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Question 1- Describe briefly the Computer Integrated Manufacturing (CIM).

Answer: In Computer Integrated Manufacturing, Integration occurs when a broad range of manufacturing and supporting activities are linked. Activities include engineering design, production planning, shop control, order processing, material control, distribution etc. Information flow across all functions takes place with the help of computers. Transmission, processing, distribution and feedback happen almost in real time so that intended activities are conducted rapidly. This process helps in rapid production and also reduces indirect costs. As response times decrease, customer satisfaction increases resulting in better business. CIM helps in avoiding accumulation of materials resulting in better throughput and better utilization of space. Bar code labels that accompany materials contain instructions for processing them which are read by sensing devices and display the status on monitors. This information is available to all concerned personnel responsible in planning, marketing etc. so that they will be aware of the status of any order and if expediting is needed to meet deadlines and they will be able to seek intervention. Identifying shortages, ensuring faster deliveries becomes easy with CIM. One of the keys to success in the manufacturing business is to lessen errors and to enhance productivity. The more one can produce with fewer flaws, the more one can make at the bottom line. Over a period of time factory owners have integrated computer systems in order to streamline the production process. CAD, or computer aided design, has been able to aid the operators in the formulation and blueprints of more sophisticated products and technology. CAM, or computer aided manufacturing, has offered the means by which to produce the more sophisticated items. CAM also enhances the productivity of the factory's output. Together the CAD and CAM systems reduce cycle times, enhance productivity, and aid in the streamlining of the overall production process. Since the 1980's CAD and CAM have worked together to move from the idea phase to the application phase. This process has not ceased because of the implication. The factory sector has slowly been phasing in computer integrated manufacturing, or CIM over the years. This integration will allow for the digital information and computer control of the production process to be intertwined throughout and within the factory. In the CIM system some processes will be different. Data entry will now be stored in hard drives. This will allow for the manipulation and the retrieval of the data with a simple keystroke. The means by which the processing of data into the production of products will also be streamlined within hardware and software. This will allow operators to alter and enhance programs in order to improve products. The CIM system will also provide the necessary algorithms to bring all the data together. The data will then be able to intermingle with the sensor and modification components of the system. While the CIM system is the optimal choice to aid in the manufacturing process, it does come with a unique set of challenges. The greatest challenge is to get all the different machines within the factory to work on the same system. In the typical factory, there are a variety of machines that perform different tasks, which are made by a variety of suppliers. The issue is to get every one of these machines to accept the programming, and tasks from one mainframe computer. The second challenge of the CIM system is encapsulated within the data itself. While many operators may be lost on the actual production floor, there will be a need for operators to maintain the integrity of the data that is transmitted to the machines. The challenge is in acquiring competent individuals who can assure that all the data within the system is at its optimum operating integrity. The third and final challenge that has been

encountered in the use of the CIM system is process control. This entails assuring that the whole process runs smoothly. This particular challenge ties the data entry people, the programmers, and the production operators together. The factory will need to assure that the individuals working with the system throughout the factory are competent and knowledgeable. These individuals will need to be well trained, and probably need to update their training periodically. The goal of the CIM system is to eliminate the waste within the manufacturing process. This is done by taking the design, analysis, planning, purchasing, cost accounting, inventory control and distribution departments and interlink them with the factory floor, material handling, and management departments. The CIM system will have an impact on every system within the factory. The CIM system, which is sometimes referred to as the integrated computer aided manufacturing system, operates on both hard and software. Simply put, the software is what runs the factory, or the brains. The hardware is what makes the machines run, or the muscles. The CIM system runs on an efficient output process. This means that the whole factory works together, not as separate parts. As a unified unit, it operates for the peak benefit of the whole factory. Simply put, the CIM system does not backload or store up work. It does not warehouse products. The CIM system keeps work flowing through computer integration in order to keep all the parts of the system constantly functioning. It registers all the raw material received by the factory. It then walks the material through the factory and the production process. The CIM system fractions every individual "center" of the factory into work cells. As work cells, they are then divided into individual stations. The stations are then broke down to the individual processes, and the processes are what metamorphose the raw materials into actual products. This may seem complicated, but it streamlines the whole manufacturing process. With each division of the factory broken down in such a manner, it allows operators to make any necessary changes to the system without shutting down the whole system. CIM is a very interactive, hand on system. If it is applied correctly, it will enhance the productivity of the whole factory. It will link several departments and functions together. It is simple to install. It usually is installed through a LAN, or local area network, connection. Integration occurs when a broad range of manufacturing and supporting activities are linked. CIM is the complete automation of a manufacturing plant, with all processes functioning under computer control and digital information tying them together. The three major functions in manufacturing are production, design, and management function. Production function converts resources into products. The design function transforms customer specifications into design. Finally the management functions plan and control production activities. The three computer aids in CIM are: Computer aid to the production function (automated flow of materials) Computer aid to the design function (automated flow of technological information) Computer aid to the management function (automated flow of managerial information) When it comes to production, CIMs are included in different areas of production process such as in engineering design, production planning, shop control, order processing, material control, distribution and many other areas. Information flow across all the functions takes place with the help of computers. Transmission, processing, distribution, and feedback happen almost in real time so that intended activities are conducted rapidly. CIM process helps in rapid production and also reduces indirect costs. CIM uses computers to control the entire production process. This integration allows the processes to exchange information with each other and thus they become capable of initiating actions. As response times

