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When Alice sends a message to Bob, Bob needs to check the authenticity of the sender; he needs to be sure that the message comes from Alice and not Eve. Bob can ask Alice to sign the message electronically. In other words, an electronic signature can prove the authenticity of Alice as the sender of the message. We refer to this type of signature as a digital signature.

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DIGITAL SIGNATURE We are all familiar with the concept of a signature. A person signs a document to show that it originated from her or was approved by her. The signature is proof to the recipient that the document comes from the correct entity. When a customer signs a check, the bank needs to be sure that the check is issued by that customer and nobody else. In other words, a signature on a document, when verified, is a sign of authenticationthe document is authentic. Consider a painting signed by an artist. The signature on the art, if authentic, means that the painting is probably authentic. When Alice sends a message to Bob, Bob needs to check the authenticity of the sender; he needs to be sure that the message comes from Alice and not Eve. Bob can ask Alice to sign the message electronically. In other words, an electronic signature can prove the authenticity of Alice as the sender of the message. We refer to this type of signature as a digital signature. A digital signature or digital signature scheme is a mathematical scheme for demonstrating the authenticity of a digital message or document. A valid digital signature gives a recipient reason to believe that the message was created by a known sender such that they cannot deny sending it (authentication and non-repudiation) and that the message was not altered in transit (integrity). Digital signatures are commonly used for software distribution, financial transactions, and in other cases where it is important to detect forgery or tampering. Definition A digital signature scheme typically consists of three algorithms:

A key generation algorithm that selects a private key uniformly at random from a set of possible private keys. The algorithm outputs the private key and a corresponding public key.

1 Created By Mr. Deependra Rastogi, Lecturer Department of Computer Science,TMU

Digital Signature

A signing algorithm that, given a message and a private key, produces a signature. A signature verifying algorithm that, given a message, public key and a signature, either accepts or rejects the message's claim to authenticity.

Two main properties are required. First, a signature generated from a fixed message and fixed private key should verify the authenticity of that message by using the corresponding public key. Secondly, it should be computationally infeasible to generate a valid signature for a party who does not possess the private key. Comparison Let us begin by looking at the differences between conventional signatures and digital signatures. Inclusion A conventional signature is included in the document; it is part of the document. When we write a check, the signature is on the check; it is not a separate document. But when we sign a document digitally, we send the signature as a separate document. Verification Method The second difference between the two types of signatures is the method of verifying the signature. For a conventional signature, when the recipient receives a document, she compares the signature on the document with the signature on file. If they are the same, the document is authentic. The recipient needs to have a copy of this signature on file for comparison. For a digital signature, the recipient receives the message and the signature. A copy of the signature is not stored anywhere. The recipient needs to apply a verification technique to the combination of the message and the signature to verify the authenticity. Relationship

2 Created By Mr. Deependra Rastogi, Lecturer Department of Computer Science,TMU

Digital Signature

For a conventional signature, there is normally a one-to-many relationship between a signature and documents. A person uses the same signature to sign many documents. For a digital signature, there is a one-to-one relationship between a signature and a message. Each message has its own signature. The signature of one message cannot be used in another message. If Bob receives two messages, one after another, from Alice, he cannot use the signature of the first message to verify the second. Each message needs a new signature. Duplicity Another difference between the two types of signatures is a quality called duplicity. With a conventional signature, a copy of the signed document can be distinguished from the original one on file. In digital signature, there is no such distinction unless there is a factor of time (such as a timestamp) on the document. For example, suppose Alice sends a document instructing Bob to pay Eve. If Eve intercepts the document and the signature, she can replay it later to get money again from Bob. Process Figure shows the digital signature process. The sender uses a signing algorithm to sign the message. The message and the signature are sent to the receiver. The receiver receives the message and the signature and applies the verifying algorithm to the combination. If the result is true, the message is accepted; otherwise, it is rejected.

Digital Signature

A conventional signature is like a private key belonging to the signer of the document. The signer uses it to sign documents; no one else has this signature. The copy of the signature on file is like a public key; anyone can use it to verify a document, to compare it to the original signature. In a digital signature, the signer uses her private key, applied to a signing algorithm, to sign the document. The verifier, on the other hand, uses the public key of the signer, applied to the verifying algorithm, to verify the document. Note that when a document is signed, anyone, including Bob, can verify it because everyone has access to Alices public key. Alice must not use her public key to sign the document because then anyone could forge her signature. Can we use a secret (symmetric) key to both sign and verify a signature? The answer is negative for several reasons. First, a secret key is known by only two entities (Alice and Bob, for example). So if Alice needs to sign another document and send it to Ted, she needs to use another secret key. Second, as we will see, creating a secret key for a session involves authentication, which uses a digital signature. We have a vicious cycle. Third, Bob could use the secret key between himself and Alice, sign a document, send it to Ted, and pretend that it came from Alice. We should make a distinction between private and public keys as used in digital signatures and public and private keys as used in a

4 Created By Mr. Deependra Rastogi, Lecturer Department of Computer Science,TMU

Digital Signature

cryptosystem for confidentiality. In the latter, the private and public keys of the receiver are used in the process. The sender uses the public key of the receiver to encrypt; the receiver uses his own private key to decrypt. In a digital signature, the private and public keys of the sender are used. The sender uses her private key; the receiver uses the senders public key.

