Midterm notes

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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Midterm notes

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

- Procedure in Assessing the Body Temperature Using a Mercury Thermometer
- Calculation of Dynamic Impedance of Foundations
- 06 Lab - Heating Up Water
- Temp
- Suspension Bridge
- Oscillations QA
- BME301Thermometer Paper
- shm
- PH2130C 2007 Exam Paperaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa
- sdof,tie
- Lecture 2 Static and Dynamic Analysis
- Wave Condition
- EG2110-D2
- 23_7
- Newton Light
- Modal Analysis Spreadsheet
- Mechanical Vibrations
- Guia tecnica para temperatura
- First.pdf
- VIBRATION - (Complete Notes)

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Thermodynamics

property that changes with temperature Different ways of measure temperature 1) Expansion of a fluid. 2) Electrical 3) Mechanical expansion of solid. 4) Expansion of a gas.

There are many others not listed.

Thermodynamics

Thermal Contact

1) A B C

2)

B C

3)

Thermodynamics

1) A B C

A&C and C&B

What can we say about the temperature of the the three objects? Thermal Equilibrium: when the cooling stops. The zeroth law of thermodynamics: If two objects are in thermal equilibrium with a third, then they are in thermal equilibrium with each other.

Two objects are defined to have the same temperature if they are in thermal equilibrium with each other. How to measure temperature: Simple start is to pick at thermometric property which linear.

L 100

L0

tc =

X 100 C

L 100 - L 0

tc =

Pt

- P0

X 100 C P

P100 - P0

Kelvin scale

The thermometer will go to P = 0 at some temperature which is -273.15C. Experiment give us this number along with PV T = constant

We can also define a new temperature so that 0K (kelvin) is -273.15C and take 1K to be 1C.

Still a problem with temperature how do we calibrate the Thermometer? Namely, how do we decide when we at Freezing or boiling? The triple point of water is for pressure at 4.58mm Hg and temperature 0.01C.

T= T 446C

444C

H2 P

Graph of temperature as a function pressure for constant volume gas thermometer with different gases.

Thermal Expansion

As the temperature changes the length of a material changes. L = L0 T is a constant for the material, L is the change in length, L0 the length, and T is the change in temperature. Not all material expand with increase in temperature.

Linear Expansion

L = L0 T

If T is small L should be small and so L0 L, then one can take the limit of our above equation, namely,

L = L0 L T

dL = L dT

Expansion coefficients

2.4X10-5 K-1 2.0X10-5 K-1 1.7X10-5 K-1 0.4-0.9X10-5 K-1 0.04X10-5 K-1 0.09X10-5 K-1 1.2X10-5 K-1

The expansion formula given thus far is for linear materials, however, the area and volume also change and those changes can be obtained from the linear equation. Example: In order to see, this take a square of metal of area A, at temperature T, and expansion coefficient .

L W

change in area A.

If T is small, then A+ A = A+ 2 A T . Finally, A = 2 A T. For volume, V = 3 V T.

Basic Expansion Formulae and Stress Stress and strain: (read Chap 11-4 & 11-5) Hookes Law: (Stress)/(Strain) = (Elastic modulus)

where B is the bulk modulus.

Example

You are told to design a steel bridge is 600m long. How Much allowance must be made for the linear expansion in A temperature range -40C to +40C? L = L T Use steel = 1.05x10-5 K-1.

L = (1.05x10-5 K-1) (600m) (80K) L = 50 cm Standard expansion joints allow this much expansion.

Example

Design a gasoline tank to store gasoline in a temperature range -20C to 40C. Must be able to ll it any time of year and not lose more than 0.1% of gasoline to overow. Use gasoline = 9.5 x 10-4 K-1. If you never spill any gasoline you need =1/3 gasoline V V V V = -0.001 gas

tank

The maximum is obtain by lling the tank at the high temperature. 3 max T- gas T= -0.001

Physics 153 Solve for max. 2007 by Don Witt max = -0.001+ gas T = -0.001+9.5X10-4 K-1(-20-40)K 3 (-20-40)K 3 T max = 3.2 X10-4 K-1 Similarly, min is found by lling the tank at low temperature. V V V V = 0.001 tank

gas

min = 0.001- gas T = 0.001+9.5X10-4 K-1(40-(-20))K -3 (40-(-20))K -3 T min= 3.1 X10-4 K-1 so 3.1 X10-4 K-1 < < 3.2 X10-4 K-1

Example:

The gure on the right below shows a simple model of a pendulum for a grandfathers clock. It consists of a steel bar steel = 11 x 10-6 K-1 of length Lsteel, an aluminum bar Al = 24 x 10-6 K-1 of length LAl and the pendulum bob. Both bars are of negligible weight and are connectedat their bottom ends. The bob is attached to the top end of the aluminum bar.