decrease, customer satisfaction increases resulting in better business. CIM helps in avoiding accumulation of materials resulting in better throughput and better utilization of space. Bar code labels that accompany materials contain instructions for processing them which are read by sensing devices and display the status on monitors. This information is available to all concerned personnel responsible in planning, marketing and other activities so that they will be aware of the status of any order. If expediting is needed to meet deadlines, they will be able to seek intervention. Identifying shortages and ensuring faster deliveries become easy with CIM. Question 2 What is meant by Total Quality Management? Mention the 14 points of Demings approach to management. Answer: A holistic approach to long-term success that views continuous improvement in all aspects of an organization as a process and not as a short-term goal. It aims to radically transform the organization through progressive changes in the attitudes, practices, structures, and systems. Total Quality Management is viewed from many angles as a philosophy, as an approach and as a journey towards excellence. The main thrust is to achieve customer satisfaction by involving everybody in the organization, across all functions with continuous improvement driving all activities. Total Quality Management systems are designed to prevent poor quality from occurring. Total quality management transcends the product quality approach, involves everyone in the organization, and encompasses its every function: administration, communications, distribution, manufacturing, marketing, planning, training, etc. Coined by the US Naval Air Systems Command in early 1980s, this term has now taken on several meanings and includes commitment and direct involvement of highest-level executives in setting quality goals and policies, allocation of resources, and monitoring of results; realization that transforming an organization means fundamental changes in basic beliefs and practices and that this transformation is everyone's job; building quality into products and practices right from the beginning; understanding of the changing needs of the internal and external customers, and stakeholders, and satisfying them in a cost effective manner; instituting leadership in place of mere supervision so that every individual performs in the best possible manner to improve quality and productivity, thereby continually reducing total cost; eliminating barriers between people and departments so that they work as teams to achieve common objectives; and instituting flexible programs for training and education, and providing meaningful measures of performance that guide the self-improvement efforts of everyone involved. Deming's Total Quality Management helps organizations to improve the quality of the products and services they offer. Demings approach is summarized in his 14 points. 1. Constancy of purpose for continuous improvement 2. Adopt the Total Quality Management philosophy for economic purposes 3. Do not depend on inspection to deliver quality 4. Do not award any business based on price alone 5. Improve the system of production and service constantly 6. Conduct meaningful training on the job 7. Adopt modern methods of supervision and leadership 8. Remove fear from the minds of everyone connected with the organization

