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# Physics 153 2007 by Don Witt

Thermodynamics

## Thermometric Property: is a physical

property that changes with temperature Different ways of measure temperature 1) Expansion of a fluid. 2) Electrical 3) Mechanical expansion of solid. 4) Expansion of a gas.
There are many others not listed.

Thermodynamics

Thermal Contact
1) A B C

2)

B C

3)

Thermodynamics

1) A B C

A&C and C&B

## Physics 153 2007 by Don Witt

What can we say about the temperature of the the three objects? Thermal Equilibrium: when the cooling stops. The zeroth law of thermodynamics: If two objects are in thermal equilibrium with a third, then they are in thermal equilibrium with each other.

## Physics 153 2007 by Don Witt

Two objects are defined to have the same temperature if they are in thermal equilibrium with each other. How to measure temperature: Simple start is to pick at thermometric property which linear.

L 100

L0

tc =

X 100 C

L 100 - L 0

tc =

Pt

- P0

X 100 C P

P100 - P0

## Physics 153 2007 by Don Witt

Kelvin scale

The thermometer will go to P = 0 at some temperature which is -273.15C. Experiment give us this number along with PV T = constant

We can also define a new temperature so that 0K (kelvin) is -273.15C and take 1K to be 1C.

## Triple point of water as a standard

Still a problem with temperature how do we calibrate the Thermometer? Namely, how do we decide when we at Freezing or boiling? The triple point of water is for pressure at 4.58mm Hg and temperature 0.01C.

## Errors in gas thermometer 273.16K Ptriple P O2 air N2

T= T 446C

444C

H2 P

Graph of temperature as a function pressure for constant volume gas thermometer with different gases.

## Physics 153 2007 by Don Witt

Thermal Expansion

As the temperature changes the length of a material changes. L = L0 T is a constant for the material, L is the change in length, L0 the length, and T is the change in temperature. Not all material expand with increase in temperature.

Linear Expansion
L = L0 T

## The equation can be written in the following form

If T is small L should be small and so L0 L, then one can take the limit of our above equation, namely,
L = L0 L T

dL = L dT

## Physics 153 2007 by Don Witt

Expansion coefficients

## Examples of values are Al Brass Cu Glass Quartz Invar Steel

2.4X10-5 K-1 2.0X10-5 K-1 1.7X10-5 K-1 0.4-0.9X10-5 K-1 0.04X10-5 K-1 0.09X10-5 K-1 1.2X10-5 K-1

## Area and Volume Expansion

The expansion formula given thus far is for linear materials, however, the area and volume also change and those changes can be obtained from the linear equation. Example: In order to see, this take a square of metal of area A, at temperature T, and expansion coefficient .

L W

## If the temperature changes by T, find the

change in area A.

## A+ A = (L+ L T) (W+ W T) A+ A = LW+ 2 LW T + 2 W L (T)2

If T is small, then A+ A = A+ 2 A T . Finally, A = 2 A T. For volume, V = 3 V T.

## Physics 153 2007 by Don Witt L = L T A = 2 A T V = 3 V T

Basic Expansion Formulae and Stress Stress and strain: (read Chap 11-4 & 11-5) Hookes Law: (Stress)/(Strain) = (Elastic modulus)

## Bulk stress and strain: (F/ A ) = p = -B (V/V)

where B is the bulk modulus.

## Physics 153 2007 by Don Witt

Example

You are told to design a steel bridge is 600m long. How Much allowance must be made for the linear expansion in A temperature range -40C to +40C? L = L T Use steel = 1.05x10-5 K-1.

L = (1.05x10-5 K-1) (600m) (80K) L = 50 cm Standard expansion joints allow this much expansion.

## Physics 153 2007 by Don Witt

Example

Design a gasoline tank to store gasoline in a temperature range -20C to 40C. Must be able to ll it any time of year and not lose more than 0.1% of gasoline to overow. Use gasoline = 9.5 x 10-4 K-1. If you never spill any gasoline you need =1/3 gasoline V V V V = -0.001 gas

tank

The maximum is obtain by lling the tank at the high temperature. 3 max T- gas T= -0.001

Physics 153 Solve for max. 2007 by Don Witt max = -0.001+ gas T = -0.001+9.5X10-4 K-1(-20-40)K 3 (-20-40)K 3 T max = 3.2 X10-4 K-1 Similarly, min is found by lling the tank at low temperature. V V V V = 0.001 tank

gas

min = 0.001- gas T = 0.001+9.5X10-4 K-1(40-(-20))K -3 (40-(-20))K -3 T min= 3.1 X10-4 K-1 so 3.1 X10-4 K-1 < < 3.2 X10-4 K-1

