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815

Index
Index Terms Analysis analysis process summary analyzing the wall design process beam column cast-in-place frame beam example analysis, cast-in-place frame beam Links

146 561 292 144 149 154 159 147 397

562 293 145 150 155 160 148

563 294 146 151 156 161

564 295

296

152 157 162

153 158 163

objective thin shear wall Acceleration impact of strength on experienced accelerations maximum response Base shear code development basis coefficients comparison of strength and displacement-based for shear walls impact on drift of frame braced buildings related to displacement spectrum Beams cast-in-place frame beams behavior idealizations, stiffness curvature, estimated curvature, observed depth of the compressive stress block detailing the plastic hinge region developing a flexural reinforcing program ductility estimating the probable postyield concrete strain state experimentally based conclusions

569 11 12

570

571

375 43 376 381 782 40 21 93166 97 102 111 106 96 116 156 153 103 111 95 100 105 107 93 377 382 378 379 380

98 103 112

99

100

101

117 157 154 133 112 96 101 106

118 158 155 134

119 159 156 135

120 160

97 102 107

98 103

99 104

experimentally deduced concrete strain limit states general

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816
Index Terms hysteretic behavior idealized yield strength (Pyi ) impact of shear and confinement importance of detailing inelastic curvature model measured curvatures modeling considerations overstrength factor plastic hinge length postyield behavior, cast-in place frame beam postyield behavior, flexure postyield deformation model postyield rotation demand predicting postyield behavior strength strength and stiffness degradation composite beam system, see Composite frame beams coupling beams, see Coupling beams precast concrete beams DDC beam, see DDC system Beams (continued) general hybrid beam, see Hybrid beam system moment transfer mechanism shear transfer Beam columns analyzing the beam column balanced axial load balanced moment balanced strain state boundary columns Links 96 98 112 116 101 104 120 98 107 163 95 109 794 163 95 104

113 117 109 105 121 99 109 164

114 118 106 122

115 119 107

116 120

165

166

164

165

166

166173 171

167 172

168 173

169 185244

170

166 168 172 244296 292 245 248 245 245 733 800 264 261 270 293 250 276 287 247 250 264 251 264 269 800 278 251263

167 169 173 293

168 170 171 172

294

295

296

729 734 801

730 735 802

731 736

732 737

conceptual design concrete strain state, spalling constructability curvature, estimating design relationships design process summary details developing an interaction diagram ductile limit state effective moment of inertia estimate of reinforcing required estimating probable levels of demand evaluating column behavior example designs experimentally based conclusions

251

248 270

249

250

265 270

266

267

268

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Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons Retrieved from: www.knovel.com

817
Index Terms experimentally determined shear stress limit state experimentally determined strain states flexural strength demand impact of column spacing impact of high modes interaction diagram observed behavior overturning moment postspalling behavior response of irregular frame sizing the beam column sizing the column for axial loads sizing the column for flexural loads story mechanism strain limit state confined core strain state, estimating strength of the confined core strength limit states transverse reinforcing Links

254 255 244 268 245 246 257 267 262 802 270 275 250 250 265 263 293 262 245 250 280 285 290 281 296322 296348 301 300 314 309 124 321 301 302 307 301 299 307 310 312

245 269

270

258 268 803 271

269 804 272

270 805 273 806 274

275 294 246 281 286 291 295 247 282 287 292 248 283 288 249 284 289

transverse reinforcing program, base level Beam-column joints cast-in-place frames behavior mechanisms biaxially loaded joints bond considerations bond deterioration cast-in-place subassembly conceptual design design example eccentric beams experimentally based conclusions exterior joints forces imposed on an interior beam-column joint impact of axial load impact of high-strength concrete impact of joint reinforcing mechanisms of shear transfer, interior joint minimum joint reinforcement recommended design procedures strength limit states, suggested by

