.1.1 . Stacking and Primary Processing Machinery 7.8 External Pok’er Supply Systems 7.1 A Insrrlation Monitoring Devices for Vulcanizing Heating Platens . vulcanizing transformer<. termination boxes.2 . opening or withdrawal without the use of a key or tool is attempted.9.ind movable equipment conditions given in 7.1. power source from within the machine.1 $\.3 Insulation Monitoring Device jar IT S. 7. 1 . Equipment .7 Drives ~-. such as by a transformer having electrical isolated windings or by a generator or storage battery. 7.3 Partial Protection by the Provision of Obstacles .corrosive atmospheric conditions or extreme vibrating conditions.. Where the equipment is required to operate under.2 Fire protection .Under .Overload and short-circuit protection for transformers.83 Automatic reclosing or transferring Where regeneration may delay the oneration of undervoitage devices. the normal mounting bolt or screw connection is adequate. damage or the malfunction of equipment.8. 7. 7. 6. peak load.8.l.For the mounting of motors. 7.1.8.trl‘ 2P? Tools .1.1. motor starting.ATIONS 7. Mobile and Movable 7. mobile.f’Board Auxiliary.1.1. etc.I.S Electric consideration.1.~tem design . This is also applicable for the mounting of all types of electrical equipment in cubicles. 7.9 Self-Contained Power S_vstems 7. shall be taken into consideration to ensure the safety of personnel and equipment. etc.I.nal fire protection due to the fuels used [see 51.The supply system shall meet the requirements of cyclic or periodic loads.

However. shunt tripping systems may be used providing the above-mentioned conditions are maintained.1. 7.13 Provision for Supply Isolation .1. means shall be provided to trip the motor starting switch or incoming line switch upon loss of power supply. b) Automatic field excitation controi .Where synchronous motors are used to drive loads which may be regenerative.1.Where required. When automatic reclosing or transferring devices are used in the distribution system.Where the cutout devices are actuated remotely they will be a) Automatic field removal . which may remain energized after disconnection of power circuits. Emergency stopping can be accomplished by means other than disconnection of power.11 Control Circuits and Control Devices vibration and voltage 7. provided special measures for the safety of personnel and equipment have been implemented.8. audio-frequency of timemultiplex operations. fluctuations-The effect of shock. The device shall also be tripped on operation of protective devices.10 Cable Tvpes . the equipment is in sight from all starting locations. However. Additional stop controls may be provided. When mechanically latched control devices are used and re-energization following loss of supply power would endanger personnel or equipment. the simultaneous existence of two or more faults within the remote controls system need not be expected. an automatic field excitation control is recommended. Frequency sensitive devices are recommended.11. vibration or voltage fluctuations on control devices shall be taken into consideration.3. 7.2 Synchronous motor control controls shall be of a type in which the contacts are opened by a positive mechanical action and can only be reclosed by a further mechanical action. automatic motor field removal on disconnection is required.1 Shock. 7. shunt tripping devices may be used providing the tripping device and its stored energy tripping supply are monitored and regularly maintained. or the equipment is . A number of emergency devices may be arranged in groups. 7.11.1 Emergency stopping . devices .applicable.11.1.12 Emergency? Stopping and Emergency Devices 7.1. disconnection of the external excitation is permitted if protection against selfexcitation is provided. provision shall be made to guard against unauthorized starting.Where synchronous motors are used to drive any part of the installation.The devices described in the following paragraphs shall not be used for purposes of isolation or immobilisation to allow work to be carried out on parts which would otherwise be electrically energized or moving: a) Stop control circuits -The circuits of stop control and of other safety protection devices should be as simple. c) Power toss protection . unless start-up alarms are used.Stop controls ope. separate means of isolation may be provided for control circuits. 7.11. conditions given in 7.rated by a pullwire shall be arranged so that a pull on the wire in any direction will stop the controlled equipment.12.Where synchronous motors are used to drive periodic or cyclic loads. provided that such means otherwise comply with the intent of 7. The emergency device may use remote control systems. b) Location of stop controls . The power disconnect device may be a remotely operated power manually or circuit-breaker. etc. c) Locking of stop controls . when rotation converters are used.guarded against madvertant access.1. The stop arranged as series tripping system. except for lift call control.12. for example. contactor. each group may operate in single or multiple circuits.1 . 7.1.A means of mains supply isolation shall be provided to isolate the power circuits from the equipment or parts thereof mclusive of control and motor circuits. means shall be provided to automatically trip the latched control device on loss of supply p’ower. However.1 . reliable and direct acting as is practical.11.Disconnection of power or other equally effective means shall be provided for stopping the drive under emergency conditions.3 Stop control . 221 NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE .Under consideration.1. 7.A stop control shall be located near each start control. ensuring that safety of personnel and equipment is not endangered by inadvertant operation of control devices. For example.2 Emergency.4 tnterlocking of start controls Where equipment can be started from more than one location.1.3 are applicable. However. the control system shall permit operation from only one nominated location at any one time. Where several circuits are divided the respective contact elements shall be connected in series. Acceptable methods include locking of stop controls in the ‘off position or ensuring that only the person operating the stop control has access to the start control.1. 7. d) Pullwlire stop controls . Emergency devices may be arranged to operate simultaneously in a number of different circuits. providing at least the same protective measures as for the above devices are applied to ensure positive and reliable operations.

3.4 Pumping and Water Supply Systems 7.1 Deep. metallic screens or armouring are suspended from structures or frames of movable conveyors.8.for Monitoring 7.1.9. Where individual stop controls are used. 7.3. the first ‘earth fault only when all of the followmg condltions are met: fbu/t. 7.3. 7.the protective measures against indirect contact. and cl personnel do not have access down the well. and a) An IT system is used.4.1 .Under 7. Au.4. the operation of a stop control within one stop zone need not stop all upstream conveyors beyond that zone.3. b) Personnel do not have access down the well. that is. however.4.4 Insulation Monitoring Device .s e e 7. 7. The c6nductivity of the metallic structural parts of the conveyor and its fastenings shall be at least equal to that of the otherwise necessary equipotential bonding conductor.7.3.Under Lamps .4. provided that the conveyor upstream of the zone is proved to be unloaded. such structures and frames shall be considered as extraneous conductive parts and shall be included as part of the whole plant in the design of . 7. ClJrldlcl~til~it~~ (!f Structural d) prevent run-back.1 Stopping sequence -.. b) cause the material from all upstream conveyors to be diverted to an alternative route.2.4. It is recommended that stop controls be located at the head and tail ends of a conveyor and that pullwire stop controls be used along the length of the conveyor.2 Secondary Processing Machinery .3 E q u i p o t e n t i a l equipotential bonding conductor shall be installed between the main earth terminals of the supply 229 .riliar~~ Movable 7.2 Continued operation after .3.1.2 Poccvr consideration. Although the stop control may be reset automatically.3.Electrically initiated explosive devices should not be stored or used in the vicinity of such installations as hazards may exist due to fault currents flowing in the ground when syslems continue to operate following the first earth fault.see 7.9.Under consideration. by ensuring that all metallic parts are linked together.3.2 Eyuipotential Bonding Conductor and Mobile and t.l Risers as protective condustors ~- consideration.Under Where a continuous metallic riser pipe is fitted between the motor and the well head.8.Where semiconductive sheaths.for IT S.first earth continue after. 7. they shall be located not more than 15 m from any accessible point along the conveyor.The devices described in the following clauses shall not be used for purposes of isolation or immobilisation to allow work to be carried out on parts which would o t h e r w i s e b e electricatly e’nergized or moving.Where electrical equipment supplied at a voltage in excess of 50 V is mounted on a conveyor structure and the cable to the equipment does not include a protective conductor.1.. supp!.2 Location of stop controls --.1. an equipotential bonding conductor shall be provided to the electrical equipment unless the structural parts of the conveyor are mechanically fastened and/ or electrically bonded together.Well TIpe Pumps 7.An 7.~ cables . 7. b) the conductivity of the metallic riser (stand pipe) and the connections (couplings) shall be at least equal to the conductivity of the protective conductor which would otherwise be necessary.3.10 S t o p p i n g of Dokwhill Con\vJws Under consideration. NOTE Manually operated stop controls may also provide the function of an emergency stop. Stop controls shall be accessible from any side of a conveyor to which there is access.wenis .3 @F-hoard Equiiwlent .1 General . Parts .8 Cables without cables 7.3.6 Electric Hand Hand Tools .9 Slop Controls -.5 Insulation Vulcanizing Heating Platens . All accessible points along the pullwire operated stop control are considered as stop controls.O p e r a t i o n m a y 7. bonding .1. D e v i c e s .3. On very long conveyor systems.see 7. and c) Equipotential bonding is provided.3. no protection conductor is required between the motor and the protective conductor connected directly to the fixed iiser provided that: a) the supply cable is terminated close to the well head.3. 7.3. c) initiate b r a k i n g t o stop the conveyor iti safe time. such as by sensors.S t o p controls shall be provided.1.1 Mounting cJf Components -see 7. restarting shall be initiated manually.1. 7.3 Transport Conveyor Systevs 7.7 Electric consideration. NOTE ~.3. 7.The operation of a s t o p control on a conveyor shall stop that conveyor and: a) aI1 upstream conveyors to a controlled loading point.

They also deal with traffic originating at or destined for centres.An insulation monitoring device (or earth fault detector) is not necessary. NO~F Yards with grid type formatIon are reception-cwudespatch yards.l.A marshalling yard with facilities for receiving.6 Power Supply Cables .llard ~~ Hump yard created by raising consideration.13arci This is a yard in which loads are kept waiting for departure.A yard in which the loads of incoming trains may stand clear of run’ning lines while waiting for their turn to be dealt with. so as to form them into trains and prepare them for correct marshalling. in the case of circuit-breakers. 230 c) Flat . A device such as one which detects a change in neutral displacement on the occurrence of the first and second earth faults. (in amperes) is the rated current of the power fuses or. 8. and c) Grid type.4. b) A reception Jsard-. 8.1. That . Hump yards are those where shunting necks have shape of a camel hump. ADDITIONAL GUIDELINES FOR INSTALLATIONS IN SPECIFIC AREAS 8.3. 8.uemption from insulation monitoring device -. The equipotential bonding conductor shall be so dimensioned that the voltage drop between any two points (of resistance value I?) that may be contacted simultaneously shall not exceed 50 V.1.3 Lighting Installations in Railway Marshalling Yards 8. The number of humps can be increased depending on the work-load.0.The provisions of relevant Indian Standards shall apply. classifying and despatching vehicles to their several destination. NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE .A y a r d i n w h i c h trains are broken up on the different lines for the various directions or stations irrespective of station order.7 Control Circuits and Control Devices ~ Under consideration. 8.2 times the releasing current for the instantaneous or short-time delay trip.3.4 E.0.Protection shall be provided to disconnect the supply in the case of a double fault (phase-earth-phase).5 Double line to earth faults .Under b) Hump .2 Lighting of Ports ‘and Harbours -The provisions of relevant Indian Standards shall apply. 7.Under consideration. NOTL ~ A value of K.4.= 2. SECTION 3E ADDITIONAL GUIDELINES FOR SPECIFIC AREAS 8.8 Safety Circuits and Safety Devices .1 The classification in respect of yard area is based on the speed and intensity of traffic both vehicular and otherwise. their enclosures shall be connected to this bonding conpuctor. are called flat yard. Disconnection follows the second fault.Yards with flat shunting neck d) e) A departure .3. A sorting jlard This is a yard in which wagons are separated in station order and reformed into trains in special order to meet the requirements of the section ahead or any other special transportation requirements. a) Multipurpose yard . where the conductor shall be connected directly to the fixed riser. 8. 7. These yards are mechanized where wagon level crosses 2 500 wagons per day.1. It is utilized for classification and sorting of loads. and K is a multiplying factor.ard---.2 Guidance from relevant experts shall be t a k e n i n r e s p e c t of specific areas before installation work begins. Normally one hump handles I 000 to I 500 wagons per day. 7.3.5 m height.1.0 General 8. b) Ladder type.1.1 Lighting of Aircraft Aprons . It.is: R < -% ohms KX I.to 2.1 The requirements given in Sections 3A to 3D are applicable to the specific areas described in this Section in so far as the operations are identical with those described.and the well head(s). may be provided. 7. 7. a) Gra\lit\* _\.5 Pumps Other Than Deep-Well Types Under consideration.1 Classification 8.5 is suggested for the time being. It is mostly suitable for metre gauge.2 The railway yards are also classified into three main categories depending on their handling capacity and way of working: where 1.ard -. 7.3 Each yard can be of any one of the three formations based on method of construction: a) Baloon or classification type. track levels in specified crest of 2. 0. C) A class$cation j.art/ A yard where natural gra- dient -is available. 8.dzals from 300 to 700 wagons per day. Where transformers are located at the well head. Shunting is done without engine.

4 The junction boxes shall be p.1 The power supply to the towers shall be through underground armoured cables.Queen points are the second pair of points the wagon meets on either of the two diverging lines taking off from the king points and these divide the classification lines into four sub-portion.3. The levels given below are recommendatory. 8. efc 5 lux 1. i) High pressure mercury vapour lamps. 8.3 Design 8.3. These are two in each hump yard.3.3.electric supply shall be located at a suitable place nearest to the yard.8.3 The cables shall be preferably terminated on column junction boxes by looping joints.4 Power Installation Requirements 8. N OTE I King points are the first pair of points that the wagon meets after passing over the hump summit and these divide the hump yard into two portions.station wise.3.rovided with suitable sized contactors with independent fuses for each phase.1. c) reception yard.3.3.3. and e) through goods yard. ii) High pressure sodium vapour lamps. 8.2 lux IO lux 5 lux NOTE 2. Type Important yard Minimum Special Location Maximum Like Shunting Neck.4.3. qf equipments a) Light sources . 1.0 The source of .4.3.4.2 Selection 8.3 Levels of illumination would depend on the type of marshalling yard. 8.4 For the purpose of illumination. King Points. rather than ‘T’ joint. PART 5 OUTDOOR INSTALLATIONS 231 .2 Different segments (functions) of yards are: a) classification yard ~-.4.1 For the purpose of designing the lighting system.3.4. The contactors shall be controlled by electrically operated switch mounted for external manual local operation.3.2 lux Small yards 0. 8.3. 8.3. 8.The following sources of light a’re recommended for the purpose of yard lighting. the recommended height of tower is 30 m. d) despatch yard.3. most important locations are ‘king points’ and ‘queen points’ and order of priority for lighting is determined accordingly. *Code of practice for installation and maintenance of paper insulated power cabies (up to and including 33 kV). Laying of cables in yard.2 Means shall be provided to control supply to group of towers with controlgear located in feeding substation/switching substat ion.zone wise. Minimum size of cable shall be IO to 16mm? 4 core. along the track and across the tracks should be done in accordance with IS : 1255l983* b) L u m i n a i r e s . b) sorting yard .5 lux 8.Nood lighting types of luminaires are recommended for yard lighting installation. Each luminaire may be provided with 2 lamps of 400 W or I lamps of I 000 W.

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.2 Installations in agricultural premises are different from those covered in other Sections of the Code in that the external influences on the electrical services are quite different from those encountered elsewhere. assistance has been derived from IEC Pub 3647-705 ‘Electrical installations in buildings. Section 705. and the use of electricity for certain essential purposes. With the increase in sophistication in organizing the farm output of the country. Agricultural and Horticultural premises. 03 In the preparation of this draft. Part 7 Requirements for special installations or location.PART 6 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN AGRICULTURAL PREMISES O. 0. issued by the International Electrotechnical Commission. it has been felt necessary to cover the requirements of such installation as a part of the Code.1 This Part of the Code is primarily intended for covering the specific requirements of electrical installations in agricultural premises which include premises where livestock are present and farm produce are handled or stored.FOREWORD 0. the presense of livestock and other extraneous factors necessitate laying down specific requirements. Even though the overall power requirements for such installations would be small.

1.Barns rial including dust Propagation of fire is facilitated and risks due to structural movement of structures which are weak NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE * . sheepfolds.dwellings or similar locations situated in these premises.1 Installations in agricultural premises shall be broadly classified into: a) farm houses.1 Environment . 4.g.0 General guidelines on the assessment of general characteristics of buildings are given in Part I /Set 8. and b) livestock houses. 4.Examples of such premises are stables.1. N OTE . Harmful hazard present Electromagnetic influences Harmful presence of induced currents 4. SCOPE 1. hen-houses. piggeries. I.2 Livestock houses can also be classified depending on the type animal or bird housed.1 This Part of the Code covers requirements for the fixed electrical installations in agricultural premises excluding . 3. for e.1 For the purposes of this Part. cow houses. external lighting fittings Locations where hose-water is used regularly Applies to barns.a) Intermittent or Applies to locations in which livestock accidental subsive or polluting are present or fertijection to corsubstances rosive or pollu.1.2. b) Arid areas and high altitude areas. Possibility of je:s of water from any direction Presence of dust Presence of foreign solid bodies in significant quantity Locations where equipment may be subjected to splashed water. stalls. For the purpose of installations covered by this Part the conditions given below apply. the definitions given in Part 1 /Set 2 of the Code shall apply. 3. GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF AGRICULTURAL PREMISES 4. stdres and stalls Presence of corro.2.The following conditions generally apply: Environmen/ (1) Characrerisrics (2) Remarks (3) 2.2 Utitrzation . For example: Animal1 Bird Housing Sub-Classificarion Presence of water Possibility of splashes from any direction. 3. birds and small animals Presence of fauna. etc.1. 3. TERMINOLOGY 2.Special precautions pation difficult to be taken where conditions of animals are present evacuation High density occupation easy conditions of evacuation Layer House Poultry housing i Stationery Brooder House - Portable Conditions of evacuation during emergency Sheep folds (sheep and goats) I4ggeries Horse stables o equine houses Cattle housing Cattle sheds for average farmer (3 milch animals with their calves and pair of bullotks) Cattle sheds for rural milk producer (average of about 20 animals) Organized milk produces (130 animals) Large dairy farm (about 500 animals) Nature of processed or stored materials Building design Flammable mate.Livestock houses are premises where livestock are present for long periods of time during the day (such as in a dairy farm) with or without associated farm units.2 This part applies to premises where livestock are present. CLASSIFICATION 3.lizers or plant ting subsprotective products are stored or tances handled b) Continuously subjected to Presence of flora and/or mould growth Harmful hazard present Insects.The following conditions apply: Ulilization (1) Characteristics (2) Remarks (3) Electrical resistance of human body Contact of persons with earth potential Low resistance due to wet conditions Persons are frequently in touch with extraneous conductive parts or stand on conducting surfaces Low density occu.1 Livestock houses are further classified depending on the type of climatic conditions: a) Plain areas with moderate rainfall.2 Livestock Houses . houses are Houses . and c) Heavy rainfall areas and high rainfall humidity areas.1 Farm premises where livestock are not normally present and are those utilized solely for the purposes of handling or storing farm inputs and produce.1.Farm 3.

