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No.

52

T H E UKRAINIAN WEEKLY

SUNDAY, DECEMBER 27,1992

1 9 9 2 : A LOOK BACK
Ukraine: a year of transition
by Dr. Roman Solchanyk
RFEjRL Research institute

Ukraine's first year as an inde pendent state witnessed a funda mental realignment of political forces within the country that result ed in the division of the democratic forces into two basic camps, both committed to the same over-all goal of consolidating independence, but with differing views on how best to achieve that end. A key issue se parating the two camps is the atti tude towards the policies and per sona of President Leonid Kravchuk. in spite of these differences, U kraine remains politically tranquil, showing few if any signs of the deep political divisions that have beset several of its newly independent neighbors, including Russia, and which, in some cases, have led to civil war and armed conflict. At the same time, the Ukrainian experience has once again shown that politics and economics are tightly interwoven. The steadily worsening economic situation com bined with the government's inability or, as critics have argued, unwilling ness to press ahead with economic reform resulted in the forced resig nation of Prime Minister vitold Fokin and his Cabinet. The new government, headed by an ex perienced representative of the industrial lobby, has pledged to move towards a market economy at a steady pace, but without resorting to "shock therapy." For the time being, the opposition is prepared to let the new government demon strate what it can do. Much depends on Ukraine's rela tions, both political and economic, with Russia. After an initial period of confrontation, the tensions between the two most important members of the ClS have subsided. President Kravchuk and Russian President Boris Yeltsin held two summit meetings in 1992 to iron out their differences, but it would be naively optimistic to suggest that the Ukrainian-Russian relationship has suddenly undergone a funda mental transformation. The basic q uestion of whether Russia is able to abandon its view of Ukraine as an integral part of Russia, which has been conditioned by several cen turies of history, remains open. Moreover, there are any number of practical problems stemming from the collapse of the Soviet Union that the two sides have yet to resolve. One of these is the disposi tion of the strategic nuclear weap ons on Ukraine's territory. Although Ukraine has pledged to become a non-nuclear state, there is a grow ing pro-nuclear lobby in the country that cannot be ignored. This, in turn, is a problem of utmost interest to the West,and one that directly impinges on Ukraine's relations with the outside world. Political landscape in a recent article, the well-known literary critic and commentator Mykola Ryabchuk portrayed the current situation in the Ukrainian democratic camp in terms of the Faust-Mephistopheles syndrome. The suggestion, of course, is that a pact had been made with the devil

(personified by Mr. Kravchuk) for the sake of Ukrainian independent statehood. Mr. Ryabchuk had in mind primarily developments within Rukh, which emerged during the period of perestroika and served as an umbrella organization bringing together the democratic opposition to the Communist regime, in the course of 1992, Rukh split into two camps. The fault line was the poli cies and persona of Mr. Kravchuk, who, as the ideological secretary of the Communist Party of Ukraine, had previously been the nemesis of the democrats. On one side of this fault line is vyacheslav Chornovil - a promi nent former political prisoner, the first head of the democratically elected Lviv Oblast Council, and runner-up to Mr. Kravchuk in the December 1991 presidential elec tions - who enjoys the support of the overwhelming majority of Rukh organizations in the oblasts, parti cularly in western Ukraine. Mr. Chornovil insists that a demo cratic society cannot be created without an opposition, and he has taken it upon himself to lead what he calls a "constructive opposition" to the political and economic policies associated with President Krav chuk. Specifically, Mr. Chornovil points to what might be termed the "unfinished revolution" in Ukraine, criticizing the Ukrainian president's reliance on the old Communist Party apparat in the state adminis tration and the hesitation on the part of the executive branch to fully commit itself to radical marketoriented economic reform. No doubt there is an element of per sonal conflict between Mr. Chorno vil and President Kravchuk that can be traced to the presidential cam paign. it came to the surface at the World Forum of Ukrainians in Kiev in August, which witnessed a biting attack on Mr. Chornovil by the Ukrainian president. On the other side of the barri cades are many prominent figures

from the old democratic opposition like lvan Drach, the first head of Rukh; Dmytro Pavlychko, the first head of the Ukrainian Language Society; Mykhailo Horyn, also a long-time political prisoner and now head of the Ukrainian Republican Party; Larysa Skoryk, earlier one of the most outspoken critics of Mr. Kravchuk in the Parliament; and other key figures in the Rukh central leadership. The point of departure for this group is the defense and consolidation of Ukrainian statehood, which is identified with Presi dent Kravchuk. Moreover, the Ukrainian leader has skillfully courted the opposition, in his speech to the opening meet ing of the Fifth Session of the Parlia ment in January, Mr. Kravchuk called for a roundtable of political parties, groups, movements and trade unions to discuss the forma tion of a government of popular accord and emphasized that Rukh could play the leading role in such an undertaking. When the roundtable convened in February, the president advanced the idea of creating a State Duma (Council), the leadership of which was subse quently staffed almost exclusively by prominent figures from the oppo sition. Representatives of the latter have also been named to important posts in the state administration, government and the diplomatic corps, in short, President Kravchuk has succeeded in coopting both the Rukh program and many of its top leaders. The split between the two Rukh camps was visible for all to see at the organization's third Congress on February 28-March 1. Although the majority of delegates supported Mr. Chornovil's line of "constructive opposition," a formal split was avert ed by electing three co-chairman (Messrs. Chornovil, Drach and Horyn) and agreeing on a compro mise resolution that characterized Rukh as being in opposition, but at the same time supporting President Kravchuk's policies insofar as they do not conflict with its platform. Subsequently, Mr. Horyn left the

Tamara D Miller

Celebrations of Ukraine's first anni versary of independence found many personal expressions. Above a "babusia" in Kiev manifests her joy.

^ S t ^

Khristma Lew

in Kiev, crowds gathered to celebrate the first anniversary of Ukraine's independence in a festival-like atmosphere on independence Square on August 24.

T H E UKRAINIAN WEEKLY

SUNDAY, DECEMBER 27,1992

1 9 9 2 : A LOOK BACK
triumvirate to take over the leadership of the Ukrainian Republican Party. Mr. Drach, on the other hand, while formally retaining his post as co-chairman, simply stopped play ing an active role in the Rukh leadership. At the fourth congress, which was held December 4-6, Mr. Chornovil assumed full control of Rukh and, in effect, transformed the organization into a political party. The delegates voted to annul the institution of cochairmen and went on to elect Mr. Chornovil as sole head of the orga nization by an overwhelming vote of 423-8. Thus, by the end of 1992, Rukh, armed with a new program of statebuilding adopted at its congress, was transformed into a political base for Mr. Chornovil's expected candidacy in the next presidential elections. With about 50,000 cardcarrying members and many more supporters and sympathizers, it is the largest and most important political grouping in Ukraine. in the meantime, the Rukh mino rity formed its own organization on August 2 called the Congress of N a t i o n a l D e m o c r a t i c Forces (CNDF). This coalition was put together by Mr. Horyn's Ukrainian Republican Party and the Demo cratic Party of Ukraine led by Yuriy Badzio and Mr. Pavlychko, and was joined by a number of center-right political parties and groups. The CNDF clearly delineated its line in support of Mr. Kravchuk while joining Rukh in the call for a new Cabinet of Ministers and new parliamentary elections. A third coalition that emerged in 1992 is New Ukraine, which was formed in January and may be said to reflect the views of the democra tic center-left. The driving force behind New Ukraine is the Party for Democratic Rebirth of Ukraine, which traces its origins to the D e m o c r a t i c P l a t f o r m in t h e Communist Party of Ukraine, it groups together various social democratic, liberal, Green and trade-union organizations, and also includes representatives of the rising industrial and business lobbies. in its early stages, New Ukraine focused primarily on promoting the acceleration of economic reform. By the spring, however, the coalition went into political opposition to the government, and at its first congress in June it declared that it opposed the president and the presently constituted Parliament as well. Since then, New Ukraine has been coordinating its activities with Rukh in the organization of a referendum to force early parliamentary elec tions. However, the effort to gather 3 million signatures by the December 21 deadline on a petition calling for a referendum has proved unsuccess ful, which testifies to the widespread political apathy and disenchant ment among the population. The left opposition is represented by the Socialist Party of Ukraine, which was formed in October 1991 as the successor to the banned Communist Party of Ukraine. The socialists, led by People's Deputy OleksanderMoroz, convoked their second congress in December and concentrated their energies on the party's "anti-crisis" economic program, which is openly hostile to the market and privatization, and on the tracking on economic reform. By ail accounts, Mr. Symonenko was President Kravchuk first choice to succeed Mr. Fokin, against whom the opposition mounted a determined campaign in the sum mer. After an unsuccessful attempt on June 3 to place a vote of noconfidence on the Parliament's agenda, on July 7 the Parliament placed the question of confidence in the government on its agenda. The prime minister responded by citing President Kravchuk's support and reading a prepared statement de manding that either the lawmakers accept his terms or assume respon sibility for the situation in the coun try; thereafter, most of the ministers left the hall. Parliament, in turn, before recessing for the summer, passed a resolution proposing that Prime Minister vitold Fokin (center) was forced to resign his post, and his Cabinet was dismissed following a vote of no confidence by the Parliament. the president submit new candi dates for ministerial posts. campaign to lift the ban on the between proponents of a radical At the same time, more than 20 reform package and traditionalists political parties and groups formed Communist Party. With a membership of close to wary of the market. At the same a coalition called "A New Parlia 30,000, the Socialist Party of Ukraine time, the country was experiencing ment for an independent Ukraine" cannot be ignored as a political a steady deterioration of the econo which demanded the government's force. But even their numbers do not mib situation characterized by a resignation, new parliamentary tell the full story. The notion of decline in production, spiraling elections and a referendum on the "socialism" is still very popular inflation, and increasing prices for dissolution of Parliament. When the among large segments of the popu consumer goods, in the first two Parliament reconvened in Septem lation, particularly in times of eco months of 1992, for example, indus ber against the background of what nomic misery, and the socialists trial production fell by more than 17 was described by Mr. Fokin as a have skillfully played this card in percent as compared to the same "profound crisis" in the economy, period in the previous year; produc Mr. Symonenko still did not have a their appeals to the masses. On the other side of the political tion of consumer goods declined by completed economic reform packmore than 23 percent; and produc age, in the final analysis, the Fokin spectrum, 1992 witnessed the orga nizational formation of several ultra- tion of foodstuffs dropped by almost Symonenko plan for "deepening" nationalist and extremist groups 36 percent. economic reforms and a restructur proclaiming their commitment to The duality in the approach to ing of the Cabinet of Ministers never exclusively "Ukrainian national in economic reform was reflected in saw the light of day. The govern terests." the virtually simultaneous appoint ment was forced to resign on Octo ments in March of Oleksahder b e r l . Yemelianov as chairman of the State Politics and the economy Within two weeks of his appoint Council's Collegium on Questions ment on October 13, Mr. Kuchma At the end of September, Presi of Economic Policy and volodymyr presented his choices for ministerial dent Kravchuk finally caved in to Lanovoy as deputy prime minister posts, which were approved by the opposition criticism of the govern and minister of economics. Parliament on October 27. The job Mr. Yemelianov, who came from of deputy prime minister and min ment's economic policy and on September 30 announced the retire the State Planning Committee, was ister of economics went to viktor ment of Prime Minister Fokin. The charged with formulating economic Pynzenyk, who had previously criti Ukrainian president decided to sa policy, which resulted in a docu cized the government's economic crifice his head of government, but ment titled "Fundamentals of the policies. wanted to retain the core of the Economic Policy of Ukraine" that Mr. Kuchma himself came out in Cabinet of Ministers. However, on envisaged introduction of a Ukrai support of market reforms, but October 1 the Parliament adopted a nian currency and preparations for emphasized that the transition resolution expressing no confi an immediate abandonment of the should be a gradual one. According dence in the entire government ruble zone. The plan was approved to the new prime minister, the proforcing President Kravchuk to name in principle by the Parliament at a cess should begin with the privati a new Cabinet head within a 10-day closed session on March 24. zation of small and medium-sized Mr. Lanovoy is a 40-year-old pro enterprises, consumer services, period. The president responded by se ponent of radical market reform and trade and agricultural production lecting First Deputy Prime Minister one of the leaders of the New U facilities. Large state-run entervalentyn Symonenko as interim kraine coalition. Several days after prises should be denationalized at a prime minister; and on October13, Mr. Yemelianov's "Fundamentals" slow pace and only those deemed he proposed the candidacy of Leo was approved, he subjected the essential would continue to be sub nid Kuchma, whom the lawmakers document to stinging criticism, sidized. Mr. Kuchma has also come approved by a large majority. Mr. saying that it was not a program but out strongly in favor of maintaining Kuchma, general director of the rather a hastily assembled collec close economic ties with Russia. tion of incompetent and anti-market Southern Machine Construction At the end of November, the Par Plant production association in Dni responses to the liberalization of liament granted Mr. Kuchma extrapropetrovske, which is described as prices introduced in Russia earlier ordinary powers for a period of sixthe largest missile production plant in the year. Clearly, such a situation months in order to facilitate his in the world, is a 54-year-old Ukrai could not be maintained for very economic reform program of tight nian who has spent most of his long. budget and wage controls com working life at the plant he now And, indeed, on July 11 President bined with accelerated privatization heads. Kravchuk sacked Mr. Lanovoy, un and what appears to be a serious His initial statements left ob convincingly arguing that a high- effort to wipe out corruption. servers with the impression that the ranking government official could Foreign policy: new Ukrainian prime minister is a not simultaneously be a member of Russia, the C1S the West practical-minded manager who will an opposition political group, in his pursue a gradual course to the place, Mr. Kravchuk appointed va Ukraine's relations with Russia go market and is intent on avoiding the lentyn Symonenko as first deputy "shock therapy" identified with a prime minister. Mr. Symonenko well beyond the question of bilateral relations between the two most rapid embrace of the market. previously served as mayor of TheCabinet crisis in the fall was Odessa and was then appointed important successor states to the preceded by several months of presidential representative in the Soviet Union. They impinge on the inconclusive attempts to launch a Odessa oblast. His appointment, fate of Russia itself, on the future of program of economic reform against ana especially tne Tiring of Lanovoy the ClS, and are crucial to Western a background of political infighting were widely interpreted as back- security interests. Dr. Zbigniew

No. 52

T H E UKRAINIAN WEEKLY

SUNDAY, DECEMBER n,

1992

1 9 9 2 : A LOOK BACK
Brzezinski has argued that the lit mus test for Russia's future course of development is whether or not it can live with an independent U kraine. That question is still open. For many Russians, regardless of their political convictions, the "loss" of Ukraine is simply incomprehen sible. The problem is primarily a historical one. Russian political thought traditionally viewed "Little Russia" (Ukraine) as an integral part of Russia and "Little Russians" (U krainians) as part of the "all-Rus-' sian" (obshcherusskoy) nation. Stated differently, Ukraine and Ukrainians were never considered to be legiti mate concepts, indeed, Russian historiography traces the origins of the Russian state to Kievan Rus'. The "^oss" of Ukraine, therefore, represents the loss of a key aspect of Russian history and, consequently, Russian national identity. Ukrainian independence has had the practical effect of forcing Russia to recon struct its national memory. Admittedly, this is not an easy process. Leading Russian political figures, both in the Yeltsin camp and in the "red-brown" coalition of selfstyled patriots and disgruntled Communists, have on numerous occasions made it clear they cannot accept an independent U kraine. The Russian opposition has been particularly forthright. Sergei Babu rin, a central figure in the National Salvation Front, was quoted in May as telling Kiev's ambassador in Moscow that "either Ukraine reunites with Russia, or there will be war." Leading Russian democrats like St. Petersburg Mayor Anatoliy Sobchak and former Moscow Mayor Gavrill Popov, although considerably more diplomatic, reacted to Ukraine's independence with undis guised horror and territorial claims. And statements like those by vice-President Aleksander Rutskoi that the Russian Federation should not be confused with Russia or Deputy Prime Minister Mikhail Pol toranin's reference to President Kravchuk's "separatism" in the context of centrifugal movements inside Russia suggest that the Russian White House is not entirely immune to what the Ukrainian president has often referred to as Russian "impe rial thinking." This problem was reflected in the tense relations between Kiev in Moscow throughout the first half of 1992, which were clearly visible, particularly in the disputes over the Crimea and the Black Sea Fleet. On January 23, the Russian Parliament voted overwhelmingly to adopt a resolution instructing two of its committees to examine the consti tutionality of the 1954 decisions to transfer the Crimea from the RSFSR to Ukraine, in another resolution, the Ukrainian Parliament was asked to find a speedy resolution to all questions related to the Black Sea Fleet. An unsuccessful attempt was made to place both of these issues on the agenda of the Sixth Congress of Russian People's Deputies in April. The following month, a closed session of the Russian Supreme Soviet adopted a resolution de claring the 1954 transfer of the Crimea as being ''without the force of law." More recently, the Seventh Congress of Russian People's De puties on December 5 called into question Ukraine's right to the Cri mean city of Sevastopil, which is home to the Black Sea Fleet. Presidents Yeltsin and Kravchuk held two summits in 1992. The first, in the southern Russian resort town of Dagomys on June 23, focused on economic issues and set the stage for the current negotiations on a new Ukrainian-Russian treaty. The Crimean question was not on the agenda, which represented a victory for the Ukrainian position that this is purely an internal Ukrainian matter. The second summit was held in Yalta in August and yielded an interim solution to the dispute over the Black Sea Fleet by placing it under joint Ukrainian-Russian com mand for a three-year period, after which it is to be divided between the two sides. Negotiations on the issue are continuing. But it would be overly optimistic to assume that these specific pro blems have been resolved and, more important, that the larger issue of Russia's attitude toward an inde pendent Ukraine has suddenly been reversed. Recent statements by vice-President Rutskoi on the Cri mea and, even more disturbing, Russian Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev's remark that territorial claims on Ukraine could not be excluded provide little ground for optimism on this score. From Kiev's standpoint, the Rus sian version of the draft of a new treaty between Ukraine and Russia, which was made public in Septem ber, gives added weight to Henry Kissinger's claim he never met a Russian who accepted that U kraine can be truly independent. The draft, among other things, calls for a joint military doctrine and provides for the use of Ukrainian territory by Russia's military, and has been rejected by Kiev. The Ukrainian-Russian imbroglio has also had a visible impact on the course of developments in the ClS. The latter was formed by Ukraine, Russia and Belarus in December of 1991, but Kiev's motivations for joining were quite different from those of its two Slavic neighbors. The latter were prepared to sign Mikhail Gorbachev's confederative union treaty but ultimately did not do so because Ukraine rejected Mr. Gorbachev's plans outright. The result was the C!S, which Mr. Yeltsin agreed to in order to maintain the link with Ukraine. For Mr. Kravchuk and the Ukrainian leadership, the ClS provided a mechanism for what has been described as a civilized divorce process. These two diametrically opposed approaches largely explain the in effectiveness of the C l S . Russia would like to see a more tightly integrated ClS replete with its own charter and coordinating bodies. Ukraine has flatly rejected all sug gestions of transforming the ClS into a new "superstate," and on various occasions President Krav chuk and other Ukrainian leaders have suggested that Ukraine will abandon the Commonwealth. Rukh and other political group ings have incorporated the demand that Ukraine leave the ClS into their programs. The frustration of the Russian side can be seen in the appeal addressed by the Seventh Congress of Russian People's De puties to the Parliaments of the Soviet successor states to consider forming a confederation or some other form of closer association of European and Asian states. All of these problems are viewed with dismay from Washington, Lon don, Bonn and other Western capi tals. Their main concern is the fact that Russia and Ukraine, together with Belarus and Kazakhstan, have formidable arsenals of nuclear weapons on their territories. The nuclear arms issue also has a Ukrai nian-Russian angle. As a matter of principle, Kiev has objected to Mos cow's determined effort to play the role of sole successor to the USSR, especially in international affairs. A case in point is negotiations with the West on the reduction of nuclear weapons. Ukraine's position that it is an independent party in the nuclear arms negotiations was finally agreed to in May with the signing of the Lisbon protocol to START. Neither the West nor Russia were anxious for Ukraine, Belarus and Kazakh stan to, in effect, join the nuclear club. Only several months earlier, in March, Ukraine suspended its trans fer of short-range nuclear weapons to Russia, claiming there was no guarantee the arms were actually being destroyed as had been agreed. The transfers were subsequently resumed and by May, when Presi dent Kravchuk visited Washington, all tactical nuclear weapons had been removed from Ukrainian terri tory. But the problem of strategic nu clear weapons remains, with U kraine demanding the right to "administer" these weapons while leaving "operational management" to the command of the ClS armed forces. Moreover, increasingly U kraine is being seen as stalling on the ratification of START, which President Kravchuk recently ad mitted would not be possible before the new year. At the same time, there is a growing and increasingly vocal lobby in Ukraine that argues for the retention of a nuclear capability, and Mr. Kravchuk himself has insist ed that Ukraine should be given security guarantees and financial compensation before it becomes nuclear-free. Thus, the balance sheet of one year of Ukrainian independence presents a mixed picture. President Kravchuk and his allies in the demo cratic camp succeeded in asserting and consolidating Ukrainian inde pendence vis-a-vis Russia and in the international arena. But now they are faced with the no less formidable task of providing the economic underpinning for translating that independence into something con crete with which ordinary citizens can identify and which, in the final analysis, will provide the backbone and muscle needed to promote the development not only of an inde pendent but also a democratic state and civil society.