Signing the Digest We said before that the asymmetric-key cryptosystems are very inefficient when dealing with long messages. In a digital signature system, the messages are normally long, but we have to use asymmetric-key schemes. The solution is to sign a digest of the message, which is much shorter than the message. A carefully selected message digest has a one-to-one relationship with the message. The sender can sign the message digest and the receiver can verify the message digest. The effect is the same. Figure shows signing a digest in a digital signature system.

A digest is made out of the message at Alices site. The digest then goes through the signing process using Alices private key. Alice then sends the message and the signature to Bob.

5 Created By Mr. Deependra Rastogi, Lecturer Department of Computer Science,TMU

Digital Signature

At Bobs site, using the same public hash function, a digest is first created out of the received message. The verifying process is applied. If authentic, the message is accepted; otherwise, it is rejected. Services Message Authentication A secure digital signature scheme, like a secure conventional signature (one that cannot be easily copied) can provide message authentication (also referred to as data-origin authentication). Bob can verify that the message is sent by Alice because Alices public key is used in verification. Alices public key cannot verify the signature signed by Eves private key. Message Integrity The integrity of the message is preserved even if we sign the whole message because we cannot get the same signature if the message is changed. The digital signature schemes today use a hash function in the signing and verifying algorithms that preserves the integrity of the message. Nonrepudiation If Alice signs a message and then denies it, can Bob later prove that Alice actually signed it? For example, if Alice sends a message to a bank (Bob) and asks to transfer $10,000 from her account to Teds account, can Alice later deny that she sent this message? With the scheme we have presented so far, Bob might have a problem. Bob must keep the signature on file and later use Alices public key to create the original message to prove the message in the file and the newly created message are the same. This is not feasible because Alice may have changed her private or public key during this time; she may also claim that the file containing the signature is not authentic. One solution is a trusted third party. People can create an established trusted party among themselves. Later in the

6 Created By Mr. Deependra Rastogi, Lecturer Department of Computer Science,TMU

Digital Signature

chapter, we will see that a trusted party can solve many other problems concerning security services and key exchange. Figure shows how a trusted party can prevent Alice from denying that she sent the message.

Alice creates a signature from her message (SA) and sends the message, her identity, Bobs identity, and the signature to the center. The center, after checking that Alices public key is valid, verifies through Alices public key that the message came from Alice. The center then saves a copy of the message with the sender identity, recipient identity, and a timestamp in its archive. The center uses its private key to create another signature (ST) from the message. The center then sends the message, the new signature, Alices identity, and Bobs identity to Bob. Bob verifies the message using the public key of the trusted center. If in the future Alice denies that she sent the message, the center can show a copy of the saved message. If Bobs message is a duplicate of the message saved at the center, Alice will lose the dispute. Confidentiality

7 Created By Mr. Deependra Rastogi, Lecturer Department of Computer Science,TMU

Digital Signature

A digital signature does not provide confidential communication. If confidentiality is required, the message and the signature must be encrypted using either a secret-key or public-key cryptosystem. RSA Digital Signature Scheme Several digital signature schemes have evolved during the last few decades. Some of them have been implemented. In this section, we briefly show one of them, RSA. In a previous section, we discussed how to use RSA cryptosystem to provide privacy. The RSA idea can also be used for signing and verifying a message. In this case, it is called the RSA digital signature scheme. The digital signature scheme changes the roles of the private and public keys. First, the private and public keys of the sender, not the receiver, are used. Second, the sender uses her own private key to sign the document; the receiver uses the senders public key to verify it. If we compare the scheme with the conventional way of signing, we see that the private key plays the role of the senders own signature and the senders public key plays the role of the copy of the signature that is available to the public. Obviously Alice cannot use Bobs public key to sign the message because then any other person could do the same. The signing and verifying sites use the same function, but with different parameters. The verifier compares the message and the output of the function for equality in modulo arithmetic. If the result is true, the message is accepted. Figure 29.21 shows the scheme in which the signing and verifying is done on the digest of the message instead of the message itself because the public-key cryptography is not very efficient to be used with long messages; the digest is much smaller than the message itself.

Digital Signature

Alice, the signer, first uses an agreed-upon hash function to create a digest from the message, D = h(M). She then signs the digest, S = Dd mod n. The message and the signature are sent to Bob. Bob, the verifier, receives the message and the signature. He first uses Alices public exponent to retrieve the digest, D = Se mod n. He then applies the hash algorithm to the message received to obtain D = h(M). Bob now compares the two digests, D and D. If they are equal (in modulo arithmetic), he accepts the message.

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