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NCM 107A: LEADING and MANAGING Leader - Someone who uses interpersonal skills to influence others to accomplish specific

goals. Managers - Responsible and accountable for efficiently accomplishing the goals of the organization - Coordinates and integrate resources - Plans, organizes, supervise, evaluate, negotiate and represents - Clarify the organizational structure - Choose the means by which to achieve goals - Assign and coordinates tasks, developing and motivating as needed - Evaluate outcome and provide feedback Leadership - the art of getting work done through other willingly - Leaders are in the front, moving forward, taking risks and challenging the status quo - A job title alone does not a person a leader, only a persons behavior determines if he or she occupies a leadership position. Leadership- a process of influencing and role modeling process wherein one inspires others toward achievement of personal and group goals Role model, empowering, influencing - Leadership involves leader and follower interaction - Involves the process of persuasion and example. - A dynamic interaction process that involves three dimensions: the leader, follower and the situation - Leader has a self-perception and possesses intelligence. Leadership is a multidimensional process: -Step 1: ability to identify the leadership in a group Formal vs. Informal Leadership -with legitimate authority -Reinforced by organizational structure -No specified management role -Substantially influence the efficiency of work flow

Types of Leadership 1. Formal Leadership o by virtue of appointment to the position o sanctioned, has assigned role o official or legitimate authority to act 2. Informal Leadership o chosen by the group itself o leader because of age, seniority, competencies, inviting personality, ability to communicate

Leadership 5 dimensions/Elements 1. Leader 2. Follower -flip side of leader -capacity to accept or reject the leader -determine leaders power 3. Goals 4. Situation circumstances -e.g. time pressed, work requirements and group culture 5. Communications (verbal and non- verbal)

Leadership Roles o Decision maker o Buffer o Advocate o Communicator o Evaluator o Facilitator o Risk taker o Role model o Creative problem- solver o Change agent o Mentor o Energizer o Critical Thinker o Coach o Counselor o Teacher o Forecaster o Visionary o Influencer o Diplomat

The Evolution of Leadership Theories

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Personal Traits -------behavior and style ------leadership situation -------- change agency ---- Other aspects Trait Behavior Contingency Contemporary

Trait Theories- assumption that leaders are born, not made. Task to be performed: envisioning goals, affirming values, motivating, managing, achieving workable unity, explaining, serving as a symbol, representing the group, and renewing commitment of members Contemporary theories- argue that leadership skills can be developed, and are not necessarily inborn. States that scientific inquiry has proved these theories not validand maintains that leadership requires collaborators more than charisma.

The Evolution of Leadership theory Early 1900s: Great Man Theory/ Trait Theories Human Relations Era (1940- 1970): Behavior Theories 1950: Situational and Contingency Contemporary Transformation/ Transactional and Interactive theories

View of Leadership - Leaders are born and not made - Leadership is elitist - Leadership training are often too focused on the skills and techniques to get work done, rather than a leadership - Leadership can only be learned on the job and from the experiences Core traits of good leaders o A guiding vision o Passion o Integrity o Curiosity o Self- awareness o Self- confidence o Advocacy o Accountability Common leadership traits o Flexibility o intelligence o personality o distinct abilities o Self- confidence o desire to lead LEADERSHIP THEORIES 1. Great Man Theory and trait theories o Great Man theory- Leaders are born and not made. When there is a need, a leader will arise.

Stogdill (1974)- 6 Categories of personal factors associated with leadership: 1. Capacity 2. Achievement 3. Responsibility 4. Participation 5. Status 6. Situation Concluded that such a narrow characterization of leadership traits was insufficient: a person does not become a leader by virtue of the possession of some combination of traits The attempt to isolate specific individual traits led to the conclusion that no single characteristic can distinguish leaders

2. Behavioral Theories Leaders are not born they are made Successful leadership is based in defined, learned behaviors Personal traits provide only a foundation for leadership Real leaders are made through education training and life experiences Assumption: effective leaders acquire a pattern of learned behaviors Bennis (1994) Recipe A guiding vision

Passion Integrity (self- knowledge, candor and maturity) - Curiosity - Trust - Daring ->Crucible experiences shape leaders ->Ability to find meaning in negative events and learn from the must trying circumstances ->Empowering- transferring over clinical practice decisions to staff nurses and enabling them to do what they do best. Kurt Lewins three types of leadership Autocratic Leadership -Make decisions alone -more concerned with task accomplishment Democratic Leaders -Observe participatory procedures -People oriented Laissez- faire Leaders -loose -Passive and Permissive

Economic and ego awards are used to motivate. Others are directed through suggestions and guidance. Communication flows up and down. Decision making involves others. Emphasis is on we rather than I and you. Criticism is constructive.