9. Remove barriers between departments and people 10. Do not exhort, repeat slogans, and put up posters 11. Do not set-up numerical quotas and work standards 12. Give pride of workmanship to the workmen 13. Education and training to be given vigorously 14. State and exhibit top managements commitment for quality and productivity Point 1: Create constancy of purpose: Create constancy of purpose toward improvement of the product and service so as to become competitive, stay in business and provide jobs. Point 2: Adopt the new philosophy: We are in a new economic age. We no longer need live with commonly accepted levels of delay, mistake, defective material and defective workmanship. Point 3: Cease inspection, require evidence: Cease dependence on mass inspection; require, instead, statistical evidence that quality is built in. Point 4: Improve the quality of Supplier: Improve the quality of incoming materials. End the practice of awarding business on the basis of a price alone. Instead, depend on meaningful measures of quality, along with price. Point 5: Continuously improve production: Find the problems; constantly improve the system of production and service. There should be continual reduction of waste and continual improvement of quality in every activity so as to yield a continual rise in productivity and a decrease in costs. Point 6 : Train and educate all employees: Institute modern methods of training and education for all. Modern methods of on-the-job training use control charts to determine whether a worker has been properly trained and is able to perform the job correctly. Statistical methods must be used to discover when training is complete. Point 7: Supervisors must help people: Institute modern methods of supervision. The emphasis of production supervisors must be to help people to do a better job. Improvement of quality will automatically improve productivity. Management must prepare to take immediate action on response from supervisors concerning problems such as inherited defects, lack of maintenance of machines, poor tools or fuzzy operational definitions. Point 8: Drive out fear: Fear is a barrier to improvement so drive out fear by encouraging effective two-way communication and other mechanisms that will enable everybody to be part of change, and to belong to it. Fear can often be found at all levels in an organization: fear of change, fear of the fact that it may be necessary to learn a better way of working and fear that their positions might be usurped frequently affect middle and higher management, whilst on the shop-floor, workers can also fear the effects of change on their jobs. Point 9: Eliminate boundaries: Break down barriers between departments and staff areas. People in different areas such as research, design, sales, administration and production must work in teams to tackle problems that may be encountered with products or service.

Point 10: Eliminate the use of slogans: Eliminate the use of slogans, posters and exhortations for the workforce, demanding zero defects and new levels of productivity without providing methods. Such exhortations only create adversarial relationships. Point 11: Eliminate numerical standards: Eliminate work standards that prescribe numerical quotas for the workforce and numerical goals for people in management. Substitute aids and helpful leadership. Point 12: Let people be proud of their work: Remove the barriers that rob hourly workers, and people in management, of their right to pride of workmanship. This implies, abolition of the annual merit rating (appraisal of performance) and of management by objectives. Point 13: Encourage Self-improvement: Institute a vigorous program of education, and encourage self-improvement for everyone. What an organization needs is not just good people; it needs people that are improving with education. Point 14: Commit to ever-improving quality: Top management's permanent commitment to ever-improving quality and productivity must be clearly defined and a management structure created that will continuously take action to follow the preceding 13 points. Question 3 Describe briefly the Project Monitoring and control. Answer: Any project aimed at delivering a product or a service has to go through phases in a planned manner, in order to meet the requirements. It is possible to work according to the project plan only by careful monitoring of the project progress. It requires establishing control factors to keep the project on the track of progress. The results of any stage in a project, depends on the inputs to that stage. It is therefore necessary to control all the inputs and the corresponding outputs from a stage. A project manager may use certain standard tools to keep the project on track. The project manager and the team members should be fully aware of the techniques and methods to rectify the factors influencing delay of the project and its product. To analyze the project, methodologies such as, PERT (Program Evaluation Review Technique) and CPM (Critical Path Method) may be used. In the PERT method, one can find out the variance and use the variance to analyze the various probabilistic estimates pertaining to the project. Using the CPM, one can estimate the start time and the finish time for every event of the project in its WBS (Work Breakdown Structure).The analysis charts can be used to monitor, control, track, and execute a project. The various steps involved in monitoring and controlling a project from start to end are listed below. Steps for monitoring and controlling a project are Preliminary work Project progress Stage control Resources Quality control Progress control Approvals