Build a grandfathers clock using the pendulum in the sketchthat Pivot with L = 24.82 cm such that the period does not change due to point temperature changes. In other words, pick Lsteel and Lal such that L doesnt change because the period depends L

on L.

0 = L = Lsteel - LAl

Lsteel

LAl

Physics 153 2007 by Don Witt 0 = steel Lsteel T - Al LAl T So steel Lsteel = Al LAl this tells us that Lsteel / LAl = Al / steel = 24/11 24.82 cm = L = Lsteel - LAl (1) (2)

Equation (1) gives Lsteel = 24/11 LAl . Plug this into equation (2) yields 24.82 cm = Lsteel - LAl = 24/11 LAl - LAl .

Solving, 24.82 cm = (24/11 - 11/11) LAl =13/11 LAl, thus LAl = 21.00 cm and Lsteel = 24.82 cm + LAl = 45.82cm

Physics 153 Example 2007 by Don Witt A 300cm3 glass is lled with 100g of ice at -5C and 200g of water at 25C. What is the content of the glass at equilibrium and the temperature? (Assume the system is isolated) Start Ice and water The equations needed are Q = mc T and Q = m L

The total heat change for the system is zero. Qsystem = Qice + Qwater = 0 The ice term is tricky. It includes the heat to raise the ice from -5C to 0C plus the heat to melt the ice plus the plus raise that water to its nal temperature.

Qice = Qice to melting point + Qmelt ice + Qwater from ice Qice = mice cice Tice + mice Lice + mice cwater Twater from ice cice = 2100 J/kg K Lice = 334 x 103 J/kg cwater = 4190 J/kg K Qice = (0.100kg) (2100 J/kg K)(0C-(-5C))+ (0.100kg)(334 x 103 J/kg)+ (0.100kg) (4190 J/kg K)(T-0C)) Qice= 34,450 J + 419 J/K T Qwater = ((0.200kg) (4190 J/kg C)(T-25C)) = (838 J/C)(T-25C)

Physics 153 2007 by Don Witt Qice + Qwater = 0 so 34,450 J + 419 J/C T + (838 J/C)(T-25C) = 0 Solve for T: 34,450 J - 20,950 J + (1257 J/C)T = 0 T= -11C answer This answer is just totally wrong note the temperature is lower than the start temperature! The only explanation is the ice never melted! So there is not enough energy to melt all of the ice. To understand this Qice= 34,450 J + 419 J/K T when T = 0C gives 34,450 J which means you need, however, Qwater = (838 J/C)(T-25C) gives -20,950 J at T = 0C.

Physics 153 2007 by Don Witt There is not enough heat to freeze the water because to freeze 200g of water it would take Q=(.200kg)(334 x 103 J/kg ) which is 66800J. Final temperature must be 0C and have an ice water mixture. Try your self, nd how much ice melts in last example.

Heat: When two objects are in contact and and the energy transfer is due solely to temperature difference the energy transferred is called heat. The transfer is called heat flow. The letter Q is used to denote heat. Units for heat 1 cal = 4.186 J 1 kcal = 1000 cal 1 Btu = 778 ft lb = 1055 J

Heat

Molar heat capacity: Q = nC T n is the number of moles. Phase changes also involve heat: Q=mL M is the mass and L is the heat to change phase.

100C

0C Steel Bar

H = dQ = A (TH - TC) dt L H = dQ = -A dT dt dx

Thermal Resistance

Black body radiation Power radiate = eA T4 T = temperature, A =surface area, e = 1 for black body, and = 5.67 x 10-8 W/m2 K4.

Kinetic Theory Gas in box at temperature T. The average velocity of the gas molecules is 0, because it is equally likely to move left and right or up and down.

