Anda di halaman 1dari 11

# Jacques W. D. "Mathematics, Symbols, and Physical Constants" The Handbook of Groundwater Engineering Editor-in-Chief Jacques W.

## Appendix C Mathematics, Symbols, and Physical Constants

Greek Alphabet
International System of Units (SI) Denitions of SI Base Units Names and Symbols for the SI Base Units SI Derived Units with Special Names and Symbols Units in Use Together with the SI

## Conversion Constants and Multipliers

Recommended Decimal Multiples and Submultiples Conversion FactorsMetric to English Conversion FactorsEnglish to Metric Conversion FactorsGeneral Temperature Factors Conversion of Temperatures

Physical Constants

## General Constants Constants Involving e Numerical Constants

Greek Alphabet
Greek letter Greek name Alpha Beta Gamma Delta Epsilon Zeta Eta Theta Iota Kappa Lambda Mu English equivalent a b g d e z e th i k l m Greek letter Greek name Nu Xi Omicron Pi Rho Sigma Tau Upsilon Phi Chi Psi Omega English equivalent n x o p r s t u ph ch ps o

## International System of Units (SI)

The International System of units (SI) was adopted by the 11th General Conference on Weights and Measures (CGPM) in 1960. It is a coherent system of units built form seven SI base units, one for each of the seven dimensionally independent base quantities: they are the meter, kilogram, second, ampere,

## 1999 CRC Press LLC

kelvin, mole, and candela, for the dimensions length, mass, time, electric current, thermodynamic temperature, amount of substance, and luminous intensity, respectively. The denitions of the SI base units are given below. The SI derived units are expressed as products of powers of the base units, analogous to the corresponding relations between physical quantities but with numerical factors equal to unity. In the International System there is only one SI unit for each physical quantity. This is either the appropriate SI base unit itself or the appropriate SI derived unit. However, any of the approved decimal prexes, called SI prexes, may be used to construct decimal multiples or submultiples of SI units. It is recommended that only SI units be used in science and technology (with SI prexes where appropriate). Where there are special reasons for making an exception to this rule, it is recommended always to dene the units used in terms of SI units. This section is based on information supplied by IUPAC.

## Denitions of SI Base Units

MeterThe meter is the length of path traveled by light in vacuum during a time interval of 1/299, 792, 458 of a second (17th CGPM, 1983). KilogramThe kilogram is the unit of mass; it is equal to the mass of the international prototype of the kilogram (3rd CGPM, 1901). SecondThe second is the duration of 9, 192, 631, 770 periods of the radiation corresponding to the transition between the two hyperne levels of the ground state of the cesium-133 atom (13th CGPM, 1967). AmpereThe ampere is that constant current which, if maintained in two straight parallel conductors of innite length, of negligible circular cross-section, and placed 1 meter apart in vacuum, would produce between these conductors a force equal to 2 107 newton per meter of length (9th CGPM, 1948). KelvinThe kelvin, unit of thermodynamic temperature, is the fraction 1/273.16 of the thermodynamic temperature of the triple point of water (13th CGPM, 1967). MoleThe mole is the amount of substance of a system which contains as many elementary entities as there are atoms in 0.012 kilogram of carbon-12. When the mole is used, the elementary entities must be specied and may be atoms, molecules, ions, electrons, or other particles, or specied groups of such particles (14th CGPM, 1971). Examples of the use of the mole: 1 mol of 1 mol of 1 mol of 1 mol of 1 mol of 1 mol of 1 mol of H2 contains about 6.022 1023 H2 molecules, or 12.044 1023 H atoms HgCl has a mass of 236.04 g Hg2Cl2 has a mass of 472.08 g Hg22+ has a mass of 401.18 g and a charge of 192.97 kC Fe0.91S has a mass of 82.88 g e has a mass of 548.60 g and a charge of 96.49 kC photons whose frequency is 1014 Hz has energy of about 39.90 kJ

CandelaThe candela is the luminous intensity, in a given direction, of a source that emits monochromatic radiation of frequency 540 1012 hertz and that has a radiant intensity in that direction of (1/683) watt per steradian (16th CGPM, 1979).