1. Authoritarian Leadership - High concern for accomplishment - leaders is exploitative, little trust in workers, coercion - Communication occurs in closed system - Provides hostility and aggression - firm, insistent, self- assured and dominating; keeps at the center of attention - Strong control is maintained over the work group. - Others are motivated by coercion. - Others are directed with commands. - Communication flows downward. - Decision making does not involve others. - Emphasis is on difference in status (I and you). - Criticism is punitive. 2. Democratic, Participative or Consultation - People oriented, focusing attention human aspects and building effective work groups; interaction is open, friendly - Give works feeling of self- worth - Less control is maintained.

3. Permissive, Ultraliberal, or laissez- faire - Wants everyone to feel good - Avoids responsibility by relinquishing powers to followers - Permits followers to engage in managerial activities - assumes that workers are ambitious, responsible, dynamic, flexible, intelligent and creative - Low productivity and employee frustration - Not generally useful in the highly structured healthcare delivery system - Permissiveness, with little or no control. - Motivation by support when requested by the group or individuals. - Provision of little or no direction. - Communication upward and downward flow among members of the group. - Decision making dispersed throughout the group. - Emphasis on the group. - Criticism withheld.

Likerts Michigan Studies Four basic styles- system of Leadership: a. Exploitative- authoritative -Resp. on upper management level of hierarchy -subordinates cannot freely discuss -decisions impose subordinates -superiors dont trust subordinates -No teamwork -Low communication -Motivation: Threatening the subordinates b. Benevolent- authoritative

-Decisions pass to one from manager to leader -subordinates not free to discuss -Superiors confident and trust his subordinates -Low communication -Low teamwork -Motivation: Rewards c. Consultative- democratic -Widely spread to hierarchy -high participation in decision making of subordinates -Superiors has substantial but complete -fair teamwork and communication -Motivation: Reward and their involvement in the job d. Participative- democratic -Subordinates are involved -Increase teamwork, communication

*5.5. Middle of the road Management - Moderate concern to both production and people - Adequate organization performance is possible through balancing the necessity to get out work with maintaining morale of people at a satisfactory level *9.1. Authority- compliance management - High concern for production and low concern for people - Efficiency in operations results from arranging conditions of work such a way that human elements interfere to a minimum degree. *1.1. Impoverished Management - Low concern for both production and people - Exertion of minimum effort to get required work done is appropriate to sustain organization membership

Blake and Moutons: Managerial Grid Two Key dimensions: concern for production on horizontal axis concern for people on the vertical axis The Leadership Grid *1.9.Country Club Management -high concern for people and low production -Thoughtful attention to needs of people for satisfying relationships leads to comfortable, friendly organization atmosphere and worktempo environment. *9.9. Team management - High concern both production and person - Work accomplishment is from committed people, interdependence through a common stake and organization purpose leads to relationships of trust and respect

McGregors Theory X and Theory Y -Assumes that people dislike work and Theory X must be directed and controlled with emphasis on organizational goals Theory Y -Assumes that people are self- direct and will accept responsibility under favorable conditions with emphasis on individual goals

Continuum of leadership Behavior (Tannenbaum& Schmidt) o Forces -Manager -In the subordinate -In the situation o Conclusion: o Successful leader will have to know which specific behavior will be used or must appropriate in a particular time Contingency and LPC Theory o Fiedlers Contingency Theory

o -Leaders ability is based (contingent) on situational factors, leaders preferred styles of the motivation and abilities of followers -LPC (least preferred co- workers) theory -Three key factors that drive effective styles: Relationship, power, task structure are high LPC tends a. Manager- follower relationship (good to poor) -reflect the degree to which the leader enjoys the loyalty and support of subordinates b. Task structure (high to low) -degree to which the task or result is clearly described and/ or standard operating procedures guarantee successful completion and evaluation of the quality of the task. c. Position Power( strong to weak) -degree to which leaders are able to administer rewards and punishment by virtue of their positions.

Two are autocratic (A1 and A2), two are consultative (C1 and C2) and one is group based (G2) -A1: leader takes know information and then decides alone -A2: Leader gets information from followers and then decides alone -C1: Leader shares problem with followers individually, listens to ideas and then decides alone -C2: Leader shares problems with followers as a group, listens to ideas and then decides alone. -G2: Leader shares problems with followers as a group and then seeks and accepts consensus agreement

Situational Leadership ( Hersey & Blanchard) o o Leaders adopt their style to meet the developmental level of the follower Style is therefore based on the readiness and willingness of the workers to perform their required tasks with competence and motivation There are four leadership styles (S1 to S4) that match the development levels (skills and motivation) of the followers Consider the followers readiness as a factor in determining leadership style

Normative Model: Vroom and Yetton (1973) o Defined five different decision procedures and the situational factors that influence a leaders decision making strategy.