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Bil Type of Tenses Explanation State a repeated / habitual action State a fact Refer a truth ( universal truth ) Show future action that is part of plan or arrangement ( travelling ) Examples Ahmad waters the garden everyday. We play football every afternoon. Zainal lives in Ipoh Swee Chong buys stamps at the post office. The sun rises in the east. ( everyday ) Sarawak is the largest state in Malaysia. The train leaves at 9.00 in the morning. < The train will leave at 9.00 in the morning. > The course begins on Monday. < The course will begin on Monday > *The time table is fixed - plan / arrangement Clean the windows Keep all your books now. *Begins with VERB / DONT (negative) If you come earlier, you will be able to see us. If the weather is fine, we will have a picnic. *The condition use simple present, then follow by future tense. Passive Voice
S S V ( Present Perfect ) V ( Present Tense ) O

Extra Notes

Simple Present Tense To give instructions / orders

* Singular = verb + s * Plural = verb no s Usually with time mention

Used in condition ( If - 3rd condition )

A few letters are sent to his house. < The postman send a few letters to his house. > Watches are sold at the shop. < The shopkeeper sells watches at the shop. > *The passive voice use present perfect while active voice use simple present.


Type of Tenses

Explanation Action happening now / present actions Shows action that is often repeated Action that is happening about this time but may not be at the moment of conversation // longer action in progress (in the middle doing sth ) A future action that has been planned

Examples I am taking dinner. ( now ) Ahmad is sitting at my desk. ( now ) You girls are forever arguing with each other. My father is always talking about his new car. Joy is preparing for her SPM examination. (In the process of preparing. Not really doing now) My father is in Kuala Lumpur. He is attending a course. *It may not doing the action now but in the process / period doing it. I am meeting Mr. Lee this evening. < I will be meeting Mr. Lee this evening. > We are leaving for the airport in a short while. < We will be leaving for the airport in a short while. > Tom is looking for a job. They are spending this week in China. Our country is getting richer. On-line shopping is growing rapidly nowadays. *Usually in economics, latest news, etc. John is always asking stupid question. She is continually complaining about everything. My son is always getting into trouble in school.

Extra Notes

Present Continuous Tense

Verb to be ( is /are/am ) + verb + -ing ( Gerund ) * Singular = is * Plural = are ( You ) * Special = am ( I )

Temporary action Tendencies & trends



Type of Tenses

Explanation Shows an action just complete / the time in recent

Examples I have completed my assignment. We have just studied the simple present tense. *The action just finished . Jeeva has been in this school since 1988. ( now still in the school ) We have known the Tan family for ten years. ( now still know the family ) The children have completed their work. We have already built the fish pond. The house has been repainted. < The workers/painters have repainted the house. > The poster have been put up . < The prefects have put up the posters. >

Extra Notes

An action that began in the past & is continuing up to the present time

Present Perfect Tense

An action which happened at an indefinite (not sure) time in the pass. Passive voice

has/have + past participle * Singular = has * Plural = have (I & You)

Time period has not finished Used with for & since

* Passive = have / has been + past perfect I have seen three movies this week. ( This week has not finished yet. ) June has lived here for 20 years. Jane has lived here since 1998.


Type of Tenses

Explanation Express an action which began in the past and is still continuing

Examples It has been raining since yesterday. ( It is still raining now ) Leela has been playing the piano since she was six. *The action is still continuing. I have been reading since this morning. < I have read five chapters since this morning. > Jamilah has been playing the piano since lunch . < Jamilah has played the piano six times since lunch. > I have been waiting for you half an hour. ( I am not waiting anymore because you have come ) Look at her eyes! I am sure she has been crying . ( She stopped crying when she saw them. )

Extra Notes

Present Perfect Continuous Tense

Repeated action in the present perfect tense can sometimes be expressed as a continuous action by the present perfect continuous Past action recently stopped.

has / have + been + verb + -ing * Singular = has * Plural = have (I & You)

Temporary Situations / Actions

* Just stopped I have been living in this place for two months . He has been working as a waitress for the past week .


PRESENT PERFECT TENSE Say how many times I have read three articles. Focus on the result / completion I have written my essay. (the essay finish but dont know when finish ) PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE Emphasizes how long I have been reading for the past two weeks. Focus activity itself I have been writing my essay. ( Dont know the essay is finished or not )