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For On-Plot Piping: ASME B31.3 PD t= 2( SE + PY )

Instrument Tubing PD Tmin = 1.125 x 2S

S =16,700 (316L SS) =16,500 (Monel) D = tube OD (usually 0.500 in.)

Welded Piping SAES-L-010 Pipes to be welded should have a thickness ratio of 1.5 or less. This includes matching pipe of a lower grade. For ratios greater than 1.5, a transition piece should be used. Stress Relief On-Plot Welds " do not require stress relief. ANSI B.31.3 Off Plot Welds 1 do not require stress relief. ANSI B.31.4 Welds 1-1 do not require stress relief if a min. preheat temp. of 200 F is used. Minimum Wall For on-plot piping, tmin = t/0.875 (B31.3) For off-plot corroded pipelines, tmin = 0.9 t(calculated pressure design thickness) For off-plot isolated pitting, 0.2t< tmin <0.9t depending upon the effective length (Lm) of the corrosion. 1) Use Sleeve97 to evaluate off-plot and on-plot corrosion. 2) SAEP-306 applies to corroded off-plot piping. Dead Leg SAES-L-012 L>3D or L>1.22 m (L=length of dead leg, D= pipe OD) A dead leg may be internally coated rather than removed. Restriction Orifice Sizing Gas (P1>2P2) W = 266d 2 P1 MW Z1T1 W=lb/hr P1= psia Z=compress. 1=upstream d=bore (in) T1=R R=F+460 2=dwnstream

tmin= t /0.875
P= 1.75t nom SE D 1.75t nom Y

Y = 0.4 For CS & SS < 900OF S = 20,000 psig For Grade B E = 1.00 For Smls, 0.85 ERW or 0.95 SAW P = Design Pressure, psig D = Outside Diameter, inch tmin = Min Thick Requd, inch tnom = Nominal Thick, inch t = Calculated Thick, inch For Off-Plot Piping: ASME B31.4 PD t= 2 DF SMYS P= 2t D F SMSY D

Grade B X42 X52 X60

SMYS 35,000 42,000 52,000 60,000

Hydrostatic Pressure Calculations SAES-L-056 Lower of: 1) Flange Limit 2) 90% Yield (Use off-plot piping formula with DF=0.90) a) for on-plot piping, t = 0.875tnom b) for off-plot piping t = tnom 3) Revalidation of existing piping only, use Code requirements: a) On-plot piping, Phydro = 1.5 x MAOP (ANSI B31.3) b) Off-plot piping, Phydro = 1.25 x MAOP (SAES-L-056) MAOP = 1200 psig for Ghawar Field wells (SAES-L-022) c) Oil well head manifolds, Phydro = 1.4 x MAOP (ASME B31.8, Loc. Class 3) d) Water well head manifolds, Phydro = 1.25 x MAOP (ASME B31.8, Loc. Class 1) MAOP = 3000 psig (oil & water inj. wells) Notes: Item #3 must always be met or exceeded by Items 1 & 2. Do not use item #3 above for limiting testing pressures for new piping or new spools. Do not inspect a line under hydrotest. Lower the pressure to MAOP after the hydrotest to inspect for leaks. Mill Tolerances for Wall Thickness (API 5L Table 9) Pipe Size 2 3-18 20 20 Type All All Welded Smls Grade B +20.0% -12.5% +15.0 -12.5 +17.5 -12.5 +15.0 -12.5 X42 & Higher +15.0% -12.5% +15.0 -12.5 +19.5 -8.0 +17.5 -10.0

Notes: E, for off-plot piping, is not included as it equals 1.00 for all welded or seamless pipe used by Saudi ARAMCO. Mill tol. is not subtracted for off-plot piping. DF (Design Factor) SAES-L-003 unless otherwise noted. (Location Class defined in ASME B31.8 & SAES B-064) Location Class 1 (Cross Country Piping) 0.72 Location Class 2 , (Highways) 0.60 field manifolds, jumpovers, scrapers 0.60 Subkha or tidal flats 0.60 Location Class 3 (440 m of SSD fence) 0.50 Well head manifolds (Oil/SWD/PWI) 0.50 SAES-L-022 Location Class 4 (500 m of residences) 0.40 Threaded Piping 1) Minimum thread engagement (SAES-L-010) Nominal Pipe Size & 1 to 1 2 to 3* 4* Min. Number of Threads Engaged 6 7 8 10 *Max. threaded connection size in hazardous service is 1. Larger sizes are restricted to air and utility water. 2) Seal weld all threaded connections in hazardous service. INSP to visually check all seal welds under op. press. 3) Do not seal weld: a) Thermowells b) Plugs c) Union couplings d) Instr. piping downstream of root valve e) Downstream of root valve discharging to gravity sewer.

Liquids (d/D<0.3) Q=gpm d=bore (in) Px 2.31 H=ft liquid P=psid sg Line Sizing (Single phase) Chemical Engineering Rules of Thumb Liquid: Size pipe for velocity of 5+D/3 ft/s or 2.0 psi/100 ft Pump Suction: Size for 1.3+D/6 ft/s, 0.4 psi/100 ft Max. Liquid Velocity CS lines/HC service = 4.6 m/s SAES-L-032 h= Gas: Size for 20D ft/s, 0.5 psi/100ft where D=pipe size (inches) Max. Gas Velocity = 18.3 m/s SAES-L-032 Volume of gas at T&P PV=ZNRT P=psia V=cu. Ft R=10.73 T=R=F+460 Z=compressibility factor =0.97 HPPT gas =0.98 LPPT gas N=lb-moles (1 lb-mole=380 SCF gas) Q = 12d 2 h