The task of nation-building


After the euphoria of independ ence subsided, in 1992, Ukraine was faced with the arduous task of build ing a democratic, independent na tion. Throughout the year, it assert ed its de jure status by adopting attributes of a sovereign state. On the first day of the fifth session of its 12th convocation the Parlia ment adopted the blue-and-yellow flag as the state flag of Ukraine; during the winter months the Su preme Council went on to approve the trident as the state emblem (February 19), and to adopt a na tional anthem for Ukraine. August 24 was designated a state holiday, "Ukrainian independence Day,", marking the date in 1991 that the Supreme Council of Ukraine adopt ed the Act of Declaration of ln dependence, voting in the aftermath of the attempted coup in Moscow. in May, Ukraine's Ministry of internal Affairs reported that new passports would be issued to every citizen of Ukraine over a five-year period between 1993 and 1998. The new Ukrainian passport will be based on international standards and will be valid both for internal identification and for foreign travel, unlike the case during the Soviet era when separate passports were issued for domestic and external use. Although Ukraine began issuing its own stamps in March 1992, it slowed the process of producing stamps soon afterward. Because of various technical difficulties, Ukrai nian postal authorities were forced to utilize remaining Soviet supplies before attempting to produce more of their own stamps. T w o debut 1 5 - k o p e k stamps which did manage to come into circulation on Sunday, March 1, depict two historic eras in Ukraine's glorious past. The first stamp cele brated 500 years of Kozak history, while the second marked 100 years of Ukrainian emigration to Canada. in 1992, Ukraine also hoped to introduce its own monetary unit, the hryvnia, but due to the incovertabi lity of the ruble, and subsequently the coupon, economic experts advised that Ukraine hold off until it could back its money with reserves.

Reproduction of a 1,000-karbovanets note (worth approximately S1.30).

T H E UKRAINIAN WEEKLY

SUNDAY,

DECEMBER 27,1992

No. 52

1 9 9 2 : A LOOK BACK
ment issued by President Kravchuk threatened to expel any foreigner o p e n l y c r i t i c a l of t h e U k r a i n i a n government, Supreme Council and the president's policies. in late October, the first Jewish Congress of Ukraine was held in Kiev. A w a r d s w e r e p r e s e n t e d to World War 1 heroes who had res1 cued Jews during the Nazi occupa tion. Jews form the second largest e t h n i c m i n o r i t y in U k r a i n e after Russians. Former Soviet political prisoners held a meeting in the fall to seek rehabilitation, and vowed to draw the attention of government and civic associations to the need for a system of aid and protection for victims of punitive Soviet psychia try. They appealed to the Supreme C o u n c i l of U k r a i n e t o i n t r o d u c e legislation bringing about the full r e h a b i l i t a t i o n of f o r m e r p o l i t i c a l prisoners. Also, veterans of the Ukrainian insurgent Army were given their day of glory, 50 years after their valiant struggle to achieve a free Ukraine. T h o u s a n d s of v e t e r a n s m a r c h e d through the streets of Kiev on Au gust 9 and called on Ukraine's Par liament to recognize their defense of Ukraine during World War l l . The Crimea continued to be a hotbed of problems for Ukraine, as the Supreme Council adopted a new c o n s t i t u t i o n w h i c h foresees the Crimea as an autonomous region within Ukraine. Throughout the year the Crimea passed various resolu tions including demands for dual citizenship, but ultimately backed away from a direct confrontation with Kiev and put its independ ent status on a back burner. Confrontations between the Cri mean Tatars and Russian nationa lists c o n t i n u e d as t h e T a t a r s at tempted to storm the Crimean Par liament building in October, when that Parliament outlawed the Mezh lis a n d t h e O r g a n i z a t i o n of t h e Crimean Tatar National Movement, labeling them unconstitutional. Another restless area, to the south of Ukraine, the Trans-Dnister Mol dovan Republic, continued to wit ness skirmishes and sniper fire, as ceasefires were often ignored. Al though the residents of the area, many of them Ukrainians, prayed for peace, Moldovan forces, encou raged by Romanian nationalists and Trans-Dnistrian powers, fueled by Moscow's money and weapons, continued to ravage the once-tran quil region. Ukraine continues to live with the consequences of the 1986 Chor nobyl nuclear accident nuclear a c c i d e n t , in February, it was an nounced that a second sarcophagus would have to be built over the one presently encasing the crippled fourth reactor at the power station. The work is to be done by a French firm and is to be completed within three years. T h e s i x t h a n n i v e r s a r y of t h e nuclear disaster at Chornobyl was m a r k e d r a t h e r q u i e t l y as G r e e n World and Rukh proclaimed a day of mourning on April 24 - Good Fri day according to the Julian calen dar. Most Ukrainians, however, would echo the sentiments of one Kievite who told The Weekly: "We live with the effects of Chornobyl every day of our lives." At an April 22 press conference, the Ukrainian Minister for the Chor nobyl Clean-Up said that between 6,000 and 8,000 deaths had resulted from the Chornobyl accident and appealed for more international aid to overcome the disaster's conse quences. On May 4, a massive outbreak of w i l d f i r e s w a s r e p o r t e d in a r e a s contaminated by radioactive fallout from the Chornobyl disaster, spread ing radiation to previously "clean" areas. Some 100 fires were extin g u i s h e d in t h e G o m e l O b l a s t of Belarus on May 2-3 alone. Fire was the problem again in early Augustas forest, brush and peat bog fires raged in northeastern Ukraine and in t h e e v a c u a t e d z o n e near t h e C h o r n o b y l p l a n t . W a r n i n g s were issued to the populace, and some villagers were evacuated. Meanwhile, the incidence of thy roid and other cancers continued to grow, especially among children, as had been predicted with the passage of time since the accident. There were new revelations as well regard ing the danger of exposure to lowlevel r a d i a t i o n over p r o l o n g e d periods of time. At the United Nations, representa tives from Europe, Asia and North America commemorated the sixth a n n i v e r s a r y of t h e a c c i d e n t , a n d activists of the Zhytomyr Fund to Resettle the victims of Chornobyl appealed to the U.N. to establish a new c o n c e p t , t h a t of " r a d i a t i o n refugees" and to form an assistance committee to help individuals irra diated by nuclear accidents or emis sions. in August, the Chornobyl Ministry of Ukraine signed a contract with Los Alamos Technical Associates inc., to develop remedies for the Chornobyl clean-up. Then, on October 16, faced with a dire shortage of energy, reactor No. 3 of the Chornobyl plant was restart ed in contravention of requests by the European Community, in De cember, the No. 1 reactor was restarted, also due to the shortage of energy supplies, particularly follow i n g t h e r e d u c t i o n in s u p p l i e s of cheap oil and gas from Russia. The U k r a i n i a n P a r l i a m e n t , it w i l l be recalled, had voted in October 1991 to close down the entire Chornobyl complex by the end of 1993.

Cadets in Kiev pledge allegiance to Ukraine. Thus, throughout 1992, the coupon, a flimsy piece of paper in various colors and in various denominations - described by Westerners as "Mo nopoly money" circulated throughout Ukraine. By the end of the year, Ukraine became a rublefree zone. Although the coupon was intend ed as a "transitional currency," according to Ukrainian officials "the unscheduled transformation of the coupon appears to be an irre versible shove toward the sepa ration of the Russian and Ukrainian economies." By the end of the year, President Leonid Kravchuk issued a decree officially removing the ruble f r o m c i r c u l a t i o n in U k r a i n e , a n d making the karbovanets (basically, a renamed coupon) legal tender, it is not yet clear when the hryvnia will be introduced. Ukraine also began to seriously concentrate on the establishment of its own army. Taking the oath of allegiance became a regular event, as pledges were administered in m i l i t a r y s c h o o l s , at a r m y bases, naval f l e e t s a n d n a t i o n a l g u a r d headquarters. According to a recent report in the Financial Times, in Ukraine, there are reckoned to be about 700,000 troops, including forces withdrawn by Moscow from Germany, Hungary and Czech-Slovakia. Under agreed manpower ceilings, these are due to be reduced to 450,000 in 1995. The official aim is a strength, by the end of the decade, of 250,000, roughly equivalent to the United Kingdom's. Most members of the military have signed oaths of allegiance to U k r a i n e . E x p e r t s say s o m e 10,000 officers have refused and are due to leave. But, t h e r e may be up t o 200,000 Ukrainian officers currently serving in other republics who are eligible to return. Ukraine's troops arrived in Sara jevo, on July 29, as part of the United N a t i o n s P e a c e k e e p i n g f o r c e s in Yugoslavia, along with French, Egyptian and Canadian servicemen. By the end of the year, three Ukrai nian soldiers had lost their lives defending the citizens of this wartorn region of eastern Europe. By year's end, the United Nations established an interim office in Kiev, in accordance with an agreement signed by U.N. Secretary General Boutros Boutros-Ghali and Ukrai nian Foreign Minister Anatoliy Zlenko on October 6. As U k r a i n e f u r t h e r e s t a b l i s h e d itself as a European state and a fullfledged member of the global com munity, it was admitted as a mem ber of the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe, at a January meeting in Prague of foreign m i n i s t e r s , in late F e b r u a r y , Mr. Kravchuk signed the Helsinki Accords. Also in late February, Ukraine was asked to join NATO's Cooperation Council by Secretary General Man f r e d W o e r n e r d u r i n g his visit t o Ukraine. The European Bank for Recon struction and Development in Sep tember announced a major program of aid for Ukrainian privatization, pledging assistance in drafting pri v a t i z a t i o n l e g i s l a t i o n as w e l l as promising to implement two or three pilot privatization transactions in Ukraine. Just two months later, the World Bank extended a S40 million loan to the beleaguered nation. Although the World Bank's representative a c k n o w l e d g e d t h e a m o u n t was small and "earmarked for strength ening institutions involved in econo mic reform," he offered encourage ment, saying that it would be follow ed by "vast support" from the international c o m m u n i t y , once Prime Minister Leonid Kuchma's reform program was implemented. At t h e b e g i n n i n g of t h e year, Ukraine said it would take on 16.37 percent of the foreign debt owed by the Soviet Union, but by the end of the year, it had reached a temporary agreement with Russia, agreeing to give Moscow the right to manage its S70 billion debt, in doing so, U kraine took a big step toward resolving an issue that has been a r o a d b l o c k in U k r a i n i a n - R u s s i a n relations. The agreement, reached by the end of November, allows the Paris Club to reschedule the debt payments to Western nations. 1992 was also a year of firsts for Ukraine, as citizens jubilantly cele brated the first anniversary of Ukrai nian independence on August 24 and later, perhaps without much fanfare, the first anniversary of the historic referendum confirming U kraine's independence on Decem berl. However, the August 24 holiday was dampened for members of the diaspora who gathered in Kiev at the World Forum of Ukrainians. A state

Churches: spheres of influence


W i t h b o t h t h e U k r a i n i a n Auto cephalous Orthodox and the Ukrai nian Greek-Catholic Churches le galized, and the Ukrainian Orthodox Church becoming autonomous of Moscow, it would seem that reli gious freedom had truly arrived in Ukraine and that the faithful could now concentrate on their spiritual growth and well-being. A l t h o u g h qonftjcts concerning buildings and church property in western Ukraine continued between the Orthodox and Catholics in 1992, the most serious problem became not inter-denominational but intra denominational. very little of the ten sion in the Orthodox Church center ed on matters of doctrine and faith - - the strife was between men of the cloth who struggled to lead the more t h a n 35 m i l l i o n w h o p r o f e s s the

No. 52

T H E UKRAINIAN WEEKLY

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1 9 9 2 : A LOOK BACK
Orthodox faith in Ukraine. The struggle began in the early spring, as Metropolitan Filaret of Kiev a t t e m p t e d t o break free of Moscow only to be reprimanded by Patriarch Aleksey of the Russian Orthodox Church and later defrock ed by a sobor of the ROC held on June 11 in Moscow. i g n o r i n g M e t r o p o l i t a n Filaret Denysenko's fight with Moscow, the Ukrainian Orthodox bishops of the Ukrainian Autonomous Church (formerly the ROC) held their own sobor in Kharkiv on May 27, electing M e t r o p o l i t a n v o l o d y m y r as t h e i r leader. He a r r i v e d in Kiev f r o m Moscow, greeted by hundreds of Orthodox believers on June 20. A l t h o u g h M e t r o p o l i t a n Filaret continued to enjoy the support of President Leonid Kravchuk, as well as the Ukrainian Parliament's, whose presidium voted not to accept the decisions of the Kharkiv sobor, the faithful were overwhelmingly sup portive of Metropolitan volodymyr, who is a Ukrainian by birthright. "Of course we want to be inde p e n d e n t , b u t t h i s m u s t be d o n e c a n o n i c a l l y ; we must f o l l o w t h e rules of the Church. We will pray for our independence," a spokesman f o r M e t r o p o l i t a n v o l o d y m y r said soon after the prelate's arrival in Kiev. To date, Metropolitan volo dymyr, whose residence is at the h i s t o r i c M o n a s t e r y of t h e Caves (Pecherska Lavra), enjoys authority over the majority of Ukrainian Or thodox believers in Ukraine and has garnered the support of 30 bishops, claiming over 5,000 parishes. H o w e v e r , M e t r o p o l i t a n Filaret was not g o i n g t o r e l i n q u i s h t h e power he had in Ukraine since the early 1960s and in June, just one day before the sobor of the Ukrainian Orthodox Church, now headed by Metropolitan volodymyr, Metropoli tan Filaret joined forces with Metro p o l i t a n A n t o n i y of t h e U k r a i n i a n Autocephalous Orthodox Church, uniting his faction of the UOC with the UAOC into one independent Ukrainian Orthodox Church, Kiev Patriarchate. But this hasty move was done without the consent of the head of the UAOC, the 94-year-old Patriarch Mstyslav, who has yet to recognize the existence of this newest Church. Patriarch Mstyslav has kept his promise that the cannot cooperate or unite with Filaret, who throughout decades of Communist rule did little to inspire Christianity among the Ukrainian faithful. Accused of being an agent of the KGB, Filaret continues to hold o n t o t h e f i n a n c e s , real e s t a t e , c h u r c h e s a n d b u i l d i n g s he had under his jurisdiction as the prelate of the Ukrainian Exarchate of the Russian Orthodox Church. Thus, a further schism has oc curred between the Ukrainian Auto cephalous Orthodox Church, head ed by Patriarch Mstyslav, and the Ukrainian Orthodox Church of the Kiev Patriarchate, headed by Metro politan Filaret and Antoniy, who was once the locum tenens for Patriarch Mstyslav but was dismissed from the e p i s c o p a t e by t h e p a t r i a r c h on November 17. Leaders in Ukrainian government circles, who claim a separation of Church and state, still hope that Patriarch Mstyslav and Metropolitan Filaret can come to some understanding for the good of the Ukrai nian Orthodox faith. But, as the year was coming to a close, the demands by P a t r i a r c h M s t y s l a v t o d i s m i s s both Metropolitan Filaret and An toniy were rejected by a sobor of bishops of the UOC-KP. The sobor e x p r e s s e d f u l l c o n f i d e n c e in t h e leadership of the Church, elected by the sobor in late June, and cautioned that the holy patriarch's declara tions are valid only if they are issued with the consent of the Holy Synod and the Bishops' Sobor and signed by the patriarchal chancery in Kiev. The resolution also contains an appeal to the patriarch not to exceed his jurisdiction: Patriarch Mstyslav, currently in Kiev, did not attend the sobor of the UOC-KP. During the s o b o r , M e t r o p o l i t a n Filaret de clared, "the Kiev Patriarchate will follow its own course in creating a single Orthodox Church in Ukraine, no matter what position Patriarch Mstyslav chooses to adopt." This indicates that he does not see Mstyslav as a serious opponent, but he has to pay attention to the fact that of the 1,650 parishes of the UAOC, only 350 have registered as UOC-KP members. While the Ukrainian Orthodox tackled their many problems, the Ukrainian Greek-Catholic Church attempted to expand its influence outside the traditional western Ukrainian stronghold, establishing p a r i s h e s in Kiev a n d e a s t e r n U kraine. With more than 5 million faithful, it lacks enough priests to serve them adequately, but conti nues to move along with a seminary in Lviv, which in the last academic year registered more than 330 stu d e n t s . R e o p e n e d by A r c h b i s h o p volodymyr Sterniuk in September 1990 in Rudno, it also qualifies for a portion of the million donated by the National Conference of Catholic Bishops' Office to Aid the Catholic Church in Central and Eastern Eu rope, including the former Soviet Union. A 50,000-watt radio trans mitter purchased for religious broadcasts in Ukraine has been bought for the money, which will also fund projects supporting semi narians and publishing catechetical materials. in 1992, t h e U k r a i n i a n G r e e k Catholic Church observed the cen t e n n i a l of t h e b i r t h of P a t r i a r c h Josyf Slipyj. Cardinal Myroslav lvan Lubachivsky launched yearlong festivities in February, which cul minted in the transfer of the remains of this great Catholic leader and devoted son of Ukraine to Lviv. in keeping with his wishes and testa m e n t , t h e p a t r i a r c h , w h o passed away in 1984, was reburied in the crypt of the Cathedral of St. George in Lviv. With great solemnity, res pect and admiration, hundreds of thousands honored the memory of t h e p a t r i a r c h in late A u g u s t . Al though his remains were scheduled to lay in state for only two days, the special viewing at St. George's was extended for another eight days to give the more than 1 million faithful who arrived in Lviv specifically to pay tribute to the Ukrainian Church leader t o d o so, b e f o r e he was interred in the crypt. Another Ukrainian Greek-Catho lic C h u r c h leader, w h o p l a y e d a significant role in keeping his faith ful spiritually rich during the decades of the catacomb Ukrainian Catholic Church (1946-1988), Archbishop v o l o d y m y r Sterniuk, marked his 85th birthday with a pontifical l i t u r g y at St. G e o r g e ' s . On t h i s occasion, he was greeted by Pope John Paul l l . And, although the vatican has yet to recognize the Patriarchate of the Ukrainian Catholic Church, a new era of U k r a i n e - v a t i c a n r e l a t i o n s b e g a n in e a r l y 1992, as t h e t w o states exchanged diplomatic notes "to foster bilateral ties for the bene fit of Catholics in Ukraine and of all the Ukrainian people." The first synod of the Ukrainian C a t h o l i c C h u r c h s i n c e 1946 was held on the territory of Ukraine on May 18. Opened by Cardinal Luba chivsky, it was attended by 28 of the 30 Ukrainian Catholic bishops in the world, in the synod's closing pasto ral letter, the bishops of the Church unanimously asked Pope John Paul 1 to finally "realize the decree of the 1 Second vatican Council and, not c r e a t e , but r a t h e r r e c o g n i z e t h e K i e v - H a l y c h P a t r i a r c h a t e of t h e Ukrainian Greek-Catholic Church." Besides the Ukrainian Orthodox and Catholic faithful, a growing number of Protestant groups exist in Ukraine. A c c o r d i n g to Keston College, the Protestant communi ties are noted for moral strictness, and the Protestant believers have a reputation for honesty and charity. Statistics on the number of commu nities are not available. K e s t o n has also r e p o r t e d t h a t about 200 Roman Catholic parishes exist in Ukraine; this year Pope John Paul 1 appointed five bishops to 1 organize dioceses. The Roman Catholic faithful are mainly Poles and Hungarians who live in Ukraine. T h e r e is a s u b s t a n t i a l J e w i s h community in Ukraine and recently synagogues have been reopened in several cities - including two in Kiev. The Ukrainian government has made notable efforts to cultivate good relations with lsrael and to reassure Jewish citizens (who have been l e a v i n g t h e f o r m e r Soviet Union in large numbers) that they are f u l l y w e l c o m e a n d s e c u r e in Ukraine. U k r a i n e is a l s o h o m e t o s o m e Muslims, particularly in the Crimea, where there are mosques and i s l a m i c s c h o o l s . T h e r e are also Buddhists and animists, t h o u g h t h e r e seems t o be no o r g a n i z e d expression of these religions. Outside the territory of Ukraine, in Peremyshl, home to thousands of Ukrainians faithful, the Ukrainian Greek-Catholic Eparchy of Peremy shl was made a suffragan diocese of t h e A r c h d i o c e s e of W a r s a w , by order of a papal bull. The Eparchy of Peremyshl, the oldest Ukrainian eparchy, is historically and canoni cally a suffragan of the Metropolitan See of Lviv and an integral member of the Ukrainian Catholic Church. The St. Sophia Religious Associa tion in Canada in March sent letters to Ukrainian Catholic bishops ur ging them to protest the pope's order. Back in the United States, Msgr. Walter Paska was named auxiliary bishop to U.S. Metropolitan-Arch bishop Stephen Sulyk of the Ukrai nian Catholic Archdiocese of Phila delphia. He was appointed by Pope John Paul 1 on Feburary 4. 1 And in celebration of the centen nial of Ukrainians in Canada, Auxi l i a r y B i s h o p M y r o n D a c i u k was named Ukrainian Catholic eparch of Edmonton and installed on January 16. Ukrainian Catholics in Canada suffered a loss for their Church with the death of Bishop Jerome Chimy of New Westminister who passed away on September 19, at the age of 73. Evangelical Baptists in the United States e l e c t e d t h e Rev. J a r o s l a v Paprockyj of Philadelphia as presi dent of the Ukrainian Evangelical Baptist Convention of Churches in the U.S.A. over Labor Day weekend, in Chicago. And the Ukrainian Orthodox com munity in the United States named A r c h b i s h o p C o n s t a n t i n e , a l s o of Chicago, as the new metropolitan for the United States. The sobor, held in South Bound Brook, N.J., on May 21-23, witnessed the establishment of t h e U k r a i n i a n A u t o c e p h a l o u s Orthodox Church's Kievan Patriar chate and the proclamation of U kraine's independence as a demo cratic nation.