In order to relate energy and temperature let us take the rms value of v denoted vrms, i.e. root mean square. The kinetic energy is K=1/2 mv2 and the average value of K with v = vrms

Pressure from Kinetic Theory vxt # of molecules hitting one wall of box = 1/2( N/V vxt)A Momentum for one molecule is px= 2m vx

Total momentum transfer = 2m vx 1/2( N/V vxt)A Pressure = F/A = m vx ( N/V vxt)A /A t because F=dp/dt. Pressure = F/A = (N/V) m(vx)2average

Pressure = P = (N/V) m(vx)2average one show that 1/2 m(vx2)av = 1/2 kT So PV= NkT , the expression is true if we consider the motion as 3-dimensional because v2 = vx2 + vy2 + vz2 so Kav = 3/2 kT

PV = NkT

where k= 1.38 x 10-23J/K , N = number of molecules. Using basic chemistry N = NAn where NA = 6.0221367x1023 molecules/mole. So the ideal gas law can Be written as

PV = nRT

where k = R/NA .

Phases of Matter

Let Fx be the x-component of all the forces acting on an object of mass m, then Fx= m ax The work done the force Fx is W = Plug in F=ma to obtain (ignore the limits of integration first) W=

Fx dx

Fx dx = W =

m ax dx = m ax vx dt

Physics 153 2007 by Don Witt W = (1/2)m(vx)2 If moving in 3-dimensions, then W = Fx dx + Fy dy + Fz dz = F dr by definition. W = (1/2)m(vx)2 + (1/2)m(vy)2 + (1/2)m(vz)2 = (1/2)mv2

(Once limits of integration are put back in, one obtain the changes in K.)

dW = Fdx = pA dx

First Law:

W12 =

path!

V2

1

The integral is the area under the curve. The internal energy of the system is U = (# of degrees of freedom)/2 N k T or U = (# of degrees of freedom)/2 nR T

The change in internal energy never dependents on the path on the initial and final temperature.

T = constant.

Adiabatic: no heat transfer during the process, Q=0. Isochoric: constant volume process, V = constant. Isobaric: constant pressure process, P = constant.

Heat Capacities

dQ = dW + dU if the volume is constant during a process, then dW=0 for this process dQ = dU = n CV dT so CV = f R/2

dQ = dW + dU if the pressure is constant during a process, then dW = pdV = nRdT dQ = dW + dU = nRdT + n CV dT = n CP dT thus R + CV = CP assuming ideal gas law.

= 1 + 2/f = (f+2)/f

where f = ( # of degrees of freedom)

Adiabatic Process

Recall an adiabatic process is when Q=0. Two facts dU = nCVdT and dW = pdV. Since there is no heat gain, nCVdT = - dW = pdV. Next use the ideal gas law to obtain nCVdT = -(nRT/V)dV

Adiabatic contd

nCVdT = -(nRT/V)dV so dT/T + R/CV dV/V = 0 Recall = Cp/ CV so R/CV = -1 Thus dT/T + R/CV dV/V = dT/T + ( -1) dV/V = 0 TV -1= constant Or pV = constant

Heat Engines

Q=QH+ QC

where QH is the heat transferred from the hot reservoir and QC is the heat transferred from the cold reservoir.

Efficiency

Physics 153 2007 by Don Witt First, the work done for one cycle is W = W1+ W2+ W3+ W4

Example contd

no work is done along 1 or 3 because volume is constant. Process 2 and 4 are isothermal so the work done is given by W= nRT ln(Vf/ Vi)

P 2 1 3 Tc 4 V TH

W=nR TH ln(Vf/ Vi) + nR Tc ln(Vi/ Vf) W=nR (TH - Tc) ln(Vf/ Vi)

Finally, find the heat with Q>0. Q1= nCv(TH- Tc) Q3= nCv(Tc- TH) Q2=nR TH ln(Vf/ Vi) Q4=nR Tc ln(Vi/ Vf)

p 1 Tc

TH 3

4 V

Carnot Cycle a 2

b 3 d 4 c V Ta= Tb Td = Tc

Carnot Engine

QH= nR Ta ln( Vf/ Vi ) W= W1 + W2+ W3+ W4 Note that W1=- W3 this is because W1 = -nCV(Ta- Td) and W3 = -nCV(Tc- Tb) Ta= Tb and Td = Tc Thus W= W2+ W4

e = 1- Td/ Ta

Td is the temperature of the hot source and Ta is the cold source temperature.