## Physics 153 2007 by Don Witt

Example:

The gure on the right below shows a simple model of a pendulum for a grandfathers clock. It consists of a steel bar steel = 11 x 10-6 K-1 of length Lsteel, an aluminum bar Al = 24 x 10-6 K-1 of length LAl and the pendulum bob. Both bars are of negligible weight and are connectedat their bottom ends. The bob is attached to the top end of the aluminum bar.

Build a grandfathers clock using the pendulum in the sketchthat Pivot with L = 24.82 cm such that the period does not change due to point temperature changes. In other words, pick Lsteel and Lal such that L doesnt change because the period depends L
on L.

0 = L = Lsteel - LAl

Lsteel

## 0 = Lsteel - LAl = steel Lsteel T - Al LAl T

LAl

Physics 153 2007 by Don Witt 0 = steel Lsteel T - Al LAl T So steel Lsteel = Al LAl this tells us that Lsteel / LAl = Al / steel = 24/11 24.82 cm = L = Lsteel - LAl (1) (2)

Equation (1) gives Lsteel = 24/11 LAl . Plug this into equation (2) yields 24.82 cm = Lsteel - LAl = 24/11 LAl - LAl .
Solving, 24.82 cm = (24/11 - 11/11) LAl =13/11 LAl, thus LAl = 21.00 cm and Lsteel = 24.82 cm + LAl = 45.82cm

Physics 153 Example 2007 by Don Witt A 300cm3 glass is lled with 100g of ice at -5C and 200g of water at 25C. What is the content of the glass at equilibrium and the temperature? (Assume the system is isolated) Start Ice and water The equations needed are Q = mc T and Q = m L

The total heat change for the system is zero. Qsystem = Qice + Qwater = 0 The ice term is tricky. It includes the heat to raise the ice from -5C to 0C plus the heat to melt the ice plus the plus raise that water to its nal temperature.

## Thus the change in heat of the ice is

Qice = Qice to melting point + Qmelt ice + Qwater from ice Qice = mice cice Tice + mice Lice + mice cwater Twater from ice cice = 2100 J/kg K Lice = 334 x 103 J/kg cwater = 4190 J/kg K Qice = (0.100kg) (2100 J/kg K)(0C-(-5C))+ (0.100kg)(334 x 103 J/kg)+ (0.100kg) (4190 J/kg K)(T-0C)) Qice= 34,450 J + 419 J/K T Qwater = ((0.200kg) (4190 J/kg C)(T-25C)) = (838 J/C)(T-25C)

Physics 153 2007 by Don Witt Qice + Qwater = 0 so 34,450 J + 419 J/C T + (838 J/C)(T-25C) = 0 Solve for T: 34,450 J - 20,950 J + (1257 J/C)T = 0 T= -11C answer This answer is just totally wrong note the temperature is lower than the start temperature! The only explanation is the ice never melted! So there is not enough energy to melt all of the ice. To understand this Qice= 34,450 J + 419 J/K T when T = 0C gives 34,450 J which means you need, however, Qwater = (838 J/C)(T-25C) gives -20,950 J at T = 0C.

Physics 153 2007 by Don Witt There is not enough heat to freeze the water because to freeze 200g of water it would take Q=(.200kg)(334 x 103 J/kg ) which is 66800J. Final temperature must be 0C and have an ice water mixture. Try your self, nd how much ice melts in last example.

## Physics 153 2007 by Don Witt

Heat: When two objects are in contact and and the energy transfer is due solely to temperature difference the energy transferred is called heat. The transfer is called heat flow. The letter Q is used to denote heat. Units for heat 1 cal = 4.186 J 1 kcal = 1000 cal 1 Btu = 778 ft lb = 1055 J

Heat

## Physics 153 2007 by Don Witt Specific Heat Capacity: Q = mc T

Molar heat capacity: Q = nC T n is the number of moles. Phase changes also involve heat: Q=mL M is the mass and L is the heat to change phase.

## Heat Transfer by Conduction

100C

0C Steel Bar

H = dQ = A (TH - TC) dt L H = dQ = -A dT dt dx

## Physics 153 2007 by Don Witt

Thermal Resistance

## Heat Transfer by Thermal Radiation

Black body radiation Power radiate = eA T4 T = temperature, A =surface area, e = 1 for black body, and = 5.67 x 10-8 W/m2 K4.