Three Orthodox hierarchs (from left): Patriarch Mstyslav, Metropolitan Filaret and Metropolitan volodymyr.

UKRAINIAN WEEKLY

SUNDAY,

DECEMBER 27,1992

52

1 9 9 2 : A LOOK BACK
^ B '

Biznes" heads for Ukraine


to A T A T or Sprint. Other business competition also flared anew in the lands above the Black Sea this past year. Pepsi and Coca Cola renewed their "cola wars," when in early October Coke expanded its presence in the Ukrai nian market and, concurrently, be gan selling its products from kiosks in various cities. Pepsico., which was already outselling Coke about three to one, quickly reacted and announced on October 22 it had entered into a complex joint venture, whereby it would invest S150 million and build five additional bottling plants and 100 new Pizza Huts, in return the cola producer will receive $1 billion worth of shipping tankers built by Ukraine to be sold by another part ner in the venture, Fram Shipping Co. Coca Cola has just recently coun ter-attacked, and in late December formed a joint venture with the Rosinka (Dewdrop) soft drink asso ciation of Ukraine. Another firm, Otis Elevator Co., which probably will deal with less competition because it is by far the largest such firm in the world, expressed a heightened interest for doing business in Ukraine this past year, it set up a joint venture with U k r a i n i a n State C o m m i t t e e on Housing and Community Services to manufacture, sell, maintain and modernize elevators in Ukraine. The c o m p a n y s a i d it w i l l e v e n t u a l l y employ 4,900 people and maintain e l e v a t o r s in Kiev, D o n e t s k e a n d K h a r k i v . Plans also call f o r t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n of a 21,300-square foot factory. A tobacco giant also headed for Ukraine in 1992. R.J. Reynolds Tobacco international purchased two of Ukraine's four tobacco fac tories in mid-September in a joint v e n t u r e t h a t gave it 70 p e r c e n t ownership, w i t h t h e g o v e r n m e n t retaining the balance. The two fac tories will supply a quarter of the republic's tobacco needs. in one of the better quotes of the year, President Leonid Kravchuk, who attended the announcement ceremonies, explained he was not a smoker and added, "But my son is an enthusiastic smoker." The efficiency with which the government and the firm concluded the contracts has also spurred a sister d i v i s i o n , RJR N a b i s c o , t o invest in the processed food busi ness. Food processing was the topic of business for a nine-day fact-finding mission that visited Ukraine at the s t a r t of S e p t e m b e r . T h e g r o u p , consisting of U.S. Commerce De partment officials and r^presenta tives from private companies like AH Grain and DowElanco, was there to determine the status of Ukraine s agricultural sector and the feasabi lity of doing business. Ford Motor Co. must have de cided business in Ukraine is feasible - and hopefully profitable. Winner of Ukraine inc. became Ford's offi cial representative in Ukraine when it opened offices in Kiev at the end of September. Additional offices are p l a n n e d next year for Lviv and Odessa. The increasing numbers of U.S. business representatives enterpris

The lines of communication open ed between Ukraine and Western business interests, literally and in other ways in 1992, as companies b e g a n t o c a p i t a l i z e on U k r a i n e ' s newly open markets. Although the economy remains shaky at best and the political situa tion ever-changing, several large W e s t e r n f i r m s d e c i d e d t o invest money and time in this potential market of 52 million people - what some economists have called the largest new economic frontier in the West. Communications giant ATAT, with its competitor, Sprint, running neck and neck, made the first major b u s i n e s s i n v e s t m e n t s of 1992 in Ukraine on January 14. That day, AT4Tannounced the for mation of a joint venture company to build, modernize and operate much of the communications network of Ukraine. ATST, along with its part ners PTT Telecom of the Netherlands and the State Committee of Communications in Ukraine (joined in A u g u s t by t h e G e r m a n f i r m Deutsche Bundespost Telekom), explained the two-fold purpose of the venture. First, it would develop a new international network, directly connecting Ukraine to the rest of the world and laying the foundation for business and industrial expansion in the country. Second, the venture w o u l d construct a long distance network connecting 13 of thecoun try's 25 telephone districts. As A T A T set to building the com m u n i c a t i o n i n f r a s t r u c t u r e of U k r a i n e , S p r i n t , a u n i t of U n i t e d T e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s , i n c . , an nounced direct-dial voice service from the United States to the newly independent states once part of the former Soviet Union, the first international telecommunications carrier to do so. A T A T followed Sprint's lead on May 19, making available more than 400 circuits to over 2,000 cities in Ukraine and other countries of the former Soviet Union, by far the largest direct-dialing capacity of any long-distance carrier in the region. While the two long-distance carriers cleared new paths in Ukraine, two others lost their way amidst confusion over terminology, history and arrogance. A T 4 T phone calls to Ukraine that previously were billed as to the "Soviet U n i o n " began to be billed about mid-year as calls to "Ukraine." However, Sprint and two other carriers, and Allnet, changed their designations from the "Soviet Union" to "Russia." Sprint, after some prodding from the UNA'S Washington Office, said it would change the billing to "NlS," which stands for newly independ ent states. The firm explained that it could not bill naming the specific states until each country chose indi vidual country codes. The two other firms were inflex ible. Allnet, in glaring arrogance, simply said using "Russia" as the billing term for calls to Ukraine was its "policy" - and that was that! e x p l a i n e d t h e issue c o n s t i t u t e d "nationalistic" and " i d e o l o g i c a l " topics, and that it had no plans to make any changes. Hopefully, dias pora Ukrainians did the changing -

ing in Ukraine prompted the U.S. Chamber of Commerce to establish a presence in Kiev on September 10. The chamber's first president, the general manager of Johnson Wax in Ukraine, James Shepard, explained that "the primary purpose of the chamber will be to provide commu nications t o A m e r i c a n c o m p a n i e s and assist in the development of their business." Canadians were also not to be held back. The Canadian Bank Note Co. Ltd. was awarded a S27.8 million dollar (U.S.) contract to design and build printing plates for Ukraine's new currency, the hryvnia, and then t o print 1.5 billion such notes. Ca n a d a ' s g o v e r n m e n t a g r e e d t o fi nance the deal through its Export Development Corporation. A whole slew of business aid and i n v e s t m e n t e f f o r t s by C a n a d i a n s were in place already by the begin ning of this year. The government had targeted $5 million dollars for technical assistance for Ukraine; the Ukrainian Resource and Deveiop ment Center at Edmonton's Grant MacEwan College had begun an Agriculture Curriculum Develop ment Program; the Aetos lnterna tional Training Group was upgrad ing technology for the city of Khar kiv; and the Canadian Cooperatives A s s o c i a t i o n had b e g u n w o r k i n g with Ukraine to develop a national credit union system. This latter development spurred t h e W o r l d C o u n c i l of U k r a i n i a n Cooperatives to spend almost a week in Ukraine at the tail end of February, its nine-member delega tion offered recommendations for the introduction of a credit union system at the grassroots level. A second mission, held in June, saw the creation of the first credit unions - - the Construction Workers Credit Union and one for medical professionals in Kryvyi Rih.

Lisa Donner, with the Canadian Cooperative Association, wrote in The Weekly's October 18 edition that credit unions in Ukraine have a difficult road ahead of them: "Exist ing state and commercial banks are not trusted by most people, many of whom save in socks and mattresses, in order to be successful, credit unions will have to clearly distin guish themselves from these institu tions." Finally, conferences in Canada and the United States became a big hit this year with Western and Ukrai nian businessmen. The Canada-Ukraine Business Council was organized as a result of the Canada-Ukraine Economic Conference, which first met on Feb ruary 29. in the United States, two major conferences were held. The firstever meeting dealing with trade and investment aimed at U.S. corpora tions convened in Chicago on May 18 and 19. The 114 participants, including representatives of large U.S. c o r p o r a t i o n such as A b b o t t L a b o r a t o r i e s , R o c k w e l l lnterna tional and Bank of America, came to hear 22 speakers talk of business o p p o r t u n i t i e s in U k r a i n e , it was sponsored by the America-Ukraine Business Council and a Chicagobased law firm, Hinshaw and Cul bertson. Almost seven months later, the America-Ukraine Expo '92, held in Las v e g a s o n D e c e m b e r 2 to 4, signaled the end of a very busy year for business in and about Ukraine. Featuring three full days of exhibits, briefings and seminars that discuss ed investment opportunities in U kraine as well as government regu Jations, the show attracted nearly 200 business persons. The A M U K E Group of San Francisco sponsored the program, which was organized by the U.S. Chamber of Commerce and the Ukrainian government.

Multi-faceted

aid to Ukraine
to arrive in Kiev on February 13 and 14, and similar shipments arrived in Kharkiv and Lviv on Feburary 12,17 and 18. Throughout the year, the United States information Agency, an independent foreign affairs agency w i t h i n the executive branch that supports U.S. foreign policy and national security interests abroad through information programs, awarded various organizations and foundations grants to pursue assis tance projects for Ukraine. The g r a n t s , part of t h e U.S. govern ment's technical assistance program to the newly independent states, are funded by the United States A g e n c y f o r i n t e r n a t i o n a l Development (USAlD). in September, the USlA awarded the National Forum Foundation a , grant to develop a munici pal and public administration train ing program in Russia and Ukraine. The National Forum Foundation, a research and education organiza t i o n l o c a t e d in W a s h i n g t o n t h a t promotes political and economic freedom programs in Central and Eastern E u r o p e a n d t h e f o r m e r Soviet Union, will develop a talent bank of American experts to c o n duct the training program and place 18 American experts on site for a

With the advent of an independ ent Ukraine on the world scene, aid t o the former Soviet republic in 1992 took on a new dimension as govern ment agencies and the private sector scrambled to fill its many needs. The seasoned diaspora community c o n t i n u e d to provide assistance, launching numerous new medical, educational and embassy-related projects, while private individuals began assistance-to-Ukraine pro jects of their own. Government On January 23 in Washington, a 47-nation conference to coordinate assistance to the newly independent states of the former Soviet Union launched the United States' "Opera t i o n Provide Hope," which allocated $645 million to humanitarian, tech nical, medical and agricultural assis tance programs. On F e b r u a r y 10, t h e f i r s t in a series of U.S. Air Force sorties of medical and food shipments arrived in Kiev. T h e O p e r a t i o n P r o v i d e Hope shipments, which were deli vered to hospitals and orphanages, contained Department of Defense excess food and medical stocks and included Operation Desert Storm supplies. The shipments continued

No. 5

UKRAINIAN WEEKLY

SUNDAY,

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p e r i o d of 10 w e e k s to t r a i n c i t y government officials. in October, the USlA awarded a S345,322 grant to the international Executive Service Corps, an organi zation that recruits U.S. executives to volunteer for overseas manage ment c o n s u l t i n g a s s i g n m e n t s , to implement a one-year public policy and administration training program in Ukraine and Kazakhstan. The ESC project will provide workshops, i n t e r n s h i p s a n d c o n s u l t a t i o n s in public policy and administration in K h a r k i v , a n d w i l l be a s s i s t e d by Kharkiv's Sister City, Cincinnati. in November, the USlA awarded the lowa Peace institute of Grinnell, lowa, a S177,560 grant to implement a journalism exchange program for 15 students in Cherkasy. Co-spon sored by the Cherkasy-lowa Agriculture and C u l t u r e Center, the exchange program will provide intensive English-language study in Cherkasy and journalism internships in the U.S. in May, the United States launch ed its P e a c e C o r p s p r o g r a m in Ukraine, agreed to by Presidents George Bush and Leonid Kravchuk during the latter's May 6-11 visit to the U.S. The Ukraine program will focus strictly on small business development, and is the first of its kind to be launched by the govern ment agency, in September, acting Peace Corps Director Barbara Zart man appointed Ukrainian American Yaroslav l. Dutkewych of Michigan Ukraine's Peace Corps director, !n November, the Peace Corps' first 60 v o l u n t e e r s a n d Mr. D u t k e w y c h arrived in Kiev. in S e p t e m b e r , U S A l D a n d t h e American international Health Al liance launched a health-care part nership program between hospitals in t h e U.S. a n d t h e n e w l y inde pendent states. The University of Pennsylvania Medical Center, the P e n n s y l v a n i a H o s p i t a l a n d Chil dren's Hospital of Philadelphia will forge a partnership with the Ukrai nian State Medical University, Kiev Children's Hospital No. 2 and the Kiev Obstetrical and Gynecological Hospital No. 3. Philadelphia physi cians, hospital administrators, n u r s i n g a n d t e c h n i c a l staff w i l l assist their Ukrainian partners on a v o l u n t e e r basis in e s t a b l i s h i n g m o d e l p r o g r a m s in t h e f i e l d s of prenatal diagnosis, perinatology and neonatology. Private sector Thoughts of Faith, an Evangelical Lutheran mission to Ukraine run by Pastor J o h n S h e p , a U k r a i n i a n American, organized and funded numerous medical and social ser vice projects in 1992. in January, Thoughts of Faith sponsored 120 orphans from Ternopil to spend four months with foster families in the Chicago area. in March it launched a "Medical Clinic on Wheels" project conceived by Dr. Stephen Dudiak and his wife, Lusia. The project provides mobile medical and dental care in the Ter nopil area and utilizes two 35-foot long mobile units e q u i p p e d w i t h e x a m i n i n g rooms and laboratory equipment. Medical care is provided by volunteer physicians from the U.S. and two Ternopil pediatricians. Thoughts of Faith was instrumen tal in assisting in the creation of a law enforcement officials exchange