5. sick shed. ram or buck shed. c) Utensils room. SUPPLY CHARACTERISTICS AND PARAMETERS 5. by residual current devices. the following sub-units are present: a) Sheds such as flock shed. 5.2. d) Ration room.conditions are also applicable to locations directly connected through extraneous conductive parts to the locations where livestocks are present. 5. Where electrical equipment is installed in livestock building.1 information shall be exchanged among the people concerned on the electrical needs of the premises before installation work begins.3 Isolation and Slz. dressing and washing._ = 25 V.5. and &a Office. 5.1 All cables shall be placed out of reach of livestock and clear of all vehicular movement. f-l Laboratory. and as high as practicable. Devices for emergency electrical 237 PART 6 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN AGRICULTURAL PREMISES .2 Where additional protection against mechanical damage to cables is required.2.4 Where conductors or cables are carried overhead supported by buildings or by poles. a residual current protective device shall be installed having a rated residual operating current of OSA. cl Flaying. These .3. F o r a c h i e v i n g p r o t e c t i o n by automatic disconnection of supply.1 Main switchgear shall not be installed: a) within reach of livestock.3 Selection and Erection of Equipment Equipment shall be so selected that they suit the environmental conditions of use and shall be installed in such a way that their normal functioning is not affected by the external influences enumerated in 4.1 Protection Against Electric Shock . Each installation may have to cater to the services requii-ed in the subunits of the premises which depend on the type of agricultural premises as enumerated in 3. the rated operating residual current not exceeding 30 mA and as low ai practicable but avoiding nuisance tripping.5 Cable couplers shall not be used in agricultural premises. 5.4.4. it shall be possible to isolate and control the buildings individually. 5. I). ati c) Shepherd house. 5. the following subunits are firesent: a) Animal sheds before slaughter.2. 5.2.1 In sheepfolds. etc.2. and 0 Office.4.2. it.irrhjng -. shall.Heaters used in the rearing and tending of livestock shall be secured or hung on a safe mounting so that an adequate spacing from both animals (risk of burns) and combustible materials (fire hazard) is assured. 5. 5. 5. e) Inspection.4. The minimum height above ground shall be 6 m. b) Slaughter shed. 5. they shall wherever possible be placed on the outside of the buildings.1. be provided by the use of nonmetallic materials. supplementary equipotential bonding shall connect all exposed conductive parts which can be touched by livestock and the protective conductor of the installation. 5. N OTE -~ A metallic grill connected to the protective conductor laid in the floor is recommended (see Fig. b) Sheering and store room. protection against direct contact shall be provided by: a) barriers or enclosures affording at least the degree or protection IP 2X.2 Protection Against Fire . Due considerations shall also be given to locations presenting fire-risks. the following sub-units are present: a) Sheds for animals. Due consideration shall be given to the evacuation of aliimals in case of emergency.4 System Protection 5.2 Where an installation serves more than one building.1 It is recommended to protect final subcircuits. e) Stores. wherever possible. o r b) insulation capable of withstanding a test VOItage of 500 V for one minute.3.3 Where long runs of cable must b c placed along the sides of buildings.3 In meat houses and abbattoirs.4 Cables 5. 5.2.2 In cattle housing. the conventional voltage limit in locations in which livestock are present or situated’outside is (I.2.2 Wiring Systems 5. or b) in any position where access to it may be impeded by livestock.1.4.1. 5.4. d) Byproducts handhng. b) Milk recording and testing room.For fire safety purposes.2.3.3 Means of access to all live parts of *switchgear and other fixed live parts where different nominal voltages exist shall be marked to indicate the voltages present.For the application of protective measure by safety extra-low voltage in locations in which hvestock are present or situated outside. 5.

The guidelines given in 6. for example. SERVICES IN AGRICULTURAL PERMISES 6. high mortality or poor fertility. NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE . without the busbar. 14. For sheds of larger width two rows df lamps properly interspaced may be desirable. 12. The lamps shall be hung at/ a height not less than 2 m above floor level. Il. 9. Feeding apparatus :: 3. For the purposes.8 m above floor. BO N D I N G ON AG R I C U L T U R A L P R E M I S E S switching including emergency stopping shall not be installed within reach of livestock or in any position where access to them may be impeded by livestock.1 to 6. FIG. the illumination shall be at least 500 lux. The overall intensity in every abattoir shall not be less than 200 lux throughout the slaughter hall and workroom and at places where meat inspection is carried out. structural steel mat Tethering device 7: Automatic watering device 8. I EX A M P L E OF EQIIIPOTENTIAI. in halls where meat or carcasses are hung.0 Farm houses and iivestock’houses do not in general require sophisticated electrical services.1 Poultry Housing . 6. conductor Sheet metal and foil partitions Water pipe Manure removal device Potential equali7ation. 13. with a regular supply of fresh air and light. IO.2 Abattoir . For poultry sheds of 6 m width and below.3 shall be adhered to. 15.- Earth. 5. Milking apparatus Steel structure Protective earth conductor (PE) Earth electrode Busbar for equipotential bonding* Earth electrode for lightning protection Earth electrode for electric fences ‘Equlpotential bonding can also be achieved. a temperature of not greater that1 iS”C would be required and air-conditioning may be required. 6. to arise in the event of panic by livesfock.In large dairy farms. but in the case of the latter lack of proper ventilation or lighting loads to insanitation and discomfort to the livestock thereby leading to retarded growth. roof-lights shall be provided to give 50-200 lux of artificial lighting. 6. one row of bulbs in the centre shall be adequate. ample artificial light and ventilation shall be provided by electrical means. In unrefrigerated work rooms. The houses are required to be maintained’ reasonably cool in summer and warm in winter. The light sources shall be hung at a height not less than 1. 6.In meat houses and abattoirs. 4.3 Farm Cattle Housing . account being taken of the condition likely.A minimum of 14 hours day length shall be provided to the birds and artificial lighting shall be provided for the-same. IW (GLS) or SW (fluorescent) 238 per bird or I W per 28-38 cm are considered adequate. through direct interconnection of conductive parta.

ROVlSlONS 8.Where electric fences are in *the vicinity of overhead lines. 8.I. appropriate distances shall be observed to take account of induction currents.1 For large scale livestock keeping.3 Circuits of wirings which are only occasionally used.1 Before commissioning the installation shall be tested and inspected as given in Part l/See IO of the Code. TESTING OF INSTALLATION 7. and b) for continuity of supply. a fast acting. for example. falling lines.emergency supply system is recommended. during threshing time. it shall be essential to provide: a) a warning device for indicating failure of air circulation system. shall be fitted with a separate switch marked accordingly. 8.7. PART 6 ELECTRICAL INSTAI.ATIONS IN ACRICI:I:Fl’RAI.2 Electric Fences -. etc. Any earth electrode connected to the earth terminal of an electric lfence controller shall be separate from the earthing system of any other circuit and shall be situated outside the resistance area of any electrode used for protective earthing. MISCELLANEOUS P. such as in a dairy farm. PREMISES 239 . 8.

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gases and vapours which in industry are generated. sparks or hot surfaces produced either in normal operation or under specified fault conditions.5 This Part includes generalized statements and recommendations on matters on which there are diverse opinions. to locate much of the equipment in less hazardous or nonhazardous areas and thus reduce the amount of spcciai equipment required. 0.6 While preparing this Part. . Some examples of industrial locations which require application of the guidelines in this Part are given in Appendix D. essential ignition sources include arcs. therefore.1 Hazardous atmosphere is the atmosphere where any flammable gas or vapour in a concentration capable of ignition occurs. handled and stored are combustible.2 Many liquids. It is.Hazardous areas can be limited in extant by constructlon measures. Some of these standards deal with particular construction techniques. 0.3 This Part of the Code is intended to provide guidelines for electrical installations and equipment in locations where a hazardous atmosphere is likely to be present with a view to maximizing electrical safety.FOREWORD 0. where during normal operations a hazardous atmosphere is likely to occur in sufficient quantity to constitute a hazard had to be treated in a special manner from the point of the design of electrical installation. The scope of this Part therefore includes installations in hazardous areas such as petroleum refineries and petrochemical and chemical industries. 0. This Part of the Code does not include provisions for installations in underground mines.7 As distinct from the hazardous areas in buildi& on the surface. Ventilation or application of protective gas will reduce the probability of the presence of explosive gas atmosphere so that areas of greater hazard can be transformed to areas of lesser hazard or to nonhazardous areas. processed. The requirements laid down herein are in addition to those specified in Part 4 of the Code. These standards are listed in Appendix A. 0. others with aspects of standardization which are relevant to more than one techniques. important that sound engineering judgement should be exercised while applying these guidelines. N OTE -. several standards for electrical equipment for explosive atmospheres have been referred to. that is. Any area. With regard to electrical installations. by taking care in the layout of the installation. environmental conditions in mines demand special consideration. When ignited these may burn readily and with considerable explosive force when mixed with air in the appropriate proportions. 0.4 It is recognized that when electrical equipment is to be installed in or near a hazardous area. walls or dams.PART 7 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN HAZARDOUS AREAS O. 0. it is frequently possible.

15 Source of Release A source of release is a point or location from which a gas.13 Boiling Point boiling at an ambient pressure ot lOI.12 Flash Point liquid gives 50 much vapour that this vapour. Precautions may be necessary to ensure safety but guidance on this aspect is outside the scope of this Part. The temperature at which the 2. flame or hot surface. 2. under normal ambient pressures and tempet-atures. the following definitions shall apply..17 Unrestricted Release ~ A release (normal or abnormal) of flammable gas or vapour which cannot be diluted below the lower flammable limit. when mixed with air. This Part also doe:. 2. gas or mist under an!’ foreseeable operating conditions. unloaded or otherwise handled.16 Restricted Release ~~ A release (normal or abnormal) of flammable gas or \‘apour which can be diluted below the lower flammable limit.3l~~mmable Gas or Vapour . or the risk of presence. 2.Adequate ventilation IS that which IS sufficient to prevent accumulations of significant quantities of gas-air mixtures in concentration over one-fourth of the lower flammable limit. in which after ignition.9 Flammable I>iquid producing .5 Hazardous Area ~ An area where during normal operations. 2. 2 . in addition tb those given in Part .3 This Part does not apply to installations in hazardous areas having ignitable dusts and fibres.6 Ex losive (Flammable) Limits ~. 2. not apply to the areas in underground mines. 2. so as to form a ha. 2. 2. 2. TERMINOLOGY 2.The extreme values P the concentration of a flammable gas or or vapour in air under atmospheric conditions. 2. vapour.I flnmmable \apour.2 In addition to the recommendations given in this Part. SCOPE 1 . 2. loaded.2 1 Electrical Apparatus for Hazardous Areas Electrical apparatus which will not ignite rhe *Methods of test for Ignition tempcraturc\. NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE . 1 This Part of the Code covers recommendations for clcctrical installations in chemical industries. A liquid capable of 2. vapour or mist with air. forms an ignitable mixture and gives a momentary flash on application of a small pilot flame under specified conditions of test. will form an ha/ardou~ atmosphere. is in gaseous state but which is handled in a liquid state under the applied conditions of pressure and ‘or temperature.T h e density of a gas or a vapour related to the density of air at the same prcssurc and the same temperature. These limits are called the ‘lower explosive limit’ (LEL) and the ‘upper explosive limit’ (UEL). and in which flammable gases and volatile liquids arc processed. with the requirements for industrial installatcon in nonhazardous areas laid down in Part 4 of the Code. dispersed in air. mist or liquid may be released into the atmosphere so that a hasardous atmosphere could be formed.4 In any plant installation irrespective of size there may be numerous sources of ignition apart from those associated with electrical apparatus. 2.I of the Code. 1. 2. A adequately ventilated area could be naturally ventilated or artificially ventilated.0 For the purpose of this Part. liquid and:or mist which can react continuously with atmospheric oxygen and which may therefore.1 I Liquefied flammable Gas Flammable gas which. a flammable gas-air mixture.A flammable material is a gas. 2.4 Hazardous (Flammable) Atmosphere .3 Hazard -~ The presence. which can be ignited by an electrical arc or spark. 1. 2. vapour. sustain fire or explosion when such reaction is initiated by a suitable spark. of.7 Flammability Range -~ The range of gas or vapour mixtures with air between the flammable limits over which the gas mixtures are (i continuously explosive.1.An atmosphere containing any flammable gas or vapour in a concentration capable of ignition. kPa. w h e n mlxed with a i r In c e r t a i n 244 proportions. combustion spreads throughout the unconsumed mixture.Ga: or vapour . the electrical installations in hazardous areas shall complv.rardous atmosphere. 2. 1. unde’r atmospheric conditions. a halardous atmosphere is likely to occur.An area no part of which has within either a haT. petroleum refineries and other similar areas where halard\ of explosion due to gases and vapours exist.20 Nonhazardous (Safe) Area .1 Flammable Material . The ternpcrature of a liquid 2. 2.2 Flammable Gas-Air Mixture A mixture of flammable gas. stored.19 Re’lative Density of Gas or Vapour -.ardous area or a remotely hazardous area.18 A d e q u a t e Ventilation -.10 Flammable Mist Droplets of flammable liquid. 1 4 I g n i t i o n T e m p e r a t u r e ~~~ T-he l o w e s t temperature at which ignition occurs in a mixture of explosive gas and air when the m e t h o d specified in IS : 7X20-1975* is followed. 2.

Specific measures applied to electrical apparatus to prevent ignition of a surrounding flammable atmosphere by such apparatus.23 S a f e t y M e a s u r e s .Equipment to be installed in hazardous area have to be certified by a recognized testing authority.27 Inert Gas . b) The Chief Controllerate of Explosives.2 Attention is invited to the fact that the manufacture and use of equipment in hazardous areas is controlled by the statutory authorities listed below for the area of their jurisdiction: 4 The Directorate General of Mines Safety. and c) Vapour or flammable gas.22 Ignition Capable Apparatus . b) Liquefied petroleum gas. its physical characteristics and the natural tendency of vapours to disperse in the a t m o s p h e r e s h a l l b e recognized. the amount of flammable material released to the atmosphere is minimized in order to reduce the extent of the area made haz. FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS 4. 4. the various statutes and regulations in force in the country. Flammable substances.4 In most practical situations where flammable materials are used it is difficult to ensure that a 245 Part. the potential release of which shall be considered in area classification of electrical installations (see 5) include the followings: a) Nonliquefiable gases. 3.3 Where it is necessary to use electrical apparatus in an environment in which there may be a flammable atmosphere and it is not possible to: a) eliminate l i k e l i h o o d o f a f l a m m a b l e atmosphere occuring around the source of ignition. Similarly consideration should be given to design and operation of process equipment to ensure that even when it is operating abnormally.4 Marking of equipment shall confdrm to IS : 824l-l976*. In applying this principle to any potential hazard the quantity of the substance that might be liberated. Dhanbad (Bihar).25 Maximum Surface Temperature -The highest temperature attained under practical conditions of operation within the rating of the apparatus (and recognized overloads. 4. 2. 3. Bombay (M aharashtra).26 Flame Arrester -~ A device for releasing gas from an enclosure in such a way that in case of an internal explosion there is no appreciable increase in internal pressure and the released gas will not ignite the surrounding flammable atmosphere. b) Mixing of flammable gas or vapour with air or oxygen in the proportions required to produce an explosive or ignitable mixture.Apparatus which in normal operation produce sparks.24 Type of Protection . 3. if any. Bihar. 2.ardous. 2. applicable to the installation and use of electrical apparatus in hazardous areas shall be kept in view. and c) The Directorate General Factory Advice Services and Labour Institute. and c) Occurrence of ignition. Once a plant has been classliied.1 In following the recommendations of this f’ire or explosion when the following three basic conditions are satisfied: a) Presence of sufficient quantity of a flammable gas or vapour. 2.surrounding flammable atmosphere in which it is used. Nagpur (Maharashtra).measures should aim at reducing the likelihood of occurrence of either or both of the above factors SO that the likelihood of coincidence is SO small as to be negligible. 4. associated therewith) by any part of any surface (internal or external) the exposure of which to a flammable atmosphere may involve a risk. S T A T U T O R Y R E G U L A T I O N S 3. 4. Then . it is important that no modification to equipment or operating procedures are made without discussion with those responsible for the area classification. Department of Explosives. 2. 2.3 Testing . or a flame which can ignite a specific flammable mixture.Measures taken to ensure that electrical apparatus cannot cause an explosion. with a flammable gas or vapour in any concentration.1 Flammable gases and vapours may cause a *Method of marking for identifying electrical equipment for explosive atmospheres. Dhanbad. Unauthorized action may invalidate the area classification. or b) eliminate the source of ignition.in this regard are available at Central Mining Research Station (CMRS). It is necessary to ensure that process equipment which has been subjected to maintenance shall be carefully checked during and after re-assembly to ensure that safety aspect or integrity of the original design has been maintained before it is returned to service. Facilities for testing .A gas which cannot be ignited when mixed. PART 7 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN HAZARDOUS AREAS . 3.2 It is recommended that plants and installations in which flammable materials are handled or stored be so designed that the degree and extent of hazardous areas are kept to a minimum. hot surfaces.