## Names and Symbols for the SI Base Units

Physical quantity length mass time electric current thermodynamic temperature amount of substance luminous intensity Name of SI unit meter kilogram second ampere kelvin mole candela Symbol for SI unit m kg s A K mol cd

## SI Derived Units with Special Names and Symbols

Physical quantity frequency1 force pressure, stress energy, work, heat power, radiant ux electric charge electric potential, electromotive force electric resistance electric conductance electric capacitance magnetic ux density magnetic ux inductance Celsius temperature2 luminous ux illuminance activity (radioactive) absorbed dose (of radiation) dose equivalent (dose equivalent index) plane angle solid angle
1

Name of SI unit hertz newton pascal joule watt coulomb volt ohm siemens farad tesla weber henry degree Celsius lumen lux becquerel gray sievert radian steradian

## Expression in terms of SI base units s1 m kg s2 N m2 Nm J s1 As J C1 V A1 1 C V1 V s m2 Vs V A1 s K cd sr cd sr m2 s1 J kg1 J kg1 1 1

= m1 kg s2 = m2 kg s2 = m2 kg s3 = m2 kg s3 A1 = m2 kg s3 A2 = m2 kg1 s3 A2 = m2 kg1 s4 A2 = kg s2 A1 = m2 kg s2 A1 = m2 kg s2 A2

= m2 s2 = m2 s2 = m m1 = m2 m2

For radial (circular) frequency and for angular velocity the unit rad s1, or simply s1, should be used, and this may not be simplied to Hz. The unit Hz should be used only for frequency in the sense of cycles per second. 2 The Celsius temperature is dened by the equation: /C = T/K 273.15 The SI unit of Celsius temperature interval is the degree Celsius, C, which is equal to the kelvin, K. C should be treated as a single symbol, with no space between the sign and the letter C. (The symbol K, and the symbol , should no longer be used.)

## Units in Use Together with the SI

These units are not part of the SI, but it is recognized that they will continue to be used in appropriate contexts. SI prexes may be attached to some of these units, such as milliliter, ml; millibar, mbar; megaelectronvolt, MeV; kilotonne, ktonne.
Physical quantity time time time plane angle plane angle plane angle length area volume mass pressure Symbol for unit min h d b l, L t bar

Name of unit minute hour day degree minute second ngstrom1 barn litre tonne bar1

Value in SI units 60 s 3600 s 86 400 s (/180) rad (/10 800) rad (/648 000) rad 1010 m 1028 m2 dm3 = 103 m3 Mg = 103 kg 105 Pa = 105 N m2

1

2

## Value in SI units 1.60218 1019 J 1.66054 1027 kg

The ngstrom and the bar are approved by CIPM for temporary use with SI units, until CIPM makes a further recommendation. However, they should not be introduced where they are not used at present. The values of these units in terms of the corresponding SI units are not exact, since they depend on the values of the physical constants e (for the electronvolt) and Na (for the unied atomic mass unit), which are determined by experiment. The unied atomic mass unit is also sometimes called the dalton, with symbol Da, although the name and symbol have not been approved by CGPM.

## Conversion Constants and Multipliers

Recommended Decimal Multiples and Submultiples
Multiples and submultiples 10 1015 1012 109 106 103 102 10
18

## Prexes exa peta tera giga mega kilo hecto deca

Symbols E P T G M k h da

Multiples and submultiples 10 102 103 106 109 1012 1015 1018
1

## Conversion FactorsMetric to English

To obtain Inches Feet Yards Miles Ounces Pounds Gallons (U.S. Liquid) Fluid ounces Square inches Square feet Square yards Cubic inches Cubic feet Cubic yards Multiply Centimeters Meters Meters Kilometers Grams Kilogram Liters Milliliters (cc) Square centimeters Square meters Square meters Milliliters (cc) Cubic meters Cubic meters By 0.3937007874 3.280839895 1.093613298 0.6213711922 3.527396195 102 2.204622622 0.2641720524 3.381402270 102 0.155003100 10.76391042 1.195990046 6.102374409 102 35.31466672 1.307950619

## Conversion FactorsEnglish to Metric*

To obtain Microns Centimeters Meters Meters Kilometers Grams Kilograms Liters Millimeters (cc) Square centimeters Square meters Square meters Milliliters (cc) Cubic meters Cubic meters Multiply Mils Inches Feet Yards Miles Ounces Pounds Gallons (U.S. Liquid) Fluid ounces Square inches Square feet Square yards Cubic inches Cubic feet Cubic yards By 25.4 2.54 0.3048 0.9144 1.609344 28.34952313 0.45359237 3.785411784 29.57352956 6.4516 0.09290304 0.83612736 16.387064 2.831684659 102 0.764554858