## Physics 153 2007 by Don Witt

Kinetic Theory Gas in box at temperature T. The average velocity of the gas molecules is 0, because it is equally likely to move left and right or up and down.

In order to relate energy and temperature let us take the rms value of v denoted vrms, i.e. root mean square. The kinetic energy is K=1/2 mv2 and the average value of K with v = vrms

## Physics 153 2007 by Don Witt

Pressure from Kinetic Theory vxt # of molecules hitting one wall of box = 1/2( N/V vxt)A Momentum for one molecule is px= 2m vx

Total momentum transfer = 2m vx 1/2( N/V vxt)A Pressure = F/A = m vx ( N/V vxt)A /A t because F=dp/dt. Pressure = F/A = (N/V) m(vx)2average

## Physics 153 2007 by Don Witt

Pressure = P = (N/V) m(vx)2average one show that 1/2 m(vx2)av = 1/2 kT So PV= NkT , the expression is true if we consider the motion as 3-dimensional because v2 = vx2 + vy2 + vz2 so Kav = 3/2 kT

## Ideal Gas law

PV = NkT
where k= 1.38 x 10-23J/K , N = number of molecules. Using basic chemistry N = NAn where NA = 6.0221367x1023 molecules/mole. So the ideal gas law can Be written as

PV = nRT
where k = R/NA .

Phases of Matter

## Work Energy theorem

Let Fx be the x-component of all the forces acting on an object of mass m, then Fx= m ax The work done the force Fx is W = Plug in F=ma to obtain (ignore the limits of integration first) W=

Fx dx

Fx dx = W =

m ax dx = m ax vx dt

## = m vx (dvx /dt )dt = m vx dvx = (1/2)m(vx)2

Physics 153 2007 by Don Witt W = (1/2)m(vx)2 If moving in 3-dimensions, then W = Fx dx + Fy dy + Fz dz = F dr by definition. W = (1/2)m(vx)2 + (1/2)m(vy)2 + (1/2)m(vz)2 = (1/2)mv2
(Once limits of integration are put back in, one obtain the changes in K.)

dW = Fdx = pA dx

First Law:

W12 =

path!

V2
1

## P dV , this dependents on the

The integral is the area under the curve. The internal energy of the system is U = (# of degrees of freedom)/2 N k T or U = (# of degrees of freedom)/2 nR T

## Physics 153 2007 by Don Witt

The change in internal energy never dependents on the path on the initial and final temperature.

## Isothermal: temperature is constant during process,

T = constant.

Adiabatic: no heat transfer during the process, Q=0. Isochoric: constant volume process, V = constant. Isobaric: constant pressure process, P = constant.

## Physics 153 2007 by Don Witt

Heat Capacities

dQ = dW + dU if the volume is constant during a process, then dW=0 for this process dQ = dU = n CV dT so CV = f R/2

## Heat capacity for ideal gas

dQ = dW + dU if the pressure is constant during a process, then dW = pdV = nRdT dQ = dW + dU = nRdT + n CV dT = n CP dT thus R + CV = CP assuming ideal gas law.

## The adiabatic index is = Cp/ CV = Cp/ CV = (R + CV )/Cv = 1+ R/ f R/2

= 1 + 2/f = (f+2)/f
where f = ( # of degrees of freedom)

## Physics 153 2007 by Don Witt

Recall an adiabatic process is when Q=0. Two facts dU = nCVdT and dW = pdV. Since there is no heat gain, nCVdT = - dW = pdV. Next use the ideal gas law to obtain nCVdT = -(nRT/V)dV

## Physics 153 2007 by Don Witt

nCVdT = -(nRT/V)dV so dT/T + R/CV dV/V = 0 Recall = Cp/ CV so R/CV = -1 Thus dT/T + R/CV dV/V = dT/T + ( -1) dV/V = 0 TV -1= constant Or pV = constant

## Physics 153 2007 by Don Witt

Heat Engines

Q=QH+ QC
where QH is the heat transferred from the hot reservoir and QC is the heat transferred from the cold reservoir.