Otto Cycle

p a 1 d e 2

b 3

Piston positions

Otto Cycle

p a 1 d e 2

b 3

Otto Engine

Q2= 0 and Q4= 0 because each process is adiabatic Q1 = Qh and Q3 = Qc because the heat is proportional to the change in temperature for these. Namely, Q1 = nCV(Ta - Td) and Q3 = nCV(Tc - Tb) W = W2 + W4 = -nCV(Tb - Ta) -nCV(Td - Tc)

e = W/Qh = (-nCV(Tb - Ta) -nCV(Td - Tc))/ nCV(Ta - Td) e = (- (Tb - Ta) - (Td - Tc))/ (Ta - Td) e = (- Tb + Ta - Td + Tc))/ (Ta - Td)

So Ta Va -1 = Tb Vb -1 and Tc Vc -1 = Td Vd -1 From our cycle Va = Vd and Vb = Vc

e = 1- (Tb - Tc )/ (Ta - Td) = 1- (Va/ Vb ) -1 = 1 - 1/(Vb/ Va ) -1 e = 1 - 1/r -1 where r is the compression ratio.

Car Example

A 6 cylinder car engine has a displacement of 3.00L. Operates at 4000rpm with a compression ratio of r = 9.50. Fuel enters with atmospheric pressure at a temperature of 27oC. During combustion the fuel reaches a temperature of 1350oC. Use = 1.4 and cV= 0.718kJ/ kg K and R = cp - cv. Find the power delivered.

Vb/ Va = r = 9.5 The displacement is for all 6 cyclinders. So Vb - Va = 3.00L/6 = 0.500 x 10-3 m3 Vb = 0.559 x 10-3 m3 and Va = 0.588 x 10-4 m3 n = PcVc/RTc = 2.24 x 10-2 moles or mass = 6.49 x 10-4 kg Pc Vc = Pd Vd so Pd = 2.34 x 103 kPa ( R=8.31451 J/ mol K or 0.287 kJ/kg K)

Physics 153 2007 by Don Witt Td = PdVd/nR Td = 739 K using ideal gas law. Ta = 1623 K by ideal gas law. Pa = 5.14 x 103 kPa again ideal gas law.

Power = 6(1/2 rev)(4000 rev/min)(1 min/60s)(0.244kJ) Power = 49 kW = 66 hp

Hot Work Cold COP (heating mode) = coefficient of performance = Qh/W COP (cooling mode) = Qc / W

Entropy

The mathematical definition of entropy is dS = dQ/T Second law of thermodynamics: The total entropy of an isolated system never decreases. Thus, the change in entropy must never decrease it and it must zero for a reversible process.

Periodic Motion

Period is defined to be the time over which the motion repeats. Frequency is the number of cycles per time. Amplitude is the maximum displacement from equilibrium.

Hookes Law F = -kx where k is the spring constant, x is how much from equilibrium.

-kx = max

where F = ma was used. First note this is not a constant acceleration problem Because ax depends on x.

SHM contd

One also see the motion should repeat itself because of the way ax changes. A good guess of a solution is x = A cos(t + ) A is the amplitude that is maximum displacement from equilibrium. is the phase constant or phase shift. (All angles are measured in

radians. )

Now, lets check that the above expression is a solution. If x = A cos(t + ), then vx = -A sin(t + ), and ax = -A 2 cos(t + ). Plug into the force equation, next.

-kx = -k A cos(t + ) = max -k A cos(t + ) = max = m(-A 2 cos(t + )) -k A cos(t + ) = m(-A 2 cos(t + )) Canceling like terms yields x = A cos(t + ) is solution if and only if 2 = k/m

2 x = ax The solution is x = A cos(t + ). In case of a spring 2 = k/m. is the angular frequency measured in units of radians/time. Period is defined to be the time over which the motion repeats. Frequency is the number of cycles per time.

Example Vertical Spring The forces acting on the mass are gravity and the spring forces.

k M

Now, as written the equation doesnt look like simple harmonic motion. Note y measures how much the spring is stretched.

k M

To make it easy to solve this problem, find where the net force zero in other words where the system is in equilibrium

F = -ky -mg = 0.

This is where y= -mg/k .