Conversion FactorsGeneral*
To obtain Atmospheres Atmospheres Atmospheres BTU BTU Cubic feet Degree (angle) Ergs Feet Feet of water @ 4C Foot-pounds Foot-pounds Foot-pounds per min Horsepower Inches of mercury @ 0C Joules Joules Kilowatts Kilowatts Kilowatts Knots Miles Nautical miles Radians Square feet Watts Multiply Feet of water @ 4C Inches of mercury @ 0C Pounds per square inch Foot-pounds Joules Cords Radians Foot-pounds Miles Atmospheres Horsepower-hours Kilowatt-hours Horsepower Foot-pounds per sec Pounds per square inch BTU Foot-pounds BTU per min Foot-pounds per min Horsepower Miles per hour Feet Miles Degrees Acres BTU per min By 2.950 102 3.342 102 6.804 102 1.285 103 9.480 104 128 57.2958 1.356 107 5280 33.90 1.98 106 2.655 106 3.3 104 1.818 103 2.036 1054.8 1.35582 1.758 102 2.26 105 0.745712 0.86897624 1.894 104 0.86897624 1.745 102 43560 17.5796

* Boldface numbers are exact; others are given to ten signicant gures where so indicated by the multiplier factor.

## 1999 CRC Press LLC

Temperature Factors
F = 9/5 (C) + 32 Fahrenheit temperature = 1.8 (temperature in kelvins) 459.67 C = 5/9 [(F) 32)] Celsius temperature = temperature in kelvins 273.15 Fahrenheit temperature = 1.8 (Celsius temperature) + 32

Conversion of Temperatures
From Celsius T o Fahrenheit Kelvin Rankine Celsius Kelvin Kelvin Rankine Rankine Celsius Rankine Kelvin Fahrenheit tF = (tC 1.8) + 32 TK = tC + 273.15 TR = (tC + 273.15) 18 tC = Tk =
t F 32 ---------------1.8 t F 32 ---------------1.8

Fahrenheit

+ 273.15

## TR = tF + 459.67 tC = TK 273.15 TR = TK 1.8 TK =

TR ------1.8

tF = TR 459.67

Physical Constants
General
Equatorial radius of the earth = 6378.388 km = 3963.34 miles (statute). Polar radius of the earth, 6356.912 km = 3949.99 miles (statute). 1 degree of latitude at 40 = 69 miles. 1 international nautical mile = 1.15078 miles (statute) = 1852 m = 6076.115 ft. Mean density of the earth = 5.522 g/cm3 = 344.7 lb/ft3 Constant of gravitation (6.673 0.003) 108 cm3 gm1 s2. Acceleration due to gravity at sea level, latitude 45 = 980.6194 cm/s2 = 32.1726 ft/s2. Length of seconds pendulum at sea level, latitude 45 = 99.3575 cm = 39.1171 in. 1 knot (international) = 101.269 ft/min = 1.6878 ft/s = 1.1508 miles (statute)/h. 1 micron = 104 cm. 1 ngstrom = 108 cm. Mass of hydrogen atom = (1.67339 0.0031) 1024 g. Density of mercury at 0C = 13.5955 g/ml. Density of water at 3.98C = 1.000000 g/ml. Density, maximum, of water, at 3.98C = 0.999973 g/cm3. Density of dry air at 0C, 760 mm = 1.2929 g/l. Velocity of sound in dry air at 0C = 331.36 m/s 1087.1 ft/s. Velocity of light in vacuum = (2.997925 0.000002) 1010 cm/s. Heat of fusion of water 0C = 79.71 cal/g. Heat of vaporization of water 100C = 539.55 cal/g. Electrochemical equivalent of silver 0.001118 g/s international amp. Absolute wavelength of red cadmium light in air at 15C, 760 mm pressure = 6438.4696 . Wavelength of orange-red line of krypton 86 = 6057.802 .

## 1999 CRC Press LLC

Constants
1/ 2 log e log 10 log 10 2 = = = = = = 3.14159 0.31830 9.8690 1.14472 0.49714 0.39908 26535 98861 44010 98858 98726 99341 89793 83790 89358 49400 94133 79057 23846 67153 61883 17414 85435 52478 26433 77675 44909 34273 12682 25035 83279 26745 99876 51353 88290 91507 50288 02872 15113 05871 89887 69595 41971 40689 53136 16472 36516 02099 69399 19291 99407 94812 78324 34102 37511 48091 24079 91531 38044 92128