Preliminary work: The team members must understand the project plans, project stage schedule, progress controls, tracking schedules, summary of the stage cost and related worksheets. All the members have to understand the tolerances in any change and maintain a change control log. They must realize the need and importance of quality for which they have to strictly follow a quality review schedule and frequently discuss the quality agendas. They must understand the stage status reports, stage end reports, stage end approval reports. Project progress: The members must keep a track of the project progress and communicate the same to other related members of the project. They must monitor and control project progress, through the use of regular check points, quality charts, and statistical tables; control the quality factors which are likely to deviate from expected values as any deviation may result in changes to the stage schedule. The project manager ensures that these changes are made smoothly and organizes review meeting with the project management group. Thus all the members are aware about the progress of the project at all times. This helps them to plan well in advance for any exigency arising due to deviation from planned schedule. Stage control: The project manager must establish a project check point cycle. For this, suitable stage version control procedures may be followed. The details are to be documented stage wise. Project files have to be frequently updated with suitable version control number and revision status should be maintained for each change. Team members are identified who will exercise controls at various points of the project. Resources: The project manager has to plan the resources required for various stages of the project. He has to brief both the project team and the key resources about the objectives of every stage, planned activities, products, organization metrics, and the project controls. This increases the visibility into the project performance and hence quality control can be achieved. Allocating a right resource at the right place and the right time will significantly enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of the resource. Quality control: Quality control is very important in any project. Quality control is possible if the project members follow the quality charts and norms very strictly. The following lists the possible ways to control quality. The following lists the possible ways to control quality (Phases of quality control). A) Schedule quality review: Project members are recommended to schedule the quality review at the beginning and also the end of every stage. This helps the project manager and team members to plan well in advance for any unforeseen deviation. B) Agenda for quality review: The project manager should create and distribute a quality review agenda specifying the objectives, products, logistics, roles, responsibilities, and time frames. This increases the effectiveness of the review and also reduces the time gap. C) Conduct quality review: The quality review is to be conducted in a structured and formal manner. Quality review should focus on product development and its quality factors. The project members should check whether the review meets the prescribed quality standards. D) Follow up: Need to follow up the same for further quality approach.

E) Review quality control procedures: The review quality control procedure which will help for the standard control manual for the quality review. Progress control: The progress control of a project can be achieved by considering the following. A) Monitor Performance: The first step for any project control mechanism is to monitor the progress. There are numerous ways to monitor and measure various project parameters. For example, the team members log in details of actual start date, actual finish date, actual hours worked per task, estimated hours to complete the task, elapsed time in hours to complete the task, any miscellaneous costs incurred during a stage. These inputs become the base to monitor the performance of the project and its stages. B) Update Schedule: Update the schedule for actual start date for tasks started, actual finish date for tasks finished, actual hours worked per task and latest estimated work in hours to complete the task. C) Update costs: Update the stage cost summary worksheet with actual costs incurred during the period and estimated remaining costs. Miscellaneous costs will be automatically updated from the scheduler, since they are calculated from actual work. D) Re-plan stage schedule: Review the tracking Gantt and Cost workbook and identify any deviation from the baseline. Analyze the cause of the deviation. Refer back to the project control factors to help determine the appropriate corrective action and adjust the schedule accordingly. Determine if the stage has exceeded the progress, cost and quality tolerance levels agreed with the project management team. Review status of open issues and determine any further action required on these issues. Review the status of any outstanding quality reviews. Review any new change requests. E) Conduct team status review: Conduct a status meeting with the project team. This is important to bring everyone on the same page of the project progress. F) Create status report: The status report provides a record of current achievement and immediate expectations of the project. The status has to be effectively communicated to all concerned parties. G) Create flash report: Summarize the accomplishments for the month, schedule status, upcoming tasks for the month and any major issues. Distribute the same to all project team members and stakeholders. H) Project status report: As discussed earlier, the status report provides a record of current achievements and immediate expectations of the project. This is generated on a regular basis depending upon the type, requirements and phase of the project. Typically it is generated for a week. Approvals: In any project, it is important to have top management or project sponsors into confidence about all the aspects of the project. This project stage reviews the decisions taken and actions planned and get it approved by the top management. The goals of such review are to improve quality by finding defects and to improve productivity by finding defects in a cost effective and timely manner. The group review process includes several stages like planning, preparation, overview of a group review meeting, rework recommendations and follow-up.