is deemed non-hazardous or safe and no special precautions are necessary.1. d) volatility. It is recommended to avoid installing electrical equipment in Zone 0 areas to the extent possible. e) ignition temperature. a relative density less than one. that is.0. A vapour density greater than one.By implication.This area classification deals only with risks due to combustible gases and vapours and combustible mists. N OTE .1 Properties qf Flammable Materials 5.2.nazardous atmosphere will never occur.75.0 A complete knowledge of the physical properties of the flammable*materials involved is essential for classifying a hazardous area. 5.2 Extent of Hazardous Area 5. 5.be used. any arc or spark would almost certainly lead to fire or explosion.1 Area Classification .0 General 5. 246 NOTE 2 -. The latter effects will increase with compounds of greater relative vapour density.The lower the ‘lower flammable limit’ the larger may be the extent of the hazardous area. and may thereby ‘spread some distance horizontally and at a low level.1. Some of these characteristics have a direct influence on the degree and extent of hazardous areas while the others affect the design of electrical equipment. c) flash point. Any electrical apparatus must afford a degree of protection as near as practicable to absolute. an area not classified as Zone 0. NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE . 5. the boundary between compounds which may be considered lighter-than-air is set at a relative vapour density of 0. such as the vapour space of closed process vessels.3). In Zone I. that is.In process industries. or is present for long periods R EMARKS (3) This classification is applicable only where the harard will exist continuously. It does not deal with dusts since these material can be quiescant for long periods of time until they are disturbed into suspension by a suitable mechanism (ser also 1.1 Relative dertsirt* . and f) ignition energy. It presupposes only that any abnormal occurrence is rapidly dispersed so that possible contact with electrical apparatus is of minimum duratton Norc: I . therefore. 5. indicates the gas or vapour will tend to sink. for the combustible indicates the gas or vapour will rise in a comparatively still atmosphere. be predicted without a detailed assessment. Conversely where the likelihood of a flammable atmosphere is reduced.1.Earlier.2. The basis for hazardous area classification recognises the differing degrees of probability with which flammable atmospheres (explosive concentrations of combustible gas or vapour) may arise in installations in terms of both the frequency of occurrence and the probable duration of existence on each occasion.2.Where a substantial volume of gas or vapour is released into the atmosphere from.2. Properties< of primary interest from an ignition standpoint are: TABLE I AREA CLASSIFICATION ZONES (1) DESCRIPTION (2) An area in which a flammable atmosphere is present continuously. Zone I or Zone 2. and where movement may not. storage tanks or closed containers. NOTE 3 . a localised source. In the petroleum industry such a condition is rarely encountered except in confined spaces. may be caused only by the atmospnere IS likely to occur in Hrghly improbable and simulnormal operation taneous occurrence of an arc or spark together with a and* if it does occur it will exist hazardous atmosphere arising out of failure of conditions for a short time of control. CLASSIFICATION OF HAZARDOUS AREAS 5. This limit is chosen so as to provide a factor of safety for these compounds whose densities are close to that of air. 5. Reliance is therefore placed on using electrical apparatus which has an extremely low likelihood of creating a source of ignition in situations where a flammable atmosphere has a high likelihood of occurring.1 The objective of the hazardous area classification is to ensure an adequately safe level of operation of electrical apparatus in flammable atmospheres using the fundamental concepts outlined in 4. a) relative density. the hazard is likely to occur at any time requiring fullest practicable application of measures Zone 0 Zone I An area in which a flammable atmosphere is likely to be present periodically or occasionally during normal operation Zone 2 An area in which Zone 2 is applicable to areas where hazard is unlikely and a flammable .2 Flammable limits . It may also be difficult to ensure that the electrical apparatus will never give rise to a source of ignition.The area classification is given in Table I. classified areas were called divisions. In Zone 0. electrical apparatus which has an increased likelihood of becoming a source of ignition may . lighter-than-air. heavier-than-air. b) flammable limits.

247 PART 7 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN HAZARDOUS AREAS . A very mild breeze may serve to extend the area in those directions to which vapours might normally be carried. the extent of hazardous area may decrease if.For flammable liquids. the areas where potentially hazardous concentrations are most likely to be found are below ground.point . *Classification for hazardous areas (other than mines) for electrical installations: Part I Areas having flammable gases and va pours (/irsr rr16ion). the potential hazard decreases.8 Obstacles .2.2.3 C o n c e n t r a t i o n of vapour .2.For lighter-than-air gases.2. the opposite is true.7 Ventilation .2.2.[fecting Extent of Hazard 5.Some liquids (such.The extent of a .1.9 For vapours released at or near ground level.be the extent of the hazardous area. the dispersion of vapours that the extent of potentially hazardous area would be greatly reduced. the more closely it approximates a flammable gas.6 Air current . 5.2.ld ignition energy .2. 5. the concentration of the released vapour is related to the vapour pressure at the relevant maximum liquid temperature.2. they may limit the mo?ement of a cloud of an explosive gas atmosphere and thus may reduce the extent. N OTE . On the other hand.2..2.3.Obstacles (for example. as certain halogenatcd hydrocarbons) do not possess a flash point although they are capable of producing a flammable atmosphere: in these cases.2. dykes.0 In addition to the properties of tlammable materials involved.T h e e x t e n t o f hazardous area may increase with increasing rate of release of flammabie materiai.2. the equilibrium liquid temperature corresponding to saturated concentration at lower flammable limit should be compared with the relevant maximum liquid temperature. walls) may impede the ventilation and thus may enlarge the extent. NOTE .3 F l a s h atmosphere cannot exist if the flash point is significantly above the relevant maximum temperature of the flammable liquid. Some examples of persistent risk points are as follows: a) Interior of pressure vessels and pipes containing gas-air mixtures.4 Rate sf release.2. The lower the flash point.2. a hot surface).5 Ignition temperature ar. It should be noted the liquid or vapour temperature after the release may be increased or decreased by the ambient temperature or other factors (for example. 5.2 Temperature ef process liquid .2.1.A flammable 5.2. Examples of occasional risk points are the immediate vicinity of mechanical glands. 5.Boiling point can be used for comparing the volatility of flammable liquids. The lower the initial boiling point the greater the vapour pressure for a given liquid temperature and hence the greater concentration of vapour at the release source resulting in greater extent of hazardous area. like those used for measurement and control of process variable. thoSe at ground are next most likely.Due to an improved ‘dilution for release of flammable gases.Ignition temperature and ignition energy of a flammable gas or vapour are taken into account in the design of electrical apparatus for hazardous areas so that these dd not present an ignition risk.2. tk larger may.3 Internal Hazards 5. and 4 Thi immediate vicinity of vapour exhausts and liquid outlets where these are designed to discharge as part of normal plant function.Air currents may substantially alter the ‘outline of the limits of potential hazard.2. this may introduce additional source of internal and/or external release and consequently influence the external area classification. 5. b) Free space above liquid level in tanks.With an increased rate of ventilation.2. Minor releases of flaimable material may be part of normal operation’ but leakage which entail repair or shut down are not part of normal operation.2. 5. 5. The rhore volatile a liquid and the lower its flash point. . The extent may also be reduced by an improved arrangement of the ventilation system.2. the release velocity increases above that which causes turbulent flow.2 Factors A. NOTE .Normal operation is the situation in which all plant equipment is operating within its design parameters. seals relying on wetting by the fluid being pumped and other localized spillage points and of vapour exhausts and liquid outlets designed to discharge only on plant malfunction.4 Volatility . 5.2. baths. 5. and as the height above ground increase. with constant release rate. there being little or no potential hazard at and below ground and greater potential hazard above ground.2.5 Release velocity -. However.1 Risk points . vapours and/or mists in the air. a stronger breeze may so accelerate.Elevated or depressed sources of release will alter the areas of potential hazard. c) Free space immediately above open dipping.hazardous area may increase with increasing temperature of process liquid provided the temperature is above the flash point.1. 5.0 In cases where electrical apparatus. 5.2.2. the extent of hazardous area may be reduced. are connected directly to gas or a liquid process equipment. following factors need to be considered for determining the degree and extent of hazardous areas while applying the guidelines given in IS : 5572 (Part I)-l978* 5. 5. etc.

2 Earthing and Bonding 6. SPECIFIC GUIDELINES FOR ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN HAZARDOUS AREAS 6. 6. 5. The connection between metal part to be grounded and the grounding conductor shall be made secure mech. When an apparatus in vvhich the internal hazards arc comparable to Zone I is insta!led in a Zone 0 hazardous area.3. 5 . c) Storage tanks: i) Floating roof. 6.2. but when the same apparatus is installed in Zone I or Zone 0 the external hazards determine the actual hazard condition. and ii) Source of hazard above ground level. however. b) Where dilution with air is applied in case c) In all other types of protection. and ii) Fixed roof tank with vent.2 Detailed guidelines. *<‘L\sification of hazardous areas (other than mines) for clcctrii‘al installations: Part I Areas having flammable gases a n d vapours (/ir. the abnormal release would be unrestricted. This applies also when the abnormal release (when occurring) would be restricted. Specific guidelines for installations in hazardous locations are given in Appendix E. the area classification would determine the actual hazard. reference should be made to the impact t e s t r e q u i r e m e n t s a c c o r d i n g t o I S : 82b91976* for the apparatus before deciding on any additional measures such as the provision of guards for transparent parts.1.2. the internal hazards are comparable to the hazards in Zone 0 and the abnormal relcasc is not relevant. of a restricted normal release the internal hazards are comparable to those in a safe area. a) Open-air situations (freely ventilated process area): i) Source of hazard located near ground level. *Specification for electrical equipment with type of protection ‘n’.anically and electrically by using adequate metallic fitting. Grounding conductors which shall not reach a hazardously high temperature due to the anticipated maximum earthfault current flowing. 2 . on the above situations can be had from IS : 5572 (Part I)-1978*.1 ‘The treatment of hazardous area.tion). 248 NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE .1. When. When there is a normal release.2. Where adequate protection cannot be ensured.1. shall be used. the internal hazards are comparable to the external hazards in Zone 2.2. the internal releases cannot create a flammable gas atmosphere.1. In addition.5 Earthing and bonding qf pipelines and pipe-racks ~ Unless adequately connected to earth elsewhere. 6.2.2 Protection against lightning shall be provided in accordance with Part I /Set 15 of the Code.1’ Zonrs of Ha:ard 5. for example. Interconnection system with other buried metal scrviccs and/or earth terminations for equipment grounding for the purpose of equalizing the potential distribution in the ground should preferably be made below ground.5. 6. because no oxygen is present. provided that there is no normal release and that an abnormal release would be very infrequent and of a relatively short duration.2.1 The hazards created inside the electrical apparatus by an internal release of flammable gas or vapour may be compared to the external area classification as follows: a ) Where pressurization with inert gas is appli- 6.1 General 6.2. the internal hazards determine the actual hazard condition.1.3 Portable and transportable apparatus shall be grounded with one of the cores of flexible cable for power supply.1 Earthing shall be in accordance with Part I /Set I2 of the Code. by.2. 4 E.1. b) Enclosed premises and surrounding area (process area with restricted ventilation). the internal hazards are comparable to the external hazards in Zone 2. cd.3.2. 5.2 When apparatus in which the internal hazards arc comparable to Zone 2 is installed in a safe area’ or in Zone 2. The earthing conductors shall be sufficiently strong and thick. location. all utility and process pipelines should be bonded to a common conductor by means of earth bars or pipe clamps and connected to the earthing system at a point where the pipelines enter or leave the hazardous area except where conflicting with the requirements of cathodic protection. and the portions of conductor which are likely to be corroded or damaged shall be well protected.rr rc~~Y. from the point of view of determining the extent of hazardous zones (and their classification) around the source of halard differ in the following broad situations: 6.4. it is recommended that steel pipe racks in the process units and off-site areas should be earthed at every 25 m. The earth continuity conductor and the metallic screen wherever provided for the flexible cable should be bonded to the appropriate metal-work of the apparatus and to earthing pin of the plug.4 Efficient bonding should be installed where protection against stray currents or electrostatic charges is necessary.4.rtrn[ o.1.1 Mechanical Slrength All apparatus shall be installed with due regard to the possibility of external mechanical damage.

may.33 Protection and control apparatus shall be normally located in a non-hazardous area. 6.1. such apparatus shou. they should be frequently inspected. 4) Mineral insulated metal sheathed cable. For (b) the following types of cables may be used in principle: 1) Lead-sheathed and armoured cable. some protection will have to be afforded to such conductors primarily to prevent contact between conductors of intrinsically safe circuits and those of any other system. The diameter of each strand of the conductor shall be not less than 0.1. Such means of isolation should be provided for each item of electrical apparatus and/or each subcircuit. with sheath overall. cracked glasses. together with the portable apparatus.2 All circuits and apparatus in hazardous areas shall be provided with means to ensure disconnection quickly in the event of excessive overloads.ld be provided with the appropriate type of protection. When the means of isolation is located in a non-hazardous area. earth-leakage protection or earth monitoring. 6.1. there is normally no need to have special enclosures for the conductors.1 It is essential that the severity and duration of faults internal or external to the electrical apparatus be limited by external means to values that can bc sustained by the apparatus without disruptive effect.5).2.3 When the means of isolation is not immediately adjacent to the associated ap’paratus.4 Isolarion 6 . internal shortcircuit or earth-fault conditions.1 None of the protection techniques for 6.1.2 Care shall be taken when inspecting equipment in hazardous areas.for many situations but should not be 249 electrical equipment for hazardous atmospheres are effective unless the apparatus is operated within the limits indicated by its nameplate marking and is properly maintained according to the recommendations of appropriate Indian Standards. an automatic earth-fault alarming device may be considered adequate. This applies equallv to single ptiase subcircuits. 6. 1 All electrical circuits should be provided with an effective means of complete circuit isolation.3. Protection *of the circulating-current type which automatically cuts off the supply in the event of the earth continuity conductor becoming disconnected.1. The sheath of a metal-sheathed cable should not be used as the neutral conductor.5. 6.2.6.1. Requirements tor the installation of general power systems’may not apply to the installation of apparatus and systems with type of protection ‘i’ (intrinsic safety). and b) cables which are otherwise suitably protected against mechanical damage. and 5) Braided screen-protected flexible cables. effective provision should be made to prevent the restoration of supply to the apparatus while the risk of exposure of line conductors to a flammable gas-air mixture continues. PART 7 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN HAZARDOUS AREAS . deterioration of cement. Where its installation in a potentially hazardous area cannot be avoided.1. solid drawn or seamless conduits. and which is provided with an appropriate type of protection against explosive hazards. the conductors should be protected against mechanical damage (see 6.1.5. Flexible cables are a potential source of hazard. E q u i p m e n t s h o u l d b e examined for mechanical faults. Electrical tests should be carried out at fixed. For intrinsically safe circuits.Types of wiring and systems which may be used for installation in hazardous areas are: a) cables drawn into screwed. The means of isolation shall be capable of being locked in the ‘OFF’ position. 6. 2) Plastics or rubber-sheathed steel screen protected or armoured cable.3. 6. 3) Cables enclosed in a seamless aluminium sheath with or without armour. to avoid the possibility of arcing occurring at the point of contact or invasion of the intrinsically safe circuits by current arising from contact or electrostatic or electromagnetic induction.2. 6. Unarmoured lead-covered cable is not acceptable.300 mm of copper or equivalent size of conductor in the case of aluminium conductors as specified in relevant Indian Standard.1. including the neutral. 6. 4 . with advantage.1. circuits shall be made dead before removing covers.1. with an outer protective sheath.1 Screwed steel conduit systems are satisfactory. slackened conduit joints and corrosion.4 Apart from sen-powered apparatus and handlamps.4.2 The means of isolation. 6.1. 1 . when located in a hazardous area. or both should be included in the protection of the portable and transportable apparatus. the switch shall break all poles. including the neutral. in addition to’ overload/overcurrent and short-circuit protection. intervals. In addition.2.3 Automcrli” Ekclricai Proreclion 6. However. be adopted as’ the earth-monitoring device. shall be a switch which breaks all poles. In case of distribution systems with isolated neutral.1 Factors Ajfecling Choice of Wiring Svsrem 6. overcurrent.5 Operation and Maintenance 6.2 Wiring Installation 6.1.0 General.4. the neutral being isolated by a removable link.3.

pipes or trenches’ are used to accommodate cables.2.3 is unavoidable.2. 6.u~i bhcrc vibration might cause fracture or loosening of joints and where excessive stress may be imposed as a result of its rigidity or where corrosion or excessive internal condensation of moisture is likely to occm. vapours or liquids from one ar-ca to another. and the adequate ventilation or sand filling of trenches.as to avoid contact with other circuits. it should be terminated outside the hazardous area and be fitted at or near the terminal pole with an effective surge-protection apparatus. 6.1.2.ith should bc plumbed or m e c h a n i c a l l y g r i p p e d a n d waled a n d t h e armouring should be carried O\CI the lcad joint. b) The wiring shall be so madc. a n d t h e c o n n e c t i n g cable to the installation consequently is short. Alternatively cable glands may be used for this purpose. 6.2. a common electrode may be used for this independent earth and for the lightning-protective system of the installation. vapours or liquids. Such precautions may involve the sealing of trunking.ided for them should be made good with cement or similar incombustible material to the full thickness of the floor. the passage of any current will not give rise to incendive sparking or bring about a tedperature rise approaching the ignition temperature of the combustible gas.2.1. 4 F o r telecc. \houId bs a v o i d e d between apparatus. the uiring in the hazardous arca should c o m p l y w i t h the rc‘quirt’mcntc of thih htandald. owing to particular circumstances.5 ‘. Leads h e a t h e d c a b l e s h o u l d be usal Hhcrc spillages may affect the intcgriti of the cable and or 3110~ migration of the liqujd through rhc c a b l e .2. wall. the hole pro\.3 PVC-insulated and armoured cable.2. 6.E<l RIC‘At. Where such cable is Icad covcrcd and armoured.6 Where trunking. the casing or sheathing should be independently earthed as near as possible to the .2. in the case of cable the insulation of the sheath may be sufficient to prevent danger. c) l-he w i r i n g s h a l l b e \o made as to avoid electromagnetic or clcctro5tatic i n d u c t i o n from other cil-cuit(s). 1 . Wiring\ of circuits which have been approved as intrlnsically safe may follow’ the requirements of generaI electrical wiring except that the following requirement\ shall -be obserced: a) The conditions of use laid down on the test certificate issued by the approving authorit) shall be observed.2.3 Where practicable. 2 . 6. 6.2. The casing. e q u i p m e n t o r pipework u s e d f o r c a r r y i n g combustible gases. ducts and pipes. 6. conduit or cable\. If convenient.junction of the cable with the installation and bonded to the earthing lead of any lightning protective system associated with the hazardous area. c-ODE 6. wall.7 Where an overhead supply line is used for either power or telecommunication circuits. precautions should be taken to prevent the passage of combustible gases.2 Lead-sheathed and armoured cables arc suitable for underground installation. armouiing or sheathing and armouring should be electrically continuous and the end adjacent to the point of connection with the overhead line should be bonded to the earth electrode of the overhead line.s area to another.2. d) T h e w i r i n g \hiill be adequateI! p r o t e c t e d against mechanicai damage.4 Where. the earth electrodes for the surge-protection apparatus on the overhead line may be used for earthing the c a b l e s h e a t h o r taxing and for any lightning NATIONAL El.1. partition or ceding.2.Vhere cables or conduit pass through a f l o o r . vapours or liquids in trenches. l-he a r m o u r i n g s h o u l d b e carried into the clamps to pro\idc m e c h a n i c a l support to the cable and to ensure electrical continuity.. The cable u s e d t o c o n n e c t t h e o\.1 Correctly designed terminations complete with armour clamp\ shall be prokidcd for armoured cable\. 6.2.2 Where circuit:.2. the armouring.2.erhead line with the installation in the hazardous area should comply with the recommendations for wiring systems in ha/ardous areas. Alternatively. 50 that no space remains around the cable through which combustible gas liquid or vapour might spread. plastic-insulated and armoured tclcphonc cables may be used. 6 . contact between components referred to in 6.5 In Zone 0 areas only intrinsically hal’c circuits shall be installed and its uhe shall be kept to an unavoidable minimum.2.2. SteelHire armour is: preferred for underground use. partition or ceiling. traverse 3 hazardous area in passing front one non-ha/ardou.mmunication c i r c u i t s . the Iced sh(. 6.or above ground or underground installation. conduit or sheathing of the cable should’ be bonded to the equipment or pipework in such a manner and at such intervals as to ensure that under the worst fault conditions. and to prevent the collection of combustible gases. In addition. Conduit should not be used if it is likelv to be subjected to vibration. Where the overhead line supplying a building f o r m i n g : I hazardous area is supported by the building. either d e l i b e r a t e o r accidental.2. vapour or liquid which may be present. and an) 250 . and e) A l u m i n i u m :trmouI-ed or sheathed cable shall not be used in Zone 0 areas. duets.2. complying with IS : 15S4 (Part I)-l976* with an cxt ruded plastic outer sheath may be used l. contact.