Bob Rash id

A group of children from the radiation-affected Zhytomy r Oblast spent summer in the Ternopil area, where they were examined by doctors of the Medical Clinic on Wheels. program between Ukraine and the U.S. and donated three computer systems to the Drug, Corruption and Organized Crime Enforcement De partment of the Security Service of Ukraine. The mission has donated over 1 million Ukrainian-language Bibles and biblical children's literature to Ukraine and $100,000 to the chil dren's textbook project of the C o o r d i n a t i n g C o m m i t t e e t o A i d U kraine. The Ukrainian Renaissance Foun dation, a joint venture between the Soros Foundation, Zelenyi Svit, the Taras Shevchenko Ukrainian Lan guage Society and the Ukrainian Cultural Fund that sponsors programs promoting the building of an open, democratic society, conti nued to award numerous grants for educational, media and civil service projects. Established in April 1990, the Renaissance Foundation cur rently has offices in K:ev, Kharkiv, Donetske and Lviv. in 1991, S2-3 million in funding wa; approved. The foundation sponso: s the Coun cil of Advisors to the F residium of the Supreme Council Ukraine. The Sabre Foundatio of Somer ville, Mass., continued t ship books to its Lviv affiliate, Sabre -Svitlo, and in October sent 1,480 Western civi lization, political science and Eng lish-as-a-second-language textb o o k s t o t h e U n i v e r s i t y of Kiev Mohyla Academy. Sabre also do nated subscriptions to Ukraine to numerous journals and publica tions: seven different physics jour nals from the American Physical Society, eight subscriptions to astrophysics journals from the Ame rican Academy of Arts a i d Science and 50 subscriptions to the New England Journal of Med cine. The Amsterdam-based Geneva initiative on Psychiatry, conjunc tion with the independent Ukrainian Psychiatric Association, launched a psychiatry book and magazine drive to stock four new psychiatric-medi cal libraries in Ukraine. The bulk of the 120 boxes of books and maga zines arrived in Kiev in mid-Septem ber and were distributed to libraries in various oblasts. By the end of 1992, two Western psychiatric ma nuals were to be published in Ukrai nian and distributed free of charge among Ukrainian psychiatrists. The U.S.-Ukraine Foundation of Washington and lndiana University organized a Conference on Ameri can Economic Governance in Sep tember for a delegation of Ukrai nian parliamentarians headed by Parliament Chairman lvan Pliushch. T h e 15-day p r o g r a m p r o v i d e d a forum for the Ukrainian parliamen tarians to study economic policymaking with their American coun terparts. The foundation also established the Pylyp Orlyk institute for Demo cracy, a public policy research organization, and reference library at the U.S.-Ukraine Center in Kiev. The center is staffed by eight per s o n s w h o assist t h e W a s h i n g t o n office with a Washington-Kiev "De m o c r a c y H o t l i n e , " an e l e c t r o n i c mail hook-up that facilitates com munication between Ukrainian policy-makers and Western advi sors. The National Forum Foundation opened up its Central and Eastern European institute Program to U kraine in May. Ukrainian interns are given hands-on experience in the f i e l d s of j o u r n a l i s m , p u b l i c a d ministration and business in fiveweek postings t h r o u g h o u t the U n i t e d S t a t e s . T h e NFF also in augurated an American volunteers for international Development program that posts American experts in Ukraine for three months to provide o n - s i t e t r a i n i n g in g o v e r n a n c e , media management and business development. The University of lllinois School of P u b l i c H e a l t h in C h i c a g o or ganized a consortium of academic institutions in the U.S. and abroad to participate in the Ukrainian Environ mental Health Project in June. The UEHP faculty collaborate with their Ukrainian counterparts in three projects: The World Health Organi zation's European Longitudinal Study of Pregnancy and Childhood, which includes the cities of Kiev, Lviv, D n i p r o d z e r z h y n s k e , lvano Frankivske and Mariupil; the Cher nivtsi alopecia outbreak and a U.S. National Cancer institute study of t h y r o i d c a n c e r r e l a t e d t o Chor nobyl. UEHP faculty are drawn from t h e U n i v e r s i t y of l l l i n o i s , Rush Presbyterian-St. Luke's Medical Center, Loyola University, Argonne National Laboratory, the University of Toronto Faculty C h o m o b y l Pro ject and the University of Bristol. Penn State's College of Agricul tural Sciences established a cooperative program with the Ukrai nian Agricultural Academy in June which fosters faculty and scientist exchanges between the two institu tions. A center for Ukrainian Agric u l t u r e was e s t a b l i s h e d at Penn State with S100,000 donated by the family of Alex and Helen Woskob. in 1992, the Children of Chor nobyl Relief Fund of Short Hills, N.J., collected and shipped close to 180 tons of medical equipment and supplies aboard three Mria airlifts and two commercial air shipments to Ukraine. CCRF, which sponsors the Lviv Regional Specialized Chil dren's Hospital for Chornobyl Pro btems, the Ukrainian National On cological Center in Kiev, the Kiev institute for Pediatrics, Obstetrics and Gynecology and the Kharkiv Dispensary for Radiation Protec tion, also began a training program in the U.S. for physicians from the Lviv hospital. The program offers 30 Ukrainian doctors with diverse spe cializations an opportunity to learn the latest treatment and diagnostic techniques developed in the U.S. for up to one year. T h i s year, t h e C C R F was t h e beneficiary of a book-a-thon f u n d raising drive held at the Buckingham, Brown and Nichols Lower School outside of Boston. Close to 170 s c h o o l c h i l d r e n c o l l e c t e d pledges for every hundred pages they read, raising over 14,000 for

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the victims of the Chornobyl nuclear disaster. The Coordinating Committee to Aid Ukraine created the Foundation in Support of Diplomatic Missions of Ukraine in April. The foundation, registered with the Justice Depart ment as an agent of a foreign gov ernment, was established to raise funds for the purchase of buildings to house Ukraine's Embassy in the U.S. and its Mission to the United Nations, in addition to diplomatic residences, furnishings, automo biles and libraries. By the end of the year the f o u n d a t i o n had raised S550,000. The C C A U also c o o r d i n a t e d a textbook project for school children in Ukraine. The 80-member Ukrai nian Seniors Society of Miami do nated S250,000; the T h o u g h t s of Faith mission donated SlOO,OOO; the Ukrainian National Association gave 50,000; and the CCAU raised ^50,000. T h e c o l o r f u l U k r a i n i a n language books include a primer for beginning readers, reading books for grades 2-4 and a summer reader for primary school students. Americans for Human Rights in Ukraine devoted much of this year to preparatory work for the Earth S u m m i t in Brazil by o r g a n i z i n g press c o n f e r e n c e s at t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s d u r i n g P r e p C o m i v and sponsorsing two members of Ze lenyi Svit to the U.N. and the Earth Summit. AHRU sent a memorandum and Zelenyi Svit reports on the state of ecology in Ukraine and the aftereffects of the Chornobyl disaster to all 175 U.N. members participating in the Earth Summit. T h e P h i l a d e l p h i a - b a s e d Ukrai nian Human Rights Committee in 1992 switched gears to focus on agrarian and economic reform and r e n a m e d itself U k r a i n e A i d . The organization is currently working to creat a model farm in the village of Matiushi in the Bila Tserkva region that could later serve as a prototype for privatization. The project's ulti mate plan is to give each family in the model farm two hectares of land to farm or sell. The Canadian Friends of Rukh established a Rukh Peace Corps during the summer, placing volun teers in various government agen cies, ministries and organizations in Kiev for a period of six months to a year. Friends of Rukh of northern New Jersey focused their efforts on funding Ukrainian students' TOEFL tests and providing supplemental financial aid to Ukrainian students studying in the U.S. Pittsburgh-area Ukrainian Ameri cans organized a medical research mission in the radioactively conta minated towns of Narodychi and Poliske that determined that triple the number of eye abnormalities exist in c h i l d r e n l i v i n g in conta minated areas. Sixteen doctors and technicians from the Graduate School of Public Health at the Uni versity of Pittsburgh donated their time to travel to Ukraine in Novem ber 1991 to examine the children; p r e l i m i n a r y results f r o m the research expedition were announced to the community on May 17. Michigan chapters of the Rotary C l u b and W o r l d B l i n d n e s s O u t reach inc. sponsored a two-week cataract surgery mission to Kiev in October. The eight-person medical team performed an estimated 150 eye surgeries free of charge. The U.S. team was hosted by the Kiev Rotary Club, chartered on May 9. individuals Lydia Shulakewych, president of the Alberta Branch of the Ukrainian Canadian Congress, and Michael Shulakewych, executive director of St. Michael's Extended Care Center in Edmonton, organized a "Na Zdo rovia" (To Health) project to fill the world's second largest cargo plane, the Ruslan, with medical supplies and equipment bound for Ukraine in May. in the spring, Dr. William Green of the Alberta vocational College launched the Ukraine Project, an English-language book drive to be donated to Ukraine. With theaward ing of , g r a n t f r o m t h e Canadian government in November, 40 tons of textbooks and reference material collected for the project will be shipped to Ukraine. Drs. Jerry Mihaychuk and John Kulick of Parma launched the Den tal Relief Project, which will esta blish "pilot clinics" in Kiev, Lviv, Kharkiv, Dnipropetrovskeand Cher nivtsi. They and eight other Ameri can dentists will provide Ukrainian dentists with instruction on Western p r o c e d u r e and use of Western equipment. The two dentists also organized the donation of over 21 tons of dental equipment and supplies which was shipped to Ukraine aboard the Mria in August. Dr. William Selezinka, an ophtha mologist from Bethesda Eye lnsti tute at St. Louis University School of Medicine, personally delivered 400 p o u n d s of m e d i c a l s u p p l i e s a n d e q u i p m e n t to the U n i v e r s i t y of lvano-Frankivske Hospital, where he remained for several days to teach the Ukrainian ophthamologists how to use the supplies. Yarema H a r a b a t c h , a s c u l p t o r from Germantown, Md., created a non-profit organization in the U.S. called "UkraineAid" to assist the Bavarian Red Cross in delivering medical equipment to Ukraine. in October, Roman Melnyk, exe cutive director of Media Operations for the Canadian Broadcasting Corp. and a long-time member of the Canadian Friends of Rukh exe cutive, arranged for eight television and documentary film workers from Ukraine to work at a Toronto-area CBC newsroom, T v Ontario, Multilingual T v and "Kontakt." relations between our two coun tries, our two independent coun tries," stated Mr. Gundersen who, t h r o u g h o u t 1991, witnessed the birth of the new nation from his position as U.S. consul general in Kiev. Minister Zlenko used the oppor tunity to announce the formation of an advance team to organize the Ukrainian Embassy in the United States. The team consisted of Serhiy Kulyk as charge d'affaires and lhor Dunaisky as consular officer. Mr. Kulyk was then serving at the Ukrai nian Mission to the United Nations, w h i l e Mr. D u n a i s k y , a U k r a i n i a n foreign service officer, was detailed to the former Soviet Embassy in Washington. Two weeks later the White House announced the choice of a Ukrai nian American, Roman Popadiuk, as President Bush's nominee for the first U.S. ambassador to Ukraine. Mr. Popadiuk, a career foreign ser vice officer, had served as President Bush's deputy press secretary before his nomination as ambassador. The Senate confirmed Mr. Popadiuk as U.S. ambassador to Ukraine on May 25. Arriving in Kiev on June 8, he p r e s e n t e d his c r e d e n t i a l s to President L e o n i d K r a v c h u k t h e following day. By early February, the Ukrainian Embassy advance team had begun work on the establishment of a full embassy. Operating out of office space donated by George Chopiv sky, t h e t w o - m a n a d v a n c e t e a m , working with the UNA Washington Office, began searching for its own o f f i c e space. S i n c e U k r a i n e was short on hard currency, commit ments for financial assistance were made by the Ukrainian American community through the Coordinat ing Committee to Aid Ukraine. in a February 27 announcement, President Bush stated he had in vited President Kravchuk to visit Washington on May 6. This was the Ukrainian president's second trip to the United States in eight months, but his first trip as presidentof an independent nation recognized by the United States. in New York, Ambassador Gen nadiy Udovenko, a long-time repre sentative of Ukraine at the United Nations and temporary representa tive of Ukraine to the United States, was bidding farewell to the Ukrai nian A m e r i c a n c o m m u n i t y . T h e ambassador was recalled to Kiev to help develop a professional foreign service corps. On March 18, the new Ukrainian representative to the United Nations, Ambassador viktor Batiuk, arrived in New York toconti nue the work of his predecessor. While Boryspil Airport began issuing Ukrainian visas last year, on February 15, the Foreign Ministry a n n o u n c e d that seven additional international entry points in Ukraine also would issue visas. Less than a month later, on March 10, the Ukrai nian Embassy in Washington was tasked with yet another function, that of issuing visas to Ukraine. The U.S. Embassy in Kiev began issuing non-immigrant visas for travel to the United States on July 29. Ukrainian Finance Minister Hry horiy Pyatachenko met with officials of the international Monetary Fund (lMF) and the World Bank on April 8 and announced, in a press confer ence that the lMF had unanimously voted to accept Ukraine as a full member. Ukraine will also be allow ed up to $3 billion in borrowing authority. At the invitation of Secretary of Defense Richard Cheney, Ukrainian M i n i s t e r of Defense K o n s t a n t y n Morozov arrived in Washington on A p r i l 1 1 . T w o days later he was greeted with full military honors, including a 19-gun salute, at the P e n t a g o n by S e c r e t a r y C h e n e y , Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Colin Powell, and other high-rank ing military officials, in addition to the meetings with Defense Depart ment officials and official functions such as wreath-laying ceremonies at the Taras Shevchenko statue and the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier in Washington, Minister Morozov and his delegation traveled to various military installations around the country. Those facilities included the Air Force Academy, the U.S. Space Command, the North Ameri can A i r Defense C o m m a n d and Nellis Air Force Base, w h e r e the minister, an air force general, had an o p p o r t u n i t y t o fly a U.S. f i g h t e r aircraft. Ukrainian Ambassador to the United States Dr. Oleh Bilorus ar rived in Washington on April 28. On May 5, just hours prior to the arrival of the Ukrainian president in Wash ington, Dr. Bilorus presented his credentials to President Bush, thus becoming the first fully accredited Ukrainian ambassador to the U.S. Later that day, President Krav chuk arrived at Andrews Air Force Base for his third face-to-face meet ing with President Bush. Upon ar rival by helicopter at the Pentagon, the Ukrainian president was met by Secretary Baker amid full military honors including a 21-gun salute. President Kravchuk and Secretary Baker immediately proceeded to an o f f i c e in d o w n t o w n W a s h i n g t o n where the president cut a blue-and yellow ribbon formally establishing the first U.S. Embassy in Washington. After speeches and toasts, they inaugurated the embassy guest book with their signatures. The following day entailed numer ous meetings with President Bush, vice-President Dan Quayle, Secre tary Baker, Secretary Cheney and Treasury Secretary Nicholas Brady, in a public ceremony in the White House East Room, the two presi dents signed three agreements, i n c l u d i n g one g r a n t i n g U k r a i n e " m o s t f a v o r e d n a t i o n " status, another making Ukraine eligible for t h e Overseas Private i n v e s t m e n t C o r p o r a t i o n ' s () p r o g r a m s , and a third on the Peace Corps. The busy day concluded with a visit to Camp David for further meetings followed by a Congressional recep tion in the U.S. Capitol organized by the UNA Washington Office. T h e W a s h i n g t o n visit also in cluded a press conference at the National Press Club, appearances on CNN and McNeil-Lehrer, a State D e p a r t m e n t l u n c h e o n h o s t e d by Secretary Baker, a meeting with the U.S. Chamber of Commerce, and a breakfast meeting with former Na tional Security Advisor Zbigniew Brzezinski. The Ukrainian president then traveled to Texas, lowa, New York and Pennsylvania. Early in the year, President Bush s u b m i t t e d l e g i s l a t i o n c a l l e d the "Freedom for Russia and Emerging Eurasian Democracies and Open Markets (FREEDOM) Support Act"

United States: Ukraine arrives


by Eugene lwanciw UNA Washington Office While the United States recog nized the independence of Ukraine on C h r i s t m a s Day, 1 9 9 1 , o f f i c i a l diplomatic relations were establish ed in Kiev on J a n u a r y 23. At a ceremony at the Ukrainian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Ukrainian Foreign Minister Anatoliy Zlenko and U.S. Charge d'Affaires Jon Gundersen exchanged diplomatic notes and toasts r e g a r d i n g f u l l d i p l o m a t i c relations between the two nations, "l w e l c o m e t h e b i r t h of d i p l o m a t i c

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Project For Peace and U.S. Baltic Foundation - were added the Ukrainian Congress Committee of America, Hungarian American Coalition, Polish American Con gress, National Federation of Ame rican Hungarians and Congress of Romanian Americans. The coalition will be working to brief the new administration and Congress on issues of concern to East European Americans. As 1992 comes to an end, the United States is preparing for the leadership of a new president and administration, and a Congress with 120 new members. Ukraine, having firmly established its place in the world community, is preparing to build on its existing relationship with the United States. And, the Ukrainian American community, having lobbied so long in Washington for Ukrainian independence, is now shifting to a new role in Ameri can politics and a different relationship with Ukraine.

Canada: contacts and controversy


To begin the year, Canada's min ister of external affairs, Barbara McDougall, formalized diplomatic relations with Ukraine during a trip to Kiev, on January 26-27. She arrived coincidental^ with a Cana dian Red Cross shipment of humanitarian aid. A policy forum of Ukrainian and Canadian government officials and businessmen took place in Ottawa, on February 21. An address was delivered by Bohdan Krawchenko, director (on leave) of the Canadian institute of Ukrainian Studies and member of the Council of Advisors to the Ukrainian Parliament, in which he stressed the "need to make direct access to Ukraine a reality and not ghettoize our contact," and ensure that Canadians of all ethnic backgrounds make their presence felt in the newly independent coun try. Many speakers alluded to the need to increase Canada's Embassy staff in Kiev, and move them out of a hotel and into proper facilities. Nestor Gayowsky, who served as Canada's representative in the Ukrainian capital since January 1991, was upgraded to charge d'affaires in Kiev in February, and then replaced when Francois Mathys, a career diplomat; with a record of intercessions on behalf of Ukrainian dissidents, was appointed Canada's first ambassador in August. Mr. Gayowsky stayed on as chief of the trade desk. in February, the location of Ukrainian Canadian Congress headquarters engendered another round in the ongoing east-west conflict within the Ukrainian Canadian community, with the question of the new diplomatic presence in Ottawa as the flash point, lhor Bardyn, a vice-president of the UCC, claimed that it should be moved to Ottawa because of the arrival of the independent state's representatives in the capital and a greater probable concentration of trade and other delegations there. Dmytro Cipywnyk, the outgoing UCC president, countered that this was an age-old prejudice that ig nored the reality of where the bulk of the Ukrainian population in Canada lives and has lived. ! The independence referendum campaign had been assisted by emigre individuals and organiza tions, and their support left a con troversial legacy. Erast Huculak, national president of the Canadian Friends of Rukh, was embroiled in a story that broke on the pages of Canada's "national newspaper," The Globe and Mail (March 18). Parties on both sides of the ocean had 1 alleged that the national chapter of CFR blackmailed the Ukrainian coalition into returning surplus funds remaining from the referen dum campaign. The accusers sug gested that the funds were with drawn because of the CFR national executive's antipathy to vyacheslav Chornovil and opposition to his candidacy for the Rukh chair. On March 24, Mr. Huculak called a press conference to give his inter pretation of events. He said the funds were returned at the request of Rukh representatives in Ukraine, not in response to a demand from the CFR, and that the return of the money was in accordance with an agreement made when the funds were initially turned over to Rukh. Mr. Huculak's account was also published in the March 26 issue of The Globe and Mail. in late May, incoming Ambassa dor Levko Lukianenko was feted at a triple-occasion banquet, honoring the new envoy, Canada's 125th anniversary, and the centennial of Ukrainian settlement in Canada. Mr. Lukianenko was officially installed on June 16. in early June, the national UCC set up a non-charitable fund (be cause of the political nature of the cause) to provide the Ukrainian Embassy in Canada with an appro priate location and independent staff. By mid-July , had been raised. The amount doubled thanks to a grant from an entre preneur, and then the troubles began. Oleh Romaniw, a Winnipeg lawyer representing the UCC, said that the organization was opting out of the purchase of a targeted building in September, at a time when S1.2 million had already been raised. The dispute centered on pricing irregu larities, in which Mr. Huculak of the CFR appeared to be implicated. Mr. Huculak then diffused the situation somewhat by purchasing the Met calfe Street property outright for the higher price. On September 29-October 1, Ca nada's titular head of state, Gover nor General Ramon Hnatshyn, visit ed the land of his forebears to emphasize Canada's commitrpent to "the new partnership between our two nations" and unveil a program that will place about 200 Canadians in Ukraine's public administration, agricultural and health sectors. A statue honoring Mr. Hnatyshyn was unveiled in Saskatoon in Septem ber. The tr^^ e ksrftfigress of the UCC was held on October 8-11, at which Mr. Romaniw was elected president, defeating John Gregorovich, chairman of the Toronto-based Civil Liberties Commission of the UCC. The congress was also attended by Canadian Prime Minister Brian Mul roney, which provoked a debate on

