Anda di halaman 1dari 12

# Solutions Manual

INTRODUCTION TO
MECHATRONICS AND
MEASUREMENT
SYSTEMS
2nd edition

SOLUTIONS MANUAL

David G. Alciatore
and
Michael B. Histand

## Department of Mechanical Engineering

Fort Collins, CO 80523

## Introduction to Mechatronics and Measurement Systems

Solutions Manual

This manual contains solutions to the end-of-chapter problems in the second edition of
"Introduction to Mechatronics and Measurement Systems." Only a few of the open-ended
including an example course outline, a suggested laboratory syllabus, MathCAD files for examples
in the book, and other supplemental material are provided on the Internet at:
http://www.engr.colostate.edu/~dga/mechatronics.html
We have class-tested the textbook for several years, and it should be relatively free from
errors. However, if you notice any errors or have suggestions or advice concerning the textbook's
post corrections for reported errors on our Web site.
Thank you for choosing our book. We hope it helps you provide your students with an
enjoyable and fruitful learning experience in the cross-disciplinary subject of mechatronics.

## Introduction to Mechatronics and Meaurement Systems

Solutions Manual
2.1

D = 0.06408 in = 0.001628 m.
\$

'
---------

 

= 1.7 x 10-8 m,

L = 1000 m

/
------\$



(a)

5

(b)

5

##    so N 5  N

(c)

5V

5  5

(d)

5S

5 5
-----------------5  5

2.2

2.3

5
5

## N  so N 5 V N

5 S0,1

5 0,1 5 0,1
------------------------------5 0,1  5  0,1

5 S0\$;

5 0\$; 5 0\$;
--------------------------------5  0\$;  5 0\$;


  , 5 
5 5
-----------------5  5

 


N
N




(   ) (   )
--------------------------------------------------

    

 

## a = 2 = red, b = 0 = black, c = 1 = brown, d = gold

2.4

In series, the trim pot will add an adjustable value ranging from 0 to its maximum value to
the original resistor value depending on the trim setting. When in parallel, the trim pot
could be 0 perhaps causing a short. Furthermore, the trim value will not be additive with
the fixed resistor.

2.5

No, as long as you are consistent in your application, you will obtain correct answers. If
you assume the wrong current direction, the result will be negative.

2.6

Place two 100 resistors in parallel and you immediately have a 50 resistance.

## Introduction to Mechatronics and Measurement Systems

Solutions Manual
From KCL, , V

2.7

,  ,  ,
9 9 9
------V  ------V  ------V
5 5 5

9V
so from Ohms Law -------5 HT

Therefore, -------5 HT

,V
------5 HT

2.8

## and for one resistor, 9

,V
---------------------------------------------------5 5  5 5  5 5
---------------------------------------------------5 5 5

, 5

5 5
--------------------------------------------------- ,
5 5  5 5  5 5 V

Therefore, , 

2.9

5 5
OLP -----------------5  5   5 

2.10

5 5
------------5

G9
&  ---------GW

& HT G9
------GW

5 5 5
--------------------------------------------------5 5  5 5  5 5

- ----

---- -  ------ so 5 HT
5 5 5

5
G9
&  ---------GW

From KVL,
9

9  9

so
G9
G9
----------  ---------GW
GW

G9
------GW
Therefore,
,
-------& HT
2.11

9

,

G9
&  ---------GW

,
,

------  ------ so -------& &
& HT



------  ------ or & HT
& &

& &
-----------------&  &

9
&  G9
------- and , 
GW

G9
&  ---------GW

&  G9
------GW

From KCL,
,

,  ,

&  G9
-------  &  G9
------GW
GW

## Introduction to Mechatronics and Meaurement Systems

G9
------- ( &   &  )
GW

Solutions Manual
Since ,

& HT G9
------GW
& HT

2.12

,

&  &

,

From KVL,
9
Since 9

/  G,
-----  /  G,
----GW
GW

9  9

/ HT G,
----GW
/  /

/ HT

2.13

/ G,
----GW

G,
----- ( /   /  )
GW

G,
/  -------
GW

G,
/  -------
GW

From KCL, ,

,  ,

9
Therefore, ---/

9- ----9
---- / /

G,  G, 
-------  ------GW
GW

G,
----GW

so


so --/

2.14

9R

2.15

2.16

## Combining R2 and R3 in parallel,

- ----
---- - or /
/ /

/ /
----------------/  /

## 9 , regardless of the resistance value.

5 


------------------ (   )
  

5 5
-----------------5  5

9

 (  )----------

N

5 
(a)

5   5 

N

,

9 LQ
---------5 

9
---------N

P\$

Solutions Manual
(b)

## Using current division,

5
------------------,
5  5 

,
(c)

--- P\$


P\$

Since R2 and R3 are in parallel, and since Vin divides between R1 and R23,
5 
--------------------9
5   5  LQ

9 

9


------- 9


9

2.17
(a)

## From Ohms Law,

9 RXW 9 
----------------------5 

,
(b)

9

(a)

5 

9

9 

9 RXW 9 

9 9
------------------------------N

P\$

9 9

2.18

5 
5 

N

5  5 
-------------------5   5 

N

5   5 

N

5 HT

5  5 
------------------------5   5 

N

(b)

9\$

5 
-----------------------9
5   5  V

9

(c)

, 

9\$
---------5 

,
2.19

5  5

P\$

5
--------------------,
5   5  

P\$

Using superposition,
9 5

5
------------------9
5  5 

## Introduction to Mechatronics and Meaurement Systems

9

9

Solutions Manual

9 5

9 5  9 5

9 5

2.20

5 
,
9\$

5 5
-----------------5  5
9 9
-----------------5  5

5
------------------L
5  5 

9
9

N
P\$

5 
-------------------- ( 9 9 )
5   5  

 9

2.21

It will depend on your instrumentation, but the oscilloscope typically has an input
impedance of 1 M.