4 Where. continuous and therefore.2.2.4 Laving qf Cables 6.2.3.protective system associated with the hazardous area.2. other than those of the inspection type. PART 7 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS TN HAZARDOLIS AREAS . The types of the cable for use in hazardous areas shall be as specified in this Section. independent of external connections. Horizontal cables may be carried on supports.2. In view of the operating be uninterrupted. proper means shall be provided to prevent accumulation of or to permit drainage of such liquid periodically. 6. 6.12 For process pumps.2. 6.2. be provided with locknuts. either during installation or subsequently. 6.4.3. free from intermediate joints. has been certified. it is necessary to employ a joint other than a screwed coupler. certified unions approved for flame-proof purposes should be used. Conduit.3. that depend upon a single seal diaphram or tube to prevent process fluids from entering the electrical conduit system.2.5 All screwed joints should be pulled up tight and should. should not be used except for the immediate connection of conduit to apparatus. an additional approved seal or barrier shall be provided with an adequate drain between the seals in such a manner that leaks would be obvious. attention is drawn to the necessity of ensuring that the resistance of all joints. 6.1 Conduits shall be solid-drawn or seamless. There shall be no union.2 Cable runs should. +Specification. boxes or fittings that passes through a hazardous location with no fittings less than 300 mm beyond each boundary may not be sealed if the termination points of the unbroken conduit are in non-hazardous locations. with the use of flameproof apparatus. etc. should be fitted with a stopper box at each point of connection with apparatus or fittings.8 All joints in an assembly of conduit should be painted aftet assembly with moistureresisting paint to inhibit . should maintain the type of protection used. 6. and all inspection fittings should be of the fiameproof type.4. or cable sheaths and armour. the apparatus used for. 6.1 Cable systems include cables laid above ground or cables laid underground directly buried. is such as to ensure reliable operation of the protection devices in all seasons.11 Metal conduit containing no unions. canned 6. 251 *Specification for construction and testing of electrical apparatus with ty e of protection ‘e’.7 Elbows or tees.2.3. and that the total resistance of the earth-fault current path.3. in addition. in a run of conduit. screwed and galvanized.13 Where there is a probability that any vapour or moisture in the air may he condensed into liquid within the conduit runs.2. that is.9 Unused cable entries in electrical apparatus should be closed with plugs suitable for the type of protection used.2. 6. including those in or hetwan flameproof enclosures and conduit. 6. conditions associated.23. boxes or sealing fittings.3 Laying qf Conduits 6.2 Elbows of the solid type may be used for the immediate connection of conduit to apparatus. is such as to prevent a dangerous rise of temperature or voltage from the passage of fault current. a stopper or sealing box or appropriate sealing device shall be inserted on the side remote from the hazardous area. cleated or otherwise attached to suitable supports which provide adequate mechanical protection.the development of rust.2.9 Where a run of conduit.2. 6.10 Seals shall be provided within 450 mm where conduit run is terminated on the apparatus. couplings. or in cable ducts. measured from any point in the installation.2. 6. cable trays or through protective troughs or tubes.2.3 The lengths of the screwed part of any conduit should be in accordance with the requirements of IS : 2148-1968:. direct or indirect.3. where practicable. in concrete trenches. Where discontinuities cannot be avoided. interconnection should be provided with the type of protection appropriate to the zone. The use of running couplings is not recommended but where it is impracticable to avoid their use. 6.2. 6. 6.4.8 The wiring entry to the apparatus.3.2. 6.3 All cables shall be provided with adequate mechanical protection. 6. unless a self-contained’ assembly. box or fitting in the conduit between the sealing fittings and point at which the conduit leaves the hazardous locations.3.2.3. NOTE -.2. Cables shall be adequately supported throughout their length. passes from a hazardous area to a nonhazardous area. care being taken to avoid excessive pressure when clamp supports are used.2.2.10 Where cable terminals are used in apparatus and accessories with the type of protection ‘e’ or ‘n’they shall be fixed in position so as to ensure maintenance of the creepage and clearance distances as specified in IS : 638l-1972* and IS : 8289-1976t.6 Surface-mounted conduit should be supported by spacing saddles. 6. Rising cab!es should be clipped.2. irrespective of size.It is important to ensure efficient earthing and bonding in a flameproof installation. coupling.3. factorymade assemblies should be used and the running coupling should be secured by locknuts. for electrical equipment with type of protection ‘n’. :Specification for flameproof enclosures of electrical apparatus (/irsf revision). connections for instruments.23. having an exiernal diameter of more than 25 mm. 6.3.

2 . shall be flameproof type for flameproof enclosure and double-compre\sion type for enclosure having type of protection other than flameproof.7 Cables capable of tr-ansmitting gases or vapours through the core shall be sealed in the hazardous location in such a manner as to prevent passage of gases or vapours into a non-hazardous location.5.4.1 Flexible cable of the types specified below may be used for connection between a fixed source of supply and the portable transportable apparatus through flatieproof plugs and sockets: a) Ordinaq t o u g h r u b b e r sheathed tlcxible cables. 6. 6 .5. if ncccssary. Where such cables are load covered and armoured.4.tic c o r r o s i o n o f c o p p e r sheath of mineral .4.2. Where surge supprccsion devices are installed in hazardous areas. 6 .4. where used. 6. the armouring should be carried into the clamps to provide mechanicai support to the cable and to ensure electrical continuity..2.2. Congideration should be giLen to the avoidance of frictignal contact N ith such cables.2.7.f~om Datlgcrol:s 6. means should be provided to prevent sharp bending of the cable at both points of entry. 7 Protet.c ntItJ So1~Xrl.idcd w i t h m e a n s f o r ensuring adequate earth continuity.2 Plugs and sockets shall be of the type that provides for connections to the earthing conductor of the tlexible cables. 4 . In the case of other types of paper-insulated armoured cables.8’ Correctly designed complete with armour clamps shall be provided for armourcd cables. 6.4. 6.v 6.In order to avoid the formation of sparks liable to ignite the explosive gas atmosphere. Use of screened cables are also permitted.2.5 Pl1r. pipes or a r c u s e d t o accommodate cables. surge suppression devices should be fitted. Those shall be of interlocked switch t)pc.6.4. 6 . the lead sheath should be plumbed or mechanically gripped and sealed and the armouring should be carried over the lead joint. inserted it shall make connection before or at the same time as the main contact arc made. thq s h o u l d b e s u i t a b l y explosionprotcctcd. it should be kept clear of such surface or covered with a protective sheath.2.insulated cable may result from contact with walls or other surfaces to which the cable is attached. trenches 6.2. nary tough rubber sheathed tlcxible cables. 1 2 W h e r e t h e r e i s r i s k o f mineralinsulated cables being exposed to excessive v o l t a g e s s u c h a s i n d u c t i v e surges.2. cl H e a v y t o u g h r u b b e r s h e a t h e d flexible cables.2 Datlgers Jwm e.2. should not be 252 NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE .6.5 The passage of cables from a hiTardous area to a non-hazardous area should.4.7. be provided with adequate means to prevent the transmission of flammable material into the non-hazardous area co:isidcration should also bc given to the treatment of cables against fire transmission.2.10 Cable fittings for mineral insulated cables shall be suitable for use with the appropriate apparatus to which they are to be attached. 6.2. In certain cases a warning label may be sufficient.9 Cable glands.4. terminations 6. b) Ordinaq t o u g h pol!chloroprcnc shcathcd flexible cables. Lapours or liquids from one area to another. Lapours or liquids in trenches. installed in contact with Lvalls o r f l o o r . should be provided at the points of entry of the flexible cable to the apparatus and plug.6 Where trunking. ducts.precent t h e passage of combustible gases. precautions s h o u l d b c t a k e n t o ’ . and to prc\ent the collection of combustible ga\es. vertical runs should be avoided.2. and d) Plastic insulated cables equivalent to ordi.tive Spark ing M e a s u r e s .6.2. 6. any contact with bare live parts other than intrinsically safe parts shall be prevented. Such precautions may involve the scaling of trunking.2. 6. ducts and popes and the adequate ventilation or \and filling of trenches. 6. and particularly where such cables ma)’ be exposed to high temperature. b 6. 2 . Where this requirement is not met by construction other precautions shall be taken.vposed and e.rtrancous c~nndwri~~e purrs It is impracticable to cover all possible systems in this case but the basic principles on which safety depends are the limitation of earth c u r r e n t s ( m a g n i t u d e a n d potentials on equalizing conductors). unless sheathed with a protective covering.2.1 Plugs and sockets for installation in Zone 2 areas shall bc flameproof type. 2 . I he contacts of grounding conductor shall be mechanically and electrically of at least the same quality as the main contacts and when the plug i:.q. 1 1 W h c r c elcctrol!. 4 . Fittings should bc arranged for scaling the cable i n s u l a t i o n a n d b e pro\. In addition.1 Dangers jirom li\?e parts --.2 An effective cable clamping device so designed as not to damage the insulation of the flexible cable. 6.13 Aluminium sheathed cables.4 Where paper-insulated armoured cables are used. preference should be given to non-draining cables.

cl For an IT power system (neutral isolated from earth or earthed through impedance).3.3.3 Potential equalization .1. However equipment in Zone 0 shall be disconnected instantaneously in case of the first earth fault. For additional information. 6. 6. in a hazardous area.3. conduits. for example some intrinsically safe apparatus.7..2. Enclosures need not be separately connected to the equipotential bonding system if they are secured to and are in metallic contact with structural parts or piping which are connected to the equipotential bonding system.3 When the electrical apparatus has an internal release of flammable material. 6.3 Selection of Equipment 6. However there are certain pieces of tiqui’pment. or combined in a single conductor. These construction requirements should ensure that the protection against explosion is not reduced when the apparatus is used in the specified conditions of service. which are not intended to be connected to the equipotential bonding system. NoTt -~ It may also be necessary to provide instantaneous earth. to an acceptable low level.1. se@ relevant Indian Standards.3. The neutral and the protective conductor shall not be connected together. 6. all exposed and extraneous conductive parts shall be connected to the main or supplementary equipotential bonding system.. it shall be protected with a residual current device even if it is a safety extra-low voltage circuit (below 50 V).1 General 6. metal cable sheaths. Where gases of different degrees of hazard exist in the same area.To avoid dangerous sparking between metallic parts of structures.Cathodically protected metallic parts b) If a type IT power system (separate earths for power system and exposed conductive parts) is used in Zone I.3. the classification of the hazardous area surrounding the electrical equipment decide the selection of an adequate type of protection. 6. No cathodic protection shall be provided for metallic parts in Zone 0 unless they are specially designed for this application. The type TT power system is not permitted in Zone 0.7. when insulated flanges in connecting pipelines are used. steel wire armouring and metallic parts of structures but shall not include neutral conductors.3.Guidance on permissible power systems is given below: a) If a Dower svstem with an earthed neutral is used: the tipi TN-S system with separate neutral (N) and protective conductor (PE) throughout the system is preferred.Account should be taken of the effects due to strong electromagnetic radiation.2.1. NATE-Potential equalization between vehicles and fixed installations may require special metins.2 When the electrical apparatus does not have an internal release of flammable material. Instantaneous earth fault protection shall be installed.5 Electromagnetic radiation . located in hazardous areas are live extraneous conductive parts which shall be considered potentially dangerous (especially if equipped with the impressed current m&hod) despite their low negative potential.5 The selected electrical apparatus shall be adequat@ly protected against corrosive and solvent agencies. The conductance between metallic parts of structures ‘shall correspond to a cross section of at least IO mm’ of copper. potential equaiization is always required for installations in Zone 0 and Zone I areas and may be necessary for installations in Zone 2 areas. either by the monitoring device or by a residual current operated device.7. the type of protection appropriate for the highest degree of hazards shall be applicable. the actual hazard is a combination of the external and internal hazards and both must be taken into account when selecting an adequate type o protection. PART 7 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN HAZARDOUS AREAS .4 Cathodically protected metallic parts -. fault protection devices for certain applications in Zone I.1.4 The selected appartus will normally have a recognized type of protection and should also be selected for the appropriate temperature class and the appropriate apparatus group applicable. 6. The bonding system may include normal protective conductors.1. and against water ingress and thermal and mechanical stresses as determined by the environmental conditions. an insulation monitoring device should be used to indicate the First earth fault. 6. A power system of type TN-C (having combined neutral and protective functions in a single conductor throughout the system) is not allowed in hazardous areas.1 The selection of electrical apparatus for explosive gas atmospheres is based on the general principle that the likelihood of the simultaneous presence of a hazardous atmosphere and a source of ignition is reduced.3. 6.2. Therefore.1.6 Particular consideration shall be given to the location of apparatus which incorporates aluminium or light alloys in the construction of its 253 4 For all power system installed in Zone 0 irrespective of the voltages due attention should be paid to the limitation of earth fault currents in magnitude and duration. for example. 6.

gases and vapours have been classified according to the groups or subgroups of apparatus required for use in the particular gas or vapour *Classification of maximum surface temperatures of electrical equipment for use in explosive atmospheres.1. or the upper-limit temperature for any unprotected surface according to IS : 8239-1976 (WC 6.The selection d t)‘pc of protection of the equipment for different lone of hazardous areas shall be made an accordance with Tables 2.3.1).2 Sc~kcrion of’ t. therefore.Besides the danger 6f explosion caused by an electric spark or arc.8 It is advisable that the selection of made after full electrical apparatus be considerations hake been given not only to the initial cost of installation but also to the expected life and expenses for operation and maintenance of the apparatus.1. b) The ignition temperature of the gas or vapour involved.2. the surface to be considered is the external surface.3 Temperature classes -. 6. For apparatus with other types of explosion protection. 2 Selec. Similarly electrical apparatus which is designed so that it may be used with certain fammable materials in a particular lone ma!’ be used with flammable materials in /one of lesser risk Hithout restriction provided it is determined that the flammable materials likeI!. 6. and c) Chemical compatibility. 3 and 4 as applicable.otdrrrt~ 6. 6. preparation for spares and repairing materials and the extent of allowable interruption of power supply during maintenance work. lesser sub.ject group. the value will be clearly marked on the apparatus. The maximum surface temperature of any unprotected surface of electrical equipment should not exceed the ignition temperature of the gas or vapour.2.3. 6. 3 . For special applications.3.3.3. temperature classification required for the apparatus. Flammable gases and vapours fall into fairly well-defined groups when classified with reference to their ignition temperature.3. This will permit determination of the. to b e p r e s e n t are compatible with the following characteristics of the apparatus: a ) The apparatus grouping (where this is applicable).3. the permitted maximum surface temperature have been classified in’ IS : 8239-1976* a!.1. that is--the lone (see 6.. NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 234 . any equipment which in the opinion of the authorized inspector affords a degree of safety not less than that afforded by the equipment specified may be accepted as an alternative.3.3).2. 6.1.1.10 The necessity for equipment with flameproof.tion P. However. the maximum surface temperture may be based on a reference ambient temperature other than 40°C is used. the guidance provided in Table 2 shall be followed in the selection of equipment for hazardous rlreas.~pc of protection -.4 Apparafus groups .2.For the purpose of flameproof enclosures and intrinsic safety.7 As electrical apparatus for flammable special safety require gas atmospheres maintenance after they are installed. or the lowest values of ignition temperature if more than one combustible material is present. These have been outlined in IS : 55711979* reference to which should be made (see a/so 5.1 In order that electrical apparatus may be selected for use in hazardous area. b) l’hc temperature classification.3).2. 6. or 2) Safe gap data in the case of installations for flameproof enclosures_ Apparatus certified to the constructional and design requirements for a particular group may also be used with compounds of lesser risk and *Guide for selection of electrical equipment of halardous areas tSpecilication for flameproof enclosures for electrical apparatus. No’rE 2 It should.3.1 of IS : 2148-1981-q.2. To simplify the manufacture of apparatus. I) Ignition current or minimum ignition e n e r g y in the case of installations of intrinsically safe apparatus. N OTE I --A‘ reference ambient temperature of 40°C is normally assumed when apparatus is designed to operate within one of the temperature classes indicated above. there is also a danger of ignition at a hot surface exposed to a flammable atmosphere. again to consideration of temperature classification and chemical compatibility. enclosures or other enclosures may sometimes be eliminated by the adoption of special design.enclosure.2. internal surfaces are equally important if the explosive gas air mixture has access to them c) The characteristics of the gas or vapour involved in relation to (see 6. follows: a) The classification of the area.9 Unless otherwise specified for a particular equipment.. such as pressurized equipment. 6 . the selection of electrical apparatus shall be made with full considerations to the facility and frequency of inspection and maintenance.be noted that for apparatus with type of protection ‘d’ flameproof enclosure.3. the following information is necessary: which would be allocated therefore to J. 6.