which provided the legal basis for aid to the nations of the former Soviet Union. Despite prodding from the administration, Congress proceeded slowly on the proposals. Action finally came on July 2, when the Senate passed the legislation by a vote of 76-20. The House of Repre sentatives, where the vote was ex pected to be close, passed the bill on August 6 by a vote of 255-164. However, it took until early October before the two houses worked out the differences between the respec tive bills and enacted the legislation signed into law on October 24. The appropriation for the legisla tion was signed into law on October 6. it provides 417 million in huma nitarian and technical assistance for the newly independent states. The Freedom Support Act also autho rizes S800 from the Department of Defense budget to assist NlS na tions in the dismantling of nuclear weapons and S12.3 billion as the U.S. contribution to the lMF, based on which the lMF will be empowered to create currency stabilization funds. Rep. Mary Rose Oakar (D Ohio) included an amendment in the legislation that specifically tar geted Ukraine as a recipient for such a fund. The bill also mandated assis tance for the victims of Chornobyl. During the summer, the Nuclear Regulations Subcommittee of the Senate Environment and Public Works Committee held a hearing specifically on Chornobyl. The July 22 hearing, chaired by Sens. Bob Graham (D-Fla.) and Joseph Lieber man (D-Conn.), heard testimony from Dr. Zenon Matkiwsky of the Children of Chornobyl Relief Fund, Dr. Murray Feshbach of Georgetown University, Dr. Wladimir Wertelecky of the University of South Alabama and Dr. Fred Mettler of the University of New Mexico Medical School. New evidence of the aftereffects of the 1986 Chor nobyl nuclear accident was present ed to the Senate panel. in early September, a delegation of 10 Ukrainian parliamentarians, headed by Supreme Council Chairman lvan Pliushch, visited Washington after spending time in Ohio and visiting the UNA estate, Soyuzivka. The U.S. information Agency (USlA)-funded program was spon sored by lndiana University and focused on the operations of the U.S. government. On September 23, Secretary of the interior Manuel Lujan an nounced that the U.S. government

would fund a major repair and renovation program for the Shev chenko monument in Washington. Present at the announcement, made at the foot of the statue, were Secre tary of veterans' Affairs Edward Derwinski, Dr. volodymyr Zabihaylo of the Ukrainian Embassy, and Eu gene lwanciw and Marrjka Lischak of the UNA Washington Office, which had alerted Secretary Lujan to the situation. On October 2, Ukraine expanded its representation in the United States with the establishment of a Consulate in Chicago. Foreign Min ister Zlenko dedicated the new consulate and announced that Ana toliy Oliynyk would be the first consul-general. Minister Zlenko then proceeded to Washington for a series of follow-up meetings with U.S. government officials. While Ukraine is now independ ent, the repression and persecution Ukrainians underwent during Soviet rule has not been forgotten. On October 20, Sen. Alfonse D'Amato (R-N.Y.) called on President Bush to issue a proclamation commemora ting the 60th anniversary of the manmade famine in Ukraine during 1932-1933. While Ukraine was establishing itself as an independent nation and initiating diplomatic relations with the rest of the world, U.S. attention was focused on the American presi dential race. During the primary season, Republican presidential candidate Patrick Buchanan addressed the concerns of Ukrainian Americans during a visit to the Ukrainian Cultural Center in Chi cago. Gov. Bill Clinton, seeking to entice the traditionally Republican Ukrainian vote, raised the issue of Ukraine during his August 13speech in Los Angeles at the World Affairs Council. He again discussed U kraine during his meeting with ethnic leaders in Milwaukee on October 2. Late in the year, the UNA Wash ington Office revitalized and ex panded the ethnic coalition which in 1991 successfully sponsored legis lation requiring that U.S. aid to the Soviet Union be delivered directly to the republics. To the original coali tion members - the Ukrainian Na tional Association, Armenian As sembly of America, Congress of Russian-Americans, Estonian Ame rican National Council, Joint Baltic American National Committee, American Latvian Association, Lithuanian-American Community,

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the issue of redress for the intern rnent of Ukrainian Canadians during the first world war. The assembly, dominated by the " B i g S i x " organizations, rejected proposals for the democratization of the organization's representation, structure and voting procedures. This was in stark contrast to calls issued by Ukrainian Ambassador Lukianenko, also in attendance, and a paper p r e s e n t e d by Professor Wsewolod lsajiw of the University of Toronto, who spoke of the UCC's organizational decay, and criticized its ossified leadership and constitu tional inflexibility. Prof, lsajiw also sounded the alarm on the gradual abandonment of multicultural poli cies by the Canadian government and urged the UCC to take a firm stand on the issue. He further contended that the UCC must lobby to provide for the continuing influx of Ukrainian immigrants if thecommu n i t y w i s h e s t o r e m a i n v i a b l e in Canada. D u r i n g t h e p o l i c y f o r u m held earlier in the year, Oleksiy Rodio nov, a former member of the USSR e m b a s s y ' s staff n o w part of t h e Ukrainian contingent, had raised eyebrows with his suggestion that Mr. L u k i a n e n k o h a d d e c l i n e d an offer to serve as Ukraine's ambas sador to Canada. Then came sug g e s t i o n s that Mr. R o d i o n o v had been involved in improprieties sur rounding the embassy purchase, in October things came to a head when Ambassador Lukianenko dismissed Mr. Rodionov and Evhen Kutcher for conduct unbecoming to embassy staff, charging them with public drunkenness and "spying." The two former consular officers initially disappeared, failed to use tickets issued them by the Ukrainian foreign ministry for a return to Ukraine, and then filed claims for Canadian citizenship. These events soured the atmosphere as the Ukrai nian Embassy in Ottawa was for mally opened on December 1, with a new staff. A cloud also hung over the UCC as the national executive attempted to disband the Civil Liberties Cornmission in late October, amid suspi cions that the move was politically motivated, increasing criticism from the CLC's research director, Prof. Lubomyr Luciuk, and the presiden tial challenge by its chairman, Mr. G r e g o r o v i c h , were s u g g e s t e d by some as possible factors. Contacted by The Weekly near press time, Mr. Gregorovich declined to comment beyond stating that a meeting with UCC national officers wastentative ly scheduled for January, 1993. The Ukrainian consular office in Toronto, housed in offices donated by t h e U k r a i n i a n C a n a d i a n A r t Foundation, was officially opened on December 19. This year's centennial of Ukrai nian settlement in Canada comme morations included the Art and Ethnicity exhibit in Hull, Quebec, at the ultra-modern earth-contoured Canadian Museum of Civilization; the Spirit of Ukraine exhibit at the Art G a l l e r y of H a m i l t o n a n d t h e Winnipeg Art Gallery, which fea t u r e d priceless a n c i e n t icono graphy, a powerful Shevchenko self-portrait, and a breathtaking constellation of modern Ukrainian art from the 1910-1930s; a special program at the Dauphin festival in A u g u s t ; a n d a special issue of "Prairie Fire" (Autumn 1992), dev o t e d t o t h e w o r k of C a n a d i a n writers of Ukrainian background, among others. living in the diaspora communities of North America, Australia and Western Europe could afford to contribute S1 per month to this fund aimed at helping provide diverse social services in Ukraine. By year's end, we could report that a network of social service groups had been f o r m e d t h r o u g h o u t U kraine and that individual branches in Ukraine were being paired with social service and other organiza tions of the diaspora to facilitate tighter contacts and more direct assistance. And, the World Council of Ukrainian Social Services noted that it is planning to promote similar s o c i a l service o r g a n i z a t i o n s in Eastern Europe and South America to assist Ukrainian communities in Poland, Romania, the Czech and Slovak republics, the former Yugo slavia, Brazil, Argentina, etc. The World Congress of Free U krainians, too, found that it had to focus more attention on these com munities, especially as Ukrainian c o m m u n i t i e s in Eastern E u r o p e began to get involved in the worldwide body and to establish contacts with their brethren in the West. T h e s i t u a t i o n was p a r t i c u l a r l y acute in the territories once part of the federal state of Yugoslavia, as that country disintegrated and its many ethnic groups found them selves in the middle of a civil war. The 50,000 Ukrainian residents of the region were among the nationa lities victimized by Serbs and Croa tians. Hundreds were killed, thou sands were terrorized and driven from their homes, in August it was reported that in Bosnia alone more than 500 Ukrainians had been killed and that t h e U k r a i n i a n C a t h o l i c Church in Prjnavor had been des ;troyed. A " U k r a i n i a n s in B o s n i a Relief F u n d " was e s t a b l i s h e d in June in Canada, based at St. John the Baptist Ukrainian Catholic Church in Ottawa. Later in the year, in November, the Ukrainian Central Refugee O r g a n i z a t i o n in A u s t r i a issued a plea for help for Ukrainian refugees from Bosnia-Herzegovina who had escaped to that country. The organization's letter was ac companied by a heart-rending letter from a Ukrainian community activist in Bosnia. ' T w o hundred Ukrainian families live in an oasis of extinc tion. They cannot help themselves. They can only be rescued by their brethren who live in the free world. We ask f o r help t o e m i g r a t e t o Australia, or Canada, or anywhere," he wrote. There were other developments in the diaspora as well. The World Forum of Ukrainians brought representatives of Ukrai nian diaspora communities to Kiev on August 21-24 for presentations by representatives of the 10-million s t r o n g d i a s p o r a of t h e East a n d West, a n d , of c o u r s e , of t h e 5k! million people of Ukraine. The fo rum issued a manifesto of unity in support of Ukraine's independent statehood and created a worldwide coordinating body for Ukrainian communities. The forum was held in conjunc tion with the first anniversary cele brations of the Ukrainian Parlia ment's adoption of the Act of De c l a r a t i o n of U k r a i n e ' s l n d e p e n d ence on August 24,1991. During the same period, the Ukrainian National R e p u b l i c ' s g o v e r n m e n t in e x i l e , headed by MykolaPlawiuk, present ed its charter, i.e. its mandate to represent the interests of the Ukrai nian nation, to the democratically elected president of Ukraine, Leonid Kravchuk. The ceremony took place o n A u g u s t 22, d u r i n g a special session of Ukraine's SupremeCoun cil held at the Ukraina Palace with the participation of numerous guests from the Ukrainian diaspora. Plast, the scouting-based Ukrai nian youth organization, marked the 80th anniversary of its founding in Lviv in 1911 with a two-week intern^tional jamboree in upstate New York at the vovcha Tropa campsite, as well as specialized camps held in v a r i o u s venues t h r o u g h o u t t h e Northeast, from the Catskills of New York state to Lake Ontario in Ca nada. The jamboree brought toge t h e r m o r e t h a n 650 y o u t h s , 100 counselors and countless guests from the U.S., Canada, Germany, Poland, the Czech and Slovak rep u b l i c s , A u s t r a l i a , Great B r i t a i n , Brazil and Ukraine, where Plast had been renewed in 1990. in the United States and Canada, Ukrainian community leaders had to ponder the results of recent census es taken in both countries which showed the changing faces of the Ukrainian "hromadas" there, in the U.S., statistics pointed to a migra tion of Ukrainians from previous centers of community life, as well as an increase in the number of Ukrai nians in the country as a whole. The population growth, from 730,056 in 1980 to 740,803 in 1990, is probably due to a small increase in immigra tion as well as to increased ethnic awareness d u e to events in t h e former Soviet Union, in Canada, statistics showed a population and cultural decline between the cen suses of 1986 and 1991. in Metro Toronto, for example, the number of persons listing Ukrainian as their native language declined by 15.5 percent. As the year drew to a close, it was clear to all observers and commu nity activists that, with the inde pendence of Ukraine, the relationship between the homeland and the diaspora had changed and, as a result, there was a need to reassess priorities and address pressing issues both there and here.

C E L E B R A T E


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u

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CENTENNIAL OF UKRAINIANS IN CANADA

m
CENTENAIRE DES UKRAlNlENS AU CANADA

Doings in the diaspora


The Ukrainian diaspora began the year with jubilation, marking the74th anniversary of the January 22,1918, p r o c l a m a t i o n of U k r a i n e ' s inde pendence while still buoyed by the success of the December 1, 1991, referendum on the country's newly re-established independent statehood. Everywhere celebrations of the January anniversary took on an entirely new meaning and signifi cance. in New Haven, Conn., for example, t h e b l u e - a n d - y e l l o w f l a g of free Ukraine was raised for the 39th time since the city became thevf rst in the U.S. to annually display that banner each January 22. Later in the year, on the occasion of the first anni versary of t h e A u g u s t 24, 1 9 9 1 , p r o c l a m a t i o n of an i n d e p e n d e n t Ukrainian state, city officials pre sented the original flag used in 1954 at the first flag-raising ceremony to Ukraine's ambassador to the United Nations, viktor Batiuk. in exchange, the ambassador presented the city with a new flag from independent Ukraine. The euphoria over newly regained independence was soon tempered, however, by the realization that after the proclamation of independence would have to come a protracted period of nation-building. The dias pora helped the fledgling state as it could (see sections on aid to U kraine, the United States, and Ca nada). Among the simple ways that each a n d every U k r a i n i a n a r o u n d t h e w o r l d c o u l d h e l p was by c o n t r i buting to the "1 Fund for Ukraine" established by the World Council of Ukrainian Social Services which is affiliated with the World Congress of Free Ukrainians. The reasoning be hind the fund; every Ukrainian

initiatives in education
An area t h a t deserves special focus this year is the field of educa tion and scholarly activity. Ukraine's independence, the new reform impulse coming from the Ministry of Education, and the need to restructure educational institu tions throughout Ukraine have given impetus to a whole range of scholar ly-teacher-and-student exchanges, research and institutional collabo rative projects and educational and scholarship initiatives. it is investment in this field that may well have the most far-reach ing effects for Ukraine's future. institutional changes The nomination of Petro Ta!an chuk as Ukraine's minister of educa tion signaled the determination to

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1 9 9 2 : A LOOK BACK
renovate the leadership and reform the entire educational structure of Ukraine. A respected educational innovator, former rector of the Kiev Polytechnical institute () and president of the Academy of Engi neering Sciences of Ukraine, Dr. Talanchuk visited the United States on March 11-24 as part of a delega tion of ministers of education and sciences from the newly independent states, in an interview in The Weekly, Dr. Talan chuk explained his views and reform priorities: the need and op portunity to institute a program of national education consonant with the newly achieved statehood and with the advanced scientific and technological needs of a modern economy and society; the need to modernize and democratize the educational system in order to overcome the legacy of the "repressive pedagogy" of the Soviet regime; the need to establish Ukrainian as the language of instruction at every educational level and to raise and reinstitute the Ukrainian language at the governmental level; the need to restructure the completely anti quated structure of the Academy of Sciences to reflect and meet the demands of the times. On par with this official effort stands the private initiative to revive the historical Kiev-Mohyla Academy as a modern private university. The leading center of humanist educa tion in 17th- and 18th-century U kraine, closed down by Tsar Alexan der Ml, was reopened in September on the initiative of Dr. viacheslav Briukhovetsky, who became the university's first rector. Built around a modern curriculum taught both in Ukrainian and English, the renewed institution aims to educate an independent and creative intelli gentsia. The University of KMA has been working to establish exchange programs with leading American and Canadian universities. Professional contacts On March 15, 13 members of the Ukrainian Engineers' Society of America were inducted into the newly founded Academy of Engi neering Sciences of Ukraine by the academy's president, Dr. Talanchuk, at a ceremony held in East Hanover, N.J. The newly formed international Ukrainian Economic Association (lUEA) held its first congress in Kiev on May 18-22, with the participation of approximately 100 economists from Ukraine, 40 economists from the West, as well as participants from other newly independent states. van Koropeckyj, professor of economics at Temple University, Philadelphia, was elected president, while Serhiy Pyrozhkov of Ukraine became the first vice-president and president-elect. The 11th annual conference on Ukrainian subjects was held at the University of Hlinois at Urbana Champaign on June 22-27. Some 130 scholars from Ukraine, the United States, Canada, Poland and the Netherlands were in attendance. The theme of the conference was "Ukraine and its Neighbors." Scholars and scholarship Student7faculty exchanges The project to publish the English translation of Mykhailo Hrushev The Education Fund, a scholarsky's nine volume "History of U kraine-Rus'" got off to a successful start. The translation of the first volume was completed, and Dr. Frank Sysyn, director of the Peter Jacyk Center for Ukrainian Histori cal Research at the University of Alberta, obtained a S60,000 grant from the National Endowment for the Humanities to support the trans lations of volumes 7 to 9, which deal with the history of the Ukrainian Kozaks. The first rendition of Hru shevsky's monumental work into a Western language, the English translation will make the work available to a wide scholarly com munity. Dr. Orest Subtelny's "Ukraine: A History," first published by The University of Toronto Press in 1988, was translated into Ukrainian and published in Ukraine. The Ukrainian edition is likely to repeat the pub lishing success of the English edi tion. Canadian Friends of Rukh bought 43,000 copies of the first printing for free distribution by Rukh in Ukraine. Minister of De fense Konstantyn Morozov request ed copies for all military officers. Another important publication project reached a new milestone. The first 1,200 manuscript pages for the concluding volumes of the English-language Encyclopedia of Ukraine were turned over to the publisher, the University of Toronto Press, on September 21. volumes Ml, iv and v, edited by a board head ed by Prof. Danylo Husar Struk, are scheduled to appear in the fall of 1993. The executive boards of the two American Associations of Ukrainian Studies (AAUS) met on November 21 to reconcile their differences and create a single association. The uni fied association will comprise about 100 members. The University of Kansas in colla boration with lvan Franko University in Lviv is planning to offer spe cialized graduate work in Ukrainian studies within its program in Rus sian and East European Studies. The University of Kansas will be come the first institution to offer a complete Ukrainian Area Studies Program in five principal fields. Dr. James Mace was appointed as a post-doctoral fellow in modern Ukrainian studies at the University of Hlinois at Urbana7Champaign, hopefully as a first step in establish ing a program in Ukrainian studies. During the nine-month fellowship which began in August, Dr. Mace plans to write a history of the 1933 Ukrainian famine. The All-Ukrainian Association of Researchers of the Famine-Geno cide of 1932-1933 held its founding meeting in Kiev on June 27. The research group was initiated by the late volodymyr Maniak, former copresident of the Memorial Society, and author-editor of "Famine 33." Dr. Zenon Kohut, a leading autho rity on 18th century Ukrainian history and a specialist on contem porary Ukraine, was named the new director of the Stasiuk Program on Contemporary Ukraine and asso ciate director of the Peter Jacyk Center for Ukrainian Historical Research, at the Canadian institute of Ukrainian Studies. ship grant project undertaken by the Ukrainian American Association of Professionals and Businesspersons of New York and New Jersey on the initiative of Dr. Bohdan vitvitsky, enabled four students from Ukraine to study at Harvard's Ukrainian Summer institute. While more than 80 American volunteers went to Ukraine this summer to teach English under a program coordinated by Dr. Zirka voronka under the sponsorship of the Ukrainian National Association (see section on the UNA), 13 stu dents from Ukraine participated in the Siena College project, an English teaching program develop ed by Lydia Tarnavsky, with primary funding by Americans for a Demo cratic Ukraine and services donated by Siena College in Loudonville, N.Y. Apart from immersion in Ameri can life and culture, the program offered exposure to the latest U.S. teaching methods, with an empha sis on interactive ways of teaching English. Sixteen students from the Ukrai nian Agricultural Academy in Kiev studied at Purdue University's School of Agriculture in West Lafa yette, lnd., during the fall semester. A similar contingent of American students from Purdue went to U kraine to study the agricultural and economic situation. Students and staff from the Ukrainian Agricul tural Academy in Kiev, the leading agricultural institution in Ukraine, also visited lowa University and Penn State University. Wayne State University's School of Business Administration hosted a second group of M.B.A. students from the Lviv Management institute who took part in an intensive orien tation program examining various aspects of the free enterprise system and a market economy. With financial support from the Pauline U. Bruggeman Fund for Entrepreneurship in Ukraine, a collaborative research project and student exchange program was established between the Kiev Poly technic institute and the Rensselaer Polytechnic institute to form a busi ness incubator in Kiev. The project is led by Profs. Pier Abetti from Rensselaer and victor lvanenko from . The institute for the Professional Development of Teachers, under the auspices of the Educational Council, World Congress of Free Ukrainians, has been set up to train Ukrainian teachers in Western teaching methods, particularly for the teaching of Ukrainian history and Ukrainian language. As part of this project, the Lviv Board of Edu cation will organize summer train ing courses for teachers from throughout Ukraine. Project co ordinator is Nadia Luciw. Finally, as a symbolically rele vant event, on May 10 an honorary doctorate of human letters was conferred on Ukrainian President Leonid Kravchuk by La Salle University in Philadelphia. Spon sored by Prof. Leonid Rudnytzky, a member of the university's foreign language department and president of the Shevchenko Scientific So ciety, the conferral of the honorary degree set the stage to pay homage to Ukraine's first democratically elected president both by American dignitaries and the Ukrainian com munity at large.