Question 4 - What is value engineering? Explain its significance. Answer: Value Engineering (VE) or Value Analysis is a methodology by which we try to find substitutes for a product or an operation. The concept of value engineering originated during the Second World War. It was developed by the General Electric Corporations (GEC). Value Engineering has gained popularity due to its potential for gaining high Returns on Investment (ROI).This methodology is widely used in business re-engineering, government projects, automakers, transportation and distribution, industrial equipment, construction, assembling and machining processes, health care and environmental engineering, and many others. Value engineering process calls for a deep study of a product and the purpose for which it issued, such as, the raw materials used; the processes of transformation; the equipment needed, and many others. It also questions whether what is being used is the most appropriate and economical. This applies to all aspects of the product. Value Engineering helps your organization in: Lowering O & M costs Improving quality management Improving resource efficiency Simplifying procedures Minimizing paperwork Lowering staff costs Increasing procedural efficiency Optimizing construction expenditures Developing value attitudes in staff Competing more successfully in marketplace Value Engineering helps you to learn how to: Improve your career skills Separate "Symptoms" from "problems" Solve "root cause" problems and capture opportunities Become more competitive by improving "benchmarking" process Take command of a powerful problem solving methodology to use in any situation. For the above example, studies can be conducted to verify whether any operation can be eliminated. Simplification of processes reduces the cost of manufacturing. Every piece of material and the process should add value to the product so as to render the best performance. Thus, there is an opportunity at every stage of the manufacturing and delivery process to find alternatives which will increase the functionality or reduce cost in terms of material, process, and time. The different aspects of value engineering can be encapsulated into a sequence of steps known as a Job Plan. Value engineering in organizations helps to identify. The problem or situation that needs to be changed/improved. All that is good about the existing situation. The improvements required in the situation. The functions to be performed. The ways of performing each function. The best ways among the selected functions. The steps to be followed to implement the function. The person who executes the function. It should be remembered that we are not seeking a cost reduction sacrificing quality. It has been found that there will be an improvement in quality when systematic value analysis principles are employed.

Question 5 Define Supply Chain Management (SCM)? What are the aims and objectives of SCM? Answer: Supply Chain Management is the art of management of providing the right product, at the right time, right place and at the right cost to the customer. The concept of Supply Chain Management is based on two core ideas. The first is that practically every product that reaches an end user represents the cumulative effort of multiple organizations. These organizations are referred to collectively as the supply chain. The second idea is that while supply chains have existed for a long time, most organizations have only paid attention to what was happening within their four walls. Few businesses understood, much less managed, the entire chain of activities that ultimately delivered products to the final customer. The result was disjointed and often ineffective supply chains. Supply chain management, then, is the active management of supply chain activities to maximize customer value and achieve a sustainable competitive advantage. It represents a conscious effort by the supply chain firms to develop and run supply chains in the most effective & efficient ways possible. Supply chain activities cover everything from product development, sourcing, production, and logistics, as well as the information systems needed to coordinate these activities. The organizations that make up the supply chain are linked together through physical flows and information flows. Physical flows involve the transformation, movement, and storage of goods and materials. They are the most visible piece of the supply chain. But just as important are information flows. Information flows allow the various supply chain partners to coordinate their long-term plans, and to control the day-to-day flow of goods and material up and down the supply chain. Necessity and objectives of SCM: SCM is the abbreviation of supply chain Management. It is considered by many express worldwide as the ultimate solution towards efficient enterprise management. SCM is required by and enterprise as a tow to enhance management effectiveness with a following organization AL objective: Reduction of inventory:-Enactment in functional effectiveness of existing systems like ERP, Accounting. Software and Documentation like financial reports statements ISO 9000 Documents etc. Enhancement of participation level and empowerment level: Effective integration of multiple systems like ERP, communication systems, documentation system and secure, Design R&D systems etc. Better utilization of resources- men, material, equipment and money. Optimization of money flow cycle within the organization as well as to and from external agencies. Enhancement of value of products, operations and services and consequently, enhancements of profitability. Enhancement of satisfaction level of customer and clients, supporting institutions, statutory control agencies, supporting institutions, statutory control agencies, suppliers and vendors, employees and executives .Enhancement of flexibility in the organization to help in easy implementation of schemes involving modernization, expansion and divestment, merges and acquisitions Enhancement of coverage and accuracy of management information systems. With the objectives of SCM its implementation are required. Implementation is in the form of various functional blocks of an organization interpenetrated through which a smooth flow of the product development is possible.

