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What is a Watershed? Hydrologically, watershed is an area from which the runoff flows to a common point on the drainage system.

Every stream, tributary, or river has an associated watershed, and small watersheds aggregate together to become larger watersheds. Thus, all land everywhere is part of some watershed. essentially a watershed is all the land and water area which contributes run off to a common point. Water travels from headwater to the downward location and meets with similar strength of stream, then it forms one order higher stream as shown in Figure-1

WHY WATERSHED DEVELOPMENT Watershed is not simply the hydrological unit but also socio-political-ecological entity which plays crucial role in determining food, social, and economical security and provides life support services to rural people. All the processes within the limits of a watershed influence one another. The sustainability of any process this depends upon understanding there. The need of the hour is to shift towards revival oriented development. It is difficult to regenerate resources without conserving them. The process of conservation begins with better and efficient management of primary resources. Land (Soil) and water conservation are insuperable and their

interaction influences the quality of life or living standards. The only option to manage this interaction of primary resources is to work within a hydrologically defined unit i.e. watershed.

EXPECTED OUTCOME Each watershed development project is expected to achieve following results by the end of project period. (i) All works / activities that the are planned for the treatment and development of use the drainage lines, arable and non-arable lands in the watershed area and completed with the active participation and contribution of user groups. (ii) The user groups / panchayats have willingly taken over the operation and made suitable administrative and financial arrangements for their maintenance and future development. (iii) The village community would have been organized into several homogeneous self-help groups for savings and other income generation activities which would have achieved sufficient commitment from their members and built up financial resources to be self sustaining.

Linkages and working in harmony with nature. Watershed development is therefore a conscious effort to optimize and maintain the productivity of the land through integrated and optimal utilization of resources, appropriate land use practices, causing least environmental damage or disturbance. It is an attempt towards focusing all attention on a naturally defined area. To put is simply, the watershed approach emphasizes the word local-local resource based, local problem based, local need based and local priority based development. Watershed approach also endeavours to identify traditional and indigenous wisdom of the local people and to utilize it as a driving force in related activities. CONSTRAINTS IN WATERSHED DEVELOPMENT:There are many natural and man-made limiting factors that tend to inhibit normal pace of watershed development i) Lack of awareness ii) Lack of peoples participation especially women folk iii) Lack of accessibility due to difficult topography and poor infrastructural facilities. iv) Sensitive environment v) Lack of technical know how and required manpower. vi) Access to information (Data collection) vii) Financial constructs viii) Corruption at implementation stage.

What is Command Area The whole area which can be fed by a system of main canal , branch canals, distributaries and minors to provide sufficient irrigation water to meet crop demand of that area

Command Area Development Programme (CADP) This scheme, sponsored by the central government was launched in 1974-75 with the objective of bridging the gap between irrigation potential created and that utilized for ensuring efficient utilization of created irrigation potential and increasing the agricultural productivity from irrigated lands on a sustainable basis. The programme envisages integrating various activities relating to irrigated agriculture through a multi-disciplinary team under an area development authority in a coordinated manner. The existing components of the CADP are as follows:1. Construction of Field channel: Field channel is the core component under CADWM Programme. The field channels facilitate in carrying out water from out lets of minors, distributaries etc. up to tail end at very short time preventing loss of seepage in agricultural land. This helps in rotational water supply in judicious manner to each field to achieve higher production. 2. Construction of Field drain: Field drains help in draining out surplus water from the agricultural land to main and trunk drain. This prevents water logging in the crop field by which higher productivity is achieved and it helps intaking up cash crops after draining out the excess water from the field. 3. On farm development works, that is, development of field channels and field drains within the command of each outlet, land leveling on an outlet command basis; reclamation of water logged areas; enforcement of a proper system of rotational water supply (like the warabandi) and fair distribution of water to individual fields; realignment of field boundaries, wherever necessary (where possible, consolidation of holding are also combined)supply of all inputs and service including credit; strengthening of extension services; and encouraging farmers for participatory irrigation management. 4. Selection and introduction of suitable cropping patterns. 5. Development of groundwater to supplement surface irrigation (conjunctive use under minor irrigation sector) 6. Development and maintenance of the main and intermediate drainage system. 7. Modernization, maintenance and efficient operation of the irrigation system up to the outlet of one cusec (1ft3/sec) capacity.

8. Reclamation of Waterlogged and Saline Lands:In order to reclaim the waterlogged and saline areas in the irrigated commands, surface drainage as well as sub surface drainage systems are developed alongwith the option of bio-drainage at suitable locations. 9. Farmers Training: Training camps are organized in villages to educate the farmers on water management and crop management. This is important activity for educating the farmers to adopt modern technologies for achieving higher production with regulated water supply. For an overall appreciation of an entire irrigation project it is essential that the objectives of the CAD be kept in mind by the water resources engineer.