The cultural^arts scene


Four large-scale exhibitions were planned as part of centennial cele brations of Ukrainian settlement in Canada. The largest exhibit, "Art and Ethnicity: The Ukrainian Tradition in Canada," opened at the Cana dian Museum of Civilization in Hull, Quebec in August 1991 and runs through February 1993. On display is the work of over 100 Ukrainian Canadian artists and artisans that portray various aspects of immigra tion, religion, folklore and art. A 20-painting exhibit of William Kurelek, "the most published and written about artist in Canada," is on display at the National Gallery of Canada in Ottawa from October to January 3. The National Gallery organized various special events surrounding the exhibit, including lectures in English and Ukrainian, and a film series on Kurelek and his work. A traveling exhibit "Spirit of U kraine - 500 Years of Ukrainian Painting," organized by the Winni peg Art Gallery, opened in Winnipeg in August 1991, followed by a show at the Edmonton Art Gallery, closing at the Art Gallery of Hamilton in June 1992. The exhibit, which drew record numbers of viewers as well as wide acclaim, featured more than 130 paintings on loan from the State Museum of Ukrainian Art in Kiev, spanning five centuries of Ukrainian art from 15th century icons to 20th century avant-garde paintings. Another significant upcoming exhibit to be held in three Canadian museums is the "Treasures of U kraine," scheduled to open in the fall of 1993. The exhibit will deal with a longer time period - from archeolo gical prehistory to the 19th century - and will include mostly artifacts such as Trypillian pottery, Scythian gold and weapons, items from Kie van Rus', Kozak weapons, commis sioned religious works and manu scripts. According to art historian Dr. Daria Darewych, who headed the curatorial team, the significance of both exhibits lies in the fact that as they display not folk art but the fine art and cultural achievements of Ukrainians through the ages "they alter the way Ukrainians in Canada think of themselves and the popula tion at large thinks of Ukraine." in Ukraine, President Leonid Kravchuk pressed for the return of cultural property from Russia. Among the reclaimed Ukrainian art treasures are: the oldest surviving icon from Kiev - the 12th century Our Lady of vyshorod, and three other Kievan icons (the Great Pa nagia, Stv;Derpetrius of Thessalonica and The Mother of God of the Caves, and 11th century mosaics formerly in the Sobor of St. Michael in Kiev (destroyed by the Bolsheviks in 1935-1936), all presently in the Tretiakov Gallery in Moscow; Scythian gold excavated around the Black Sea, now at the Hemiitage in St. Petersburg; and oSjects of historical interest such, as the

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1 9 9 2 : A LOOK BACK
ceremonial staff of Hetman Mazepa. lvan An exhibition of political posters and cartoons from Ukraine opened at The Ukrainian Museum in New York, March 1-15. The posters on exhibit were created by the Kiev g r o u p " Y o u t h f u l Poster L a p a s , " comprising a group of young artists from the Kiev Art School who start ed their work about three years ago. T h e 13th a n n u a l i n t e r n a t i o n a l Festival of Authors at Harbourfront was held in Toronto October 14 to 24. Among the 80 novelists, poets, playwrights and biographers invited to read at "the world's largest literary celebration," was the Ukrainian poet Mykola vorobiov, the fourth poet from Ukraine to appear at the an nual festival, in the past three years, Ukrainian poets vasyl Holoborodko, lhor Kalynets and lvan Drach read t h e i r w o r k s at t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l event. The performing arts A restrospective concert devoted to the music of Leonid Hrabovsky, featuring the acclaimed 20th cen tury new music ensemble, Conti nuum, was held at Alice Tully Hall in New Y o r k o n F e b r u a r y 29. T h e Ukrainian composer, a central fi gure of the Soviet avant-garde, is known for his persistent demands f o r a r t i s t i c f r e e d o m , an a m a z i n g diversity in style and a reputation for being "the most adventurous, out rageous and, at the same time, most interested in formal experimenta tion." The Third Ukrainian international Music Festival - Kiev Music Fest 92, co-directed by lvan Karabyts and virko Baley, was held October 3-. The festival featured classical and contemporary works ranging from pop and youthful music to chamber c o n c e r t s a n d s y m p h o n i c events, performed by chamber ensembles, symphonic orchestras, choirs and soloists from Ukraine and throughout the world. A good portion of the festival was devoted to music by Ukrainian composers. The opening c o n c e r t f e a t u r e d lvan K a r a b y t s ' "Molytva Kateryny," a work dedi cated to the Great Famine of 1933. One of the main events of the festi val was the lwanna and Marian Kots Composition Competition. A concert to benefit The Ukrai nian Museum in New York was held on November 29 at the Merkin Concert Hall. The concert featured a stellar cast of artists including cellist Natalia Khoma, soprano Oksana Krovytska, pianist Laryssa Krupa, violinist Oleh Krysa, the Leontovich String Quartet, pianists Alexander Slobodyanyk, Mykola Suk, volo dymyr vynnytsky and tenor Roman Tsymbala, with Tatiana Tchekina, Maria Tsymbala and Mr. vynnytsky piano accompaniment. The Dumka Ukrainian St^te Choir of Kiev, a truly world-class chorus under the direction of Yevhen Sav chuk, featuring soloists of the Kiev, Lviv and Odessa Opera Houses pre miered at Newark's Symphony Hall on December 14 as it began a tour of U.S. and Canadian cities. (See sec tion on the UNA.) A young couple from Kiev, valen tyn Lysytsia and Olexiy Kuznietsov, who last year won first prize to great acclaim in the prestigious Murray Dranoff Two Piano Competition in Miami have returned to the U.S. to study with the renowned pianist Alexander Toradze at the University of l n d i a n a , S o u t h B e n d , and to concertize throughout the U.S. ll primo basso, Paul Plishka, the American-born opera star of Ukrai nian heritage, celebrated his 25th anniversary with the Metropolitan Opera of New York with a debut in the r o l e of v e r d i ' s Falstaff, yet a n o t h e r bass role added to his repertoire. Mr. Plishka is the only s i n g e r in t h e o p e r a c o m p a n y ' s history to have played all three bass roles in "Boris Godunov" - Pimen, varlaam and Boris. T h e U k r a i n i a n bass A l e x a n d e r Savtchenko, presently residing in Montreal, was one of the winners in the Opera Company of Philadel phia's prestigious Pavarotti lnter national voice Competition this fall. The young Ukrainian baritone Andriy Shkurhan sang the title role in "King Roger," the work of the renowned Ukrainian-born Polish composer Karol Szymanowski at the Michigan Opera Theater in May. Mr. Shkurhan, an acclaimed per f o r m e r of P o l i s h s o n g tias been performing is Teatr Wielki of Lodz, Poland,since the summer of 1991. Jurij O n u c h , o n e o f the few, if not the o n l y U k r a i n i a n p e r f o r m a n c e artist took part, along with other 34 invited artists from Canada, the U.S. a n d E u r o p e , in " l n t e r z o n e , " t h e seventh biannual festival of experi mental art, held October 20-25 in Quebec City. Mr. Onuch, who pre sently resides in Canada, was an active member of the Polish-avant garde of the 1980s. A proud "pro moter of Ukrainianism" since 1981, Mr. O n u c h has interested Polish c u l t u r a l a u t h o r i t i e s to s p o n s o r a m a j o r e x h i b i t of " C o n t e m p o r a r y Ukrainian Art," which is scheduled to open in Poland next fall, with subsequent shows in professional art centers and galleries in Europe. The Yara Arts Group, headed by virlana Tkacz and based at La Mama Theater in New York, held an art exhibit and poetry reading at the Ukrainian institute of America on May 9 to benefit the group's trip to Ukraine, where they staged their second production, "Explo sions," at the first Berezil lnterna tional Theater Festival in Kharkiv in September. vika, the dynamic, original and f i e r c e l y i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c rock star from Lviv was on her first tour of the U.S. with the six-member vika rock group this summer. Having made her mark at the 1989 Chervona Ruta Festival in Chernivtsi with her un orthodox look, she turned Ukrainian youth on to Ukrainian history and such contemporary issues as Chor nobyl and Russification. Herdiversi fied repertoire, rooted in Ukrainian folk music, also incorporates the Ukrainization of popular American hits of the 60's. She was crowned "Miss Rock of Europe" in February at a f e s t i v a l in Kiev. A m o n g t h e members of the group, all profes s i o n a l musicians, are v o l o d y m y r Bebeshko, her husband, composer, musical arranger and manager, and L e o n t i y B e b e s h k o , a.k.a. Levko Durko, who shared the bill with vika during the U.S. tour with his satyri cal songs. Among the notable film and video productions of the year were: ^ Ukraine: Third Journey to ln dependence," by Luba Dmytryk, a one-hour documentary video, offer ing a compilation of the majorevents in Ukraine in the last few years, with reconstructed flashbacks into U krainian history - all the way back to Kievan Rus', which give an excel lent historical background to c o n temporary events. ^ "Raspad," a feature movie about C h o r n o b y l , d i r e c t e d by M i k h a i l Belikov, a native of K h a r k i v a n d resident of Kiev, and produced by Peter O. Almond, an independent producer and screenwriter who helped it acquire international dis tribution and acclaim. ^ "Famine-33," the first documen tary film to be made in Ukraine on the subject, was screened by its director, Oles Yanchuk, at film festi vals, t o prospective d i s t r i b u t i o n s and in Ukrainian communities in the U.S. and Canada. A production of the Dovzhenko Studios, the film won first prize at the 1991 first all-Ukrai nian Kiev Film Festival. ^ "Oxygen Starvation," directed by the young Ukrainian director, A n d r i y D o n c h y k , is a U k r a i n i a n C a n a d i a n c o - p r o d u c t i o n of To ronto's Kobza international Corp. and victory FF from Ukraine. The film portrays the progressive demo ralization of a young Ukrainian re cruit undergoing obligatory military training. The New York-based Syzokryli Dance Ensemble, under the artistic direction of Roma Pryma Bohachev sky p e r f o r m e d in a c o n c e r t t o u r throughout Ukraine from June 22 to July 3. The program was conceived and choreographed by Ms. Boha chevsky, using a contemporary interpretative style as well as cornposed music rather than traditional folk melodies. Lydia Krushelnytsky's Ukrainian Stage Ensemble of New York staged Mykola Kulish's "Sonata Patheti que" at Pace University on Novem ber 21-22, in c e l e b r a t i o n of the centennary of the playwright's birth. The play, which explores the central issues of revolution and nationalism, was banned in Ukraine and made its original debut in 1931 in Moscow in the Russian language. The play and its a u t h o r were s u b s e q u e n t l y banned. Distorted versions were staged in Ukraine in the 1950s and 1960s.

A year of Olympic proportions


T h i s year was a w a t e r s h e d in Ukrainian sports, with the new poli tical reality leaving its mark on the scene. lvan Kyrychenko of Mariupil brought in the new year, with his arrival in the port of Miami on Jan uary 1, concluding a 7,500 mile solo journey in his 27-foot sloop, having set out from Ukraine three days after it had declared independence on August 24, 1991. On the Olympic front, the stage had been set by the Ukrainian Su preme Council's formal request to the international Olympic Commit tee, m a d e in D e c e m b e r 1 9 9 1 , to grant full status to Ukraine's team. Serhiy Bubka continued to be the athlete at the forefront of demands for separate representation, when he asked, at a press conference in J a n u a r y : " W h y not c o m p e t e f o r Ukraine? ... don't understand why we must be one team of 11 coun tries." However, for the Winter Olympiad in Albertville, France, which took place in February, the interval was t o o brief, b o t h in t e r m s of approval, and in terms of Ukrainian team organization. As a result, fi gure-skater viktor Pefrenko, who was billed everywhere as "the gold medal winner from Ukraine" com peted as a representative of the EUN (Equipe UnifieeAJnified Team), and listened to the Olympic anthem as t h e f i v e - r i n g e d f l a g was raised during his medal ceremony. Oleksiy Zhytnyk of Kiev was a member of the EUN Olympic cham pions in hockey. Dan Ratushney of Nepean was part of the Canadian silver medal-winner hockey team. Michael Slipchuk, a Ukrainian Ca nadian from Edmonton, placed ninth in the men's singles figure skating event. On March 9, in Lausanne, Switzer land, the made the formal deci sion to grant Ukraine provisional m e m b e r s h i p , w h i c h e n a b l e d its a t h e l e t e s in n o n - t e a m events to compete independently in Barce lona, but in team sports they would

Ukraine's new and unexpected Olympic star, Tetiana Gutsu. continue to participate under the aegis of the "Unified Team." President Juan Antonio Samaranch conceded that all the newly inde pendent republics "wanted to go independently, but ... the most im portant thing was to stick to the principle that the best athletes from all 12 republics should participate in B a r c e l o n a . " T h i s was the s p o r t s v e r s i o n of t h e " C h i c k e n K i e v " speech. However, the Olympic oli garch also added that Ukraine and the other republics will be free to compete as independent countries at t h e 1994 W i n t e r O l y m p i c s in

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Lillehammer, Norway. in the end, some of the demands put forward by valeriy Borzov, head of Ukraine's National Olympic Com mittee and currently the minister of s p o r t , were a c c e p t e d . These in cluded a Ukrainian contingent marching together under a Ukrai nian flag within the "Unies" group at the o p e n i n g and c l o s i n g c e r e m o n i e s , separate c o m p e t i t i o n in individual events, and the raising of the national flag and playing of the national anthem when athletes won individual golds. Also in March, Ukraine became a t e m p o r a r y m e m b e r of FlFA, t h e international soccer federation, along with Georgia, Slovenia and Croatia. This decision enabled U k r a i n e t o p l a y in r e g i o n a l c u p matches starting in 1993, and ini tiate contacts with other federations for non-status contests. However, it will not be able to field a team in the 1994 World Cup, because the draw ings for that competition took place in 1991. Mike Bossy, a Montreal native and right-winger for 10 years for the New York islanders until forced out of active play by back injuries in 1987, was known for his brilliant " i c e sense" and skating ability, amazing ly accurate shot and scoring touch, and gentlemanly approach to the game, instrumental in his team's four successive Stanley Cup cham pionships, his number, 22, was retired at Nassau Coliseum on March 3. visiting teams in April, the rinks of Canada and the U.S. were visited by a hockey tornado called Team Druzhba 7 8 . This was a band of 18 young players from Kharkiv, age 12-13 ("78" denoted their year of birth), coached by lvan Pravilov, a former hockey and soccer competitor. Their play dazzled a u d i e n c e s , s c o u t s and coaches in Quebec City, Toronto and Washington. This group from Kharkiv is ranked as the best in the world for its age group, a fact underscored by the lopsided scores in their favor, it bodes well f o r U kraine's hockey program. FlFA's decision to grant Ukraine's National Soccer Team provisional membership bore fruit on June 27, when the squad filed onto the pitch in Rutgers Stadium to face the U.S. Nationals. Last-minute difficulties with the team's visas (still process ed in Moscow at the time) delayed its arrival, but it acquitted itself well, playing to a scoreless tie. Acting c o a c h v i k t o r P r o k o p e n k o said: "We've been waiting for this game for 90 years," reflecting the enthu siasm that prompted Oleh Lytov c h e n k o of O l y m p i a Greece and Oleksa Zavorovy of Nancy France, to seek brief leaves from their pro fessional commitments to play in the match. At meetings in Toronto in early July, it was decided that the Ukrainian Olympic Committee would be given full independent status on January 1, 1993. various press r e p o r t s c o n c e r n i n g t h e closure of many of Ukraine's train ing facilities and the difficulties engendered by the decentralization of the massive Soviet sports system, prompted the formation of a Toronto-based Olympic fund to aid Ukraine's athletes. On August 12, the Canadian U krainian Sports Hall of Fame was launched at a gala dinner in van couver, B.C. Founded as a charitable non-profit corporation to recognize and pay tribute to Canadian Ukrai nian athletes competing in the ga m u t of s p o r t s , f r o m h o c k e y and football to figure skating and track and field, it is expected to be for mally registered by March 1993. The driving force in the creation of this hall is Bo Fodchuk of vancouver, currently the chairman of its execu tive. A location for the exhibits is still being sought, and the coliection is still being assembled. On August 21, John Michaluk, a former linebacker (1966-1969) with t h e H a m i l t o n T i g e r C a t s of t h e C a n a d i a n F o o t b a l l L e a g u e , was n a m e d t h e c l u b ' s president. Mr. Michaluk had been a Hamilton radiobroadcaster, working a post-game show and then providing color com m e n t a r y o n t h e T a b b i e s ' games since 1971. Summer Olympics The crowning event of the sum mer, and of the whole year, was the XXv Summer Olympiad in Barce lona. The first to see the blue-and yellow rise to the strains of "Shche ne vmerla..." was Oleh Kucherenko, a wrestler from Luhanske. The most p r o m i n e n t w i n n e r was T e t i a n a G u t s u of Odessa, w h o w o n the individual gymnastics gold under a blaze of T v cameras. All in all, the U k r a i n i a n flag and a n t h e m were brought out four times. Of course, it should have been five. Serhiy Bubka, the seemingly invincible pole-vaul ter, was Ukraine's mighty Casey, and he struck out with a "no height" performance that stunned the world. Ukraine's individual athletes also took in 11 silver medals and four bronze, and its contingent contri buted to six of the EUN team golds and three of the team bronzes. Their performance impressed many media analysts, as did the efforts of UOC chief Mr. Borzov, who was the sub ject of an NBC profile during the Games. The focus of a Weekly profile, U.S. women's volleyball coach Taras Liskevych skippered his team to a respectable bronze in Barce lona. Mr. Petrenko's year finished on somewhat of a down note, as he fell three times and came last at the World Professional Skating Cham pionships in Landover Md., on De cember 12. However, also in Decem ber, Evhen Pliuta of Ukraine won the gold medal in the men's singles at the W o r l d J u n i o r Figure S k a t i n g Championships held in Seoul, Ko rea. To conclude on a positive note for Mr. Bubka, the outspoken supporter of independent Ukrainian sports, he did not have an entirely disappoint ing year. He signed an almost baseball-like incentives contract with Nike ( g u a r a n t e e i n g him $50,000 every time he breaks a record) and broke Paavo Nurmi's mark of 29 w o r l d records in track and f i e l d events. He now has 32, and count ing, after rebounding from his de bacle in Barcelona by setting new marks in Padua (August, 20'1") and Tokyo (September, 2 K " ) . , G

The Demjanjuk case: OSl fraud?