Efficiency

## 1 3 4 V Paths 2 and 4 are isothermal

Physics 153 2007 by Don Witt First, the work done for one cycle is W = W1+ W2+ W3+ W4

Example contd

no work is done along 1 or 3 because volume is constant. Process 2 and 4 are isothermal so the work done is given by W= nRT ln(Vf/ Vi)

## Physics 153 2007 by Don Witt

P 2 1 3 Tc 4 V TH

W=nR TH ln(Vf/ Vi) + nR Tc ln(Vi/ Vf) W=nR (TH - Tc) ln(Vf/ Vi)

## Physics 153 2007 by Don Witt

Finally, find the heat with Q>0. Q1= nCv(TH- Tc) Q3= nCv(Tc- TH) Q2=nR TH ln(Vf/ Vi) Q4=nR Tc ln(Vi/ Vf)

p 1 Tc

TH 3

4 V

## Physics 153 2007 by Don Witt

Carnot Cycle a 2

b 3 d 4 c V Ta= Tb Td = Tc

## Physics 153 2007 by Don Witt

Carnot Engine

QH= nR Ta ln( Vf/ Vi ) W= W1 + W2+ W3+ W4 Note that W1=- W3 this is because W1 = -nCV(Ta- Td) and W3 = -nCV(Tc- Tb) Ta= Tb and Td = Tc Thus W= W2+ W4

e = 1- Td/ Ta

## Hot Work Cold

Td is the temperature of the hot source and Ta is the cold source temperature.

Otto Cycle

p a 1 d e 2

b 3

Piston positions

Otto Cycle

p a 1 d e 2

b 3

## Physics 153 2007 by Don Witt

Otto Engine

Q2= 0 and Q4= 0 because each process is adiabatic Q1 = Qh and Q3 = Qc because the heat is proportional to the change in temperature for these. Namely, Q1 = nCV(Ta - Td) and Q3 = nCV(Tc - Tb) W = W2 + W4 = -nCV(Tb - Ta) -nCV(Td - Tc)

## Physics 153 2007 by Don Witt

e = W/Qh = (-nCV(Tb - Ta) -nCV(Td - Tc))/ nCV(Ta - Td) e = (- (Tb - Ta) - (Td - Tc))/ (Ta - Td) e = (- Tb + Ta - Td + Tc))/ (Ta - Td)

## e = 1- (Tb - Tc )/ (Ta - Td) For an adiabatic process TV -1= constant .

So Ta Va -1 = Tb Vb -1 and Tc Vc -1 = Td Vd -1 From our cycle Va = Vd and Vb = Vc

## Ta (Va/ Vb ) -1 = Tb , Tc = Td (Vd/ Vc ) -1 = Td (Va/ Vb ) -1

e = 1- (Tb - Tc )/ (Ta - Td) = 1- (Va/ Vb ) -1 = 1 - 1/(Vb/ Va ) -1 e = 1 - 1/r -1 where r is the compression ratio.

## Physics 153 2007 by Don Witt

Car Example

A 6 cylinder car engine has a displacement of 3.00L. Operates at 4000rpm with a compression ratio of r = 9.50. Fuel enters with atmospheric pressure at a temperature of 27oC. During combustion the fuel reaches a temperature of 1350oC. Use = 1.4 and cV= 0.718kJ/ kg K and R = cp - cv. Find the power delivered.

## Physics 153 2007 by Don Witt

Vb/ Va = r = 9.5 The displacement is for all 6 cyclinders. So Vb - Va = 3.00L/6 = 0.500 x 10-3 m3 Vb = 0.559 x 10-3 m3 and Va = 0.588 x 10-4 m3 n = PcVc/RTc = 2.24 x 10-2 moles or mass = 6.49 x 10-4 kg Pc Vc = Pd Vd so Pd = 2.34 x 103 kPa ( R=8.31451 J/ mol K or 0.287 kJ/kg K)

Physics 153 2007 by Don Witt Td = PdVd/nR Td = 739 K using ideal gas law. Ta = 1623 K by ideal gas law. Pa = 5.14 x 103 kPa again ideal gas law.

## e = 1 - 1/r -1 = 1- 1/(9.5)1.4 -1 so e = 0.59 W = e Qh= e mcV(Ta - Td) = 0.244 kJ

Power = 6(1/2 rev)(4000 rev/min)(1 min/60s)(0.244kJ) Power = 49 kW = 66 hp

## Heat Pumps Refrigerators

Hot Work Cold COP (heating mode) = coefficient of performance = Qh/W COP (cooling mode) = Qc / W

## Physics 153 2007 by Don Witt

Entropy

The mathematical definition of entropy is dS = dQ/T Second law of thermodynamics: The total entropy of an isolated system never decreases. Thus, the change in entropy must never decrease it and it must zero for a reversible process.

