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FOOD CHEMISTRY AND ANALYSIS (CM9101)

(Previously known as CBC 961)

Instructor: Li Tianhu
Contact information of Li Tianhu Office: CBC-04-21 Telephone: 6513-7364 E-mail: thli@ntu.edu.sg Web page: http://www3.ntu.edu.sg/home/thli/

There are nine food chemistry and analysis experiments associated with this module which are supervised by Mrs. Bontawee Bates and assisted by Li Tianhu

Recommended textbooks:
1. Food Science & Nutrition Author: Sunetra Roday Year Published: 2007 Publisher: Oxford Higher Education ISBN 978-0-19-568911-2

2. Essentials of Food Science 3rd Author: Elizabeth W. Christian; PH.D. Vaclavik Vickie A Year Published: 2007 Publisher: Springer ISBN 978-0-387-69939-4

The questions of our midterm and final exams will be exclusively from our lecture notes rather than from our textbooks
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Topics to be covered this semester:

Part
1

2
3 4 5 6

Topics Introduction to Food Chemistry and Water Content Fat and Oil Products Proteins in Food Carbohydrates in Food Food Browning Food Colors Special Topics
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Our lecture notes will be posted on Edventure 3 days in advance

About midterm and final exams:


There will be two midterm exams. The higher mark out of your two exams will be taken as the final grade of your midterm exams (CA). Mid term exams will be held on 27 September 2012 and 1 November 2012 respectively There is no correlation between the easiness of the questions in our midterms and those in our final exams Weighting of CA, Lab and our final exam:
Module
CM9101 Food Chemistry and Analysis

CA
20

Lab
30

Final Exam
50

About the formats of our midterm and final exams:


(1) 20 multiple-choice questions in each of our two midterm exams; (2) 40 marks of multiple choice questions and 60 marks of short essay questions I will provide you with the samples of our midterm and final exam questions in due course Again, the questions of our midterm and final exams will be exclusively from our lecture notes rather than from our textbooks
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MC issue:
There will be no makeup test for our midterm exams (CA) If you miss both mid term exams, calculation of the marks of your missing mid term exams will be given by our division based on standard rules When you submit your MC documents, please make sure that you submit them to the right personnel in SPMS who is in charge of the MC issue

Consultation hours:
(1) Please feel free to knock my office door after each lecture on Thursdays and any other time

(2) You may send me an email to make an appointment with me in advance

Part 1. Introduction to Food Chemistry and Water Activity Section 1: Introduction to Food Chemistry
Definition of Food Chemistry:

Food Chemistry is the study of chemical composition and chemical changes of food components while the focuses of food chemistry are often on the three major components in food: (1) Fats (oil) (2) proteins (3) carbohydrates
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Definition of Food
Foods are edible parts of (1) Plant

(2) Animal
(3) Single-cell organisms (e.g. algae) (4) Fungi which can be eaten and digested by human being Food is the source of nutrients
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(1) Examples of food from plant sources

(2) Examples of food from animal source

I personally respect people who dont eat meat

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(3) Single-cell organisms (e.g. algae)

Spirulina algae

(4) Fungi products

Mushrooms

Yeast

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Nutrients
A nutrient is a substance that an organism relies on to live and grow, which must be taken from its environments. Nutrients are used to (1) Build and repair tissues (2) Provide energy (3) Regulate some metabolic processes

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Macronutrients and Micronutrients


Macronutrients (consumed greater than one gram/day): [1] Fats (Oil) [2] Proteins [3] Carbohydrates [4] Water Micronutrients (consumed less than 100 micrograms/day): [4] Minerals [5] Vitamins
Note: Definition of macronutrients and micronutrients varies depending on textbooks
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Components of food
Components of food generally include 1. Proteins 2. Saccharides 3. Lipids Nutrients 4. Water 5. Minerals 6. Vitamins 7. Nonprotein nitrogenous compounds 8. Colorants Little is known about their 9. Flavour and aroma compounds nutritional roles 10. Others
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Example of sources of nutrients