"Let my father go!" That was the plea of John Demjanjuk Jr. in a letter to the editor of The Washington Post published on February 1. The rea son: documents proving that another man not John Demjanjuk was the notorious "lvan the Terrible" of Treblinka had been in the posses s i o n of U.S. J u s t i c e D e p a r t m e n t officials for 13 years and were kept from the Demjanjuk defense, "it is now evident that this case was not one of mistaken identity but of the malicious prosection of an innocent man," wrote the younger Mr. Dem janjuk. i n d e e d , as events u n f o l d e d in 1992, it became increasingly evi dent that the Office of Special ln v e s t i g a t i o n s , t h e J u s t i c e Depart ment's Nazi-hunting unit, was in terested less in justice than in the publicity that would come with the seemingly successful prosecution of "lvan." in lsrael, where Mr. Demjanjuk is appealing his 1988 conviction and death s e n t e n c e f o r t h e Nazi war c r i m e s c o m m i t t e d by " l v a n the Terrible," the Supreme Court delay ed the case yet again in February w h e n it o r d e r e d the defense t o obtain additional KGB files (report edly containing 40 depositions of former Treblinka guards) from the former Soviet Union and report back w i t h i n t w o m o n t h s . At the same t i m e , on February 25, t h e c o u r t rejected the defense's motion that Mr. Demjanjuk be released imme d i a t e l y based o n new e v i d e n c e pointing to another man, one lvan Marchenko, as the real "lvan." On M a r c h 8, defense a t t o r n e y Yoram Sheftel again argued for the release of his client based on the latest evidence on Marchenko, who had fled the allied advance toward the end of World War 1 and headed 1 for Yugoslavia. That was the informa tion contained in the testimony of another Treblinka guard, Nikolai Shelayev, who worked alongside Marchenko running the gas cham bers. in other developments, the Ger man magazine Stern published a story indicating that German federal police believe a document used to convict Mr. Demjanjuk - the soc a l l e d Trawniki l D c a r d - is a forgery, citing "a number of con spicuous things about the docu ment that made its a u t h e n t i c i t y doubtful." Furthermore, lsraeli offi cials, when told about the Germans' doubts, said further examination of the document "was no longer desired." "Despite all that, the Jerusa lem District Court had not the sha dow of a doubt when it sentenced Demjanjuk to death," Stern wrote. On June 11, final arguments were presented to lsrael's Supreme Court. The defense produced 80 deposi tions from 36 former guards and forced laborers at Treblinka - all of whom said the brutal guard named "lvan" was Marchenko. in addition, the d e f e n s e p r e s e n t e d 11 p h o t o i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s of M a r c h e n k o as "lvan" of Treblinka. The prosecution, attempting to reconcile conflicting evidence re garding the true identity of "lvan," s u g g e s t e d for the first t i m e that there may have been t w o men named lvan who operated the gas chambers - one of them Mr. Dem janjuk. Mr. Demjanjuk's son-in-law, Edward Nishnic, who is also the spokesperson for the family and the J o h n D e m j a n j u k Defense F u n d , characterized that suggestion as "the worst kind of historical revi sionism." Prosecutor Michael Shaked also told the court he had proof Mr. Demjanjuk was a guard at the Sobibor death camp in Poland and the Flossenburg concentration camp in Germany. Mr. Sheftel also claimed the U.S., the USSR and possibly lsrael had known for years that the real lvan was Marchenko. "This trial...was nothing but a con spiracy and this is how it will go down in history," he said. Meanwhile in the United States, on June 5, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Sixth District in Cincinnati, acting on its own initiative, said the extradition warrant issued in 1986, which allowed Mr. Demjanjuk to be taken to lsrael to stand trial, "may have been i m p r o v i d e n t l y issued because it was based on erroneous i n f o r m a t i o n . " The c o u r t said t h e extradition warrant was issued be cause Mr. Demjanjuk was believed to be the murderous "lvan the Terri bie." The Court of Appeals ordered the r e o p e n i n g of t h e case after the Justice Department had failed to reply to two letters inquiring about its handling of the case. Citing new evidence pointing to Marchenko as the real "lvan," the court ordered the reopening of the extradition case and ordered the Justice Department to produce by July 15 a brief "describing any items of evidence of any kind of which it has knowledge tending to show that the petitioner-appellant, Demjan juk, is not the l v a n the Terrible' who committed war crimes at the Tre blinka death camp...together with a statement of approximately when agents of t h e U n i t e d States first learned of each such item of evi dence." in addition, the court order ed the Demjanjuk defense to file a brief "describing affidavits, deposi tions or other statements of wit nesses ... which tend to show that a man known as lvan Marchenko was l v a n the Terrible.' " On August 11, in an unprecedent ed 90-minute hearing before the Sixth Circuit Court, Mr. Demjanjuk's lead attorney in the reopened extradition case, Michael Tigar, ridi culed the U.S. government's "inad vertance" in failing to disclose ex c u l p a t o r y s t a t e m e n t s by f o r m e r Treblinka guards. The U.S. govern ment's a t t o r n e y , Patty M e r k a m p Stemler, admitted post-war state ments by Soviet soldiers who had i d e n t i f i e d " l v a n " of T r e b l i n k a as Marchenko should have been released to the defense as a matter of "prudence," but she argued there was not a great deal of significance to those statements. On August 17, the Court of Ap peals issued an order allowing for further inquiry into the case, noting that it was p r o c e e d i n g under its inherent power to grant relief for "after-discovered f r a u d " from an earlier judgement. The three-judge panel appointed Thomas A. Wisem a n , U.S. d i s t r i c t j u d g e for the M i d d l e D i s t r i c t of Tennessee, as " s p e c i a l m a s t e r " r e s p o n s i b l e for supervising the collection of further

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evidence. The Court of Appeals added that in order to procure information deem ed essential to determine whether the OSl had engaged in prosecuto rial misconduct, it was ordering the special master to take the testimony of attorneys Allan Ryan, Norman Moskowitz and George Parker of the O S l , a n d J o h n H o r r i g a n of t h e Cleveland District Attorney's Office, in addition, the special master was e m p o w e r e d to receive any o t h e r evidence he deems to be relevant to a review of the case. After all testi mony is taken, the special master must prepare a report to the Sixth Circuit Court, which will then issue a final ruling. On November 12, the first of the OSl's attorneys w o r k i n g on the Demjanjuk case, Mr. Parker, testi f i e d that he " d i d not t h i n k " Mr. Demjanjuk was "lvan," and that he had w a r n e d his s u p e r i o r s via a memo that proceeding w i t h the Treblinka allegations would violate canons of ethics promulgated by the American Bar Association. He pro duced a copy of the memo, which government lawyers have said was never seen anywhere at the Justice Department. The next day, another former OSl attorney, Martin Mendelsohn, acknowledged that while he had offered to help the Demjanjuk family get information he already had in his possession exculpatory evidence regarding the Treblinka charges. J u d g e Wisemen reacted sharply: "You ever hear of the term 'stonewalling,' Mr. Mendelsohn?" Messrs. Parker and Mendelsohn both testified about the pressure brought on the OSl by Rep. Joshua Eilberg of Pennsylvania, who wrote to the attorney general stressing the Justice Department "could not afford to lose" the Demjanjuk case. On D e c e m b e r 22, d e p o s i t i o n s were taken in Washington from two former OSl employees: Bernard D o u g h e r t y , an i n v e s t i g a t o r , and George Garand, a historian. Hear ings were to resume in Nashville on January 14-15, with thetestimony of Messrs. Moskowitz and Horrigan, and final hearings are scheduled for February 4-5, when OSl attorney Bruce Einhom and former OSl di rector Allan Ryan are to be ques tioned. in a telephone interview with The Weekly, John Demjanjuk Jr. report ed that, as regards the appeal in lsraei, there is "no decision in sight." "it's shameful already," Mr. Dem j a n j u k s a i d . " T h e y ' v e had indis p u t a b l e e v i d e n c e of my f a t h e r ' s innocence for six months already. ...it seems they're sitting back and waiting to see the decision of the U.S. c o u r t so that t h e b l a m e is thrown on the U.S. Justice Depart ment." And so, the case of John Demjan juk grows curiouser and curiouser. vised prospective students and or ganized informational workshops for them in hopes of helping talent ed students from Ukraine gain admission to U.S. institutions of higher education. As is customary, the UNA Su p r e m e E x e c u t i v e C o m m i t t e e met several times this year to review UNA activity and act on new plans, in the course of their deliberations, the supreme officers voted a num ber of major donations to benefit Ukraine. Among them were SlO,OOO to the University of Kiev-Mohyla A c a d e m y , U k r a i n e ' s f i r s t private university in modern times; SlO,OOO to the Sabre Foundation for conti nued shipments of diverse books to Ukraine; and S5,000fora Ukrainianlanguage 20th century history of U k r a i n e a u t h o r e d by Dr. Taras Hunczak that is much-needed for education in Ukraine. The UNA's Supreme Assembly, the organization's highest decisionmaking body between quadrennial conventions, met, as usual, in May and also v o t e d o n a n u m b e r of important proposals. Thus, the as sembly approved the creation of a non-profit Ukrainian National Foun dation that will apply for tax-exempt status, and will seek out government and private-sector grants forcharit able, educational and scholarly projects aimed primarily at Ukraine. UNA members and other commu nity activists pitched in as well. As of year's end, the tally of donations to the UNA Fund for the Rebirth of Ukraine, created by the UNA's 1990 convention, was well over S357,000. Other noteworthy matters acted upon at the annual session of the Supreme Assembly were the alloca t i o n of S75,000 f o r d o n a t i o n s to various Ukrainian community orga nizations and special projects, and adoption of a budget that included a capital fund of 1.63 million for such i m p r o v e m e n t s as r e n o v a t i o n s at Soyuzivka, computerization of UNA publications and refurbishing the UNA headquarters building. As well, Supreme Assembly members proposed various plans to mark the centennial of the UNA's founding, which occurs in 1994; creation of a sports directorship to coordinate UNA involvement in and sponsorship of sports events; granting of s p e c i a l s c h o l a r s h i p s to s t u d e n t s from Ukraine who are studying in North America; and expansion of the UNA Press Bureau in Kiev. Soon after the Supreme Assembly had concluded its five-day delibera tions, the UNA Scholarship Com mittee, during a daylong meeting at t h e U N A H o m e Office, r e v i e w e d scholarship applications from UNA members pursuing undergraduate s t u d i e s . A t o t a l of S124,000 was awarded for academic year 19921993 to 229 students. The grants ranged from S300 to 1,800. UNAers are active in helping their fellow man on the local level as well. Perhaps most p r o m i n e n t d u r i n g 1992 was the assistance to victi ms of Hurricane Andrew, which swept t h r o u g h s o u t h e r n F l o r i d a in late August, that was organized by area Ukrainians, including members of UNA Branch 368 in Miami. UNAers collected donations of money, food, c l o t h i n g , building materials and other essentials in the wake of the b i g g e s t n a t u r a l disaster in U.S. history. in other news at the UNA, My chajlo Olshansky, treasurer of UNA Branch 51 in Chicago, was honored as the organization's Fraternalist of the Year for his outstanding service to the UNA and the community. Mr. Olshansky received his award during a special ceremony on October 17. At Soyuzivka, a "Miss" for 1993 was chosen. She is Marianka Haw ryluk, 24,, a graduate of Manhattan C o l l e g e , w h o has w o r k e d at t h e resort in some capacity or other for about 10 years, most recently as the mistress of ceremonies for enter tainment programs. At the Svoboda Press, another i n d e x to the U k r a i n i a n - l a n g u a g e daily newspaper was released during 1992 - this one covers the period 1907-1907. it is the second of a series being published by the immigration H i s t o r y Research C e n t e r of t h e University of Minnesota that will index all issues of the newspaper since its founding in 1893 to the present. There was some sad news in 1992 as well, as several prominent UNAers passed away. Melanie Milanowicz, an employee of the UNA Recording Department for 41 years before her retirement in 1991, died in January at the age of 81. Stephen Chuma, longtime foreman of the Svoboda print shop and a dedicated UNA and community activist, died in April at age 68. He had r e t i r e d f r o m t h e Svoboda Press in February. Wolo dymyr Zaparaniuk, a longtime su preme advisor of the UNA, presi dent of Branch 484 and an honorary member of the UNA Supreme As s e m b l y , d i e d in J u n e at age 77. Finally, Maria Demydchuk Chuch man, a former UNA supreme advisor a n d an h o n o r a r y m e m b e r of t h e Supreme Assembly, died in Septem ber at age 91. On a happier note, the UNA in 1992 enrolled perhaps its first set of triplets as members. They are Chrys tyna Maria, Petro Bohdan and Orest Andrij, born to Bohdan and lrene (Farion) Danylewycz on De cember 1, 1991. They were enrolled into Cleveland Branch 364 by their proud (and perhaps overwhelmed) grandma, Anna Danylewycz. As the year drew to a close, the UNA was planning celebrations of the centennial of Svoboda, the 60th anniversary of The Ukrainian Week ly and the 40th anniversary of Soyu zivka - all of which will be marked in 1993.

UNA: serving the Ukrainian nation


During 1992, the Ukrainian Na tional Association continued its 98year tradition of service to the Ukrai n i a n n a t i o n in m y r i a d w a y s . Of course, it would be impossible to note every project that this oldest and largest Ukrainian organization in what was once known as the free world has initiated or supported. Thus, what follows represents the highlights of UNA activity in the year following Ukraine's proclamation of independence. in keeping with its well-establish ed role as patron of the arts, the Ukrainian National Association, along with the Toronto Branch of the Ukrainian Canadian Committee and Ukraine's Ministry of Culture, sponsored the first North American tour of the Dumka Ukrainian State Choir. The 65-member chorus, embarked on a whirlwind tour in De cember, covering 15 cities in two and a half weeks. Their grueling schedule was coordinated by Scope Travel7Auscoprut Joint venture. Appearing with the Dumka choir were four soloists: tenor volodymyr Hryshko of the Kiev Opera, baritone lhor Kushpler and mezzo-soprano N e o n i l a K o z i a t y n s k a of t h e Lviv Opera, and soprano Ludmyla Shy rina of the Odessa Opera. The D u m k a t o u r , o r g a n i z e d to mark t h e f i r s t a n n i v e r s a r y of U kraine's independence, demon strated to audiences that, as music criticAnusicologist Roman Sawycky Jr. noted, the choir truly is "at the summit of world choral art." Mr. Sawycky characterized Dumka as "a very v a l u a b l e p h e n o m e n o n f o r Ukrainian music and something very rare in t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of European choral singing." This was also the year that the UNA'S "Teach English in Ukraine" project got off the ground, initiated and directed by Dr. Zirka voronka, a specialist in the teaching of English as a second language (ESL), the project's call for volunteers elicited an e x t r a o r d i n a r y r e s p o n s e f r o m Ukrainians, young and old alike, from all parts of the United States and Canada. Ultimately, 84 persons taught 70 courses in 26 cities and towns throughout Ukraine, from Kalush in the west, to Svitlovodske in the east, from Sumy in the north to Frunzenskoye in the Crimea. T h e s u m m e r p r o g r a m was or ganized with the co-sponsorship of the Prosvita Ukrainian Language Society, which provided accommo dations for the volunteer teachers and arranged local logistics. The v o l u n t e e r s p a i d t h e i r o w n travel expenses, while the UNA covered all teaching materials and hosted a workshop for the volunteers at its h e a d q u a r t e r s b u i l d i n g in Jersey City, N.J. Later in the fall, the teach ers held a working reunion at Soyu zivka, the UNA's upstate New York resort, where these trailblazers not only traded tales of their experiences but provided constructive criticism that will benefit the project for the years ahead. A l r e a d y t h e p r o j e c t has been renamed "Teaching English in U kraine" to reflect its status as an ongoing program, and the call for volunteers for 1993 went out at the end of December. in another project aimed at stu dents in Ukraine, the UNA engaged Olena Prokopovich, a student from Chernihiv, who was successful in obtaining a major scholarship to study in the U.S. at Williams College in Williamstown, Mass., to inform her peers in Ukraine about admis sion requirements and procedures for applying to U.S. colleges and universities. Ms. Prokopovich ad-

Miscellaneous, but noteworthy


This section comprises the annual list of all those noteworthy events and people that defy classification under the other headings of this year-end review. Thus, the notables of 1992: losef Zissels and Michael Chle nov accepted the prestigious Li berty Award from the Hebrew lmmi g r a n t A i d S o c i e t y . T h e y are c o presidents of the va'ad, the Confe deration of Jewish Communities of the former Soviet Union. The orga nization, which serves as an um brella group uniting 400 organiza t i o n s a n d c o m m u n i t i e s f r o m 77 cities in the FSU, is dedicated to ensuring the survival of the Jewish