Periodic Motion

## Periodic Motion is motion that repeats itself.

Period is defined to be the time over which the motion repeats. Frequency is the number of cycles per time. Amplitude is the maximum displacement from equilibrium.

## Physics 153 2007 by Don Witt

Hookes Law F = -kx where k is the spring constant, x is how much from equilibrium.

## Consider the motion of mass with a spring force actting on it

-kx = max
where F = ma was used. First note this is not a constant acceleration problem Because ax depends on x.

## Physics 153 2007 by Don Witt

SHM contd

One also see the motion should repeat itself because of the way ax changes. A good guess of a solution is x = A cos(t + ) A is the amplitude that is maximum displacement from equilibrium. is the phase constant or phase shift. (All angles are measured in

## Physics 153 2007 by Don Witt

Now, lets check that the above expression is a solution. If x = A cos(t + ), then vx = -A sin(t + ), and ax = -A 2 cos(t + ). Plug into the force equation, next.

## Physics 153 2007 by Don Witt

-kx = -k A cos(t + ) = max -k A cos(t + ) = max = m(-A 2 cos(t + )) -k A cos(t + ) = m(-A 2 cos(t + )) Canceling like terms yields x = A cos(t + ) is solution if and only if 2 = k/m

## Motion is simple harmonic if and only if it satisfies the following equation

2 x = ax The solution is x = A cos(t + ). In case of a spring 2 = k/m. is the angular frequency measured in units of radians/time. Period is defined to be the time over which the motion repeats. Frequency is the number of cycles per time.

## Physics 153 2007 by Don Witt

Example Vertical Spring The forces acting on the mass are gravity and the spring forces.

k M

## F = ma -ky -mg = may

Now, as written the equation doesnt look like simple harmonic motion. Note y measures how much the spring is stretched.

## Physics 153 2007 by Don Witt

k M

To make it easy to solve this problem, find where the net force zero in other words where the system is in equilibrium

F = -ky -mg = 0.
This is where y= -mg/k .

Now,measure everything from this equilibrium position. So pick a new coordinate, namely, ynew = y + mg/k

## Physics 153 2007 by Don Witt

Plug ynew = y + mg/k into -ky -mg = may yields -ky -mg = -k(ynew - mg/k) -mg = may -kynew = may. Finally, since mg/k is constant ay=aynew . -kynew = maynew

## Physics 153 2007 by Don Witt

Finally, this means a vertical spring is simple harmonic motion but the displacement must be measure from the equilibrium position. The angular frequency is given by 2 = k/m

## Work Energy theorem

Let Fx be the x-component of all the forces acting on an object of mass m, then Fx= m ax The work done the force Fx is W = Plug in F=ma to obtain (ignore the limits of integration first) W=

Fx dx

Fx dx = W =

m ax dx = m ax vx dt

## = m vx (dvx /dt )dt = m vx dvx = (1/2)m(vx)2

Physics 153 2007 by Don Witt W = (1/2)m(vx)2 If moving in 3-dimensions, then W = Fx dx + Fy dy + Fz dz = F dr by definition. W = (1/2)m(vx)2 + (1/2)m(vy)2 + (1/2)m(vz)2 = (1/2)mv2
(Once limits of integration are put back in, one obtain the changes in K.)

## Physics 153 2007 by Don Witt

Conservation of Energy

The work energy theorem states W = K. Forces can be divided into conservative and non-conserved forces. A force is conserved if the work done is zero when return to its initial state. Thus, the work can be divided into work done by conserved and non-conservative. The work energy theorem can be rewritten as K = Wcon + Wnon

## Finally, the above can be written as K + U = Wnon

where U = -Wcon .

## Potential Energy K + U = Wnon

E = Wnon where E = K + U is the total energy. U is the potential energy and the change in U is defined by
U = -Wcon

Physics 153 Common Potential Energies 2007 by Don Witt To common potential energies are for a spring and gravity For a spring Uspring =1/2 kx2 and for gravity Ugravity = mgy . The energy for a horizontal spring is

## Comment on Vertical Springs

If a vertical spring is written in terms of a coordinate measured from the equilibrium position, i.e. y=0 is where the spring is has no force, then

-ky=may
and the energy is just

E=1/2 mv2 + 1/2 ky2 . However, if y = 0 is were the spring is unstretched, then -ky -mg =may and the energy must include Gravity, namely, E=1/2 mv2 + 1/2 ky2 + mgy.