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Part 1. Introduction to Food Chemistry and Water Activity Section 2: Water Content
1. Water content or Moisture Content is the quantity of water contained in a food:

w (water content) = mw / mb
where mw is the mass of water and mb is the bulk mass 2. Water Content is a useful concept for us to understand the chemical composition and nutritional value of food
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Examples of food that contain high percentage of water

Besides Water Content, there is a useful concept called Water Activity, which will be discussed in CBC 963 (Food Processing and Preservation)

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CM9101 Food Chemistry and Analysis


Experiment 1: Content in Food Determination of Moisture

Food: Sesame seeds Method to remove water: keep your sesame seeds at 130C for specified time periods (following Mrs. Bates instruction)

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Components of food
Components of food generally include 1. Proteins 2. Saccharides 3. Lipids Nutrients 4. Water 5. Minerals 6. Vitamins 7. Nonprotein nitrogenous compounds, 8. Colorants, 9. Flavour and aroma compounds, 10. Others

Little is known about their nutritional value


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Part 2. Fat and Oil Products


Section 1: Section 2: Section 3: Fatty acids Triglycerides Modification of fats

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Section 1: Fatty acids


A fatty acid is a carboxylic acid with a long and unbranched aliphatic chain (usually with carbon number >8). The smallest fatty acid found in triglycerides is butyric acid (C4) Fatty acids can be divided into: 1. Saturated fatty acids 2. Monounsaturated fatty acids 3. Polyunsaturated fatty acids

3. Triglycerides are the main components of food oil while fatty acids, if they exist in food oil, are considered as decomposition products. That is, fatty acids exist in their triester forms in food oil rather than in the forms of free fatty acids
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Long-chain fatty acid: hydrocarbon chain contains 12 to 26 carbons Medium-chain fatty acids: C8 to C10 Short-chain fatty acids: C4 to C6 Natural fatty acids nearly always contain an even number of carbon atoms

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Saturated fatty acids


Saturated fatty acid is fatty acid that contains only carboncarbon single bonds in its aliphatic chain

An example of saturated fatty acids is lauric acid that contains 12 carbons in its hydrocarbon chain:
Lauric acid

hydrophilic

lipophilic

The values Hydrophilic-Lipophilic Balance of a molecule is a measure of the degree to which it is hydrophilic or lipophilic
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Examples of saturated fatty acids (in the form of triglycerides) and their food source
Fatty acid Butyric acid Caproic acid Caprylic acid No. of carbon atoms 4 6 8 Food Source Butter Butter Coconut, palm kernel

Lauric acid
Mysteric acid Palmitic acid Stearic acid

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14 16 18

Palm kernel, coconut


Coconut, butter Palm, soya, sesame, butter, lard, cotton seed Beef tallow, cocoa butter, lard

Butyric acid is the smallest fatty acid found in triglycerides


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Monounsaturated fatty acids


Monounsaturated fatty acid is fatty acid that contains one carbon-carbon double bond in its hydrocarbon chain The configuration of biochemically important monounsaturated fatty acids is nearly always cis Oleic acid is an example of monounsaturated fatty acid. It is a type of -9 fatty acids An -9 fatty acid is a fatty acid that contains a double bond (C=C) starting after the ninth carbon atom from the end of the carbon chain
10 11 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

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Oleic acid
One cis double bond

Polyunsaturated fatty acids


Polyunsaturared fatty acid is fatty acid that contains two or more (up to six) carbon-carbon double bonds in its hydrocarbon chain Linolenic acid is an example of polyunsaturated fatty acids. It is also a type of w-3 fatty acids An -3 fatty acid is a fatty acid that contains a double bond (C=C) starting after the third carbon atom from the end of the carbon chain
10 11 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

Linolenic acid

3 cis double bonds


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Essential fatty acids


1) Essential fatty acids (EFAs) are polyunsaturated fatty acids that cannot be synthesized by human body. There are basically two types of essential fatty acids known for humans: a) -Linolenic acid (an omega-3 fatty acid), which contains an 18-carbon chain and three cis double bonds.

i. ii.

