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Crown owes its success to many people especially those who choose to incorporate Crown products into their projects. We respect your expertise, and are very grateful you turn to Crown for your amplifier needs. Your insightful feedback is invaluable, and helps us develop better ways to deliver the finest sound reproduction possible and leads to landmark innovations like DriveCore Technology. As a way of expressing our heartfelt thanks, we dedicate this book to you.




Weve been developing and refining amplifier technology since 1967, when we introduced the worlds first reliable, high-powered, solid-state amplifier, the DC 300. And our relentless commitment to constantly push the limits of sound, and the technology to deliver it, remains unwavering.

Led by the engineering genius of gerald stanley, our vice President of research and Development, Crowns reputation for technical prowess is world-renowned. gerald holds 31 patents in the U.s. alone, and his influence continues on our revolutionary DriveCore Technology, which features five patents applying to the advanced feedback, modulation, and output stage capabilities.

1947 Founders Ruby and Clarence Moore establish International Radio and Electronics Corporation, modifying and distributing high-quality tape recorders for rugged environments. 1950 Introduction of worlds first tape recorder with built-in power amplifier. Tone control circuitry further enhances this unit designed for PA system use. 1950s The vacuum tube tape recorder line includes the Standard, Imperial, Broadcast, Prince, and Royal. 1953 A three-motor electromagnetic braking mechanism revolutionizes the tape recorder industry. Speakers are designed and manufactured as accessories to tape recorders. 1954 Electromagnetic Braking Mechanism patent obtained by Clarence Moore. 1955 Tape recorder production grows and expands. 1958 The Royal makes its appearance as Crown's first stereo, 2-channel, tape recorder. 1959 Tape recorders take on a new rack-mount design with the introduction of the Crown Prince, along with the introduction of stand-alone vacuum tube amplifiers including the A15 and A30. 1959 Magnetic Recorder patent obtained by Clarence Moore. 1960-61 Tape recorder improvements include separate electronic and transport sections, push-button and relay control, and remote control capabilities. The Gold Crown Stereo X recorder includes several innovations in component electronics. 1962-63 Crown invents the first solid-state, professional-quality tape recorder. 1964 An industry first: the SA 20-20 solid-state amplifier is a low-profile unit only 1-3/4 inches high. 1967 Introducing the DC 300 amplifier: the worlds first reliable, solid-state, high-power amplifier raises the bar once more. Rated conservatively at 150 watts per channel, the amplifier features extremely low distortion and noise. 1968 The Pro 800 Series tape recorders feature a logic-controlled transport. 1969 High Fidelity magazine calls the DC 300 the worlds best amplifier. 1970 The new IC-150 pre-amp and D-150 amplifier feature exceptional sound quality. 1970 DC 300 Amplifier patent obtained by Gerald Stanley. 1971 Crown invents the grounded bridge amplifier. 1971 Thanksgiving Day fire destroys over 60% of the Crown facility and the remainder of the plant is severely damaged. Production resumes within six weeks with the D-60 amplifier. 1972 A new Crown plant emerges over the ashes of the former structure. 1972 Another industry first is the introduction of the M600/M2000 amplifier, featuring 2000 watts mono into 8 ohms, using the patented grounded-bridge circuit. 1974 Macro-Tech technology patents obtained by Gerald Stanley. 1975 International Radio and Electronics Corporation officially becomes Crown International, Inc. 1976 The patented EQ-2 synergistic equalizer is added to the Crown product family. 1977 Introduction of the DL-2 controller revolutionizes preamplification with digitally controlled modular systems, computer interface capabilities, and patented phono circuitry. The IOC (Input-Output-Comparitor) circuit instantly indicates amplifier overload conditions. 1978 Combining the newly introduced D-75 amplifier with the RTA2 (real-time analyzer) creates a compact, accurate, and easy-to-use instrument for acoustical analysis. 1979 Patented SA2 is the worlds first power amplifier to use a built-in computer to maximize transistor performance. The newly introduced FM ONE tuner is a design winner at the Consumer Electronics Show. 1980 Microphone manufacturing begins with the introduction of the PZM (Pressure Zone Microphone) family of microphones. 1981 FM TWO replaces FM ONE with a low-profile, digital-tuning design. 