## Physics 153 2007 by Don Witt

Simple Pendulum
Simple pendulum means wire is massless And the mass is a point mass.

The pendulum is length l and the mass is Is m. Drawing a free body diagram y T

W W x

-mg sin = max

## Using radians the acceleration can be written as

ax = l d2/dt2. So the equation is -mg sin = ml d2/dt2 The mass cancels and one is left with -g/ l sin = d2/dt2

## Small angle motion for a pendulum

So the motion of a pendulum is periodic but not simple Harmonic in general. However, if the angle is small

sin -g/ l d2/dt2 and the motion is simple harmonic for small with 2 = g/ l .

## Physics 153 2007 by Don Witt

Example

A massless spring with a spring constant k=19 N/m is hung vertically. A mass of 0.20 kg is attached and then released. Assume the spring was unstreched before the mass was released. Find how far below the initial point the mass descends. Find the frequency and amplitude of the resulting motion. v=0 Initial position Equilibrium Solution: M y yf

## Physics 153 2007 by Don Witt

E= 1/2 mv2 + 1/2 ky2 measure y from the equilibrium position. Now, E is conserved so E = 1/2 kA2 . Plug in v=0 which means y = A. Also, v=0 at yf . So yf = 2y. yf = 2mg/k= 0.2063 m and y = A = 0.1032 m. 2 = k/m and = 2f so f = (1/2)(k/m)1/2 f = 0.01633 Hz .

## Physics 153 2007 by Don Witt

Example

A 3.0 kg block moving at a speed of 1.8 m/s strikes a horizontal spring as shown in the gure. If the spring constant is 100 N/m and the maximum compression of the spring is 21 cm, what is the coefcient of friction between the block and the surface?
k

## Solution E = 1/2 mv2 + 1/2 kx2 E = Wnon

Wnon= F r = -fx= -Nx= -mgx Efinal = 1/2 kx2 and Einitial = 1/2 mv2 So E = 1/2 kx2 - 1/2 mv2 = -mgx = Wnon m = 3.0 kg , v= 1.8 m/s, k= 100 N/m, and x= 0.21 m = (1/2 kx2 + 1/2 mv2 )/mgx = 0.4300

## Physics 153 2007 by Don Witt

Example

A spring of negligible mass is hung vertically by attaching its upper end to a xed point. A small basket with a 0.40-kg copper block inside is placed on the lower end of the spring. The system is set into vertical simple harmonic oscillation. The oscillation period is found to be 0.90 s. When the copper block is removed, the oscillation period changes to 0.60 s.What is the mass of the basket? What is the spring constant of the spring?

Solution:

## Physics 153 2007 by Don Witt

(Tinitial )2 = 2/ = 42 (mbasket+mCu)/k (Tfinal )2 = 2/ = 42 mbasket/k Combining the equations (Tfinal )2/ mbasket = 42 /k = (Tinitial )2 / (mbasket+mCu) Solve for mbasket which gives mbasket = mCu / ((Tinitial )2/ (Tfinal )2 -1) mbasket = (0.40 kg)/((0.9s)2/ (0.6)2 -1) = 0.8 kg

## Physics 153 2007 by Don Witt

(Tfinal )2/ mbasket = 42 /k So k = 42 mbasket /(Tfinal )2 = 42 (0.8 kg)/ (0.6s)2 k = 87.7 N/m

## Damped Simple Harmonic Motion

A damping force is a non-conservative force which causes the simple harmonic motion to loose energy. A good model of the force is

Fdamp = -b v
where b is constant depending on the system. If the above damping force is added to spring system

-b vx - kx = max

## Physics 153 2007 by Don Witt

Small b motion

If the damping constant b is small the motion should be approximately simple harmonic motion with loss of energy. The energy for the system is E=1/2 mv2 + 1/2 kx2 If the average is taken over one period The average energy is Eaverage = mv2 . P = dEaverage /dt = -bv2. (Using the fact that P = F v ) dEaverage /dt = -bv2 = -b/m Eaverage

## Physics 153 2007 by Don Witt

dEaverage /dt = -b/m Eaverage Solving for Eaverage, E(t) = E0 e-t/ where

= m/b . For small b, the energy is near constant and E=1/2 k A2 . Hence, A(t) = A0 e-t/2 Thus, the solution is x = A0 e-t/2 cos(t + )

## Physics 153 2007 by Don Witt

General Solution

One can check by plugging in that x = A0 e-t/2 cos(t + ) is general solution of the equation -b vx - kx = max if and only if = 0 (1 - (b/2m 0 )2)1/2 where 0 = (k/m)1/2 is the natural angular frequency.