Flax seed oil contains 55% of -linolenic acid. "The weight of the evidence favors recommendations for modest dietary consumption of -linolenic acid (2 to 3 g per day) for the primary and secondary prevention of coronary heart disease1.
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1Mozaffarian

D (2005). "Does -linolenic acid intake reduce the risk of coronary heart disease? A review of the evidence". Alternative therapies in health and medicine 11 (3): 2430;

b) Linoleic acid (an omega-6 fatty acid), which contains a


18-carbon chain and two cis double bonds

i. A lack of linoleum acid and other n-6 fatty acids in the diet causes dry hair, hair loss, and poor wound healing.

ii. Safflower, sunflower, and corn oils contain over half (by weight) of linoleic acid . Achieving a deficiency in linoleic acid is nearly impossible when a person consumes any normal diet. Thus deficiency in linoleic acid is not considered to be of clinical concern. iii. This is the reason why we dont often see that linoleum acid or essential fatty acids are sold in nutrition store

2. It should be emphasized again here that essential fatty acids in all food sources do not exist in their free fatty acid forms. Instead, they occur in the forms of triglycerides (triester forms)
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Section 2: Triglycerides
Glycerol:
Secondary carbon

sn1 CH2 sn2 CH sn3 CH2

OH OH OH

Tertiary carbon
Secondary carbon

sn is stereospecific numbering of triglycerides Glycerol is polyol (triol), which can also be considered as a sugar alcohol
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Triglycerides:
Triglyceride is a triester formed between glycerol and three fatty acids:

Triglyceride can be divided into simple and mixed triglycerides

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Fat and oil


A fat is a triglyceride mixture that is solid or semi-solid at room temperature (25 oC). An oil is a triglyceride mixture that is a liquid at room temperature (25 oC).

However, the terms fat and oil are used sometimes interchangeably. For example, when we say artificial fat substitute, we are in fact talking about artificially synthesized cooking oil

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Visible fat and Invisible fat


Visible fat is the type of fat that can be seen through our naked eyes. e.g. salad oil and vegetable oil for cooking

Invisible fat the fat present in food, which we cannot easily seen through our naked eyes. e.g. the fat in a whole milk

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Section 3: Modification of fats


1. Hydrogenation 2. Interesterifcation 3. Acetylation

4. Winterization

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Hydrogenation (of fat)


Hydrogenation is a process of adding hydrogen to unsaturated fatty acid residue of a triglyceride to reduce the number of double bonds (food processing)
O O C O O C O O C

H2
O O C O

Ni catalyst

O C O O C

Many food products are produced via partial hydrogenation rather than complete hydrogenation

+
O O C O

partially hydrogenated

O C O O C

trans fat 34

The purposes of hydrogenation in general are twofold: i. To convert liquid oils to semisolid or plastic fats. For examples: a) some peanut butter is produced from vegetable oil through partial hydrogenation b) Solid cooking shortening and stick margarine are produced from liquid plant oil through partial hydrogenation To increase the thermal and oxidative stability of the fat, and thus the shelf life. That is, polyunsaturated fats are subject to oxidative rancidity. Thus, reducing the number of double bonds by hydrogenation increases their stability

ii.

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The process of hydrogenation causes conversion of some cis double bounds to the trans configuration Tub margarines usually contain trans fatty acid at least 1320%

Trans fatty acid is undesirable. Preliminary studies indicate that trans fat raises low-density lipoproteins (LDL), which consequently increases the risk of coronary heart disease

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Question 1. Please describe correlation between food and nutrients Question 2. Please tell why food manufacturers often carry out hydrogenation on food oil

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