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6) Fuels There are three main types of fuels used by humans Biofuels Biofuels are derived from products

with biomass. It was the earliest kind of fuel, and the most widespread was wood. Biomass itself is also used today Fossil fuels Hydrocarbons, primarily coal and petroleum, which originate from the fossilized remains of plants and animals. Most common today, but non-renewable and highly polluting. Nuclear Energy from the fission of certain heavy metals (e.g. Uranium or Plutonium) 7) Energy Sources The three energy sources are Renewable Energy Energy which utilises natural sources of energy and do not pollute the environment heavily. However, they are as efficient as converting this energy to electricity than other sources of energy. Examples of renewable energy are solar, wind, tidal and hydroelectric Fossil Fuels Energy is produced through burning of coal or hydrocarbons. This emits large amounts of carbon dioxide and is a non-renewable source of energy. However, fossil fuels are very effective at generating electricity. Nuclear Nuclear energy is extremely efficient, being extremely powerful and not producing carbon dioxide. However, radioactive fuels and their radioactive by-products can cause great damage to the ecosystem and the environment 8) Carbon trading The theory behind carbon trading between groups is: 1. Each group (either a company or government) is allocated a certain carbon limit that they must adhere to 2. If they exceed their carbon limits, they must buy them off other groups, at whatever price that group wants to sell them. 3. If they are under their carbon limits, they can sell them to big polluters, gaining a profit. 4. If everyone fails, they must buy them off the allocator, who has an unlimited supply of these emissions. Gradually, each group will try to lower their emissions in order to not have to buy more emissions and to be able to sell them. As such, the allocated amount to each group can be decreased each year resulting in lower emissions. If the scheme fails, the allocator still benefits from the scheme.

Unit 1- Chemical Reactions

2,3,8 - Law of Conservation of Matter & Law of Conservation of Mass Law of Conservation of Matter Matter cannot be created nor destroyed, only changed from one form to another. In a chemical reaction, the amount of atoms of the reactants and the products must be the same. Law of Conservation of Mass The mass of the reactants is equal to the mass of the products in a reaction. Chemical Equations, in order to satisfy the Law of Conservation of Matter must have the same amount of each type of atom on both sides. When a gas is produced in a chemical reaction, the Law of Conservation of Mass still applies, with the gas being part of the product(s) of the reaction. 4 Write formulas for some common compounds Polyatomic Ions

Name Carbonate Sulfate Nitrate Phosphate Ammonium Hydroxide Hydrogen Carbonate


Formula CO32SO42NO3PO4NH4+ OHHCO3-

Charge 22111+ 11-

Name Sulfuric Hydrochloric Nitric

Formula H2SO4 HCl HNO3

5 Construct Balanced Formula Equations (including states for chemical reactions) Balanced equations must have the same number of each element on each side of an equation For example, the corrosion of iron (Fe) Fe + O2 -> Fe2O3 is unbalanced 4Fe + 3O2 -> 2Fe2O3 is balanced Different States Solid (s) Gas (g) Liquid (l) Aqueous/dissolved in water (aq) 6 Identify compounds which have covalent bonding Covalent Bonding is the sharing of electrons and occurs only between non-metals and other nonmetals, where electrons are shared between the two elements so that they both have a full outer shell. There are 3 types of covalent bonds Single Bond One Pair of Electrons is Shared Double Bond Two Pairs of Electrons are Shared Triple Bond Three Pairs of Electrons are Shared

A molecule is composed of non-metals and is the smallest number of atoms that exist bonded together in a stable form. 7 Identify compounds that have ionic bonding Ionic bonding involves metals combining with non-metals. Ionic compounds form crystal solids, unless dissolved in water as an aqueous solution. The electrons from the positive ion (usually being the metal) are taken by the negative ion (usually being the non-metal) 9 Investigate factors which affect the rate of a chemical reaction Factors which affect the rate of a chemical reaction include Concentration of the Reactants Temperature of the Reactants Surface Area of the Reactants Presence of a Catalyst

10 Identify the methods commonly used to improve yield in an industrial reaction like preparation of sulphuric acid The yield of the reaction is the amount of product obtained and can be expressed as the percentage of the expected product that is obtained.

