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Definition of a SEQUENCE

A SEQUENCE is a function whose domain is the set of natural numbers. The terms of the sequences are the function values

f(1), f(2), f(3),, f(n), Usually instead of f(n), an is used


a1, a2, a3, , an,

a1 is called the first term, an is called the nth term

Examples of SEQUENCES
Height that the bouncing ball reaches after each bounce Amount in a bank account at the end of each month, mortage payments, and amount of anuity

5, 10, 15, 20, 25,


2, 6, 8, 10, 1, -1/2, 1/3, -1/4, 1/5,

Examples of SEQUENCES
Finding the terms of a sequence 1. Find the first five terms and the 100th term of the sequence defined by each formula. a. an = 2n -1 b. cn = n2 -1 c. tn = n/(n+1) d. rn = (-1)n/2n

Examples of SEQUENCES
Finding the nth term of a sequence 2. Find the nth term of the sequence whose first several terms are given
1 3 5 7 a. , , , , 2 4 6 8

b. -2, 4, -8, 16, -32,

c.

3 5 7 9 1, , , , , 4 9 16 25

Examples of SEQUENCES
Finding the terms of a RECURSIVELY defined sequences (the nth term of the sequence depends

on some or all of the terms preceding it)

3. Find the first five terms of the sequence defined recursively by


a. a1 = 1 and an = 3(an-1 +2)

b.

a1 = 1, a2 = 2, and an = an-1 + an-2


(Fibonacci Sequence)

Partial SUMS of a SEQUENCE


For the sequence Partial sums are

a1, a2, a3, , an,

S1 or the 1st partial sum = a1 S2 or the 2nd partial sum = a1 + a2 Sn or the nth partial sum = a1 + a2 + a3 + + an
The sequence S1, S2, , Sn is called the sequence of partial sums

Partial SUMS of a SEQUENCE


Find the first four partials sums and the nth partial sum of the given sequences: =
1 2

= 1
1 1

1 2

= 1

1 +1

= + 1

Summation of Sigma () notation


Given a sequence

a1, a2, a3, a4,


In summation or sigma notation sum of the first n terms is

= 1 + 2 + +
=1

The sum of ak from k = 1 to k = n

Summation of Sigma () notation


PROPERTIES

=
=1 =1


=1

=
=1 =1

Summation of Sigma () notation


Find each sum.
5

2
=1 5

=5 6

2
=1

Summation of Sigma () notation


Find each sum.
3

=1

1 + 1
=1 5

21
=1

Summation of Sigma () notation


Write each sum using sigma notation. a. 13 + 23 +43++73

b. 3 + 4 + 5 + + 77 c.
1 1 + + 22 33

1 100100

d. 1 + x + x2 + x3 ++ x100 e. 1 -2x + 3x2 4x3 +-100x99

Definition of an ARITHMETIC SEQUENCE


An ARITHMETIC SEQUENCE is a sequence of the form a, a + d, a +2d, a + 3d, a + 4d The nth term of an arithmetic sequence is given by = + 1
a is called the first term, d is the common difference

Definition of an ARITHMETIC SEQUENCE


= + 1 a is called the first term, d is the common difference
1. Find the first six terms and the 300th term of the arithmetic sequence 13,7, 2. Determine the common difference, d, the 5th term, the nth term and the 100th term of the arithmetic sequence 2, 5, 8, 11,

3. The 11th term of an arithmetic sequence is 52, and the 19th is 92. Find the 1000th term.

Partial SUMS of an ARITHMETIC SEQUENCE


For the arithmetic sequence is given by = + 1
The nth partial sum Sn = a + (a + d) + (a +2d) ++[a + (n-1)d]
is given by either of the following: = 2 + 1 2 + = 2

Partial SUMS of an ARITHMETIC SEQUENCE


= 2 + 1 2 + = 2

1. Find the partial sum of the arithmetic sequence if a = 1, d = 2, and n = 10. 2. Find the sum of the first 40 terms of the arithmetic sequence 3, 7, 11, 15, 3. The 10th term of an arithmetic sequence is 55/2, and the 2nd term is 7/2. Find the 20th partial sum.

Partial SUMS of an ARITHMETIC SEQUENCE


= 2 + 1 2 + = 2

1. An amphitheater has 50 rows of seats with 30 seats in the first row, 32 in the 2nd , 34 in the 3rd , and so on. Find the total number of seat.

2. An architect designs a theater with 15 seats in the first row, 18 in the 2nd , 21 in the 3rd ,and so on. If the theater is to have a seating capacity of 870, how many rows must the architect use in his design?