1982 Additional Macro-Tech technology patents obtained by Gerald Stanley. 1984 Micro-Tech family of amplifiers brings patented Grounded Bridge and Junction Temperature Simulation technologies to the audio world. PIP modules also provide input flexibility. 1986 The PCC-160, an advanced directional boundary microphone, is launched. 1987 The CM300 Differoid line of hand-held microphones is patented. 1987 The ultimate amplifier, MA10000, provides 10,000 watts of power. Its first application: delivering power for 465 speakers at the Indianapolis 500 Motor Speedway. 1988 The IQ-2000 System allows computer monitoring and control of up to 200 remote power amplifiers. 1988 Additional Macro-Tech technology patents obtained by Gerald Stanley. 1989 ComTech amps for fixed installations debut with direct 70-volt operation. 1989 The Patented SASS microphone becomes the first new stereo recording system since World War II, while the Macro Reference amp provides exceptional sonic performance for the studio market. 1991 IQ System & Networking patent obtained by Clay Barclay. 1992 MA-5000VZ amplifier featuring the Variable Impedance (VZ) bi-level power supply is added to the Macro-Tech Series, quickly becoming the touring standard for Sub cabinets. 1992 Development of the PZM-11 and PCC-170SW microphones. 1993 Introduction of the CM311, a head-worn microphone. First created for country music star, Garth Brooks. 1995 CM-700 studio condenser microphone earns rave reviews from both critics and users. 1996 A new 46,000 square foot facilities addition expands production capacity. 1996 The revolutionary K2 amplifier is the star of the NAMM show, offering 1270 watts mono output from a chassis only 3 inches high, and with no cooling fan. 1996 An industry first: integrating DSP into a production amplifier with the PIP DSP card. 1997 Class I Technology patent obtained by Gerald Stanley. 1998 CE1000 and CE2000 offer outstanding performance at an affordable price. 1999 The second-generation DSP-based amplifier module, IQ-PIP-USP2, provides amazing power and flexibility with an extensive list of features. 2000 Crown becomes a member of the HARMAN International family of Pro Audio companies. 2000 The CE4000 expands the CE Series to become the most cost-efficient amplifier yet. 2000 The IQ-USM 810 digital mixer/digital processor is an eight-input, ten-output, all-digital "system in a box." 2001 Adding IQ-PIP-USP2/CN to a PIP2 amp creates the industry's first CobraNet-compatible amplifier. 2002 Crown reinvents the IQ System and ships the world's first solution for transporting networked audio control and digital audio via a single 100 Mb Ethernet network connection. 2002 The introduction of the CTs Series as the new flagship installed sound amplifier, while the new XLS Series sets company sales records. 2003 I-Tech Amplifier patent obtained by Gerald Stanley. 2004 The launch of a new flagship amplifier line for the tour sound and corporate PA markets: the I-Tech Series. The world's most advanced power amplifier, I-Tech represents the pinnacle of Crown's decades of industry leadership and incorporates a host of advanced technologies. 2004 DriveCore Technology patent obtained by Gerald Stanley. 2005 More new product introductions than in any single year including the new Commercial Audio Series amplifiers, amplifier-mixers and pre-amplifier mixers, which earns a third-straight Technical Excellence & Creativity (TEC) Award in the Amplifier Technology category. 2006 Significant new amplifier lines arrive, including the XTi Series for portable PA, the CDi Series for installed sound and the DSi Series for cinema. The XTi becomes the most successful new product launch in Crown history. 2010 The launch of the XLS Series for portable PA featuring new DriveCore Technology the first amplifier in the DriveCore family of products. 2011 Production begins on the ComTech DriveCore for installed sound featuring DriveCore Technology. 2012 Introducing the I-Tech 4x3500HD for touring sound driven by DriveCore Technology.


Multiple patents more than any of our competitors combined. historical audio achievements. A never-ending list of industry-changing product introductions. Innovative technical advances. Crowns history is one of an uninterrupted list of achievements in sound. And as evidenced by DriveCore, were continuing to set new standards for Crowns future and for the entire industry as well.

sports stadiums. Nightclubs. houses of worship. People come to these venues to savor a range of experiences and sensations including sound. Crown ensures audiences worldwide enjoy the sounds they want to hear in a variety of settings with superb, industry-leading amplifier systems.