Hydrological Cycle: Assignment Why are canals required? Canals are artificial channels constructed for carrying water from reservoir to the field for irrigation purpose. Classification of canals: Canals are classified on the following basis Soils through which they are constructed: Alluvial and Non alluvial Alignment: Watershed, contour and side slope Capacity: main, Branch, Major distributary, Minor distributary, Water courses and field channels Source of supply: Permanent, Inundation Function served: Feeder, Conveyance, Distribution, Hydel, navigation, Multipurpose Financial output: Productive, Protective Construction type: lined, unlined

Alluvial and non-alluvial Canal The soil which is formed by transportation and deposition of silt through the agency of water, over a course of time, is called the alluvial soil. The canals when excavated through such soils are called alluvial canals. Canal irrigation (direct irrigation using a weir or a barrage) is generally preferred in such areas, as compared to the storage irrigation (i.e. by using a dam). These soils are easily scoured and deposited. Such soils are available in Indo-gangetic plains of Northern India. It has an uneven topography, and hard foundations are generally available. The rivers, passing through such areas, have no tendency to shift their courses, and they do not pose much problems for designing

irrigation structures on them. Canals, passing through such areas are called non-alluvial Canals. Such canals are found in Central and Southern India. Water-shed canal: The canal which is aligned along any natural watershed, is watershed or ridge canal. For such a canal , water is taken out by gravity on either side of the canal directly through small irrigation channel, Moreover cross drainage works are avoided as natural drainage will never cross a watershed canal, as all drainage flows the watershed canal.

Contour Canal: A canal that is aligned nearly parallel to the contour of the land. It can irrigate area only on the one side As the ground level on the other side is higher. Here the drainage is always at right angles to the contour.

Side slope canal: A canal which is aligned at right angles to the contour of the land. It is neither on the watershed nor in the valley but is somewhere in between the two along the slope. Canal is parallel to the natural drainage flow and hence no cross drainage is required.

Classification based on capacity:

Main canal A main canal takes it supply directly from the source or the river. The size of the main canal will depend upon the size of the irrigation system. The capacity of main canals in India varies from 425 to 280 cubic metres per second. Direct irrigation is usually not carried out from the main canals.

Branch Canal - Branch canals or branches take off from the main canals and convey the water to different major parts of the irrigated areas. Branch canals generally carry a discharge from 8.5 to 4.0 cubic metres per second. Direct irrigation is generally not done from large branches. However, smaller branch canals may be provided with outlets for delivery of water to the fields.

Major Distributory Major Distributaries take off from branch canals and sometimes from smaller main canals and these channels supply water to minor distributaries or outlets. Major distributaries generally carry between 5.5 to 0.7 cubic metres per second of discharge.

Minor Distributory Minor distributaries or minors are smaller channels taking their supply from major distributaries and supplying water to outlets. The carrying capacity of a minor is usually less than 750 litres per second. Watercourses take of from distributaries.

Canal Outlet - Outlets are provided in an irrigation canal system at suitable points. The size of an outlet depends upon the irrigated area. The rate of flow depends on the size of the opening and the head of water above the outlet. The common types of outlets used in canals in northern India are (i) adjustable proportionate module (ii) open flume outlet and (iii) pipe outlet and (iv) siphon outlet.

Water Course A Water course as defined in the northern India canal and drainage act, means any channel which is supplied with water from a canal but which is not maintained at the cost of the (state) Government and all subsidiary works belonging to any such channels. The water course pass through the common land and is maintained by the farmers. The carrying capacity of a water course generally varies from 30 to 120 litres per second.

Field Channel Field channels originate from the water courses and carry water to the individual fields. However, in the rice irrigated areas of southern India, field channels are normally absent, as the conventional practice is to irrigate from field to field. The overflow from the upper field irrigates the adjoining lower field, and so on.

Classification based on source of supply: Permanent: canal which get continuous supply from the source throughout the year. Source may be from a dam, barrage or perennial river Inundation: Non perennial canal which flows only in summer months when river water is high. They do not have permanent headworks or barrage across the river. Classification based on function served: Feeder canal: Canal located outside the command area meant to convey water from one source of supply or system to another or within the same system. Also known as link canal Hydel canal: canal on which power houses are setup for hydel power generation. A hydel canal can serve for irrigation purpose as well Navigation canal: used for transportation by water Multipurpose canal: A canal meant for two or more purposes such as irrigation navigation , power generation, water supply etc.

Classification based Financial output: Productive canal: from which net revenue is derived within say 10 years after completion date or more that the prevailing rate of interest on the total capital outlay.

Protective canal: is the one which is constructed as a relief work during famine affected area and to protect the area against famine in future years

Classification based on construction type: Lined canal Bottom and side of canal are brick or cement concrete lined. Unlined canal: bed and banks made up of natural soil through which it is constructed and does not have any lining material