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Xiaoyu Cheng Advisor: Dr.

Yong-Kyu Yoon

Agenda
HFSS Fundamentals
Case Study: Transmission line Basic SRR Antenna Waveguide Loaded with SRR Advanced Features Q&A

HFSS: Whats this?


High Frequency Structure Simulator
3D Simulator using FEM (Finite Element Method)

HFSS: How Accurate?


HFSS v.s. Agilent E5071C after calibration
0 -10

S11 and S21 (dB)

-20

-30 S11 Sim S21 Sim S11 Meas S21 Meas 6

-40

-50 5

10

11

12

Frequency (GHz)

HFSS: Interface
3D Modeler Project Manager

Variables

Message

Progress

HFSS: Type Setup (HFSS>>Solution Type) First Thing First Solution

S-Parameter based on Power; for Microstrips, waveguide (non-TEM modes) Higher modes in WG S-Parameter based on V, I ; for multipiece conductor suc As CPW, CBCPW, coaxial(TEM modes) Eigenmodes, or resonances, of a structure.
Time Domain Response

HFSS: Before Your Drawing


Whats the blank area?

They are PERFECT CONDUCTORS!(NOT AIR) Most of the cases, you need an air box enclosing your

circuit

HFSS: Your Model


Most tools are easy to handle
Equation based surfaces, helix and coils are tricky.

(Understand the meaning of rotating along the vector)

HFSS: Drawing
Make your model as central as possible: Symmetric

will ease your drawing using rotation and duplication function

Use variable as much as you can(optimization)

HFSS: Drawing
Make sure you have Air-box around your structure

(Why? -> P7) Air box should be at LEAST as large as quarter wavelength of your lowest frequency of interest Air boxes with unnecessary large volume will increase your simulation time. Usually you need Radiation boundary on each side of the air box

HFSS: Excitation
Wave Port: Stays ON the air box; has Deembed

function, ideal for Waveguide, microstrip

Lumped port: Embedded on the structure, for CPW/

CBCPW

HFSS: Waveport
If you are using Driven Terminal: Choose your

reference conductor (GND)

If you are using Driven Model: Draw your Integration

line: GND->Trace

HFSS: Lumped Port


Similar with Waveport, but it does not necessarily stay

on the Air box Only excite simplified single mode excitation, cannot perform deembed

HFSS: Port Size

You are responsible to draw a 2D planar rectangular as

your port (except WG) The standard recommendation for most CPW wave ports is a rectangular aperture
Port width should be no less than 3 x the overall CPW

width, or 3 x (2g + w) Port height should be no less than 4 x the dielectric height, or 4h

HFSS: Port Size


Microstrip WavePort : at LEAST 5*TraceWidth

(Preferably 8x), 5*SubstrateThick (10x) Run a Port Only simulation to determine if the port size is correct (Quasi-TEM)

HFSS: Solution Setup


Add a Setup

Solution Frequency: will be detailed later

Number of Passes: 10-20


Delta S: 0.02 (Default) <-> Accuracy

HFSS: Frequency Sweep


Solution Frequency depends on Sweep type: Fast: Narrow band application: Antenna Discrete: Equivalent to discrete sweep on VNA Good for broadband application Interpolating: Do discrete computing on less number of points(such as 50), more number of points (401 or 801) will be interpolated based on the actually calculated points

HFSS: First Simulation


If you are targeting very high performance system,

simulation of transmission line is suggested Transmission line can be designed by TxLine (www.AWR.com), then a full wave FEM analysis is needed in HFSS for best results.

Case 1: Microstrip Line Design


Substrate: Rogers RT/Duroid 5880 (k=2.2, thickness =

25mil, Half oz Cu coated, loss tan = 0.0009)

Wavelength Trace Width

Case 1: Microstrip Line Design


Create your model

Case 1: Microstrip Line Design


When Symmetric: Two Ports

Case 1: Microstrip Line Design


Before Frequency Sweep, run a Solve Port Only

analysis: Make sure port size is acceptable

Case 1: Microstrip Line Design


E-Field is displayed; Quasi-TEM mode is observed as

the same on your textbook

Case 1: Microstrip Line Design

Case 1: Microstrip Line Design


Before Plotting the results

Case 1: Microstrip Line Design

Case 1: Microstrip Line Design

Case 1: Microstrip Line Design

Case 1: Microstrip Line Design

Case 2: An SRR Antenna


X. Cheng, D.E. Senior, J.J. Whalen and Y.K.Yoon, Electrically Small Tunable Split Ring Resonator Antenna IEEE Antenna and Propagation Symposium (AP-S) 2010, Jun.2010, Toronto, Canada, pp.1-4

Case 2: An SRR Antenna


Microstrip: Driven Terminal, Waveport, Fast Sweep

Port Validation

Solution: Solution Freq. = Center Freq. (ANT)

Fast Sweep

Case 2: An SRR Antenna


# of adaptive passes : 30 (Huge!)

Case 2: An SRR Antenna

Dual Band! But why?

Case 2: An SRR Antenna


Field Distribution

2.1GHz

3.8GHz

Case 2: An SRR Antenna


3D Radiation Pattern

Antenna Parameters

Case 3: Waveguide Loaded with SRR


X.Cheng, J.Shi, P.Jao, D.E.Senior and Y.K. Yoon,

Reconfigurable split ring resonator array loaded waveguide for insitu tuning IEEE Antenna and Propagation Symposium (AP-S) 2011, Jul.2011, Spokane, WA, pp. 2947 - 2950

Case 3: Waveguide Loaded with SRR

Case 3: Waveguide Loaded with SRR

Case 3: Waveguide Loaded with SRR


E-Field at 4GHz (TE10 mode, Transmission)

Case 3: Waveguide Loaded with SRR


E-Field at 1.6GHz (Evanescent mode)

Case 3: Waveguide Loaded with SRR

Case 3: Waveguide Loaded with SRR

Case 3: Waveguide Loaded with SRR

Advanced Features
Field Plotting

Select the plane which the 3D field will be projected on

Select the parameter of interest

Advanced Features
Mesh Assignment (nano- and submicro structures)

Advanced Features
Optimization (project properties) and tuning

Advanced Features
Wrap sheet (HFSS 13.0 only)

Q&A

Multidisciplinary Nano and Microsystems Laboratory