Constants Involving e
e = 2.71828 18284 59045 23536 02874 71352 66249 77572 47093 69996 1/e = 0.36787 94411 71442 32159 55237 70161 46086 74458 11131 03177 e 2 = 7.38905 60989 30650 22723 04274 60575 00781 31803 15570 55185 M = log 10e = 0.43429 44819 03251 82765 11289 18916 60508 22943 97005 80367 1/M=loge10 = 2.30258 50929 94045 68401 79914 54684 36420 67011 01488 62877 log 10M = 9.63778 43113 00536 78912 29674 98645 10

Numerical Constants
2 3 2 loge2 log 102 3 3 3 loge3 log 103 = = = = = = = = 1.41421 1.25992 0.69314 0.30102 1.73205 1.44224 1.09861 0.47712 35623 10498 71805 99956 08075 95703 22886 12547 73095 94873 59945 63981 68877 07408 68109 19662 04880 16476 30941 19521 29352 38232 69139 43729 16887 72106 72321 37388 74463 16383 52452 50279 24209 07278 21458 94724 41505 10780 36922 03255 69807 22835 17656 49302 87236 10958 52570 11530 85696 05702 80755 67881 69428 83918 46474 92001 71875 51464 00134 89881 05253 69253 90557 28864 37695 70151 36026 46211 81039 49935 82275 19070

## Conversion Factors for Intrinsic Permeability, k [L2]

cm2 1 cm2 1 ft2 1 darcy 1 9.290304 E+2* 9.869233 E-9 ft2 1.076391E-3 1 1.062315E-11 darcy 1.01325 E+8* 9.413401E+10 1

* Indicates an exact value. Example: to covert 0.02 ft2 in darcy multiply by 9.413401E+10 or 0.02 9.413401E+10 = 1.882680E+9 darcy.

k=

(Q / A) dp / dl

1centipoise 1cm 3 / sec (0.01dyne sec/ cm 2 ) 1cm 3 / sec 1cm 2 1cm 2 1darcy = = = 9.869233 10 9 cm 2 (1.01325 10 6 dynes / cm 2 ) / cm 1atmosphere / cm

## Conversion Factors for Transmissivity [L2/T]

m2/s m /s m2/min m2/day ft2/s ft2/day USgpd/ft UKgpd/ft
2

## 1 1.666667E-2 1.157407E-5 9.290304E-2* 1.075267E-6 1.437423E-7 1.726273E-7

* Indicates exact value Example: to convert a transmissivity of 2.5 ft2/day to m2/min multiply by 6.4516E-5 or 2.5 0.000064516E-5 = 0.00016129 m2/min.

## Conversion Factors for Flows, Q[L3/T]

m3/sec m /sec m3/day liter/sec ft3/sec ft3/day ac-ft/day gal/min gal/day mgd
3

## 1 1.157407E-5 1.0E-3* 2.831685E-2 3.277413E-7 1.427649E-2 6.309020E-5 4.381264E-8 4.381264E-2

* Denotes an exact value Example. To convert 7.5 gal/min to liter per sec: multiply by 6.309020E-2 or 7.5 0.06309020 = 0.473177 liter/sec.

## Conversion Factors for Hydraulic Conductivity, K [L/T]

cm/s cm/s m/s m/day ft/s ft/day ft/yr USgpd/ft2 UKgpd/ft2 1 1.00E+2* 1.157407E-3 3.048E+1* 3.527778E-4 9.665145E-7 4.715953E-5 5.663635E-5 m/s 1.00E-2* 1 1.157407E-5 3.048E-1* 3.527778E-6 9.665145E-9 4.715953E-7 5.663635E-7 m/day 8.64E+2* 8.64E+4* 1 2.633472E+4 0.3048* 8.350685E-4 4.074584E-2 4.893381E-2 ft/s 3.280840E-2 3.280840 3.797268E-5 1 1.157407E-5 3.170979E-8 1.547229E-6 1.858148E-6 ft/day 2.834646E+3 2.834646E+5 3.280840 8.64E+4* 1 2.739726E-3 1.336806E-1 1.605440E-1 ft/yr 1.034646E+6 1.034646E+8 1.197507E+3 3.1536E+7* 3.65E+2* 1 4.879340E+1 5.859855E+1 USgpd/ft2 2.120462E+4 2.120462E+6 2.454238E+1 6.463169E+5 7.480519 2.049457E-2 1 1.200952 UKgpd/ft2 1.765651E+4 1.765651E+6 2.043577E+1 5.381703E+5 6.228823 1.706527E-2 8.326725E-1 1

* Indicates an exact value Example. Convert a hydraulic conductivity of 2.5 ft/day to cm/s : multiply by 3.527778E-4 or 2.5 3.527778E-4 = 8.819445E-4 = 0.0008819445 cm/sec.