315 125

316 126

317

318

303 308

304 309

305 310

306

308 311 313

312

297 306 314 319

315 320

316 321

317

318

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818
Index Terms others suggested strength limit state precast concrete beam-column joints DDC system design procedures experimentally based conclusions DDC hoop tie strains, observed hysteretic behavior load flow strain in ductile rod hybrid system bond penetration corner conditions design procedure, exterior beam-column joint design procedure, interior beam-column joint experimentally based conclusions hysteretic behavior interior beam column joint Bolted precast concrete systems See also DDC system Bond bar development length bond stress in beam-column joint deterioration in a beam-column joint hybrid beam-column joint, debond length implied bond stress Capacity-based design of the beam-column joint definition developed using inelastic time history analysis developed using sequential yield analysis, see Shear walls; Frame design example of the frame beam of the frame column general objective overview Columns, see Beam columns Composite frame beams Compression reinforcing, effectiveness connector developing the objective strength Links 299 318 322348 322334 332 322332 329 325 326 331 326 335348 336 345 344 341 335 340 341 335344 216244

333

334

330 327 328 329 330

346 345 342 336 341

347

348

343 337

344 338

339

241 300 314 336 241 296 52 800 298 299

801

802

36 156 270 24 244 758 173185 300 175 177

157 274 25

158 275

159 283

160

314 178

315 179

316 180

317

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819
Index Terms hysteretic behavior photo sizing the beam-column joint Concrete strain, see also specific system analytically developed cast-in-place walls reported estimating postyield strain state in a cast-in-place frame beam estimating concrete strain in columns experimentally determined limit state cast-in-place beams experimentally determined limit state columns T wall section Confining pressure impact of confinement on behavior impact on cast-in-place wall strength impact on component strain limit state impact on component strength impact on concrete strength impact on precast wall strength quantification Confining reinforcing, see also member category codification objectives detailing in cast-in-place wall detailing objectives detailing in precast walls detailing at support of steel coupling beam developing transverse reinforcing program high-strength concrete high-strength reinforcing objective objective pressures Conjugate beam models Coupled shear walls, see Shear walls Coupling beams analytical models assumed compressive strut width compression diagonal design conclusions design procedures diagonally reinforced flexural behavior model steel coupling beams truss reinforced coupling beam detailing steel coupling beams Links 325 176 180 355 362 111 259 107 255 372 112 370 54 54 54 59 499 504 56 113 371 263 116 55 500 505 57 114 115 116

181 356 357 358 363

112 260

261

262

263

262 56 501

57 502

58 503

55 396 57 489 434 182 59 64 62 54 56 107

454 58 529

60 63 55 57 108

61

62

63

109

110

111

405411 406 406 424 425 426 425 429 428 434

417425

425

435

436

437

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Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons Retrieved from: www.knovel.com

820
Index Terms diagonally reinforced coupling beam effective moment of inertia diagonally reinforced coupling beams Coupling beams (continued) flexural model steel coupling beams example design, steel coupling beam Links 407 422 420 422 420 423 435 447 452 403 402 420 416 403 407 415 408 414 405 410 408 422 409 423 410 411

flexural behavior model general limiting the shear stress link beam length modeled using a strut and tie objective peak shear observed behavior shear rotation relationships steel coupling beams traditional flexural model truss reinforcing program Curvature, see also specific component experimentally determined cast-in-place beam experimentally determined in walls precast beams Damping cast-in-place concrete wall equivalent structural hybrid wall system impact on behavior DDC system assembling beam flexural reinforcement ratios connection detail design procedure detailing the frame beam estimating strain in the ductile rod example design experimental confirmation forged ductile rod hardware dimensions isometric view load transfer mechanisms postyield strain shear capacity development test specimen used in hybrid shear wall vertical orientation

436 448 453 404 403

437 449 454 405

450 406

451 407

404 433 409

405

410

412

417

411

412

413

414

106 507 170 15 20 512 15 512 52 216244 231 239 219 232 240 243 233244 222231 218 235 217 220 231 239 223 519 236