## Quality Factor and Types of Damping

Q = 2 E/|| || is the energy loss in one period and E is the total energy. Critically Damped is when bc= 2m 0 and

## Physics 153 2007 by Don Witt

Plot of damping

x Over damping

t Critical damping

## Driven Periodic Motion

In order to keep an oscillating system running one can adding energy by applying a periodic driving force.

-b vx - kx + F0 cos t = max The solution to this equation is solution of damped plus x = cos(t - ) where t is angular frequency of the driving force.

## Physics 153 2007 by Don Witt

Resonance

The amplitude is given by A = F0 / (m2(02 2)2 +b2 2 )1/2 and phase constant is given by tan = b / m(02 2) The amplitude is largest for 0

## Physics 153 2007 by Don Witt

Waves

Waves are disturbances which transmit energy and momentum but not matter. Waves are described by an equation y = f(x,t).

## Physics 153 2007 by Don Witt

Types of waves

Transverse waves are waves which the disturbance is perpendicular to the direction of propagation. Longitudinal waves are waves which the disturbance is parallel to the direction of propagation.

## Parameters that describe waves

Amplitude - maximum displacement from equilibrium. Velocity a) wave velocity b) velocity medium displacement

## Physics 153 2007 by Don Witt

Wave function

y = f( x, t) is called the wave function. Traveling waves can be written as y = f( x v t) in this case the waveform is given by the function f. y = f( x - v t) represents a wave moving left to right and y = f( x + v t) represents a wave moving right to left.

Wave speed

(v = wave speed)

## Physics 153 2007 by Don Witt

Harmonic Waves

Waves which have a waveform which is a sine function are called harmonic waves. Since the sine is periodic the wave will be periodic in time and spatially. The period used for simple harmonic motion applies in addition the wavelength, , is defined to be the distance over which the wave repeats spatially. v = / T = f

## Most general harmonic wave

y = A sin(kx t + )

where k is the wave number k= 2/. Again as before the + sign indicates right to left motion and the - sign indicates a wave moving left to right.

Energy

## Physics 153 2007 by Don Witt

Superposition

Two waves can be added to obtain a new wave y = y1 + y 2 Example y1 = A sin(kx - t) and y2 = A sin(kx - t + ) If =0, then y1+y2 = 2 A sin(kx - t) This is called constructive interference.

## Physics 153 2007 by Don Witt

Interference

Example y1 = A sin(kx - t) and y2 = A sin(kx - t + ) If = , then y1+y2 = 0 This is called destructive interference.

## Physics 153 2007 by Don Witt

Standing Waves

y1 = A sin(kx - t) and y2 = A sin(kx + t) sin(1) + sin(2) = 2cos((1-2)/2)sin((1+2)/2) Let 1= kx - t and 2= kx + t, then 1 - 2 = kx - t - kx - t = - 2t and 1 + 2 = 2kx So y = 2cos(t)sin(kx)

## Example of Singing Bar

Take a long steel bar balancing in the middle and hit (as shown) it so it generates a sound.

What is the frequency relation to length? Both ends are the same, i.e. unfixed, so a standing wave looks like

## 2nd So just as in the string example harmonic

f = n (v/2L) = n f1 where n = 1, 2, 3, .

## Physics 153 2007 by Don Witt

What happens when the bar is hit as shown? f = n (v/2L) = n f1 where n = 1, 2, 3, . Why does it produce different frequencies for the two different hammer positions?

## Transverse and Longitudinal speed

v2 = F/ (transverse wave speed on string) where F is the tension and the mass per length. v2 = B/ (logitudinal wave speed in fluid) where B is the bulk modulus and is the density.

## Physics 153 2007 by Don Witt

v2 = Y/ (logitudinal wave speed in solid rod) where Y is the tension and the mass per volume. v2 = P/ (sound wave in an ideal gas) where is the adiabatic index, the density, and P the pressure.

Intensity

## The intensity of a wave is

I = Paverage / A
where Paverage is average power and A is

the area.