Partial SUMS of an ARITHMETIC SEQUENCE


= 2 + 1 2 + = 2

1. Telephone poles are being stored in a pile with 25 poles in the first layer, 24 in the 2nd , and so on. If there are 12 layers, how many telephone poles does the pile contain?

Partial SUMS of an ARITHMETIC SEQUENCE


= 2 + 1 2 + = 2

1. When an object is allowed to fall freely near the surface of the earth, the gravitational pull is such that the object falls 16 ft in the first second, 48 ft in the next second, 80 ft in the next second, and so on. a) Find the total distance a ball falls in 6 seconds b) Find a formula for the total distance a ball falls in n seconds

HARMONIC SEQUENCE
A sequence is harmonic if the reciprocals of the terms of the sequence form an arithmetic sequence. 3 3 1 1, , , , 5 7 3 The harmonic mean of two numbers is the reciprocal of the average of the reciprocals of the two numbers. Find the harmonic mean of 3 and 5.

Definition of a GEOMETRIC SEQUENCE


GEOMETRIC SEQUENCE is a sequence of the form a, ar, ar2, ar3, ar4,

The nth term of an arithmetic sequence is given by = 1


a is called the first term, r is the common ratio

Definition of a GEOMETRIC SEQUENCE


Examples: If a = 3 and r = 2, then an = 3(2)n-1 The sequence 2, -10, 50, -250, 1250
Suppose a ball has elasticity such that when it is dropped, it bounces up one third of the distance it has fallen. 1 1 1 1 = 0 = 0 3 3 3

= 1

Definition of a GEOMETRIC SEQUENCE


Examples: The third term of a geometric sequence is 63/4, and the sixth term is 1701/32. Find the fifth term.
63 3 = = 31 = 2 4 3 = ; = 7 2 6 = 61 = 5

= 1

3 5 = 7 2

51

567 = 16

Partial SUMS of an GEOMETRIC SEQUENCE


For the arithmetic sequence is given by
The nth partial sum

= 1
(r 1)

Sn = a + ar + ar2 ++ arn-1

is given by:
1 = 1

Partial SUMS of an GEOMETRIC SEQUENCE


1 = 1 Find the sum of the first five terms of the geometric sequence 1, 3, 9, Find the sum.

1 + 3 + 9 + + 2187

Partial SUMS of an GEOMETRIC SEQUENCE


1 = 1 Find the sum.
5

=1 10

2 7 3 1 3 2

=0

SUM of INFINITE GEOMETRIC SERIES


Suppose you have a cake, and you want to eat it by first eating half of the cake, then eating half of what remains., then again eating half of what remains

SUM of INFINITE GEOMETRIC SERIES


Other examples

SUM of INFINITE GEOMETRIC SERIES


If < 1, the infinite geometric series

1 = + + 2 +
=1

Converges and has a sum = 1 If 1, the series diverges.

SUM of INFINITE GEOMETRIC SERIES


If < 1, the infinite geometric series

1 = + + 2 +
=1

Converges and has a sum = 1 If 1, the series diverges.

SUM of INFINITE GEOMETRIC SERIES


If < 1, the infinite geometric series + + 2 + , converges and has a sum, = 1 If 1, the series diverges. Determine whether the infinite geometric series is convergent or divergent. If it is convergent, find its sum. 2 2 2 2+ + + + 5 25 125

7 7 1+ + 5 5

WORD PROBLEM
A ball in dropped from a height of 80 ft. The elasticity of this ball is such that it rebounds three-fourths of the distance it has fallen. How high does the ball rebound on the fifth bounce? Find a formula for how high the ball rebounds on the nth bounce. ANSWERS: 19 ft, = 80
3 4

WORD PROBLEM
A truck radiator holds 5 gal and is filled with water. A gallon of water is removed from the radiator and replaced with a gallon of antifreeze; then a gallon of the mixture (after a gallon of water in the truck radiator is replaced with a gallon of antifreeze) is removed from the radiator and again replaced by a gallon of a gallon of antifreeze. This process is repeated infinitely. How much water remains in the tank after this process is repeated 3 times? 5 times? N times?
64 ANSWERS: 25 1024 , 625

, 5

4 5

Principle of Mathematical Induction


For each natural number n, let P(n) be a statement depending on n. Suppose that the following two conditions are satisfied.

1. P(1) is true. 2. For every natural number k, P(k) is true then P(k+1) is true.
Then P(n) is true for all natural numbers n.
STEPS in proving: Prove that P(1) is true. Assume that P(k) [induction hypothesis] is true, and use this to prove that P(k+1) is true.