171 16 17 18 19

16

17

18

235 241 244 242 243 244

221 240 224

222

225

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821
Index Terms Deflection, see also Drift; specific system experimental limit state, cast-in-place beam predicting limit state in cast-in-place frame beam Design, see also specific component or system confirmation developing the design moment example designs cast-in-place frame beams impact of dead and live loads process overview process summary cast-in-place frame beams recommended approach Detailing cast-in-place beam column cast-in-place beams DDC beam-column joint diaphragms exterior beam-column joint hybrid beam hybrid system, corner condition hybrid system, exterior beam-column joint importance of Diaphragm alternative load paths in a reinforced diaphragm composite diaphragms creating a design response spectrum deep beam models design approach development of diaphragm load paths effective moment of inertia establishing the strength limit state estimating response fundamental frequency load paths postyield distress in a diaphragm precast concrete diaphragms, general pretopped precast concrete diaphragms probable maximum inertial force Direct displacement-based design, see also Displacement-based design example design, shear wall braced building Displacement beam and column subassembly diaphragms Links

96 107

103 108 109 110 111

763807 148 135144 136 757 135 759 287 126 323 754 302 199 345 345 116 738757 756 753 742 7282 738 751 739 746 740 739 88 757 753 754 743

137

127 326 755 303 200 346

128

347

348

117

118

119

120

739

89

90

557 663 746

558

559

560

747

748

749

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822
Index Terms single story frame Displacement-based design constant spectral velocity method definition direct displacement direct displacement-based design displacement constant region equal displacement equal displacement-based design general recommended procedure Links 29 26 31 551 52 31 555 560 48 28 539551 9 44 49 575 235 672 391 28 218 673 392 683 393 684

27 32 552 32 556 561 29

28 33 553 33 557

29 554

30 555

558

559

30

31

45 571 576

46 572

47 573

48 574

Drift details estimating the drift of frame braced building estimating the drift of shear wall braced buildings objective limits standard forging Ductile rods assemblies used in composite construction stressstrain curves Ductility cast-in-place frame beams general impact on damping impact on system response member ductility, as related to system ductility overview reduction factors used in design related to member stiffnesses rotation demand irregular frames system behavior enhancer system ductility, frame braced structures system ductility, general Dynamic response of single-degree-of-freedom system Dynamic characteristics of a building, see also specific system discussion Earthquake ground motions used in analyses

175 176 103 7 15 20 12 37 758 40 40 803 8 13 680 3344 922

16 20 38 41 804 9 14 681 52

17 21 39 42 805 10

18 22 40

19

806 11

12

682

52

53

766

767

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823
Index Terms Elastic time history analysis, examples Energy, see also Damping design methodologies, general dissipated Equal displacement-based design, see also Displacement-based design applied to frame braced buildings applied to shear wall braced buildings definition recommended procedure single story example testing the equal displacement hypothesis Example designs cast-in-place frame beam concrete coupling beam composite beam system DDC system hybrid beam precast hybrid wall system shear wall, capped shear wall shear wall, coupled shear walls with stacked openings shear wall, thin wall shear wall, 12-inch thick wall steel coupling beam Example designs (continued) unequal spans, cast-in-place system Factored dead and live loads Force-based design, see also Strength-based design code procedure general Frame design analysis building model approach consequences of alternative strengths DDC frame design evaluation by sequential yield analysis design objective direct displacement-based design Links

768807 9 17

680691 539555 51 44 28 768776 149163 449 174185 233244 196216 519529 456471 437447 389402 379389 435 449 140 136

29

30

31

450

436

437

447

448

141

142

143

144

22 8 662737 680 685 729 694 711737 662 691 696 701

42 9

681 686

682 687

683 688

684 689

692 697 702

693 698

694 699

695 700

displacement-based design, see Displacement-based design equal displacement-based design estimating building period hybrid frame