## Average Human hearing

The intensity range for average human hearing is 10-12 W/m2 to 1 W/m2

## Is the telephone ad truthful?

Our phone lines are so clear you can hear a pin drop!
Sprint Wholesale enable a Switched outbound service allows your customers to use existing business and residential lines for exceptional reliability and pin-drop quality on all long-distance calls .

dB level

## Sound level or sound level intensity level is measured in dB (decibels)

= 10dB log10(I/I0)
where I is the intensity and I0 the intensity for threshold of hearing.

## Example of pin drop

When a pin of mass 0.1g is dropped from a height of 1m , 0.05% of its energy is converted into a sound pulse with duration of 0.1s. Estimate the range at which the pin can be heard. First, assume sound is at threshold of hearing. If you assume the intensity level must be at least 40dB for the sound to be heard, estimate the range at which the pin can be heard.

## Solution to Pin Example

I = Paverage / 4r2 Paverage = (mgy/t) x 0.05%. m=0.1g, y=1m, g=9.8m/s2, t=0.1s In order to hear, must have I =10-12 W/m2 So r2 = Paverage / 4 I pluging in numbers yields r = 624 m !

## Physics 153 2007 by Don Witt

Solution at 40dB

First, convert 40dB to intensity. 40dB=10dB log (I/I0) where I0 =10-12 W/m2. Solving I= 10-8 W/m2. Now, Paverage / 4 = constant so I1r21= I2r22 . (10-12 W/m2)(624m)2 = (10-8 W/m2) r22

Beats

## Physics 153 2007 by Don Witt

fbeat = f1 - f2 Maximum difference you hear is about 10Hz. After this tones merge.

Interference

## y1+ y2 = Asin(kx1-t+1) + Asin(kx2-t+ 2)

S1

x1

Listener or detector

S2

x2

## Physics 153 2007 by Don Witt

Interference

Two special cases to add waves, added to 1) maximum value constructive interference (kx1-t+1) - ( kx2-t+ 2) = 2n where n=0, 1, 2, 3, 2) minimum value destructive interference (kx1-t+1) - ( kx2-t+ 2) = n where n=1, 3, 5, Note: can also have negative values.

## Standing Waves in Pipes Half open pipes

Open Pipes

Closed Pipes

f = n (v/4L) = n f1 where n = 1, 3, 5,

f = n (v/2L) = n f1 where n = 1, 2, 3, .
The above waves are the displacement waves.

## Pressure Waves Half open pipes

Open Pipes

Closed Pipes

f = n (v/4L) = n f1 where n = 1, 3, 5,

f = n (v/2L) = n f1 where n = 1, 2, 3, .

## Physics 153 2007 by Don Witt

Moving source u

The green dot is a sound source with waves moving in all directions, speed of source is 0.

## The same source moving at velocity u to right.

In the moving case, the wavelength is shorter in the direction of motion and longer as it moves away.

## Moving source doppler

For the stationary source the distance between crests is the wavelength 0. In the moving case The wavelength has changed and is . The new wavelength is related the old by the following

= 0 - uT
where T is the period of the wave this the time between crests. Next, divide both sides by the wave speed, v.

/v = 0 /v - uT /v
1/f = 1/f0 - u/f0v

## 1/f = 1/f0 - u/f0v

Finally, group like terms together

## 1/f = 1/f0 - u/f0v = (1/f0 )(1 - u/v ) f = f0 /(1 - u/v )

A similar calculation gives the formula for the Moving detector.

## Physics 153 2007 by Don Witt

Doppler Effect

f = f0 (1 + ud/v)/(1 + us/v)
where v is the speed of the wave, f0 is the frequency emitted, us is the speed of the source, ud is the speed of the detector. Rules: 1) As objects approach, f > f0 2) As objects recede, f < f0

## Physics 153 2007 by Don Witt

Example

A hungry bat, using ultrasonic beeps, finds a doomed moth sitting on a plant. The sound emitted by the bat is 40,000Hz. If the doomed moth detects a frequency of 41,000Hz when the bat swoops at it, what is the speed of the bat? What frequency does the bat detect reflected off the doomed moth?

## Physics 153 2007 by Don Witt

Example

The string A on a street musician's violin is too tight. Comparing it to 440Hz, 3 beats are heard. What is the frequency of the violin string? Passengers travelling on a bus along the street hear the frequency at exactly 440Hz. What is the velocity of the bus?