(Ex-i. It is placed in one of the following categories: a) CU/CKWI. without suffering damage and without communicating the internal flammation to the external flammable gas %r vapour for which it is designed.) Apparatus in this category is incapable of causing ignition in normal operation. (Conrinued) PART 7 E:LE(‘TRICAL I N S T A L L A T I O N S I N HA%ARDOI:S AREAS 255 .). intrinsically safe electrical apparatus catagories ia and ih and associated circuits should be employed Type of protection ‘i’. an internal explosion of the flammable gas or vapour which may enter it or which may originate inslde the enclosure. of causing ignition of a prescribed gas or vapour. b) Flameproof equipment--Type of protection ‘d’ Flammproq/ Enclosure (Ex-d) An enclosure for electrical apparatus that will withstand when the covers or other accL%!. through any joints or structural openings in the enclosure (WC IS : 2148-1981. 3 . DESCRIPTION (3) lnrrrnsic Sq/er_v (Ex-i) (see IS : 5780-1980*) A circuit or part of a circuit is intrinsically safe when any spark or thermal effect produced normally (that is. Zone 0 Apparatus in this category is incapable of causing Ignition in normal operation. ZSpecification for presburi7ed enclosures of electrical appartus for use in explosive: Part I Pressurized enclosure with no internal source of flammable gas or vapour (firsr re\*itrt~). or with any combination of two faults applied with a specified safety factor for current and ior. or with a smgle fault. doors are properly secured. 2 ) Zi)xE (1) TYPF OF PROTCCTION (2) No electrical equipment should be allowed. voltage. PTessL~ri:ed f?nnc/osure ( Ex-p) [see IS : 7389 (Part I)-197621 An enclosure for electrical apparatus in which the entry of flammable gas or vapour is prevented by maintaining the air (or other nonflammable gas) within the enclosure at a pressure above that of the external atmosphere.3. tspecification for flameproof enclosures of electrical apparatus (. a) Pressurization with air and alarm in case of less of air pressure [Ex-p( I)] b) Pressurization with air and automatic switching off from electric supply in case of loss of air pressure [Ex-p(2)] c) Pressurization with inert gas and alarm in case of loss of inert gas pressure [Ex-p(3)] d) Pressurization with inert gas and automatic switching off from electric supply in case of less of inert gas pressure [Ex-p(4)] e) Dilution with air and alarm in case of loss of air supply [Ex-p(S)] f) Dilution with air and automatic switching off from electric supply in case of loss of air supply c) Pressurized enclosure-Type of protection ‘p’ [Ex-P(6)] *Intrinsically safe electrical apparatus and circuits (firs/ rethion).TABLE 2 TYPES OF PROTECTION FOR DIFFERENT HAZARDOUS AREAS ((‘lousrs 6.WWJ~I~ rnision). This type of protection has following categories (for choice see Table 3). 2 .1 9 und 6 . with a specified safety factor for current and/or voltage. by breaking or closing the circuit) or accidentally (for example by shortcircuit or earth fault) is incapable. An intrinsically safe apparatus is one in which all electrical circuits are intrinpically safe. under prescribed test conditions. or with any single fault applied. Zone I a) Type of protection adequate for Zone 0. when this is not practicable.

/\ (t Y-c‘) (WC’ IS h?X 1-1972$) A method ol protcctl~.iSpeclllcatlon 71 Spccillcatlon for for for for lor for sand-filled protection of electrical equipment for use in explosive atmospheres. c) Increased safety apparatus protection ‘e’. \o a\ to gl\c InctcCl\i+ securlt! aga~nht the po\\lhlllt! r11 C\CCI\I\C temperature5 and the occurrcncc 01 ate\ or \parh\ in electrical apparatur uhlch di>ci !~ot p r o d u c e arc\ 01 \parks i n norm31 WI\ ~LC A m e t h o d oI protection in u htc. it is necessary to determine the appropriate apparatu\ grouplr. and b) IP 44 for insulated parts. intrinsically sale electrical apparatus and circuits. electrical equipment with type of protection ‘n’. *Specification tSpccification :Speclflcation @Specification . construction and testing of electrical apparatus with type of protection ‘e’. (see Note 2) type of /~1l~rW\<‘~/ . in huch a \cay that under the conditions of WC for. Norb 3 ~~~ Oil-immersed apparatus may bC used only m case its security will’pot apparatus.TABLE 2 TYPES OF PROTECTION FOR DIFFERENT tlAZARDD1’S AREAS Ccmrtl JOV6 (1) TYpt.w IS 7724Flectrtcal apparatu\ which ha\ all it\ Ii\c I975*) p a r t \ cntircl) e m b e d d e d in a ma\\ of powder> material. ‘9’ only area classification and ignition temperature are required. e) Oil immersed apparatus Type of protection ‘0’ fJ Such other apparatus as mav he rpeclflcall> c e r t i f i e d o r as:iessed for use in Zone I arear\.UIC\ additional to those a d o p t e d in ordinal! !ndu\trlal practice a r e applltd. It may be that a combination of several types of protection is incorporated within one piece of apparatus. flameproof enclosures of electrical apparatus (ser.n in \\hlch IIIC. n o a r c occur\ Nithin the outer cxplosi\r atmosphcrc either h! the transmi\+lon o f f l a m e o r h! the overheating of the fail\ of the cnclo\ure.I\. However. 01 PROTFL’llOh (2) d) Sand filled apparatus~-Type protection ‘q’ of Surrd-/i/M U/I/XI~&LC\ (Fx-q) (.SCJ/<. be impaired by tilting or vibration of the NOlb 4 For apparatus with type of protection ‘p’ ‘c’.I \our-ce of ~gnltlon like an ale or spark from corn~rlg unto c~nl. rvpe of protectmn 6s’ Zone 2 a) Tlpe of protection applicable for Zone 0 or Zone I. 2 For outdoor installation.ond revision). the apparatus with type of protection ‘e’ and ‘n’ should be used with enclosures providing at least the following degree of protection: a) IP 55 where there are uninsulated conducting parts mternally. where apparatus ‘is protected by Ex-‘I’ or Ex-‘d in addition to one of these types of protection.H hich the apparatus ha\ been designed.rical apparatus for llse in explos~e gas atmospheres. 256 NAtIONAt ELECT?fICAL C O D E .~cl with the Inflammable g a s o r \apour. oil-immersed eiect.h the cquipmellt ]\I 40 de\lpned and con\tructcd t h a t t h e cutcrnal intlammable ga\e\ or Lapour\ cann~>t e n t e r t h e cnclo\ure and hence prc\ent\ .g according to IS : 5780-1979 ij and IS : 214% 19818) respectively. ‘n’ and where applicable. Norr. d) Hermetically sea!ed apparatus protection ‘s’ (see Note I) 1 ypc 01 Nort I Special protection category IS reserved for those types of protrctlon that cannot be classilied as belonging wholly to any one of the above types.

Represenrarive atus SuhGas &TO”P IIA IIB IIC Propane Ethylene Ma rimum Eqwimenral Safe Gap > 0. electrical 6.4.4. Not adequate. gases and vapours are classified according to the ratio of their minimum igniting currents (MIC) with that of laboratory methane. Group I Group II 6. For flameproof enclosures. for which a particular group of enclosure is suitable are listed in IS : 9570-1980*.see IS : 7689-1974* 6.3 Pressurized Rooms Hydrogen Various gases and vapours.2.1 Exceptional Circumsfances 6.1.- : Non-hazardous area. Zone-2 Zone-I Zone-O f I I 1 I J . development or repair-work. it is either regularly supervised by trained personnel or gas-free conditions are regularly monitored.X Below 0. NH. provided that adequate measures have been taken to ensure an adequate level of safety. Adequate. research.4 Miscellaneous Requirements Electrical of .4.1 Where unavoidable. None-2 Zone-l NH.1) IISTERNAL RELEASE AREA C LASSIFICATION T YPE ’ d e i. i. nature of the flammable.3.4. For intrinsic safety.applications in other industries. of the internal components of circuits have type of protection adequate for Zone-l.2 Apparatus which is intended to be used for short periods only may be of normal industrial design but only when operating in Zone 2.TABLE 3 MINIMI’M ACTIONS IF FAILURE OF PROTECTIVE GAS FOR TYPE OF PROTECTION (Clause 6.1) AKEA Cl \SSIFI<‘ATIO\ (1) Zone I Zone 2 ‘p’ E NCLOSURE DUES NOT C O N T A I N I GNITION -CAPABLE A PPARATUS (2) Alarm No action required E NCLOSURE C ONTAINS I GNITIONC APABLE A PPARATUS (3) Alarm and switch off Alarm TABLE 4 ADEQUATE TYPES OF PROTECTION FOR ELECTRICAL APPARATUS WITH AN INTERNAL SOURCE OF RELEASE (Clause 6. Adequate. n NL) OF P ROTECTION P(3) P(4) P(5) P(6) i--7Normal Abnormal Restricted None Unrestricted Restrtcted Restricted Unrestricted Unrestricted Not relevant Legend N Not relevant Not relevant H P(2) .The essential for installation in Table 5.4. if the internal components of circuits are not ignition-capable during normal operation. Zone-2 Zone-I NH.9 mm Greater than 0.8 Betbeen 0. Zone-2 Zone-l NH. switchgear and equipment may be located in a pressurized room within a hazardous area meeting the following requirements: *Guide for control of undesirable static electricity. 2 Y / atmosphere. *Classification of flammable gases of vapours with air according to their maximum experimental safe gaps and minimum igniting currents. and in emergency situations) apparatus may be used which is not specially designed for use in Zone I or Zone 2 hazardous areas.3.45 6. gases and vapours are classified according to their maximum experimental safe gap (MESG).45 and 0. These sub-groups with a representative gas and the design parameters are as follows: Appar. Group II . atmosphere for which the apparatus is intended. Adequate. 6.3. PART 7 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN HAZARDOUS AREAS 251 .1. NOTE -. Zone-2 Zone-i NH.9 mm < 0. 6.apparatus is sub-divided according to the requirements appropriate to the.2. The groups of the apparatus are: ~~ for mining applications (fire damp) ~.3 Individual Features Equipmenf for Hazardous Areas features of individual equipment in hazardous areas are indicated 6.4.2 Stark Electricit!! .S m m Minimum lgnirion Currenr Ratio Above 0.5 mm less than 0.3.1 In exceptional circumstances (for example.

for example. iii) of mercury in glass type with adequate mechanical protection. When not practicable use type 5’ protection All equipment where arcing may occur under normal conditions of operation shall be type ‘d’ unless the interruption of current occurs in a hermetically sealed chamber.3) E QUIPMENT (1) I) ZONE 0 (2) in this area ZONE I (3) Z ONE 2 (4) a) Motor suitable for Zone I areas.3. these shall be: i) type ‘d’ or hermitically sealed. If necessary a suitable guard shall be provided by means of cables in screwed steel conduits. b) Motors with type of protection ?t’ a n d ‘e’ However all normally sparking parts such as slip-rings and brushes shall be provided with type of protection ‘d’ or ‘p’ Motors provided with a combination of the above forms of protection. auxiliary devices may be deleted or installed in a safe zone rendered safe by pressurization. alternatively. slip-ring motors in which the main enclosures and windings are offype ‘e’ but the normally sparking parts of type ‘d’. Any other sparking accessories or switch shall comply with the requirements for Zone I area Where oil-filled transformers are used. instrumentation purposes.TABLE 5 FEATURES OF ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT (Clause 6. circuit-breakers. type of protection ‘i’ Transformers and capacitors that are dry type or contatning liquids that need not have an)i special enclosure provided that the following requitements are satisfied: Cable boxes shall be suitable for specified level of current and fault clearing time Only off-circuit manually-operated tapchangers shall be allowed with provision for locking the operating handle in position Auxiliary devices shall be intrinsically safe or if they have sparking contacts. Motors with type of protection ‘p’ ii) Transformers and capacitors No transformer or capacitor shall be used in this area. a) All power and drstribution Transformers and capacitors suitable transformers and capacitors for Zone I areas with type ‘d’ protection b) For control and. Provision against lateral displacement necessary All switches. fuses and other equipment. ii) under adequate head of oil. necessary precautions against spread of fire (see 1646-1961) shall be complied with iii) Lighting fittings No lighting fittings shall be used All ltghtrng fittings shall be flameproof. the enclosure together with the enclosed apparatus shall be type ‘d’ protection a) Lighting fittings for Zone I b) Lighting ftttings with type of protection ‘e’ or ‘n’ iv) Switchgear and controlgear No switchgear and controlgear shall be used. iv) of enclosed break type Or. and the equipment is provided with a general purpose (Conrimed) 2!% NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE .protection Motors No motor shall be used a) Motors with type of protection ‘d’ b).

TABLE 5 FEATURES OF ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT-Contd
EQUIPMENT (1) ZONE 0 (2) ZONE I Z ONE

(3)

(4)

2

enclosure and also if the current interrupting contacts are oil-immersed, enclosed break switches for lighting. etc. with flameproof breaking chamber, mercury in glass switches and enclosed break microswitches v) Generators No generators shall be used in Zone 0 area Generators with Type ‘d’ and ‘p’ protectton Equipment suitable for Zone I areas Generators with type ‘n’ protection or ‘0’ and haying brushless excitation system and sparking parts, if provided shall comply with Zone I requirements vt) Diesel engines Unacceptable The use of permanentaly installed diesel engines to the avoided Where ncccs~~ry, they shall be protected as given i n Appendts H vii) Storage batteries Shall not be used. Storage batteries shall not be installed in Zone I areas except those in portable lamps where the enclosures housing the bulb. jwitch and battcrv shall be flameprooi type The use of permanently installed diesel engines to be avoided Equipment suitable for Zone I areas

Storage batteries shall be of type *e’ protection (see Appendix C)

a) The pressurized room shall be situated in

vicinity

such area within a hazardous location, which is least hazardous and from which the operators working in the room can easily evacuate in the event of an accident. ceiling, floor, doors and the like shall be on non-combustible materials and shall be sufficiently resistant to explosion blasts or other mechanical effects. room shall be such as not-to allow gases or vapours to penetrate easily through them. and at least one of them shall face the direction of no source of hazard as for as practicable.

of doorways is maintained higher than the atmospheric pressure outside the room.

b) Main structural parts such as wells, pillars,

.i) An alarm or other device shall be provided so that any disorder in the pressurization system may’ be assuredly noticed. ” k) Openings to lead uirings or pipings from the hazardous locations into the room shall be so constructed as not to admit explosive gases into the room. by filling tightly the space around conduits or pipes with cement or similar incombustible materials.
N o r t - - E l e v a t e d ambient temperatures c a n b e e x p e c t e d i n pressurized room\. Accordingly, tt is advisable that due account be taken while selecting electrical equipment for installation In pressurized rooms.

cl Structural materials and construction of the d) More than one doorway shall be provided,

e) The design of the doorway facing the hazar-

dous area shall be such that the doors can only be opened outwards from the interior and they shall be double doors. In case it is necessary to provide a window facing the hazardous area, the window shall have enough strength to resist an explosion blast. blowout of gases or other possible mechanical effects. The source of air shall be free of hazardous concentrations of flammable gases and vapours contaminants and any other foreign matter. It shall be determined from the nature of the process and the physical layout.

6.4.3.2 Prior to commissioning apparatus p r o t e c t e d b y pressurization o r c o n t i n u o u s dilution, it shall be verified by competent personnel that the installation of the equipment fulfils the requirements of relevant Indian Standards, either by inspection of the reference documents, or by tests if necessary. The following shall be considered: a) the protective gas supply is suitable, that is. impurities in the protective gas will not reduce the level of safety such as by attacking the enclosure or ducting material or introducing flammable material into the enclosure. b) The apparatus design and safety provisions are such that purging can be completed satisfactorily.
259

h) The voiume and pressure of supplying air

shall be such that the air pressure in the

PART 7 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN HAZARDOUS AREAS

NOTE -Satisfactory completion of purgin would include pas&g a volume of protective gas o Bat least five times the free internal volume of the protected
enclosure and associated ducting, prior to energizing the electrical apparatus.

b) connected at one point to the potential

equalization conductor if this exists in the
whole area of the installation of the intrinsically safe circuits, or

cl The minimum pressure required is maintained with the minimum protective gas supply stated by the manufacturer. not exceeded.

cl connected to earth at one point only if
earthing is required for functional or protective purposes. The installation method shall be chosen with regard to the functional requirements of the circuits according to the manufacturers’ instructions. If the circuit is isolated attention should be given due to static charges.
More than one earth connection is permitted on a network provided that the network i s galvanically separated into circuits each of which has only onC earth point.

d) The maximum temperature limits stated are
With regard to installation practices, following shall be considered: the

4

For wiring swtems:

from earth, particular to any possible danger

9 When cable wiring systems are used, the

cable entries shall prevent excess leakage of the protective gas and ensure that sparks or incandescent particles do hot escape from the enclosure.

ii) When conduit’wiring systems a;e used, it is recommended that all conduit entrances to an enclosure be sealed to prevent excess leakage of protective gas unless the conduit system is being used as a duct for supplying the protective gas.

b) The point at which the protective gas enters

the supply duct’ or ducts should be situated in a non-haz.ardous area.

c) Ducting should, as far as possible, be loca-

ted in a non-hazardous area. If ducting p/asses through a hazardous area, it shall be checked for leaks prior to start-up of the electrical apparatus to ensure that the requirements of 6.3,3.2.1 (a) are met.