Now,measure everything from this equilibrium position. So pick a new coordinate, namely, ynew = y + mg/k

Plug ynew = y + mg/k into -ky -mg = may yields -ky -mg = -k(ynew - mg/k) -mg = may -kynew = may. Finally, since mg/k is constant ay=aynew . -kynew = maynew

Finally, this means a vertical spring is simple harmonic motion but the displacement must be measure from the equilibrium position. The angular frequency is given by 2 = k/m

Let Fx be the x-component of all the forces acting on an object of mass m, then Fx= m ax The work done the force Fx is W = Plug in F=ma to obtain (ignore the limits of integration first) W=

Fx dx

Fx dx = W =

m ax dx = m ax vx dt

Physics 153 2007 by Don Witt W = (1/2)m(vx)2 If moving in 3-dimensions, then W = Fx dx + Fy dy + Fz dz = F dr by definition. W = (1/2)m(vx)2 + (1/2)m(vy)2 + (1/2)m(vz)2 = (1/2)mv2

(Once limits of integration are put back in, one obtain the changes in K.)

Conservation of Energy

The work energy theorem states W = K. Forces can be divided into conservative and non-conserved forces. A force is conserved if the work done is zero when return to its initial state. Thus, the work can be divided into work done by conserved and non-conservative. The work energy theorem can be rewritten as K = Wcon + Wnon

where U = -Wcon .

E = Wnon where E = K + U is the total energy. U is the potential energy and the change in U is defined by

U = -Wcon

Physics 153 Common Potential Energies 2007 by Don Witt To common potential energies are for a spring and gravity For a spring Uspring =1/2 kx2 and for gravity Ugravity = mgy . The energy for a horizontal spring is

If a vertical spring is written in terms of a coordinate measured from the equilibrium position, i.e. y=0 is where the spring is has no force, then

-ky=may

and the energy is just

E=1/2 mv2 + 1/2 ky2 . However, if y = 0 is were the spring is unstretched, then -ky -mg =may and the energy must include Gravity, namely, E=1/2 mv2 + 1/2 ky2 + mgy.

Simple Pendulum

Simple pendulum means wire is massless And the mass is a point mass.

The pendulum is length l and the mass is Is m. Drawing a free body diagram y T

W W x

-mg sin = max

ax = l d2/dt2. So the equation is -mg sin = ml d2/dt2 The mass cancels and one is left with -g/ l sin = d2/dt2

So the motion of a pendulum is periodic but not simple Harmonic in general. However, if the angle is small

sin -g/ l d2/dt2 and the motion is simple harmonic for small with 2 = g/ l .

Example

A massless spring with a spring constant k=19 N/m is hung vertically. A mass of 0.20 kg is attached and then released. Assume the spring was unstreched before the mass was released. Find how far below the initial point the mass descends. Find the frequency and amplitude of the resulting motion. v=0 Initial position Equilibrium Solution: M y yf

E= 1/2 mv2 + 1/2 ky2 measure y from the equilibrium position. Now, E is conserved so E = 1/2 kA2 . Plug in v=0 which means y = A. Also, v=0 at yf . So yf = 2y. yf = 2mg/k= 0.2063 m and y = A = 0.1032 m. 2 = k/m and = 2f so f = (1/2)(k/m)1/2 f = 0.01633 Hz .

Example

A 3.0 kg block moving at a speed of 1.8 m/s strikes a horizontal spring as shown in the gure. If the spring constant is 100 N/m and the maximum compression of the spring is 21 cm, what is the coefcient of friction between the block and the surface?

k

Wnon= F r = -fx= -Nx= -mgx Efinal = 1/2 kx2 and Einitial = 1/2 mv2 So E = 1/2 kx2 - 1/2 mv2 = -mgx = Wnon m = 3.0 kg , v= 1.8 m/s, k= 100 N/m, and x= 0.21 m = (1/2 kx2 + 1/2 mv2 )/mgx = 0.4300

Example

A spring of negligible mass is hung vertically by attaching its upper end to a xed point. A small basket with a 0.40-kg copper block inside is placed on the lower end of the spring. The system is set into vertical simple harmonic oscillation. The oscillation period is found to be 0.90 s. When the copper block is removed, the oscillation period changes to 0.60 s.What is the mass of the basket? What is the spring constant of the spring?