Universally delivering pure, powerful sound, setting global standards for pristine acoustic quality everywhere theyre installed, Crowns world-renowned amplifiers enrich every listeners audio experience.

Beijing National Stadium BEIJINg, ChINA

Club Surrender, Hotel Encore LAs vEgAs, NEvADA

Photo by Russell MacMasters Photography

CityCenter LAs vEgAs, NEvADA

From Crown

University of Notre Dame NOTrE DAME, INDIANA

Photo by Craig Moe

Lakewood Church hOUsTON, TExAs


Based on breakthroughs by our own gerald stanley, the foundational DriveCore circuitry is a culmination of nearly two decades of r&D in PWM and switch-mode amplification. Teaming up with Texas Instruments and their silicon design, we seamlessly integrated the amplifier drive stage into the power output stage and fused everything into one very tiny chip. By doing so, we created more efficiencies, long-term reliability and unsurpassed performance. A proprietary hybrid analog-digital integrated circuit thats bolstered by multiple patents, DriveCore leads a new era of sustainable excellence.



for such a small chip, DriveCore provides huge dividends. for example, the patented feedback and PWM modulation circuits for fast recovery on peak transients, accurate reproduction of low-level detail, and precise tracking of low frequencies at all power levels for the unrivaled performance expected from Crown. The front-end drive circuits leverage the inherent efficiency of Class D output stages while also maintaining superb sonic characteristics. The extremely wide tolerance for AC line conditions means whether youre on a normal power grid or fluctuating back-up generator power for Life-safety systems, DriveCore amps deliver sound thats never compromised. And, DriveCore offers greater accuracy, reduced weight and size, and best-in-class signal-to-noise performance. The end result? An ultra-efficient, one-piece audio amplifier circuit exhibiting the exemplary audio quality of a highly evolved Class AB design, giving you: signal-to-noise: >120dB Total harmonic distortion: < 0.001% Efficiency: > 90% Amp scalability: puts out 20W to 20kW


how best to describe the incomparable DriveCore Technology? Thats easy. As in, easy to save on utilities with its greater power efficiency, which means no wasted power. Easy to save on energy as well, since it was spearheaded by hArMANs greenEdge advanced technology initiative thats aimed at increasing performance and acoustic qualities while dramatically reducing energy consumption. Easy to generate more operating efficiency and reliability because it uses fewer parts. And as that allows lighter, space-saving designs, DriveCore amps are easy to maneuver and use anywhere you want. versatile and adaptable, DriveCore Technology easily provides the ultimate in optimization so you always have the right power available at all times in every Touring, Install, or Portable PA application. Delivering unmatched performance thats as effortless as it is enthralling, DriveCore powered amplifiers are a sound investment for venues large and small.

simply put, a 4x600W DriveCore amplifier can be used


Minimum size. Maximum efficiency. By reducing the part count by over 500, DriveCore Technology greatly reduces design complexity compared to that of traditional amplifiers. That makes our DriveCore amps more efficient and more reliable than those of our competitors.

anywhere and outperform existing amplifier technology by delivering more than twice the power while using just half the space of a 4x250W amp. This represents another historic milestone in our ongoing commitment to delivering audio products demanded by professionals and that please audiences worldwide.




Powerful? Without a doubt. DriveCore Technology is also versatile, which is why its a key component in a new wave of amplifiers taking sound reproduction to levels never heard before. The xLs DriveCore series now defines the standard for portable live sound systems. The I-Tech 4x3500hD represents the next generation of touring sound amplifiers. The ComTech DriveCore effortlessly demonstrates first-of-its-kind installed sound applications. Propelled by DriveCores matchless capabilities, well continue turning the industry on its ear for generations to come.


Building on our legacy of innovation and insight, DriveCore Technology is the line decisively separating Crown amplifiers from everyone else. DriveCore manifests itself in our flagship products, and clearly demonstrates why Crown continues to be the undisputed leader in sound amplification.

To thank all those who made it possible to develop such an advanced audio innovation as DriveCore Technology would require another book entirely. We are indebted to the expertise of all those who trust Crown products and in turn recommend them to all their customers. Consultants, contractors, tour accounts, distributors, architects, sound engineers the list is long, the insight given us invaluable. Thank you for your confidence in us, as well as your loyalty, support and honesty. May your business always be successful and sound!

Learn more at, or call your local Crown representative. 2012 Crown International