6.4.4.2 Where a safety barrier is used, the maximum fault voltage in apparatus connected to the barrier input terminals shall not exceed the fault voltage rating of the barrier. for example, 2 5 0 V. Where a safety barrier requires a connection to earth, the connecting load to the earthing terminal of the safety barrier should be as short as possible. The cross section of the connecting load shall t,ake account of the short circuit current to be expected, and shall have a minimum value of 1.5 mm2 copper. Consideration should be given to the need for. earthing of the supply system connected to the barrier input terminals. 6.4.4.3 In installations with instrinsically=safe circuits, for example, in measuring and control cabinets, the terminals shall be reliably separated fiom the tion-intrinsically safe circuits (for example. by a separating Ijanel, or a gap of at least 50 mm). The terminals of the intrinsically safe circuits shall be marked as such. All terminals shall satisfy the requirements of relevant lndian Standards. Where terminals are arranged to provide separation of circuits by spacing alone, care shall be taken in the layout of terminals and the wiring method used. to prevent contact between circuits should a wire become disconnected. 6.4.4.4 Enclosures and wiring of intrinsically safe circuits should meet the requirements which would be applied to similar types of equipment which are intended to be installed in nonhazardous areas otherwise having the same environmental conditions. If a n e n c l o s u r e contains both intrinsically safe circuits and non-

d) Exhaust ducting shall vent to a non-hazardous area or otherwise be designed to prevent the emission of sparks 3r hot particles such as by the use of spark arrestors or baffles. Care should be taken tp ensure that the exhaust does not result in a secondary hazardous source in an otherwise nonhazardous area Safk Installations -- A 6.4.4 Intrinsicall~l fundamentally different installation philosophy has to be recognized in tIie installation of intrinsically safe circuits. In comparison with all other types of installations, where care is taken to confine electrical energy to the installed system as designed so that a hazardous environment cannot be ignited, the integrity of an intrinsically safe circuit has to be electrically protected from the environment in order that the safe energy limitation in the kircuit is not exceeded, even when breaking, shorting or earthing of the circuit occurs.
As a consequence of this principle the aim of
the installation rules for intrinsically safe circuits is to maintain separation from other circuits. 6.4.4.1 Intrinsically safe circuits may be installed either: a) isolated from earth, or
260

intrinsically safe cirCuits, the intrinsically safe circuits shall be clearly identified. In installation containing both intrinsically safe apparat.us and apparatus having another type of protection, the intrinsically safe circ_uits shall be clearly marked. 6.e.4.5 Marking may be achieved by labelling
NATIONAL ELECTRICAL

CODE

or colour coding of enclosured, terminals and cables. Where a colour is used for this purpose it shall be light blue. 6.4.4.6 Where intrinsically safe circuits may be exposed to disturbing magnetic or electric fields, suitable attention shall be given to transposition or shielding to ensure that these fields do not adversely affect the intrinsic safety of the circuit. 6.4.4.7 Unless specifically permitted, conductor of intrinsically safe circuits and conductors of non-intrinsically safe circuits shall not be run together in cables, cords, conduits, or bundles. In cable ducts and trays, intrinsically safe cables shall be separated from non-intrinsically safe cables by a mechanical barrier. Such a barrier is not required if all cables are provided with additional protective sheathing or sleeves which provide equivalent separation, or if the cables are securely fastened to ensure that physical separation is maintained. 6.4.4.8 A flexible cable may contain more than one intrinsically safe circuit if the cable installation is such as to minimize the risk of damage which could cause interconnection between different circuits. 6.4.4.9 The installation of intrinsically safe circuits shall be such that the extreme permitted values, such as capacitance, inductance and inducatance to resistance ratio, are not exceeded. The permissible values shall be taken from the certificate, the nameplate of the apparatus, or from the installation instructions. 6.4.4.10 Where intrinsically safe circuits are interconnected to form a system, due account shall be taken by calculation or by measurement of the resultant combination of electrical parameters, such as inductance, and capacitance, which may affect the intrinsic safety of the system as a whole.

NOTE - In addition to electrical sparking due account should be taken of thermal effects particularly where noncertified apparatus is used.

6.4.4.11 The following equipment is considered to be intrinsically safe without certification: Devices whose electrical parameters, according to the manufacturer’s specification, do not exceed any of the values 1.2 V, 0. I A. 20 J or 25 mW need not be certified or marked. They will be subject, however, to the requirements of relevant lndian Standard specification, if they are connected to a device which contain a source of energy which could cause the circuit to exceed these parameters. 7. TESTING OF INSTALLATION 7.0 All equipment intended for use in hazardous areas shall be approved by a recognized, testing and certifying authority (see 3.2). 7.1 Installation tests should include insulation resistance and earth continuity resistance and the checking of fused ratings and other protection devices, settings and operation. 7.2 For periodical electrical testing, the following precautions shall be followed:

a) Insulation tests should, in general, be carried

out with certified intrinsically safe insulation tester for use in hazardous areas. out with certified intrinsically safe earth tester embodying a hand-driven generator suitable for use in hazardous areas. protective devices, where practicable, and the operation of other protective devices should be checked.

b) Earth continuity tests, in general, be carried

cl The rating of fuses and the settings of

APPENDIX (Clause 0.6)

A

INDIAN STANDARDS FOR ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT FOR USE IN HAZARDOUS ATMOSPHERES IS : 2148-1968 Flameproof enclosures of electrical apparatus (first revision). IS : 5571-1979 Guide for selection of electrical equipment of hazardous areas (fht revision) IS : 5572 (Part I)-1978 Classification of hazardous areas for electrical installations: Part I Areas having gases and vapours wrsr revision) IS : 5780-1980 Intrinsically safe electrical apparatus and circuits @rst revision) IS : 6381-1972 Construction and testing of electrical apparatus with type of protection ‘e’ IS : 6539-1972 Intrinsically safe magneto-telephones for- use in -hazardous atmospheres IS : 6789- 1972 Bolted flameproof cable couplers and adaptors. 1s : 7389- 1974 Pressurized enclosures of electrical equipment for use in explosive atmospheres (Part l)-1976 Part I Pressurized enclosures with no internal source of flammable gas or vabour (first revision) I s Y IS : 7693-1975 Oil immersed apparatus for use in explosive gas atmospheres
261

PART 7 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN HAZARDOUS AREAS

IS : 7724-1975 Sand-filled protection of electrical equipment for use in explosive atmospheres IS : 7820-1975 Methods of tests for ignition temperatures IS : 8239-1976 Classification of maximum surface temperatures of electrical equipment for use in explosive atmospheres IS : 8240-1976 Guide for electrical equipment for explosive atmospheres.

IS : 8241-1976 Methods of marKIng for identifying electrical equipment for explosive atmospheres IS : 8289-1976 Electrical equipment with type of protection ‘n’ IS : 9166-1979 Spark test apparatus for intrinsically safe circuits IS : 9570-1980 Classification Jf flammable gases or vapours with air according to their maximum experimental safe gaps and minimum igniting currents

APPENDIX B [Table 5? hem (iv)]
RECOMMENDATIONS FOR THE PROTECTION OF DIESEL ENGINES FOR PERMANENT INSTALLATION IN HAZARDOUS AREAS

B-O. To ensure a maximum degree of safety in the event of a permanently installed diesel engine I or 2, it is being necessary on Zone recommended that it should have the following protection.
B-l. The, starter shall be either of flameproof electrical type (usually operated from the mains supply) or of the following non-electric types: a) Pneumatic, b) Hydraulic, c) Spring recoil, d) Inertia, or e) Hand start. Any other electrical equipment associated with the engine shall be flameproof. Electrical equipment shall be effectively earthed and bonded. B-2. Cooling fan blades shall be made from nonmetallic materials which do not accumulate electrostatic charge. B-3. All belts shall be of antistatic fire-resistant type. B-4. In order to contain discharge of sparks or flames from the exhaust system, a gas conditioner box and a flame trap shall be installed. Alternatively, the exhaust should be designed to discharge to a location within a safe area. B-5. To prevent flashback through induction system, wherever possible, air intakes for engines shall be located in a safe area. Alternatively, a flame trap should be installed. B-6. The surface temperature of the engine and exhaust system shall not exceed 250°C when tested under full load conditions. In some situations cooling of the exhaust manifold and piping may be necessary, using water jacketing or
262

finned coolers and/or high temperature cut-outs or alarms should be provided. However, when either the free movement of air is restricted by thermal or accoustic shielding or the ignition temperature of the surrounding flammable atmosphere is below 200°C, exposed surface temperature of engine shall not exceed the minimum ignition temperature of the gases involved. B-7. To prevent overspeeding of the engine due to induction of flammable gases or vapours, means shall be provided to stop the engine. It can be either: a) a valve to close the air intake, or b) a system to inject carbon dioxide into the air intake. B-8. Alarms or automatic shutdown devices shall

be provided, activated by excessive water temperature and low lube oil pressure. B-9. 4 system using an’ alarm or trip device to protect the engine from excessive vibration should be considered. B-10. An engine having a crankcase volume of over 0.5 m3 shall be provided with relief devices. Relief valves or breathers on engines shall be fitted with flame traps or dischar e into the induction system downstream,of the #ame trap, if fitted, and upstream of the shut-off valve, if fitted, as specified B-7. Dipsticks and/or filler caps should be screwed or effectively secured by oth,er means. B-11. Intake and exhaust system design shall meet the following minimum requirements: a) The length of the flame path through or across any joint shall b6 ‘not less than 13 mm, b) Suitable metal-clad or other acceptable
NATIONAL ELECl’RICAL CODE

jointing material shall be interposed between all joint faces to ensure that leakage does not occur.

c) Where valve spindles pass through the walls
of anv component of the induction system. the d-iametrical clearance shall not exceed 0.13 mm for an axial length of not less th’an 25 mm. unless end caps are fitted, and

d) No screw. stud or bolt-hole shall pass

through the wall of any component of the system. B - 1 2 . L)ecompression s y s t e m s s h o u l d n o t normally be provided. However. if they are essential, then the decompression parts should be provided with flametraps and ducted away to safe area. B-13. The fuel injection pump and governor, where fitted, should be so designed that reverse running of the engine is not possible.

APPENDIX C [Table 5, /rem (vii)]
RECOMMENDATIONS FOR STORAGE BATTERIES FOR 1lSE IN ZONE 2 AREAS Storage batteries for use in Zone 2 areas shall be of increased safety type. These shall meet the following requirements. C-l. Celluloid and similar combustibles shall not be used as constructional materials. ‘, C-2. Battery containers as well as fittings and insulating parts outside the enclosed cells shall not consist of porous materials, for example, wood or other flammable materials and shall be resistant to flame and the action of electrolytes. C-3. Openings, of calls necessary for the escape of the gases given 6ff shtiil ‘be so constructed as to prevent splashing of the electrolyte.‘ C-4. The exterior of the cells shall be so constructed as to resist impact, and the cell cases shall be firmly fixed. C-5. The cells shall be so built into the containers that working loose of connection of the cells with one another is impossible and normally a discharge voltage exceeding 24 volts shall not appear between adjacent rows of cells. The creepage distance between two poles of adjacent cells shall not be less than 35 mm. Where the discharge voltage exceeds 24 volts, the

c-o.

creepage distance shall be correspondingly increased by I mm per 2 volts. Where voltage of batteries is not less than 50 volts. either the battery case shall be sub-divided by partitions or the batteries shall be grouped into containers so that in no grouping does a voltage exceeding 50 volts occur. In these cases. the partitions or the containers shall have, heights at least half that of the batter) case. C-6. The battery case shall be so constructed as to ensure sufficient ventilation in order to prevent accumulation of gases given off fro’m the batter). and the free space within the case shall be as small as possible. C-7. The metallic cover of the battery case shall be lined, with materials resistant to electrolyte. C-8. The cover of the battery case shall have special fastenings. C-9. Exposed live parts of battery contained in a case shall be protected with rubber or equivalent insulating materials. However, the opening for checking voltage may be provided.
Charging of storage batteries shall be conducted in NoTt non-hazardous location, while the cover of the hatter:, enclosure is kept open.

APPENDIX (Clause 0.3)

D

EXAMPLE OF INDUSTRIES AND THEIR WORKING PLACES WHICH REQUIRE CONSIDERATIONS IN REGARD TO HAZARDOUS LOCATIONS D-l. Though it is difficult to determine hazardous locations merely according to kind of industries or kind of working places, typical industries and working places which require .considerations in regard to hazardous locations are listed below: I ) Ammonium sulvhate manufacrurina industry - Places wiere gaseous raw materials are produced, electrolysis of water is conducted or synthesis of ammonia is carried out. 2) Soda manufacturing industr>! --- Working places of electrolysis, synthetic hydrochloric acid manufacturing and liquid chlorine handling. 3) Elec:ric ,/tirnac,e industr~~ .--- working places where calcium carbide is pulverized and storage of it. 4) Compressed or liyuqfied~flammahle gas industry--- Working places where flammable gases
263

PART I ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN HAZARDOUS AREAS

Storage of the gases and liquids. Storage of volatile flammable liquids.:.Places where alcohol is distilled. recovered or stored.Working places where flammable gases or volatile flammable liquids are handled in large quantity. Places ‘where volatile flammable liquids are transported. 264 NATIONAL ELECI’RICAL CODE . Places where volatile flammable raw materials or finished products are stored. 18) Photographic sensitive materials manujacruring industr. refined reacted. Storage of containers filled with flammable gases. 11) Vegetable oil industry. 9) Synthetic resin and plastic marwfacturing industry . Storage of volatile flammable liquids.facturing industry . Places where volatile flammable liquids are filled or stored. solvent extraction plants .Location used for storage or servicing of aircraft in which gasoline.Working places where volatile flammable liquids are added.1. and where readily ignitable deposits or residues from such paints. 26) Aircrqft hangars . 20) Gum products industry* . Hydrogeneration .Working places where extraction or recovery is conducted using volatile flammable liquids. added or stored. produced. 27) Petrol birnks and service stations . plants.Working places where volatile flammable paints or thinners are produced. where flammable thinners are used.fihres manufacturing industrlj Working places where flammable gases . 23) Drj?-cleaning industr. distilled or extracted. I?) Wood dr.Working places where dry distillation or rectification is conducted.W o r k i n g p l a c e s where washing using flammable liquids and recovery of the said liquids are conducted. hardened oil and glvcerine manu.Working places where hydrogen is produced or added. applied or recovered. Storage of these li. reacted. 10) Synthetic .Working pi&es where volatile 6) Dyestgffs and their intermediates manufacturing industry . dipping.are produced.Working places where volatile flammable liquids are distilled or filled. recovered or distilled. 7) Fermentation industry .vlene or methanol deriilative manefacturing industries .Working places where flammable where coal tar is fractionally distilled or light oil extracted from coal is refined or fractionally distilled. locations where paints.! . prepared. gases or volatile flammable liquids are handled in large quantity. 17) Perfumes and cosmetics manefacturing industry . 22) Processed paper or coated cloth manefacturing industr.Working places 16) Insecticides and germicides manufacturing industry .l distillation industry .Working places where printing is done using inks with addition of volatile flammable liquids. flammable liquids are added. applied. eth.or volatile flammable liquids are added. lacquers finishers may occur. Storage of the said liquids.Working places where gum arabic is produced or applied.. prepared.Working places where flammable gases or volatile flammable liquids are handled in large quantity. lacquers or other flammable finishers are regularly or frequently applied by spraying. 25) Printing industr.quids. 19) Oil refining and petrochemical indust.Location where petrol or other volatile flammable liquids.Working places where gaseous raw materials or volatile flammable liquids are produced. or liquefied flammable gases are transferred to the fuel tanks of vehicles.! -.Working places where flammable gases or volatile flammable liquids are handled in large quantity. Other working places where flammable gases or volatile flammable liquids are used in large quantity. Storage of these liquids.Working places where volatile flammable liquids are added. 21) Brecc+ng industrrv . 12) Fatty acids. brushing or by other means. compressed or filled. jet fuels or other volatile flammable liquid or flammable gases are used. 14) Drugs and medicines manefacturing industry . Places where benzene or the other volatile flammable liquids are filled or stored. Storage of volatile flammable liquids. filled or stored.v .Working places where preparation of volatile flammable paints. 24) Finishing processes -. 15) Paints manufacturing industry . filled or stored. --. Worki’ng places where various refining processes or chemical reactions are conducted. Coal tar products industry . distilled. 8) Acetylene.

the establishment of zones of protection through use of earthed rods. should not exceed 30”.2 is unjustified. If one horizontal conductor only is used. PRECAUTIONS E-1. vicinity in the event of a lightning stroke.3 Where the expense of the method given in E-2.2.APPENDIX E (Clause 6. Following precautions should be taken for the protection of structures and their contents from lightning. E-2. b) Closure or protection of vapour or gas openings against entrance of flames. or the equivalent. vapours or dusts may accumulate.4 If the vertical conductor is separate from the structure to be protected. essentially gas-tight. the air termination network may be replaced by a network of earthing strips arranged on the surface in accordance with expert advice. the protective angle adopted. conductors are installed. the minimum clearance between it and the protected structure shall be not less than 2 m. E-2.1 For the protection of structures with explosives or highly flammable contents the general principles are given below. including its services. the recommendations for bonding between metal in the structure.Recommended Tvpe Proreccrion a) ‘Storage of flammable liquids and gases in all-metal structures.2 by virtue of the fact that soil has an impulse breakdown strength which can be taken into account when determining the risk of flashover from the protective system to the structure to be protected.5 m.5 A structure which is wholly below ground and which is not connected to any services above ground may be protected by an air termination network in accordance with E-2. In case of doubt. TYPES OF LIGHTNING PROTECTION SYSTEM E-3. liquids. should be fixed to the roof of the structure. so far as potential hazards are concerned.1. the protective angle to be applied may be as much as 45’ within the space bonded by the conductors. E-2. I . so far as possible. E-2. stored or used or in which highly flammable or explosive gases. c) Maintenance of containers in good condition. and where no risk is involved in discharging the lightning current over the surfaces of the structure to be protected. The height of the horizontal conductor should be sufficient to avoid all risk of flashover from the protective system to the structure to be protected. Where this method is adopted. E-2. this clearance should be increased by I m for every IO m of structure height above I5 m to prevent sidesflashes. gases. Avoidance of spark gaps between metallic conductors at points where there may be an escape or accumulation of flammable vapours or gases. Where the depth of burying is adequate. of the accu- mulation of flammable air-vapour mixtures about such structures. and 4 0 Location of structures not inherently self- g) For structures not inherently self-protecting.5 m high and horizontal air terminals spaced 3 to 7. E-3.2 An air termination network should be suspended at an adequate height abqve the area to be protected. Protection of a different deg-ee may be secured in the case of both self-protecting and other structures by installation of various types of protection equipment.5 m from each other dependmg on the type of storage and processes involved 265 . expert advice should be sought. For this reason higher degree of protection is essential for these structures. such as vertical and horizontal air terminations and other means. The recommendations given in E-l to E-IO should be followed for structures in which explosive or highly flammable solids. GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF PROTECTION E-2. but it should not exceed 30’ outside that space. according to the risk.2) LIGHTNING PROTECTION OF STRUCTURES WITH EXPLOSIVE OR HIGHLY FLAMMABLE CONTENTS E-O. The presence of explosives or highly flammable materials in a structure may increase the risk to persons or to the structure and th. If two or more parallel’ horizontal qf Building with explosives dust or flammable vapour risk Integrally mounted system with vertical air terminals 1. E-l. a network of horizontal conductors with a spacing of 3 m to 7.1 These should generally be of the integral mounted system with the horizontal air terminals running along the perimeter of the roof in all cases except for buildings r?ntaining highly Type of Building . The supports of the network should be adequately earthed. Also the minimum clearance between the suspended horizontal air termination and the highest projection on the protected structure shall be 2 m. masts. should be ignored. protecting in positions of iesser exposure with regard to lightning. vapours or dusts are manufactured. or metal conductors entering the structure given in E-4. 4 Avoidance.