Solution:

(Tinitial )2 = 2/ = 42 (mbasket+mCu)/k (Tfinal )2 = 2/ = 42 mbasket/k Combining the equations (Tfinal )2/ mbasket = 42 /k = (Tinitial )2 / (mbasket+mCu) Solve for mbasket which gives mbasket = mCu / ((Tinitial )2/ (Tfinal )2 -1) mbasket = (0.40 kg)/((0.9s)2/ (0.6)2 -1) = 0.8 kg

(Tfinal )2/ mbasket = 42 /k So k = 42 mbasket /(Tfinal )2 = 42 (0.8 kg)/ (0.6s)2 k = 87.7 N/m

A damping force is a non-conservative force which causes the simple harmonic motion to loose energy. A good model of the force is

Fdamp = -b v

where b is constant depending on the system. If the above damping force is added to spring system

-b vx - kx = max

Small b motion

If the damping constant b is small the motion should be approximately simple harmonic motion with loss of energy. The energy for the system is E=1/2 mv2 + 1/2 kx2 If the average is taken over one period The average energy is Eaverage = mv2 . P = dEaverage /dt = -bv2. (Using the fact that P = F v ) dEaverage /dt = -bv2 = -b/m Eaverage

dEaverage /dt = -b/m Eaverage Solving for Eaverage, E(t) = E0 e-t/ where

= m/b . For small b, the energy is near constant and E=1/2 k A2 . Hence, A(t) = A0 e-t/2 Thus, the solution is x = A0 e-t/2 cos(t + )

General Solution

One can check by plugging in that x = A0 e-t/2 cos(t + ) is general solution of the equation -b vx - kx = max if and only if = 0 (1 - (b/2m 0 )2)1/2 where 0 = (k/m)1/2 is the natural angular frequency.

Q = 2 E/|| || is the energy loss in one period and E is the total energy. Critically Damped is when bc= 2m 0 and

Plot of damping

x Over damping

t Critical damping

In order to keep an oscillating system running one can adding energy by applying a periodic driving force.

-b vx - kx + F0 cos t = max The solution to this equation is solution of damped plus x = cos(t - ) where t is angular frequency of the driving force.

Resonance

The amplitude is given by A = F0 / (m2(02 2)2 +b2 2 )1/2 and phase constant is given by tan = b / m(02 2) The amplitude is largest for 0

Waves

Waves are disturbances which transmit energy and momentum but not matter. Waves are described by an equation y = f(x,t).

Types of waves

Transverse waves are waves which the disturbance is perpendicular to the direction of propagation. Longitudinal waves are waves which the disturbance is parallel to the direction of propagation.

Amplitude - maximum displacement from equilibrium. Velocity a) wave velocity b) velocity medium displacement

Wave function

y = f( x, t) is called the wave function. Traveling waves can be written as y = f( x v t) in this case the waveform is given by the function f. y = f( x - v t) represents a wave moving left to right and y = f( x + v t) represents a wave moving right to left.

Wave speed

(v = wave speed)

Harmonic Waves

Waves which have a waveform which is a sine function are called harmonic waves. Since the sine is periodic the wave will be periodic in time and spatially. The period used for simple harmonic motion applies in addition the wavelength, , is defined to be the distance over which the wave repeats spatially. v = / T = f

y = A sin(kx t + )

where k is the wave number k= 2/. Again as before the + sign indicates right to left motion and the - sign indicates a wave moving left to right.

Energy

Superposition

Two waves can be added to obtain a new wave y = y1 + y 2 Example y1 = A sin(kx - t) and y2 = A sin(kx - t + ) If =0, then y1+y2 = 2 A sin(kx - t) This is called constructive interference.

Interference

Example y1 = A sin(kx - t) and y2 = A sin(kx - t + ) If = , then y1+y2 = 0 This is called destructive interference.

Standing Waves

y1 = A sin(kx - t) and y2 = A sin(kx + t) sin(1) + sin(2) = 2cos((1-2)/2)sin((1+2)/2) Let 1= kx - t and 2= kx + t, then 1 - 2 = kx - t - kx - t = - 2t and 1 + 2 = 2kx So y = 2cos(t)sin(kx)

Take a long steel bar balancing in the middle and hit (as shown) it so it generates a sound.