A relatively new SCM option involves web based software with a browser interface. Several electronic marketplaces for buying and selling goods and materials. Steps involved in the implementation of SCM: There is many steps which involved in SCM implementation are-Business Process, sales and marketing. Logistics, costing, demand planning, trade- off analysis, environmental requirement, process stability, integrated supply, supplier management, product design, suppliers, customers, material specifications, etc. Some important aspect of SCM: The level of competition existing in the market and the impact of competitive forces on the product development. Designing and working on a strategic logic for better growth through value invention. Working out new value curve in the product development along with necessary break point. Using it to analyze markets andthe economies in product design. Time, customer, quality of product and the concept of survival of fittest. Steps of SCM principals: Group customer by need: Effective SCM groups, customer by extinct service meets those particular segment. Customize the logistics networks: In designing their logistics network, companies need to focus on the service requirement and profit potential of the customer segments identified. Listen to signals of market demand and plan accordingly- sales and operations planners must monitor the entire supply chain to detect early warning signals of changing customer demand and needs. Differentiate the product closer to the customer: companies today no longer can afford to stock pile inventory to compensate for possible forecasting errors, instead, they need to postpone product differentiation in the manufacturing. Process closer to actual customer demand. Strategically manage the source of supply: by working closely with their key suppliers to reduce the overall casts of owning materials and services; SCM maximizes profit margins both for themselves, and their supplies. Develop a supply chain wide technology strategy: as one of the cornerstones of successful SCM information technology must be able to support multiple levels of decision making. Adopt channel spanning performance measuresExcellent supply performance measurement systems do more than just monitor internal functions. They apply performance criteria that embrace bathe service and financial metrics, including as such as each accounts true profitability.

Question 6 - Write short notes on automated flow lines. Answer: When several automated machines are linked by a transfer system which moves the parts by using handling machines which are also automated, we have an automated flow line. After completing an operation on a machine, the semi-finished parts are moved to the next machine in the sequence determined by the process requirements and a flow line is established. The parts at various stages from raw material to ready for fitment or assembly are processed continuously to attain the required shapes or acquire special properties to enable them to perform desired functions. The materials need to be moved, held, rotated, lifted, and positioned for completing different operations. Sometimes, a few of the operations can be done on a single machine with a number of attachments. They are moved further to other machines for performing further operations. Human intervention may

be needed to verify that the operations are taking place according to standards. When these can be achieved with the help of automation and the processes are conducted with selfregulation, we will have automated flow lines established. The main consideration is to balance times that different machines take to complete the operations assigned to them. It is necessary to design the machines in such a way that, the operation times are the same throughout the sequence in the flow of the martial. In fixed automation or hard automation, where one component is manufactured using several operations and machines, it is possible to achieve this condition. We assume that product life cycles are sufficiently stable to invest heavily on the automated flow lines to achieve reduced cost per unit. The global trends are favoring flexibility in the manufacturing systems. The costs involved in changing the set-up of automated flow lines are high. So, automated flow lines are considered only when the product is required to be made in high volumes over a relatively long period. Designers now incorporate flexibility in the machines which will take care of small changes in dimensions by making adjustments or minor changes in the existing machine or layout. The change in movements needed can be achieved by programming the machines. Provisions for extra pallets or tool holders or conveyors are made in the original design to accommodate anticipated changes. The logic to be followed is to find out whether the reduction in cost per piece justifies the costs of designing, manufacturing, and setting up automated flow lines. Group Technology and Cellular Manufacturing along with conventional Product and Process Layouts are still resorted to, as they allow flexibility for the production system. As the methodologies of JIT and Lean Manufacturing have become important and relevant in manufacturing, many companies have realized that well designed flow lines suit their purpose well. Flow lines compel engineers to put in place equipment that balance their production rates. It is not possible to think of inventories (Work In Process) in a flow line. Bottlenecks cannot be permitted. By necessity, every bottleneck gets focused upon and solutions found to ease them. Production managers see every bottleneck as an opportunity to hasten the flow and reduce inventories. However, it is important to note that setting up automated flow lines will not be suitable for many industries.