680691 672 700

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824
Index Terms irregular frames behavior subassemblies lower level mechanisms mechanism approach P concerns and modeling assumptions precast concrete frame precast frame beam designs precast frame system behavior postyield drift distribution response to ground motion design/behavior reconciliation distribution of postyield deformations elastic/perfectly plastic model impact of design strength impact of modeling assumptions P effects residual drift response of precast concrete frames DDC slip control model stiffness degrading model single-degree-of-freedom model approach stability stiffness strength-based design strength-based design procedure subassembly stiffness two-story building mechanism what constitutes good behavior Frequency, see Natural frequency Height effective, Blue Book development effective, linear mode shape basis High-strength concrete ductility available Hybrid beam system analysis balanced moment design procedures, beam-column joints design process detailing developing a flexural reinforcement program developing the design moment Links 704 733 706 669 666 713 691704 702 735 680 797 794 780 780794 784794 786 782

781

782

783

784

783

787

806 785 785 689 807 671 669679 669 663 666 712

807

690 808 688

691 809 690

810

541 542 59 64 61 185216 203 209 341 346 195 199 205 203

543 543 60 62

545 61 63

547 62 64 63

210 342 347 200

211 343 348

212 344

345

204

205

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825
Index Terms estimating steel stresses experimental support minimum reinforcing objectives overstrength probable strength reinforcement ratios stiffness strain evaluation Hybrid frame system, see Frame design Hybrid wall system, see Shear walls; Precast concrete system Hysteretic response DRAIN-2DX model IDARC2D model impact on damping partially full Idealized behavior, see also Shear walls beam yield frames SDOF system system behavior Inelastic behavior impact on system response inelastic response spectrum time history examples Limit states cast-in-place concrete experimentally deduced concrete strain limit states Mass effective height effective height, linear mode shape basis effective mass effective mass, linear mode shape basis Mechanism frames impact of dead and live loads irregular frame lower level mechanisms, how to avoid most critical mechanism story two-story example use of in design Member behavior Links 188 193 185195 207 201 194 200 188 188 193 189 194 190 191 192

208

201 189 189 194

190 214

191 215

192 216

120 121 16 18

121 122 17

122 123 18

98 716 721 25 566 20 20 768807

99 717

100 718

565 719

720

716 21 21

721 22 22

735

107 107 542 544 535 543 666 179 709 669 245 275 666 177 544

542

180

667 178

668 179

669 180

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826
Index Terms beam column beam-column joint cast-in-place beam Member modeling considerations first yield of steel inelastic curvature model modeling considerations Modal analysis based on linear mode shape elastic mode shape basis inelastic mode shape basis modal analysis modal mass Modeling DRAIN-2DX model hysteretic behavior IDARC2D model Moment of inertia, see also specific member or system required/effective Moment redistribution Moment transfer, precast beams general Natural frequency, see also Period development; specific system determining objective ductile structure single-degree-of-freedom system Neutral axis beam 101 hybrid wall wall Nominal strength, see Member category Overstrength material member frame beams shear walls system cast-in-place frame walls Participation factor linear mode shape P definition design impact Links 255 298 95116 120 100 101 120 543 545 545 542 547 542 120 790 121 256 299 257 300 258

101 102

543

544

545

546

121 791 122

122 123

29 137 168

141 169

142 170 171 172

28 32 11

449504 362

211 98 352 567 25 162 352 542 543 51 718 723 99 361 568 30 361 689 495 569

566 570

719

720

721

722

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Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons Retrieved from: www.knovel.com

827
Index Terms effect on building response impact on system stability modeling considerations, frames Period development capped shear walls coupled shear walls Period development (continued) estimates of frame braced structure idealized shear wall Plastic design 177180 see also Mechanism Plastic hinges length cast-in-place beams columns hybrid walls walls precast beams Plastic truss analogy theory used to develop capacity of a DDC beam-column joint used to identify shear strength in cast-in-place beam Post-tensioned systems, see also Hybrid beam system; Shear walls, precast concrete experimental support general hybrid beam system Postyield behavior, see specific member or system Precast concrete system beam-column joints precast concrete beams See also Composite frame beams; DDC system; Hybrid beam system precast concrete walls, see Shear walls time history response of frames to ground motion PRESSS program shear wall elevation, test building Pushover analysis, see Sequential yield analysis Reinforcement developing a flexural reinforcing program for the cast-in-place frame beam Links 13 807 713 718 21 458 442 22 672 27 391 666 14 808 714 22 459 443 42