2 Major metalwork inside the structure be bonded to the lightning protective E-4. a length of buried cable with metal sheath or armouring should be inserted between the overhead line and the point of entry to the structure and a surge protective device. o f t h e t y p e c o n t a i n i n g voltagedependent resistors. Small explosives storage buildings Buildings storing more dangerous types of explosives. rails or guides not in continuous electrical contact with the earth. If this value proves to be unobtainable. such as the need for bonding other objects to it. testing. This clearance applies also to the planting of new trees. The sparkover voltage of the lightning protective device should not exceed one-half the bieakdown withstand voltage of the electrical equipment in the structure. E-5. the methods recommended in IS : 2309-1969* should be adopted. E-S. be equally spaced round the perimeter of the structure at intervals not exceeding I5 m.3 should be equipped with twice the number of down conductors recommended in Part I /Set 15 of the Code.2 The metal uprights. E-4. nitroglycerine (NG) and for Vertical pole type Suspended horizontal air terminations at least 2 m higher than the structure and with a spacing of 3 m initiatory explosives manufacturing sensitive explosives and very small buildings. E-5. should be bonded to the lightning protective system.5 m unless other considerations. should be bonded together gnd connected to the lighting protective system. should be connected in such a way as to provide continuous metallic connection between themselves and the lightning protective system. Discontinuous metal wire fencing on non-conducting supports or wire coated with insulating material should not be employed.4 Structures of this category should not be equipped with a tall component. should be provided at the termination of the overhead line. *Code of practice for the protection of building and allied \tructurer against lightning. should system. such cables are not recommended for the above purpose.3 Electrical conductors entering a structure of this category should be metal-cased. such as spire or flagstaff or radio aerials on the structure or withm I5 m of the structure. It should be earthed at the point of entry outside the structure on the supply side of the service and bonded directly to the lightning protective system. E-5. E-3. They should be about 75 m away and the other a further 75 m away.1 All major members of the metallic continuous metal including structure. *Code of practice for the protection of building and allied structures against lightning. components and wires of all fences.3 m high and horizontal air terminals spaced 7. BONDING E-4. NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE . Such connections should be made at least in two places and should. E-4. for example.5 . steel ropes. The resistance value of the earth termination network should be maintained permanently at IO ohms or less. The following types of protection are recommended: E-3. This ring conductor should preferably be buried to a depth of at least 0.m. reinforcement and services.3 The earth terminations of each protective system should be interconnected by a ring conductor. or risk of corrosion make it desirable to leave it exposed in which case it should be protected against mechanical damage. MISCELLANEOUS REQUIREMENTS E-5. which enter a structure of this kind.4 Where the electrical conductors are connected to an overhead electric supply line.1 For a buried structure or underground excavation to which access is obtained by an adit or shaft.5 as regards extra earthing should be followed for the adit or shaft at intervals not exceeding 75 m.5 Metallic pipes. so far as is possible. but structures near existing trees should be treated in accordance’with IS : 2X)9-1969* E-4. for example. On account of the low impulse strength of mineral-insulated metal-sheathed cable.2 Each separate structure protected in accordance with E-2. electrical cable sheaths. or the ring conductor should be connected to the ring c o n d u c t o r s o f one o r m o r e n e i g h b o u r i n g structures until the above value is obtained E-4. the recommendation in E-4.3 The vents o f a n y t a n k s c o n t a i n i n g llammable gas or liquid and exhaust stacks from process plants emitting flammable vapours or dusts should either be constructed of nonconducting material or be filled with flame traps.Type of Building Recommended 7jape 01 Prorecrion Explosives storage building Integrally mounted system with vertical air terminals and Pxplosives workshops 0. This metal casing should be electrically continuous within the structure. and of retaining walls in close proximity to the structure. The earth terminal of this protective device should be bonded direct to the cable sheath or armouring.

2. II.2 Equipment. 2.24 Farth fault 1. 14C. 2.4. 2. 2. 9. CI. Flexible 1. 2. 2. 2.7 Acces\ory I. 2.2 I9 Fu\e-base I.4 Conduit Flexible I.22 Fuse-link.lphting design I. 2. 2.IA Ceiling roses J. 2. 3 Explanatory 1. 2. 2. 4. Insulated 1. Bunched 1. 14E.4. 14C. 7. 18 S u r f a c e 1. 2. Current using 1. 6.8. 14G‘.1 S e l e c t i o n o f si7e 1.3 Ventilarlon. 2. Earthed I. 5.14 Impulse 1. I Ire . 7.19 Meter rent I. 2.1 Cbaractcristlcs of buildings. Interconnecting I.h o a r d I&butron 1. 2 . Induction 1. 2.2.1. Aerial 1.3.1. 2. 7.1 Fire-protrction 1. 3 LLlghting.30 Fuse.4 Fncloaure 1. X. 4 Temporary outdoor installations 5. 4.? Accessible part\.1. 2. _‘.26 Connector box 1.1.3.14 Ignition temperature 7. 4 Institutions 3.2.3. 2. 3. 2. 2.1.1 Flectric~l installations i n 6 Fence\.4. 2. 2 9 F u s e . 2. . 2. .6 Passing through walls. 2.4.6 Protective I. 2. II.2 . II. General 1. 7. 2.2.26 Flammahiltty lange 7 . 4 Assessment of 1.4 Haulage truck 5. 8 Flammables liquid 7 . 2.?. S&lion Nuniber (if any) in italics and the specific clause number in Roman. 4 Medical establishments 3. _?.4.21 Fuse-switch 1. 2 . Electric 1.3. IO Apparatus. 2.2 Industrial buildings 4.5. 148. A-4. 2. 2 . 8 General characteristics.14 C o n s u m e r I. non-metallic J.28 Generator I. 52. Enclosed distrlbutlon 1. 2. I . 2. 2. 2.12 Cut-out I. 2. 2. 14C Requlrementb. 2.14 LTlectric circuit 1.8 Circuit-breaker 1.3. 4 Recreational buildings 3. 7 Flammable 1.2. 14A. 2. 2.1. 2. Double 1.18 C o n d u c t o r I.4 Classification 6. 10.2a Time sequence 1. -7. 2. 2. 4.31 Lighting fitting 1. /. 4 Hotels 3. Multiple I. 2. /4E. Earth continuity I.2 Apparatus.2 Conductor.2.13 Apparatus.1 General aspects 1.5. 2.20 E a r t h leakage current 1.1 I A r c I. II. 14G‘.13 Conductor.8 Motor. 2. 2. 4 Safrt! 6.4.2b Clearance Definition 1. 2.2. 2. 14G‘.26 Cables I. 2. 2. 2.2 Sequence 1. 2. 2.3. I.3. 9 Equipment I.2 Definition I .21 I-use-board. 2. I. 2. Mobile 5. IO t’la\h point 7. 2 . 4. 2. 2. 2. 2. 2.2 Rigid.1.5 Cable. 10.1 Clock5 1 .20 Load factor I. IO. 2. Flrctric 6.4. 2.3 Hazardous area 7. Assessment for 1.2. 4. Connection of I. //. 2.21 Farth electrode 1. 2.9 Arm-a reach 1. 14G.4. 2. 2. Selection of 3. 6.4 Recessed I. 2 . I2 Clearance 1. 7. 2. 2. 2 2 . 5. 8. 2.3.2 Wiring 1. 6 lesting 6. 4 ldcntificatlon of 1. Portable appliances 1.20 Fuse-carrier 1. 2. 2. 1. 2.3.2. 2. 20 Flammable material 7. Electrical 1. 2. 2. 2. 2.3 Conductors Arrangement of 1. connected I. 6 l. 2.2. Miniature I.25 Earthing system. l-axed 1 .7 E l e c t r o d e 1.5. 2 .10 Conductive part. 2.17 Fuse-wire 1. 2.4. 2. 2. 2.S I Current. preferred rated 1. //.12 Farthahle point 5.16 Earth 1 .6 tquipment. 2 D o m e s t i c dwellmgs 3. 2.5 Cable. 3.3. App A Safety in 3.13 Apparatus. 14E Poucr supply 1.xlble 1. 3. 2.1. 2. ‘4. Hand held.15 Conductor. -7.5 C l e a t I. 5 Heat Insulation of 1. /4F. 2 3 I9 D e m a n d 1. 2. 7. 2. 9. 2.2 Requirements. 14E.26 L i v e 1. Portable 5. Simultanec~u\l> I. 2.22 Motor. -7. 5. 2.1 M a r k i n g I.INDEX Evcr~ key word III the index is followed by a designation of location in the Code (Indci numhcl) dcrwtcd h!i Explanatory Note the Part number in bold. 2. 14E. II. 2. 2.Audu)-s! slems General aspects 1. 7. 2. 2.3. Creepage I.2. 2 10 !-lammahlr mlxturc 7 . R HeacIng 1.3 Conductor.3.thcr~~ ot rhc clxc~w~ number Indicates that the uhole Section or Part is relevant to the aspel’t A Air-cond:cloning l)c\~gn.2. 3. 2. 4.19 1 arthed neutral system. 2. Direct 1.3. A-3 Z o n e s . FIxed 5. 2.3 IX Dead I. general 1.32 Connector. 2 3. Building services Atr-conditlonmg 1. 2. Icahagc. 2. 2.7 Capacitor 1.1 (~cnclal ayocct~ 1 . A-2. 24 19 Diclectrlc 1.3.2. 2.12 Conductor. 2.4. 2.4 I iltr and escalators 1.2. 4 Sports buildings 3.29 Insulation fault 1. 2 .1 5 Current. 2.1. 2. II.1.3 Fquipmenr. 2. 7 Call-bells I. 2. 14G‘. Stationary I. 2. 2.3. 4.2.10 Building 1.1. 14c‘. Bare 1. I. 2. 2. 2 I2 l-use I. 2. I. electric Equipment 1. 2. 2. -7.7 Identification of 1. 2. 2. 3.30 Load. 7 Wlrlng s!stcm 6. 4. 2 .1 E l e c t r i c a l mstallation in 3. I.17 c Call-bell. 7 C o r d . 2.2 resting 1. 10.2. 2. 2. Neutral 1. 14C. 2.3. 2.5 Fxplo\~ve Ilmit\ 7 .3.4. 4.\ Clamps 1. Portable 1. I. 14G.6 Electric current I. 2.4 IKqu~pment. General Aprlcultural buildings.1 Guide for preparation I. 7 . II.29 Load. 2. Bimetallic I. 2. 2 . 2. 2. 2. 2.15 Lighting arrester 1.28 Distance. 3A. dcslgn 1. 2 . HazardoIls atmosphere 7. 4 Ot’fice buildings 3. 2.1 I3 Farthing lead I.6 Cables.3. i.1 Bulldmg.2.{A. I6 Contt-c~lgeal 1.3.1 General aspects I. . 2.17 C u r r e n t 1. 3 . 2.24 Fuse-element 1. Armoured 1. 9.1 W i r i n g 1.2.3.3. 2. Xl. 2. gcncral 1. 5. 2. 2. I.3 Rigid steel I.2 Gcnc~al characteristics. 2 6. 2.4 Insulation. .9 267 D Defimtions I . 2. 2 Fla\ho\cr 1.3. 4. Electrical I.l a m m a h l e ga‘. 2. 3A.3. 4.1 B Bathrooms equipment.3 Disconnector 1. 4 Shopping crntres 3. 2. 3A. 2.1 Silea of 1 .2.8. -7. Cartridge 1. 2. Movable S. 2. 3A.27 I . 2. 2.2 F i x i n g tu walls I. 2.. 7. 2. 2.28 Fuse-link 1. 2. lloors 1. 2. ‘2. 2.2. 2. 2. 4.3. Assessment of 6.4 INDEX .2 Speclllc bulldingc (SW under individual titles) Agt’lcuitural premises Cables 6. 5. 3A. 2.2.25 Di\trlbution undertaking J. 2. JC Rcgulatorc 1 .3.5. 4 Vrntila~ion. 2. 2.23 Conductor. design I. 2.3. 14.13 Bus-bar.4 X B a r r i e r I . 2. lransport 5.?. II. 2.3.6. 2. 2. 2. I Flammahlc miht 7. 2.lquificd 7.18 Circuit-breaker. I . 2. 2.1 I Flammable ga\ or vapour 7 .1. 2. 2.1 Equipment. 2.3 Ser\lces 6. I4 Con\e)tnp \! \trm.23 Circuits.1.2. 2. Exposed 5.2.1. 4 . 5 Audio-systems 1. 4. 2. 2.6. 2.2 Equipment. 6.1 I Conductor. 2. 3 Celling fan.2. 2. 2.4. 2.5 Electric lines and buildings 1. 2.4. 9 .1 Circuit I. 2. 2.4.1 Apparatus. 14c‘.2. 2. 14G Location I. 2. II. Installed 1. 2.1 Building point 7.5. 2.2 Clock systems D e s i g n I.2.3. 6 &-lame arrester 7. D-type 1.3. 2. 14G Power supply 1. 2. 141).2 Wiring I.2. 14c‘. 3 Con\umer‘\ terminal 1. 2.6 Distribution pillar 1.7 Halard 7. 3 Charts Classification 1. l. 3. F!e. classification of 3.