Flange & Valve Pressures (for CS flanges A-105, A-350 LF2) ANSI Class MAWP.* Hydro Press. Valve Seat Group 1.1 (psig) (psig) Test P (psig) 150 285 450 315 300 740 1125 815 600 1480 2225 1630 800+ 1975 2975 2175 900 2220 3350 2445 1500 3705 5575 4075 2500 6170 9275 6790 API 6A 14 16 3000 3000 6000 4500 3000 5000 5000 10,000 10,000 5000 10,000 10,000 15,000 15,000 10,000 *Working Pressure at -20F to 100F. See ANSI B16.34 for other temperature and material ratings. Other materials (eg stainless steels) can also be found on the Hot Tap Manual, Attach #10. + API Standard 602

Miscellaneous Pumps h( ft ) = bhp = P( psi ) x 2.31 sg Pr od . Water Water Cut wc = Crude + Pr od . Water wc x Crude Pr od . Water = (1 wc ) Oil Shrinkage Factor = 0.96 (between GOSP & terminal storage) (UOED/SGUOEU-080/94) SCECO Power $0.0268/KW-Hr (UOED/SGUOEU-769/94) Gas Value $0.73/MMBTU (HPPT gas = 1220 BTU/SCF) Useful Engrg. Programs Found under J:\UOED\ENGR\ NAME Orivalve 32 DESCRIPTION Control Valve Folder. Supercedes Oricalc2. Sizes control valves, flow orifices & venturis, calculates meter factors, size restriction orifices. Optimized for GOSPs & WIPS Sizes Control Valves For Fisher And Others (ISA). An excellent program to convert any unit to another. Three programs for pipe sizing in excel including three phase. Under Pipe Sizing folder. Calculates backpressures in flare lines. Use to size flare and relief lines. Hottap calculations Evaluate corroded piping, calculate sleeve thickness for pressure and non-pressure Calculation of hydrate points and inhibitor treatments for gas lines Piping heat loss with and without insulation Economics of installing insulation Sizes ISA relief valves Sizes thermal relief valves Sizes Crosby relief valves specifically Calculates the volume of liquid by height in a horizontal vessel Calculates vessel weight 1)

Remaining Life Calculation The design pressure and pipe schedule can be found from the line designation table for desalting or from the relief pressure and piping specifications for gas gathering. The minimum wall is measured by INSP in millimeters. Convert to Reading ( mm ) inches 25.4mm / in = Value( in ) . The pipe wall around the corrosion can be found from the corrosion survey. Corrosion Corrosion = original wall remaining corroded wall thickness. Original wall a) b) 5) Nominal wall or The nominal wall plus (positive)mill tolerance.

Q( gpm ) x P where eff=pump efficiency 1715 x eff

3) 4)

Evaporation Rates From Pits (Bill Conners-CSD/Env. Engrg) Winter 85 mm per month Summer 295 mm per month Overall Average 166 mm per month or Pit size to be 1000 m2 per GPM water inflow Electrical I=amps V=volts I V Pf E E=motor eff. (name plate or data sht) HP = 3 746 0.90 for 480 V motors 0.95 for 4160V or 13.8 kV motors Pf=power factor (name plate or data sht) ave Pf 0.90 Depth of Cover (SAES-L-046 is confusing) Camel crossings 0.914m (3 ft) Rig road crossings 1.524m (5 ft) U/G piping0.450m (SAES-L-012) Materials A-105 flanges 12 and smaller are acceptable in Class 150 & 300. A-105 flanges 6 and smaller are acceptable in Class 600. Otherwise use A-350 LF2, LF6 Cl 1 or 2, A-707 L3 or L5 Pipe for sour wet service to be seamless or meet 01-SAMSS-016. Use CPCV for sweet water piping-not galv. pipe. Common Plant Paint Coating Systems APCS Common Usage 2A Internal coating of all vessels and piping in water service. 2B Internal coating of drinking water tanks 3 External coal-tar epoxy coating of steel in immersion service. (eg. Steel in the oil recovery pit) 4 Aluminum paint for structural steel or plant piping to. 80C 6 Structural steel for another color than aluminum to 70C 9 Battery room floors 10 External coating of buried concrete anchors or pipe supports. 12 Steel and concrete floors 26 Maintenance coating over APCS-4 or 6 where surface prep. is limited to hand/power tools. (Typically for repainting equipment where sandblasting cannot be used.) 100 Shop applied (Qahtani) internal baked epoxy pipe coating 109 Tapewrap for flowlines to repair existing tape wrap only. 113 Maintenance for external coating of pipelines such as camel crossings and short lengths of buried pipe.

Isacv Mconvert Pipe Sizing Headerx Hottap97 Sleeve97 Hydinhib Justheat Heatalyz Rvalve Thremxa Crosby Vliqhor Vessel

Corrosion rate assume corrosion started when piping was originally installed For the oil side, assume corrosion started when desalting was installed. (ie. No corrosion occurred when the GOSP was operating with zero water cut) assume all corrosion occurred over the past 5 years. calculate three ways: original piping installation under both original wall assumptions and the 5 year corrosion rate using nominal wall only. service life ( yr ) = in / yr

corrosion( in )

6) 7) 8)

tmin use ASME B31.3 (on-plot) or B31.4 (off-plot) Remaining Life (years) =
Corroded Wall Thickness tmin ( in ) Corrosion Rate in yr

(Calculate for the three scenarios) Based on the remaining life table, what pipe should be replaced during T&I or routine shutdown can be determined.

Note: The pipe should be replaced immediately if the remaining wall is below the minimum wall. For off-plot piping, the minimum wall should be as calculated for corroded pipelines as per SAEP-306.