809 715

810 716

717

444 43

445

392 667

393 668

669

107 255 498 356 170 66 331 113

256 499 506 171

257 514 507 172

258

114

115

185195 185 185216

322348 166244

806 640 493

807

148

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828
Index Terms developing a transverse reinforcing program for the cast-in-place frame beam effectiveness of compression bars hoop ties restraining force spacing stability Reinforcement ratio maximum Response spectrum acceleration-displacement response spectra definition Restoring force impact on response Sequential yield analysis, see also specific system coupled shear walls frame braced buildings shear wall braced systems Shear arching action beam shear model capacity-based demand beam compression diagonal modeling demand, columns deep beams diaphragm load paths ductility impact on behavior limit states columns need for effective development node development passively activated shear friction plastic truss analogy pure friction shear friction shear span, impact on strength shear strength squat shear walls transfer across concrete discontinuities Links

148 134 119 119 127 116 133 14 19 548 51 12

117 134 15 20

118 135 16 21

119

120

17 22

18

600 716 556 71 65 129 76 131 73 88 77 82 112 67 254 7 75 86 66 82 83 71 6577 76 82 87 173 65 534576 551 507

601 719 582 74 130 132 89 78 113 68

720 585

721 586

729738 587

131 133 90 79 114 69

80 115 70

81 116

76 87 113 83 84 72 77 83 88

754 754 114 85

755

756

84 86

85 90

86 172

truss analogy Shear walls design, general constant spectral velocity method curvature distribution

552

553

554

555

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Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons Retrieved from: www.knovel.com

829
Index Terms direct displacement-based design equal displacement-based design estimating strain states idealized stiffness impact of confined core impact of system strength modal analysis mode participation modeling shear walls of equivalent stiffness period development preparing alternative designs reported strain states sequential yield analysis examples stability of the compression flange T walls design summary design objective is to limit building drift design requires the adoption of a substitute structure wall characteristics are a precondition precast concrete base details carbon fiber system concrete strains estimated experimentally inferred reported cracking experienced curvature distribution emulative wall design assumptions design procedures, hybrid wall detailing emulative system example design, hybrid wall experimental efforts hybrid T wall design solutions hybrid wall system constant velocity equal displacement design procedures direct displacement-based equal displacement-based PRESSS test wall Links 555 560 540555 355 536 370 567 542 547 538 534 391 561 362 565 570 366 367 556 561 356 371 568 543 557 558 559

357 372 569 544

358

363

570 545

571 546

535 392

536 393

566 571 367 368

567 368 369

568 369

569 370

573 574 572 484529 489 485 504 514 492 486 507 506 514 519 524 529 485 519529 485514 646 615661 622639 615661 639 644 621639 493

615661

505 498

515 525

516 526

517 527

518 528

640 645

641 646

642

643

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830
Index Terms prestressed (only) wall assembly reinforced base stiffness structural damping vertically joined wall panels response to ground motion, see also Time history analysis hysteretic response in the plastic hinge region impact of design strength on response period shift testing the equal displacement hypothesis shear wall braced buildings shear walls with openings capped shear wall system idealized behavior mechanism shear period development probable strain states coupled shear walls with stacked openings compression side pier coupling beam design See also Coupling beams design confirmation design process and example Links 485 490 487 495 512 648661 486 491 487 492 488 489

770 776784 778 768776 534661 402484 457468 469 460 465 458 466 437455 453 447 452 597614 437 442 447 601 608 442 453 453 600 450 576597 578 583 576 587 585593 590 593 782 783 784