1.2. /2. 3. 6.4. Types of 3. B-4 Wiring system.3.3. wire I.29 Service 1. electrical Compatibility I. 2.23 Definition 1: 2.2. I Conduits. 14. 4. 3. 6. External 5. 5.6 Lift and escalators 1. 6. 2. 34. 5.4 Operations. 2. 2. 2.1 I Voltage 1. 4. 7. 12.1. 2. I .5 Influence. 6. safe 7. Estimation of 3.0 Cables.4. 2.16 Release. 2.2 General characteristics.2. 8 Static electricity. location of 4.9 Supply terminals 1. 6. Low I.4. 3 F Fire-safety. extent of 7.1. 4. 5. 2.1 Guide for preparation I. 4.2. 2.2 L o c a t i o n I. 2.2.6 Equipment.l. Table I Audio-systems 1.. 2.2. 6.4.1. 2. 2.3 Domestic dwellings Air-conditioning 3. 4. 7. Medical 3. 2. Plate I.13 Release.4 Terminal I.4 E q u i p m e n t 1. 4. 2. 5. 2. 12. 8. 2. 5. 5.4 Selection of I. I Power-factor compensation 4.2 Call-systems 3. 7 Heating 4. 5.22 Design constderations 1. 4. 2. 2. 4.2 IE rules for 1. I Asse bly buildings 3. 9.2 Rooms. I.3 Specific buildings (see under indivi ual titles) Wiring. 3A. selection of size 3. 2. 2. Medical 3. 5. 4. 2.3. 2.3 Circuits. 6.2 Testing 3.1 Apartments 3.16 Point I. 5. Nominal I. 5. 3.4. 3 Storage batteries 7. 4.2. 2. 7 Wiring in 7. 5. 2.6 Working level 5. 2. 9 Electrical Installations 3.3. 2. 5. 2. 12.4. 2. 2.1. 4 Lifts 3. 2. Primary 5. 4. Processing machinery. Fire-alarm I. I. Lighting I. 2. 6. 1. 6. 1. 5. 7. 8. Laying of 7.3. 12.5 Pressurized room 7.2 Electrodes. 2. 2. 7. Electrical Agricultural premises 6 Air-port aprons 5.1 General characteristics.4 Fire-safety 3.29 Safety devices 5. selection of 7. 1. IO. 1.1. 9.15 Short-circuit I.2 Installation. 4.2. 2. 2. 2. IO Noiseless 1.6 Socket-outlets 3. 2. /I. 2 Room height 1.2. 1. 5.4 Wiring system. 5.3 Temination. 2. External Codification I.3.2. Bonding 7. 2. 6. Portable 7. 1.1.4. 5. Industrial 1. 5. /2. 6.1. High 1. Lighting protection 1. 6. I. 34. 5. I I.25 Tariff. 2.1.ying machinery. 8.4 Earthing 3. 2. 2. 2.1 Safety circuits 5. 2.3 Definition. 5. 2.5 Testing 1.5. 2. 14. 2. Electrical 5.. 2.14 Tariff 1.1 I IE Rules Cohformity to I. 5.2. Medium voltage 4.11 Subcircuit. I7 Risk Zones. 2.la) Circuit 1.20 Obstacle I.4 Electrode. Restrictions for 4. 5. 6. 1.4. Appendix B Earthing.3 Distribution. 2. 5. 8.2.6. Choice of 7. 2. 5. 6 Wiring 3.4. 4 Interconnection I. /I. 5 Emergency supply 3. 1. 5.2.32 Non-hazardous area 7.4 Industrial premises 4. 2.3. Heating I.8.2 Standard values I.0.2 General. final I.24 Tariff. 8. 5. 4 268 INDEX . 1. 2.2. 6.2 Switchboards. 2. 2. 2. 6.1 Transformer 1. I. 2.9 Protection.2 Classification 3. I2 Hazardous areas 7.1.8 Voltage. Fire protection Detectors 1. 3A.2. 5.1 Lifts 3. 140. 2. location of 3.1. 2. Appendix C Testing 7.3 Intrinsically. common aspects 1. 8. 3.1 Zones.2..1 Industrial buildings Air-conditioning 4. 12. 4.17 Socket-outlet and plug 1. 4.2. 6.3. 5. 5.0. 4. 8. IS.1 Systems.1 E Earth. 2. I Metal sheathed wiring system 1.-i. 7.36 Switch-fuse 1. 2. 8.3 Examples of 7. 3. 7. 10.3 Protection.3 L i g h t i n g 3.31 Switch 1.4 Swimming Pools 3.5 Diagram Block 1.4. 2. internal ‘7.13 Winning. Source of 7. assessment of 3. Lighting protection 1. 3 Distribution. 3. 3.2 Emergency supply 4.3 Electrodes. 2. 3A. 8. Ic) Explanatory I. 4 Hazardous areas. 2. /2.12 Transformer. 6.0 Circuit-breaker.2. main 4.15 Release.2 Lifts 4. 2. 2.4.1 Services 3. 2. 6. 6. 8. Appendix E Operation and maintenance 7. 1. 2. 2. 3. Design data 1. Protection from 7. 2.4 Rules for I.0.3 Bus.1 Classification 3.1. 2.3 Switchgear. Depth of burial I. 2. Restricted 7.40 Voltage.2 Identification 1. 5. 2. 2. 9. 1. 8.2 Earthing.lb) Classification of 1.14 Surge diverter I. 8.1 Metering 3.1 Clocks 3.1.1 I Occupancy 1. 12. 1. 2. 1. 7.4. choice of 4. 5.3 Ventilation 4.2. Extra-high 1. 2. 7.4 Classification 4.4 Isolation 7. 2. 5. Type of 7. Stacking machinery 5.2 Wiring. 1.1. fire-fighting I. 4. 5. 6.2. 2.1 Substation 4. 5. Laying of 7. 2. 14.39 Voltage.3. Table I Object of 1.3. I2.34 Service line I. I Electrode. Earthing Alphanumeric notation 1. 5. assessment of 4.4 Hospitals (see under Medical Establishment) Hotels Air-conditioning 3. 6.2 Wiring 4. 2. I .2 to 2.3 Lighting 4. self-contained 5. 2.3 Electrical installation 3. 5.3 Relay.7 Static electricity 7. domestic 1. 2. 3A.3 Unit wiring 1. 5.33 Potential difference 1. 5. Fundamental concepts 7.3 Services 4.1 W i r i n g I.2. 2. 8 Socket-outlets 3.3 Sparking. 2. 5. 34. IS. 2.1. Fig. 6. 2.2 Operating area 5. Earth leakage 1. 2.15 Switchboard I. 3A. 2.4 fire-safety 4. 9 ’ Space for I.4 Telephones 3. 12.3.2 Frequency Limits 1.3.1 Equivalent circuit I.2 Wiring system.3 Diesel engines 7.4. 3E. 10. 5. sub. Fig. 2.3 Lighting 3. 2. 2.0 Switchgear.2 Symbol 1.4 Lightning protection 7.9 Loop impedance 1.1.6. 3.1 Electrode.4. 12. 2. 1. / Fire-safety 3.17 Po~. 5. Control of 4.4 Classification 7.1 Wiring 3. 12. 8.35 S p a r k 1. choice of 7. 2. 2. 5.5 Plugs and sockets 7. 6.1 Maintainability I. 2. 14. Medium I. 3 Electrode resistance 1.10 Neutrial I. 2. 8. 2.2 Electrical installations in 7 Equipment. 6. 8. Types of I.2. 4.1 Overload 1. 6.3.1 Supply 4. 2.5. 2.l.16 Switchgear I. 4. 6.Motor generator set.r6 supply. 2. 5.2. 2.0 Temporary outdoor installations 5.4 Distribution boards 3. Secondary 5.2.1. 1. Unrestricted 7. Pipe 1.38 Voltage. 2.23 Tariff.4. 6. automatic 7. 5. 8. 2.24 Public dighting installations 5. Table I System 1. power 4. Appendix D. 4 Load. Appendix A Switchboards 3. 4.2 Hazards.5 Electrode.27 Tariff. 4 H Hazardous area Apparatus. 12. I .5 General characteristics. 5. 2. 2.6 Electrical installations in 4 Electra-heat installations 4.6 Cables. 2. 2.3. 4.1. 6 Equipment. Assessment of 3.37 Voltage. 2. Types of 1. 2.2 Cables. Selection of 4. 2.5 Sub-station 3.1.1. 2.6 Exhaust Fans I. 5.1 Conductors.27 Temporary -installations 5.2. 3. Pr.2.3. I.3 Switchboards. B-3 Continuity conductor 1.8 Power supply.3. design 7.6.2 Statutory regulations 7. 2.1 Equipment. 1. Auto 1. 10. 2.

8 Quality 5. 5. 5. 2.6 Specific buildings (see under individual titles) Wiring for I. 4 Mercantile buildings 3. 5.2 Transport convey or system 5. 5.K 8. 2 Sports buildings 3. Appendix A Requirements 5.1 5. 7. 4. 7 Sub-circuit 5.1 Conductor. I.2. 13.4 Recreational Air-conditioning 3.1 ’ Levels of illumination.1. 2 Livestock houses 6 Lodging houses 3.1 Temporary outdoor 5. 2.2 of R Railway marshalling yards Classification 5. 711 Fire-safety 3. 6 Swimming pools 3.5 General characteristics. 5 Central 1. 2. 7. /I.3 Recreational buildings 3. 2. main 5. _?B.2 Car-parks 5. 8. 3. 5.1 Clocks 3. 1. 1. 4 Hotels 3. 1. 4. 2. 3.5 Telephones 3. 4 Lifts 3. 9 Wiring 3. 3 Emergency supply 3.2.2 Testing 3. 12. 4. 7.3 Types 5. 5. I Educational buildings 3. selection of 5. 17. 1. Ov$rltage Protection against 1. 4. I Earthing 5. 4.1 Luminaires 5.Urrent Protection against 1.2 Testing 3. 3. 5 General characteristics 5. 6. 3.1 Lifts 3. 7. 140. electrical 1. 38. 8 Sub-station 3. 6.1 Public lighting 5.3 Mechanical effects I. Assessment 3. 7.1 Institutional buildings 3. 3. E-2 Explosion protection 3. 5. Protection against 1 . 5. 5. 4. 4. IO Services 3.1 System design I. 2.6. 5. 4. 4. 3 Railway yards ‘5.3 Lighting 3. 3. 2.1. t. 2. I . 17 Individual 1. 5 Safety 5. 8 Testing of systems 1. 2 Methods of protection I. /I. 3A. 6 Flyovers 5.0.1 Equipment for 5. 5 Materials 1. 3 Cables 5. 4. 5.2 Discharge. 2. 4. Protection against 1.3 Public lighting installations Aerodrome 5. 2. characteristics.6.3 Economics of 1.2 Switchboards 3. 5 Shopping and commercial centres 3. 7.2. 4 Conductors 1.4 Fire-safety 3.6 Roads 5.5 G r o u p I. 10. 38.1.5. I5 Thermal effects I.2 Specific buildings (see under individual titles) Wiring 1. 2 Testing of 1.2 Safety 3. 2 Erection I. 7. 8. 4. 2. 3.2 Systems of 1. Table 8 Power installation. 3. 5. 7. 5.2. 16. I Rooming houses 3. 1. 6. 2. 3E Domestic dwellings 3. A-l Business buildings 3. 4. IS.6.1.2 Waterways 5. 2.1 Fire-protection 3.5 Telephones 3. Permanent outdoor 5. 9 Sub-stations. 1. A-l Temporary outdoor 5. 3. 5. 15.3 General characteristics. 5. Water supply system 30. 5. 2 Outdoor 5 Oy. 4. 2. 2.3 Light sources 5.3 Vision. 4. 3D. /I Lighting Conductor.4 Electrical installations 3. 2. 6. 7. 15. I. 2. 1. general 1.6. 2.4 Electrical installations 3. 3. JB. 4. 4. Lamps Electrical aspects. 3E. 1. D. 6. 6 Set:oAd&y processing machinery 1 5.buildings 4. I.2. 4. 3. 4. 4.1 Roundabouts 5. Assessment of 3.6 0 Office-buildings Air-conditioning 3. Roads 5. I Generating stations. INDEX 269 . 2 Design I.I. 4.3 Lighting protection General.-. I. 2 General characteristics. 140. IS. 5. IS.2 Static converters 5.4 Protection against I. 4 Primary processing machinery 5. -5. 1. 1.3 Lamp-holders.6 Measurement Electrical units 1. 2. 2. 5 Docks 5. 7.1 Pumping.3. 1. 6. Requirements for 5. 6. I Quarrys 5. I.2 Main squares 5. 4 Emergency lighting 3. 5. 2. 5. 2. 7. 1.5 Aims of 5. 5. 3 Residential buildings 3. 2. 7. 3. 3D.3. 5. 8.4 Rotating machines 5.2. I Circuit Installation measures 3. 1.2 Zones of risk 3. 7. 5 Indirect contact. 8 Wiring 5.1 Paging system 3. Cable 5.9 General aspects 1. f4A Fittings 1.2.2 Poultry 6 Protection for safety 1. AsseJsment of 3. 6. 4. 8. 1. 3 Thermal effects.6 Direct contact. specific buildings (see under individual titles) Outdoor 1. 2.1 Bridges 5. Table 8 Classification.1 Outdoor installations Permanent outdoor 5. 6 Wiring 3. . 3.12 Industrial 4 Inspection 1.0.2. 2 Medical establishments Air-conditioning 3. 15. 17. 1. 12.3 Lighting 3.2. 4. 6 M Marking Alphanumeric. 17.3. 2. 4. 5. 1. 38. 4 Emergency supply 3. 7. 3A. 17. 1. 3. 3.3 Power installations 5.1 Classification 5. 3 Construction sites 5. protection against 3C.2 Anti-static floor 3. 2. 6.1 Clocks 3.3 Metering 3. 2. 6. 38.2 P Power factor compensation Capacitors for 1.3 Item-designation I.6 Domestic dwellings 3.1 Testing 5. 4.5 Connectors. 3 Ports. 3.3.4 Transformers 5. 5. 1. 3 Direct contact. I. 5.2 Audio-visual 3. 12. Assessment of 5.4 Shopping streets 5. 8. Appendix E Isolation and bonding I. 3E.1. shape.2 Junctions 5.5 Fundamental principles 1.1. 2. material for I . 5. 1. 2.2 Supply 5.1 Dockyards 5. 7.2 Control 5. 12. 4. IS.2 Lighting. 4 Electrical Effects 1. 8. 1.2 Substation 5. 8.5 Levels of illuminatian. 3C. 2 Farm houses 6 Fault currents. 7. 6. I L Lifts Earthing 1. 3 Non-industrial 3 Office buildings 3. 7. I I Lifts 3. 2. 4. I I Zones of 1. Harbours 5. Table 7 Cables 5. 6. 140. 4. 7. 6. Table 8 Supply 5. 2.4 Industrial .2 Call-systems 3. 2.4 Design 5. 2.3 Workmanship I.3 Railways 5. 4 Interfe’rence suppression 3.1 Lighting 5. 5. 7. 3D. 2. 140 Requirements. 10.6. 6.Bathrooms 3. 6. 10.6 Substation 3. 5. E-l Essential circuits 3.5 Lighting 3.3 Switching devices 5.6.1. 2. standby 2 Hazardous area 7 Hospitals 3. 5. 7. 5. 8.1. 3. 2. 4 Requirements 5. 7. /I. 7. 4. /5. 4. 4 Capacitor rating I. 3E. Protection against I. 1.2.6 Equipment. 17. 2. IS.1. 5. 8. 1. 17.3 Electrical installation 3.2. 4.7 Mines. 2 Circuit. 3. Principles of 5. I. 4. 5. 7 Sefetv 5.3. 3. 3E. 4.6 Definition 5. 2. 8. 2. Common aspects I. 6. I. 6. Protection against 1 . open-cast 5. 14. 9.1 Classification 3. 1. 1. 3. 5 Safety supply systems 3.4 Services 3. 4.5 Hazardous areas 7.3 7. 3.2 Call-bell system 3. 7.5 Guidelines for 1.2 Medical establishments 3.7 General characteristics.3 Classification 3.

Domestic 3. 4 Interconnectiq-. 2. /I. 3. /I. 6. B-4 Rubber-sheathed 1.2 General. 5. 4.5.3 Identification of 1. 5.3.1. 4.4 Cleated I.2 U Units Absolute I. /I.1 Selection.1. 3. 2 System International 1.2 Symbols Graphical. 2. 2. 6.2 Recreational buildings 3. If. A-2. I. 6. /3 Socket-outlets.1. 2. 14. 4.2 Limits. 5.1 Working distance for I. 16. I/. 2.1.2 Electrical installations 3. App-A Safety 3. 5. Installation design I. 4.1 Explanatory 1. Specific buildings (see under individual titles) Reception and distribution 1.1 Short-ctrcuit calculation\ I. classification 3. 4.2b) Wiring I. j.1 Wiring 3.1. 3. selection 01 3.1 V Ventilation General aspects 1. 16 Equipment.3. 6. 4. 5.2 Guide for preparation 1. 10.4 Testmg 3. 5.1. 10. 3.i Industrial 4. ‘6. 4.1. 4.1. 2.1. 2 lnspcction of 1 . 6. 2. II. 6.4 Lighting 3. 2. 6 Wiring 3. 10.0~ voltage 2.7 Testing 1. 5.6 Substation 3. 1.1 ‘Three phase system I.1 Single phase system I.1 Voltage.8 Limits. supplier 1. 3.1 High voltage 2.2. A-5 Switchboards A r r a n g e m e n t o f a p p a r a t u s 1 .1 Substations Building. 5.3 Recessed conduit 1. I/. 3. 12. 3. If.5.2 Marking of 1. 14. Assessment of 3. 5.3 Light sources 3.3 Conduit 1. 3. 2.1 Call-bell 1.1.1 Clocks I. 7.2. II.1 Auxilltartes 2. 3.2 Selection. 5.5 Domestic dwellings 3. Common aspects 1. 10.2 Medical establishments 3. 3 Clocks 3. 6. II. 7.3. 4. 14.3 PVC sheethed 1.1 Electrical 1. 5. 3.1 Score-board 3. 3. 6.4 internal methods of 1. I/.7 L o c a t i o n o f 1. 5 Metal sheathed I. /I. 4 Lifts and escalators I.1 Restrictions.3 Services 3.2. /I Hazardous area 7. 5.3. 5.1. 5.2. Hazardous area 7. /I.1 Swimming pools 3. 1. values 1. 6. A-3 Zones.1 Classification 3. 5 Swsimmtng Pools Equipment. 16. 4. 2. 16. 6. 14.t I. 2. 5. 2. A-5 Testing 1. 4.2.4 Sequence 1.5. 5. 6. 6.2 Instructions I.2 W Wiring. 3. 6. 6.1. 6. 2.1.1 270 INDEX . 16. 5 PJactices I.5 Lifts 3. Selection of 2.5.1 Fire-alarm 1.3 Transformer Installations 2 Testing 1. 6. 4. 6. 4. 2 P o s t e r s I.1 Hotels 3. 3. 5.3 Wiring of 1. 5. 5. Wiring systems Agricultural premises 6. 7. 9. 4. 4 Protection for I.2 s Safety Electrical work 1. I Audio systems 1. 5.1 Pressurized rooms 7. 5. 6.1 Definition I. 5. industrial 4. /I. II. 3.3 Testing 3. 7. /I. II. IO Specific buildings (see under individual title) Wiring in 2. 3. 3 Permit-to-work.5. II.5.2. 2. 3. 5.5 Location 1.2.3 Switchboards 3.l. 5. 3. IO. Il. 6. 5. 5. 2. 6.2 Short-circuit calculations 1.2 Assembly buildings 3.2. Y 1. system for I.2.1 Types 1. 2. A-4 Electrical Installations in 3. 3. I.1. 5. 5.5 Wood casing 1. 4 Subscripts 1. 7.1 Supply C o m m e n c e m e n t 1. 6. 5.4 General characteristics.1 Surface Conduit I. 3. l6. 4. 5.1 Substation 2. 2.2 Audio-systems 3. 4.1. 12. I Sports buildings 3. 5.2.Services 3. 6. 14.2 T Tables Classification 1.5.5. Plugs 1. 5. 7. 6.1 Emergency 2 Emergency.2. 4.1. 2. Devices for I. I I Equipment. 6 Fire-safety 3. 3.1. standard value I.6 Distribution 1. 3.1. 2 Letter 1. 6.3 Selection.1. 5. 146 Specific buildings (see under individual titles) Voltage Declared. Wiring installations. 6. Industrial 4.5 Substation 3. 8.1. I3 Sports Buildings Air-conditioning 3. 6 Wrring 3. 4 Group switching 3. 6.4 Office building 3. 4.4 Control-room 3. /6. 6. 4. 3.1 Tables for.2a) Time sequence 1.