Yield can be improved via: Carrying out the reaction at a reasonably high temperature. The higher the temperature, the larger the energy of the reactants and the more likely the reaction will occur. Use of a catalyst (Catalysts are substances which help increase the speed of a reaction, but are not consumed Removing the products as they are formed Constantly adding reactants to replace those which are used up

11 Interpret the flow chart in the contact process for the production of sulphuric acid

Sulfuric Acid is the worlds most produced chemical in the world being used in superphosphate, nitro-glycerine and fertilisers.

Properties of Sulfuric Acid Strong Acid Colourless Soluble in Water Dessicant (Absorbs water from surroundings) Exothermic (Dissolving the concentrated acid in water releases a lot of heat)

The contact process is the most common method used for producing sulfuric acid: 1. Molten gas is burned to produce sulfur dioxide gas

(S(l)+ O2(g)SO2(g))
2. With the catalyst vanadium oxide, sulfur trioxide is formed in a converter, where the gas is passed over a catalyst bed to increase yield. 2(g) 2(g) 3(g) 3. Oleum (H2S2O7) is produced in the absorber by mixing the sulfur trioxide with sulfuric acid

(2SO + O 2SO )

(SO3(g)+ H2SO4(l)H2S2O7(l))
4. Oleum is hydrated to form sulfuric acid

(H2S2O7(l)+ H2O(l)2H2SO4)
12) Define the branch of organic chemistry Organic chemistry is the chemistry of carbon compounds. Carbon has four outer-shell (or valence) electrons and can covalently bond with up to four other atoms, usually other carbon atoms, hydrogen or oxygen. This allows carbon to form millions of different stable compounds. Carbon can obtain a full outer shell via Four single bonds Two double bonds One double and two single One single and one triple

13) Define a hydrocarbon and list the main elements of a hydrocarbon A hydrocarbon is the simple organic compounds, only comprising of carbon and hydrogen. Hydrocarbons are important in our everyday lives, being used for fuels and plastics.

14) Use systematic nomenclature for naming alkanes, alkenes, alkynes and alkanols A hydrocarbons prefix is determined by the number of carbon atoms it contains: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Meth Eth Prop But Pent Hex Hept Oct Non Dec

The suffix of a hydrocarbon is determined by the type of hydrocarbon it is: Alkanes Suffix: -ane Alkanes only contain single bonds, and are generally denoted by the formula CnH2n+2 Alkanes form a homologous series (each molecule in the series is slightly larger than the one before) Alkenes Suffix: -ene Alkanes contain a double bond, and are generally denoted by the formula CnH2n Alkenes can break their double bond, and form polymer chains. Alkynes Suffix: -yne Alkanes contain a triple bond, and are generally denoted by the formula CnH2n-2 Because of their triple bond, Alkynes are highly reactive. Alkanols Suffix: -anol Alkanols (or alcohols) contain the hydroxy group -OH, which is a functional group that alters the properties of a compound. Alkanols have no general formula, and their suffix is -anol. 15) Contrast single, double and triple bonds See Point 6

16) State the purpose of fractional distillation Fractional distillation is the process of refining crude oil into its various components. It is heated in a chamber where the components are then separated due to their differing boiling temperatures. These fractions may then be either directly used or cracked using heat and catalysts to create alkenes. Fraction Gas Petrol Kero Diesel Oil No. of Carbons Uses 1-4 4-10 10-16 16-20 Fuel Fuel for cars Fuel for jets Fuel for central heating. Crackable Oil for engines and machines. Crackable Fuel for ships and power stations Waxy papers, candles Roads

Lubricating Oil 20-30 Fuel Oil Paraffin Wax Bitumen 30-40 40-50 50+

17) Identify the functional group that alkanols contain See point 14 18) Differentiate Complete and Incomplete Combustion When hydrocarbons or alcohols burn in large amounts of oxygen, carbon dioxide and water are produced. This process is called complete combustion. These reactions produce heat energy, which can be harnessed via coal power stations. In complete combustion Ethane + Oxygen -> Carbon Dioxide + Water

2C2H6 (g) + 7O2 (g) -> 4CO2 (g) + 6H2O (g)

Incomplete combustion is where there is not enough oxygen to supply the demands of the hydrocarbon. The result is carbon and carbon monoxide (a thick black smoky flame), and less heat energy. Ethane + Oxygen -> Carbon Monoxide + Water

2C2H6(g)+ 5O2(g)4CO(g)+ 6H2O(g)

Ethane + Oxygen -> Carbon + Water

2C2H6(g)+ 3O2(g)4C(g)+ 6H2O(g)

19) List five important uses for organic compounds Fuels Lubricants Plastics Plants Animals