461 466 459 467

462

463

464

468

448 453

449 454

450

451

438 443

439 444

440 445

441 446

estimating the period estimating strain states period development postyield deformation demand postyield rotational demand on coupling beams sequential yield analysis strength criterion for the shear piers shear walls of varying lengths displacement-based approach force-based design procedures secant stiffness Shear walls (continued) sequential yield analysis suggested design approach shear walls with randomly placed

443

444

445

579 584 577

580 585 578

581

582

586 591

587 592

588 593

589

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Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons Retrieved from: www.knovel.com

831
Index Terms openings design conclusions design objectives experimental efforts multiple openings shear fan development strut and tie model tall thin walls code design strength concrete strain limit states conclusions developed from experimental efforts curvature curvature ductility factor design, direct displacementbased (DBD) design, displacement-based approach 555561 376 381 386 design, equal displacementbased (EBD) design example design procedures elastic deflection experimentally based conclusions influence of shear on period period determination plastic hinge length sequential yield analysis stability limit states stiffness stiffness, T walls strain profiles T sections Spectral acceleration Spectral displacement Spectral velocity Spectrum base shear creating a design spectrum design response spectrum matched spectrum scaled ground motion spectra single-degree-of-freedom Stability index Stability 540555 389402 374387 356 349374 392 379 356 565 570 366 353 369 359 367 15 15 15 375 14 22 765 763 763 375 809 393 380 566 571 361 360 361 362 567 568 569 377 382 378 383 379 384 380 385 Links 471484 481 474 471481 481 475 481 349402 376 372 373 362 357

482 377

483 378

484

374 371

20 19

20

28

31

15

16

20

21

764 764

765 765

766 766

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832
Index Terms system tall thin walls Steel ductile rod reinforcement index stressstrain diagram for prestressing steel and mild steel bar used as coupling beam, see Coupling beams Stiffness columns cast-in-place concrete shear walls diaphragms effective stiffness of the substitute structure design effective height effective height, linear mode shape basis selecting compatible length of shear wall determining objective stiffness ductile structure hybrid system precast concrete shear walls secant stiffness strength and stiffness degradation cast-in-place frame beams subassembly subassembly stiffness, cast-in-place subassembly substitute structure T walls Strain cast-in-place beams columns confined core estimating postyield strain states estimating postyield strain state in a cast-in-place frame beam example cast-in-place frame beam experimentally deduced concrete strain limit states hybrid beams Links 13 366 218 212 211

367

368

369

263 352 739 644 542 544 551 28 26 340 495 587 104 663 340 644 369 107 255264 263 163 111 160 107 190 213 498 163 490 13

361

508

341

341

164 112

165

166

191 214 504 164

192 215 505 165

193 216

194

hybrid walls postyield behavior cast-in-place frame beam prestressing strand in shear walls Strength degradation

166

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833
Index Terms design developable impact on response Links 40 40 567 776 781 8 30 104 46 568 777 782 22 569 778 783 49 570 779 784 571 780

objective required strength and stiffness degradation cast-in-place frame beams Strength-based design, see also specific system definition example general Structural systems behavior, see specific system design, see specific system response to ground motion Strut and tie modeling, see also Coupling beams; Diaphragm; Plastic truss analogy beam shear transfer compressive strut width deep beams node development precast wall panels squat shear walls used to development diaphragm used to estimate shear deformation System behavior ductile structures elastic, see Time history analysis idealization inelastic, see Sequential yield analysis; Time history analysis System stability Time history analysis elastic/inelastic response compared ground motions impact of modeling on response impact of strength on response inelastic response modeling hysteretic behavior objectives plastic hinge distribution response of frame braced buildings response of shear wall braced

52 42 22

14 19

15 20

16 21

17 22

18

65 406 73 75 77 76 756 77 8 8

66 74 754

67

755

807 763807 768 807 763 784794 776784 782 790 763 795 800 780807 768780

769 764

772 765

778 766

803 767

783 791 796 801

792

797 802

798 803

799

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834
Index Terms buildings testing the equal displacement hypothesis Torsion Walls, see Shear walls Links

768776 810

782 811

783 812

784 813

814

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