2.22

Since the input impedance of the oscilloscope is 1 M, the impedance of the source will
be in parallel, and the oscilloscope impedance will affect the measured voltage. Draw a
sketch of the equivalent circuit to convince yourself.

2.23

5 
9 RXW

5 5
-----------------5  5
5 
--------------------9
5   5  LQ

(a)

5 

N , 9 RXW

9 LQ

(b)

5 

N , 9 RXW

9 LQ

When the impedance of the load is lower (10k vs. 500k), the accuracy is not as good.
2.24

2.25

9 LQ

 

## Combining R2 and L in series and the result in parallel with C gives:

= 5 /&

( 5   = / )= &
-----------------------------------( 5  =/ )  =&

 

 M

## Introduction to Mechatronics and Measurement Systems

Solutions Manual
Using voltage division,
9&

= 5 /&
--------------------------9
5   = 5 /& LQ

where
5   = 5 /&

##    M

 

so

 
--------------------------------------------
 

9&

 

 UDG

Therefore,
9& ( W )
2.26

9&

9V

9 so 9 5 

9 and 9 5

9V

9

2.27
(a)

## In steady state dc, C is open circuit and L is short circuit. So

9V
-----------------5  5

,
(b)

M------&

=&
= /5 

,V
,


-------- M

=/  5
= & = /5
-----------------------= &  = /5

= &/5
= HT

P\$

5   = &/5
9
-------V= HT


-------- 

M/  5 

(   M )

(  M )
(  M )

 

 
 

  P\$

=&
------------------------,
= &  = /5  V

(   ), V

  P\$

Solutions Manual

So
,(W)

##  FRV ( W  ) \$

2.28
(a)

\$ SS
(b)

----

\$

\$

\$ SS

+]

 , GF RIIVHW
----


+]

 , GF RIIVHW
----

 UDG
-------- , I
VHF

+]

 , GF RIIVHW

 UDG
-------- , I
VHF

\$ SS

(d)

\$

 UDG
-------- , I
VHF

\$ SS

(c)

-----

UDG
-------- , I
VHF

\$

+]

 , GF RIIVHW

VLQ ( )  FRV ( )

2.29

2.30

9 UPV

9 UPV
----------5

:

SS
9
-------- ( )


9

9 UPV
----------5

2.31

9P

2.32

For 9 UPV

:

9 UPV

9

9 , 9 P
9(W)

9 UPV

9 P VLQ ( I  )

Solutions Manual
2.33

## From Ohms Law,

9 9
--------------------5

9
------5

## Since P\$ , P\$ ,

P\$ 9
------- P\$
5
giving
9 - 5 -------------9 - or  5 
----------------P\$
P\$
For a resistor, 3

9
------ , so the smallest allowable resistance would need a power rating of
5

at least:


( 9 )
--------------

:

## so a 1/2 W resistor should be specified.

The largest allowable resistance would need a power rating of at least:


(-------------9 ) 

:

2.34

## Using KVL and KCL gives:

9
9

, 5 5 

( ,  , 5 )5   ( ,  , 5 ,  )5 

9 9

( ,  , 5 ,  )5  ,  5 

,5

9
-----5

P\$



## ( ,  P )N  ( ,  P ,  )N

 

10

( ,  P ,  )N ,  N

## Introduction to Mechatronics and Meaurement Systems

Solutions Manual
or
( N ),  ( N ), 



( N ),  ( N ), 



,

2.35

(a)

9 RXW

(b)

3

P\$ and , 

, 5 9
, 9

P\$

9

P: , 3 

, 9

P: , 3 

, 9

P:

## Using KVL and KCL gives:

9
9

, 5 5 

( ,  , 5 )5   ( ,  , 5 ,  )5 

9 9

( ,  , 5 ,  )5  ,  5 

,5

9
-----5

P\$



## ( ,  P )N  ( ,  P ,  )N

 

( ,  P ,  )N ,  N

or
( N ),  ( N ), 



( N ),  ( N ), 



## Solving these equations gives:

,
(a)

9 RXW

(b)

3

, 5 9
, 9

2.36

3 DYJ

P\$

9

P: , 3 

--- 9 ( W ), ( W ) GW
7


P\$ and , 

, 9

P: , 3 

, 9

P:

9P ,P
-------------- VLQ ( W  9 ) VLQ ( W  , ) GW
7


## Introduction to Mechatronics and Measurement Systems

11

Solutions Manual
Using the product formula trigonometric identity,
7

9P ,P
------------- ( FRV ( 9 , ) FRV ( W  9  , ) ) GW
7

3 DYJ

Therefore,
9P ,P
-------------- FRV ( 9 , )


3 DYJ

9P ,P
-------------- FRV ( )


2.37

, UPV



--- , P VLQ ( W  , ) GW
7


## Using the double angle trigonometric identity,

7

, UPV

,P 
----- --- FRV [  ( W  , ) ] GW

7 


Therefore,


, UPV

2.38

5 
9R

5 5
-----------------5  5
5 
--------------------9
5   5  L

, P 7
----- --7 

,P
----

N
--- VLQ ( W )


This is a sin wave with half the amplitude of the input with a period of 1s.

2.39

1
------S
1V

2.40

## RL = Ri = 100 for maximum power

2.41

The BNC cable is far more effective in shielding the input signals from electromagnetic
interference since no loops are formed.

12

9S
-----9V

9
------------9