What is the frequency relation to length? Both ends are the same, i.e. unfixed, so a standing wave looks like

f = n (v/2L) = n f1 where n = 1, 2, 3, .

What happens when the bar is hit as shown? f = n (v/2L) = n f1 where n = 1, 2, 3, . Why does it produce different frequencies for the two different hammer positions?

v2 = F/ (transverse wave speed on string) where F is the tension and the mass per length. v2 = B/ (logitudinal wave speed in fluid) where B is the bulk modulus and is the density.

v2 = Y/ (logitudinal wave speed in solid rod) where Y is the tension and the mass per volume. v2 = P/ (sound wave in an ideal gas) where is the adiabatic index, the density, and P the pressure.

Intensity

I = Paverage / A

where Paverage is average power and A is

the area.

The intensity range for average human hearing is 10-12 W/m2 to 1 W/m2

Our phone lines are so clear you can hear a pin drop!

Sprint Wholesale enable a Switched outbound service allows your customers to use existing business and residential lines for exceptional reliability and pin-drop quality on all long-distance calls .

dB level

= 10dB log10(I/I0)

where I is the intensity and I0 the intensity for threshold of hearing.

When a pin of mass 0.1g is dropped from a height of 1m , 0.05% of its energy is converted into a sound pulse with duration of 0.1s. Estimate the range at which the pin can be heard. First, assume sound is at threshold of hearing. If you assume the intensity level must be at least 40dB for the sound to be heard, estimate the range at which the pin can be heard.

I = Paverage / 4r2 Paverage = (mgy/t) x 0.05%. m=0.1g, y=1m, g=9.8m/s2, t=0.1s In order to hear, must have I =10-12 W/m2 So r2 = Paverage / 4 I pluging in numbers yields r = 624 m !

Solution at 40dB

First, convert 40dB to intensity. 40dB=10dB log (I/I0) where I0 =10-12 W/m2. Solving I= 10-8 W/m2. Now, Paverage / 4 = constant so I1r21= I2r22 . (10-12 W/m2)(624m)2 = (10-8 W/m2) r22

Beats

fbeat = f1 - f2 Maximum difference you hear is about 10Hz. After this tones merge.

Interference

S1

x1

Listener or detector

S2

x2

Interference

Two special cases to add waves, added to 1) maximum value constructive interference (kx1-t+1) - ( kx2-t+ 2) = 2n where n=0, 1, 2, 3, 2) minimum value destructive interference (kx1-t+1) - ( kx2-t+ 2) = n where n=1, 3, 5, Note: can also have negative values.

Open Pipes

Closed Pipes

f = n (v/4L) = n f1 where n = 1, 3, 5,

f = n (v/2L) = n f1 where n = 1, 2, 3, .

The above waves are the displacement waves.

Open Pipes

Closed Pipes

f = n (v/4L) = n f1 where n = 1, 3, 5,

f = n (v/2L) = n f1 where n = 1, 2, 3, .

Moving source u

The green dot is a sound source with waves moving in all directions, speed of source is 0.

In the moving case, the wavelength is shorter in the direction of motion and longer as it moves away.

For the stationary source the distance between crests is the wavelength 0. In the moving case The wavelength has changed and is . The new wavelength is related the old by the following

= 0 - uT

where T is the period of the wave this the time between crests. Next, divide both sides by the wave speed, v.

/v = 0 /v - uT /v

1/f = 1/f0 - u/f0v

Finally, group like terms together

A similar calculation gives the formula for the Moving detector.

Doppler Effect

f = f0 (1 + ud/v)/(1 + us/v)

where v is the speed of the wave, f0 is the frequency emitted, us is the speed of the source, ud is the speed of the detector. Rules: 1) As objects approach, f > f0 2) As objects recede, f < f0

Example

A hungry bat, using ultrasonic beeps, finds a doomed moth sitting on a plant. The sound emitted by the bat is 40,000Hz. If the doomed moth detects a frequency of 41,000Hz when the bat swoops at it, what is the speed of the bat? What frequency does the bat detect reflected off the doomed moth?

Example

The string A on a street musician's violin is too tight. Comparing it to 440Hz, 3 beats are heard. What is the frequency of the violin string? Passengers travelling on a bus along the street hear the frequency at exactly 440Hz. What is the velocity of the bus?

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