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identity in the former Soviet Union, received the award in New York City o n J a n u a r y 19. Mr. Zissels was arrested in 1978 and in 1984 for dissident activities as a member of the Ukrainian Helsinki Group. ^ Prof. Gregory Stanton received the Ukrainian Congress Committee of America, lllinois chapter, Man of t h e Year A w a r d f r o m U k r a i n i a n P a r l i a m e n t m e m b e r , Dr. S t e p a n Khmara. Prof. Stanton was honored for his work in defense of Dr. Kh mara. ^ The Kiev Polytechnic institute bestowed honorary doctorates on six individuals from the Ukrainian diaspora for their contributions in helping Ukraine and the . Honor ed were Prof. Zirka voronka, Prof. Roman voronka, Dr. Taras Hunczak, Dr. K a r l Z a i n i n g e r , Prof. O s y p Moroz and Pastor John Shep. ^ Jack Palance, the 72-vear-old Ukrainian American Hollywood star, won his first Oscar, for best support ing actor, on March 30 for his work in "City Slickers." it was the Scranton, Pa., native's third nomina tion. g r o w t h a n d live b r o a d c a s t s . T h e only other full-fledged department u n t i l n o w had been t h e Russian Department. ^ The U.S. Postal Service on Mav 2 began routing mail from Ukraine directly to Kiev. Until then, all mail had been processed through Mos cow because the individual repub lics of the former Soviet Union (the B a l t i c n a t i o n s expected) d i d not have an appropriate postal service in place. Mail delivery to Ukraine improved markedly after the routing change. ^ Three Ukrainian Americans were honored by the Jewish Foun dation for Christian Rescuers7AntiDefamation League for their heroic actions in saving Jews from Nazi persecution during World War l l . Olena Melnyczuk and her brothers, Orest Zahajkewycz and Bohdan Zahajkewycz (posthumously) were awarded the Courage to Care Award on June 14 of this year, in 1944 the Zahajkewyczes hid Adgar and Ada Schefler. ^ voice of America, in an unpre cedented cooperative effort, on July 15 began broadcasting a one-hour daily program on Ukrainian local network stations. The governmentoperated radio network broadcasts from Washington as well as from Kiev and includes cable network transmissions ^ Nadia Svitlychna was honored on July 29 with the Pro Bono Award of the Poor Richard Club in Hor s h a m , Pa. S i n c e t h e 1930s, t h e award has been presented yearly to individuals who have distinguished themselves by their work as writers, community activists, businessmen or public servants. Mr. Svitlycha was honored for her dedication to hu man rights. 9 A new U k r a i n i a n t e l e v i s i o n show debuted in Toronto and New York in September. "Kontakt," pro duced by Yurij Klufas in Toronto and Stephen Kowaliw and volo d y m y r A r t e m s h y n in New Y o r k , presents newsfeed from Ukraine and diaspora news about Canada and the United States. The show is still going strong. ^ T h e U k r a i n i a n N a t i o n a l Wo men's League of America on June 7 celebrated the 25th anniversary of its Scholarship7Students Sponsorship Program. The program reaches out to Ukrainian students in South America and Europe and now is e x p a n d i n g i n t o R o m a n i a a n d U kraine. Last year the program aided 768 students by sending them sti pends totalling S174,057.05 gather ed from sponsors in the U.S., Ca nada, Australia and Brazil. ^ A Ukrainian cruise ship, the Gruziya, d o c k e d in the Montreal harbor in late August to take part in celebrations marking the first anni versary of Ukraine's independence. The ship's symbols were also changed - the tryzub replacing the hammer and sickle. Currently, the liner is offering cruises from hiorida to Belize, Honduras and Cancun. 9 The Washington Group's sixth annual Leadership Conference took place on October 9-11 in the na tion's capital. Continuing to con c e n t r a t e o n s t i m u l a t i n g Ukraine U.S. r e l a t i o n s , t h e c o n f e r e n c e ' s theme this year was "Developing a New Democracy: U.S.-Ukraine Re lations." However, an undercurrent discussion about the two U.S. pre sidential nominees buzzed through the weekend as the elections were less than a month away. Penn Kem ble, foreign policy advisor to the ClintonXGore campaign and soon to be c h i e f of t h e U.S. i n f o r m a t i o n Agency, led a slew of speakers that included Ukrainian Ambassador Oleh Bilorus and Carl Gershman, president of the National Endow ment for Democracy, ^ The Rev. Richard J. Mucowski became the first Ukrainian Ameri can priest to head a four-year Ca tholic college when he was inaugu rated on October 17 as president of W a l s h C o l l e g e in N o r t h C a n t o n , Ohio. ^ Justice Eugene Fedak was ap pointed regional senior judge for the province of Ontario on Septem ber 1. Justice Fedak was called to the Ontario Bar in 1963 and was made a Queen's Counsel in 1975. ^ Ukrainian American Walter Dudycz won a third four-year term to the lllinois State Senate on No vember 3, defeating his Democratic opponent, James McGing, with a 51.7 percent majority. ^ Jews and Ukrainians met at a forum in Jerusalem from September 1 to 7. The purpose was to foster mutual understanding and discuss issues that have marked their rela tions in the past. The 82-member delegation included parliamenta rians, civic leaders, sports cham p i o n s , m u s i c i a n s , s c h o l a r s and farmers. ^ Three Ukrainian sailing ships, the Tovarysh, the kar and the Maes tro, glided into New York Harbor on July 2. They were the first ever ships of a free Ukraine to anchor on U.S. shores. The ships arrived to take

The tail ship Tovarysh from Ukraine. part in U.S. celebrationscommemo r a t i n g t h e 5 0 0 t h a n n i v e r s a r y of Columbus' landing in the Ameri ca. ^ Ukrainian MiGs raced about North America this year. Two aircraft arrived at Canadian Forces Base Namao in Edmonton in May for a series of a i r s h o w s across the continent, the first ever on North American soil. By August the blue; y e l l o w s u p e r s o n i c jets w i t h the trident on their tails had invaded U.S. soil and were on display at Rickenbacker Air National Guard Base near Columbus, Ohio, in late A u g u s t t h e y were in C a l i f o r n i a , where a Ukrainian American, Jurij Styranka, took the opportunity of fered and flew aboard one.

We mourn their passing...


During 1992, the Ukrainian com m u n i t y m o u r n e d t h e p a s s i n g of notable leaders and activists, artists and writers, both in the diaspora and in Ukraine. Among them were the following: ^ Daria Rebet, 79, leading mem ber of the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists (OUN), who wasarrest ed by Polish and German authorities for her political activities; co-foun der of the Supreme Ukrainian Libe ration Council (UHvR) and mem ber of the External Representation of UHvR; head of OUN Political Council; co-founder of the World Federation of Ukrainian Women's Organizations - Munich, January 5. ^ Dr. A l e x a n d e r O h l o b l y n , 92, leading historian of Ukraine; profes sor at Kiev and Odessa universities and, upon emigrating, professor at the Ukrainian Free University, the Ukrainian Orthodox Theological Academy and the Ukrainian Studies institute at Harvard University; edi tor of the history sections in Entsyk l o p e d i a U k r a i n o z n a v s t v a a n d U kraine: A Concise Encyclopaedia; longtime president of the Ukrainian Academy of Arts and Sciences in the U.S., h o n o r a r y p r e s i d e n t of t h e Ukrainian Historical Society and honorary member of the Shev chenko Scientific Society - Lud low, Mass., February 16. ^ Dr. Mykhailo Snihurovych, 77, community leader and activist; gra duate of the Ukrainian Free Univer sity in Prague; mayor of Chortkiv in 1942-1944; upon emigrating to the U.S., active in the Ukrainian Con gress C o m m i t t e e of A m e r i c a (UCCA), serving as UCCA vicepresident, and in the Ukrainian National Association (UNA), serving as UNA New England District Committee chairman - New Haven, Conn., March 29.

Jack Palance receives his Oscar. ^ Pierre Beregovoy was appoint" ed France's new prime minister on April 2. The 66-year-old part Ukrai nian, whose father immigrated from Ukraine, defeated the unpopular Edith Cresson. The prime minister, a high school dropout before he be gan his climb in French politics, is a leader of the French Socialist Party. ^ Aleksander volkov, the Ukrai nian astronaut, finally returned from space on March 25, only five months behind schedule. The astronaut, who was scheduled to remain in the space station Mir for six months, stayed for 313 days when a newly freed Khazakhstan demanded that a K a z a k h a s t r o n a u t be part of t h e team that would replace Mr. vol k o v ' s . No t r a i n e d Kazakhs w e r e available - hence the stay. ^ T h e 1991-1992 s c h o o l year marked the 50th anniversary of St. viadimir's College Minor Seminary in Robin, Manitoba. The school was originally established in 1898 by Ukrainian Redemptorists. it moved to Robin in 1942. ^ The Ukrainian Sister Servants of Mary immaculate this year mark ed the centennial of their founding in Zhuzhel, Ukraine, in 1902, they began their work in Canada, where they are currently based. ^ Contrary to media reports, Radio Liberty did not cease broadcasting in 1992, but actually ex panded. it's Ukrainian Service was u p g r a d e d o n F e b r u a r y 14 to t h e status of a broadcasting department due to a 10 to 15 percent increase in

9 lvan Sokulsky, 5 1 , poet, politi cal prisoner and one of the first national and human-rights advo cates in Dnipropetrovske; a member of the "Shestydesiatnyky" literary generation, who was arrested in 1980 for co-founding the Ukrainian Helsinki Group and sentenced to labor camps in Mordovia and Perm a n d at t h e n o t o r i o u s p r i s o n in Kazan; a founding member of the U k r a i n i a n R e p u b l i c a n Party and editor of the independent journal P o r o h y - D n i p r o p e t r o v s k e , U kraine, June 22. ^ v o l o d y m y r Maniak, 57, noted journalist, writer and co-president of Memorial, a society established in 1989 to combat neo-Stalinism, promote democracy and human rights, and provide aid to former political p r i s o n e r s , w h i c h , u n d e r Mr. Ma niak's direction, was reorganized as t h e A l l - U k r a i n i a n A s s o c i a t i o n of Researchers of the Genocidal Famine of 1932-1933; compiler and editor of the 1990 commemorative monograph "Famine 33 - in a bus accident en route from Tomashivka, Chernihiv oblast, to Kiev, June 23.

20

T H E UKRAINIAN WEEKLY

SUNDAY,

DECEMBER 27,1992

No. 52

1 9 9 2 : A LOOK BACK
^ lgnatius Billinsky, 74, president of the Ukrainian Congress Commit tee of America; upon returning to the U.S. from Ukraine in 1947, cofounder and president of the Orga nization for the Defense of Four Freedoms for Ukraine,and a leading member of the Ukrainian Liberation Front; editor of the newspaper Ame rica; founding member and general secretary of the World Congress of Free Ukrainians (WCFU); holder of key positions in the Anti-Bolshevik Bloc of Nations, the National Cap tive Nations Committee, the World Anti-Communist League, and the WCFU F a m i n e C o m m i s s i o n Phila delphia, August 4. ^ P e t r o M e h y k , 93, a r t i s t , art educator and editor; founding mem ber of the Ukrainian Art Association Spokiy in Warsaw and active mem ber of the Ukrainian Art Associa tion in Lviv; upon emigrating to the U.S., founder in 1952 of the Ukrai nian A r t S t u d i o in P h i l a d e l p h i a which operated until 1984; founding member of the Ukrainian Artists' Association and editor of the art journal Notatky Mystetstva (19631990) - Philadelphia, August 26. ^ M i l l i c e n t F e n w i c k , 82, c o n gresswoman from New Jersey, who served four terms in the House of Representatives between 1975 and 1983; introduced the resolution that created the Commission on Secu rity and C o o p e r a t i o n in E u r o p e (Helsinki Commission); a tireless and effective proponent of human rights, especially vigilant in defend ing i n d i v i d u a l cases of p o l i t i c a l prisoners, among them many Ukrai nians - New Jersey, September 17. ^ O s t a p T a r n a w s k y , 74, w r i t e r and j o u r n a l i s t , p r e s i d e n t of the Ukrainian Writers Association Slovo, a m e m b e r of i n t e r n a t i o n a l PEN; author of five collections of poetry, a book of short stories and books of essays as well as numerous transla t i o n s i n t o U k r a i n i a n of E n g l i s h , American, German and Polish poets; his last large-scale work was a translation of Shakespeare's sonnets - Philadelphia, September 19. ^ Edward Kozak (EKO), 90, paint er, illustrator, writer, satirist and editor; studied at the vienna Art School and the Novakivsky School of Art in Lviv; a witty catalyst in Lviv's art circles, longtime editor of satiri cal periodicals as well as children's magazines both in Ukraine and in the United States; founder of the magazine Lys Mykytain 1948, which offered satirical commentary on the social, religious and political scene of the Ukrainian diaspora; a painter, known for his Ukrainian motifs as well as caricatures and cartoons, who exhibited extensively throughout the U.S. and Canada - Warren, Mich., September 22. of typesetting, became "Reporter's D a i r y . " if readers r e m e m b e r her farewell column two weeks later, they will recall that the typo was somewhat apt. The Weekly's search for a replace ment staffer began immediately, but it lasted much longer than we would have l i k e d . We received a g o o d number of fine applications for the job (a sincere thanks to all those prospective staffers). As we were narrowing down our choices, ano ther staffer, Tamara Tershakovec, an e d i t o r i a l assistant w h o never turned down a challenge, an nounced she was leaving to travel across the United States before deciding what to do with "the rest of her life." Now we had two openings ... We said our good-byes to Ms. Tershakovec on August 28, bidding her a bon voyage. Before that, however, on June 29 and 30, respectively, Andrij Wynny ckyj of Toronto and Roman Woro lvan Svitlychny, 63, renowned nowycz of Detroit came on board at literary critic, translator, poet, dissi The Weekly. As of October 1 they dent and h u m a n - r i g h t s activist; were formally appointed to the staff graduate of the University of Khar as staff writers7editors. Each brought different talents to kiv, editor of the journal Radianske Literaturoznavstvo; dismissed from the job. Mr. Wynnyckyj's forte is his position at the institute of Litera translation, while Mr. Woronowycz is a j o u r n a l i s t by t r a i n i n g . Mr. ture of the Ukrainian Academy of Arts and Sciences and first arrested W y n n y c k y j p l e d g e d to learn the in 1965 for having smuggled abroad news-biz, while Mr. Woronowycz put us on notice that he didn't want the poetry and diary of vasyl Symo nenko; upon his release, active in to merely sit at a desk. the circulation of samvydav and in That he didn't do. When an interthe defense of dissidents such as national regatta of tall ships sailed vasyl Stus; arrested once more in into New York Harbor for festivities 1972, and sentenced to seven years' marking the 500th anniversary of hard labor and five years' internal C o l u m b u s ' v o y a g e t o t h e New exile, serving his terms in camps in World, Mr. Woronowycz was put on M o r d o v i a , Perm and t h e Urals, the ships7sailors beat, it turned out where he fell seriously ill; upon his to be more than a simple feature release in 1984, he returned to Kiev story on proud ships representing p e r m a n e n t l y c r i p p l e d ; n a m e d a their respective countries, among m e m b e r of i n t e r n a t i o n a l PEN in them Ukraine (but, well, you remem 1976 a n d i n c l u d e d o n A m n e s t y ber). Needless to say, Mr. Woro international's list of prisoners of nowycz did not sit at his desk very conscience throughout the 1970s much. He was joined on that beat by and 1980s; Mr. Svitlychny is closely Mr. Wynnyckyj, and the two staffers identified with the Shestydesiatnyky. got their first bylines covering all w r i t e r s of t h e 1960s; in the late aspects of Operation Sail and re 1980s some of his works and articles lated events. (Readers probably are about him began to appear in the still wondering what Mr. Wynnyckyj Soviet press - Kiev, October 25. was writing about in his article on the regatta controversy when he ^ H e o r h i y M a y b o r o d a , 79, re concluded with a reference to mer nowned Ukrainian composer and maids singing tragic operatic arias.) former head of the Ukrainian CornOn the Eastern Front, Marta Kolo poser's Union; recipient of the Taras mayets returned for her second tour Shevchenko Prize in 1963; a gra of duty in the Kiev Press Bureau duate and later professor at the Kiev from mid-January through August, Conservatory; his symphonic cornin addition to covering all aspects of positions have been characterized activity in thefledgling(there's that as monumental, marked by heroic word again - we promised to outand patriotic themes; among his law it after Ukraine celebrated one best known compositions are the year of independence) state of U operas "Mylana," "Arsenal," 'Taras kraine, Ms. Kolomayets journeyed Shevchenko" and "Yaroslav Mudryi" to the battle zone of Trans-Dnistria. and the symphony "Hutsul Rhap in August, assistant editor Khris sody"; composer also of symphonic tina Lew left for Ukraine to take up poems, concertos, choral works, the Kiev post. She and Ms. Kolo variations on Ukrainian folksongs as well as musical scores for films. Kiev, December 7. ^ Mykhailo Moroz, 88, renowned Ukrainian artist whose paintings, mostly landscapes and portraits, were c l o s e l y t i e d to the Expres sionist tradition; a student at the Novakivsky Art School in Lviv, U k r a i n e and at t h e C o n s e r v a t o i r e National des Arts et Metiers and l ' A c a d e m i e J u l i a n in Paris; after emigrating to the U.S., he exhibited extensively in the U.S., Canada and Europe; his last retrospective ex hibit was at The Ukrainian Museum in New York in 1990; recipient of many awards (among them Prix de Paris, Galeries Raymond Duncan, 1961; and t h e G o l d M e d a l , Aca demia ltalia delle Arti e del Lavoro, Parma, 1980); Mr. Moroz's paintings are in the state museums in Lviv and Kiev, the U k r a i n i a n M u s e u m in Rome, The White House, as well as in many private collections throughout the world - Staten island, N.Y., September 27. mayets both covered events asso ciated with the first anniversary of Ukraine's independent statehood, it was Ms. Lew who got to cover the government crisis in Ukraine, when Prime Minister vitold Fokin "resign ed" and the Cabinet of Ministers was dismissed. Unfortunately, Ms. Lew took ill at the end of October and was forced to come home until she recovered. She is expected to return to Kiev in early January. Meanwhile, Ms. Kolomayets returned to the capital for a threeweek period to fill in - mostly to cover the fourth congress of Rukh. Back home in Jersey City, The Weekly continued Chris Guly's " C e n t e n n i a l S o j o u r n " c o l u m n to mark the 100th of Ukrainian settle ment in Canada (where else would we have heard about the giant "py rogy" monument in Glendon, Al berta?), while virko Baley gave us "Notes from the Podium." Awilda Arzola, our dedicated t y p e s e t t e r (we're sure she was heaven sent), helped us through the ups and downs of 1992, as did lka Koznarska Casanova, our part-time editorial staffer. Dana Rigalski per formed valiantly as our paste-up person. There were many other regular correspondents who continued to contribute to The Weekly (you, dear readers, know who they are), and we are mighty grateful to them for enriching the pages of the ex panded Weekly. Yes, this was the year we began to publish 20and 24-page issues. For the record, the first 20-pager was dated Feb ruary 2, while the first 24-pager, on May 17, was d e v o t e d largely to President Leonid Kravchuk's U.S. visit. The Weekly became a s e r i o u s source of information on Ukraine for serious scholars as, more and more often, its articles were footnoted in various publications. The Prague Post, an English-language newspaper published in the Czech republic, began regularly using The Weekly's reports from Ukraine in its c o l u m n o n d e v e l o p m e n t s in Eastern Europe. Finally, this year, on the occasion of The Weekly's 59th anniversary (with an eye on the paper's 60th next y e a r ) , we p u b l i s h e d a question naire., for readers to fill out in order to let us know how we're doing. More on that early next year once the holiday rush is over (we pro mise). To conclude, we thank our faithful readers, and we wish them and our colleagues nothing but the best in 1993. May the new year bring you and your families health, happiness and prosperity. And, oh yes, keep on reading.

Meanwhile,

at The Weekly
1991 t h r o u g h J a n u a r y 1992, Ms. Lapychak decided she just couldn't stay away from Ukraine at such a historic time. She took on a position as a s t r i n g e r f o r The C h r i s t i a n Science M o n i t o r and lately has b e c o m e a f f i l i a t e d w i t h The Los Angeles Times as well. Her next-tolast c o l u m n ( u s u a l l y c a l l e d " R e porter's Diary"), through the magic

The year at the Weekly could best be described as a year of transition (although the term "chaos" could oftentimes be substituted). in February, we bid a fond farewell to Chrystyna "Lapster" Lapy chak, a dedicated team player and an associate editor who had been on the staff since 1986. After serving in the Kiev Press Bureau from July