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Ne_G2 ARANCILLO, Ne_G13 SALAZAR Republic of the Philippines Department of Science and Technology PHILIPPINE SCIENCE HIGH SCHOOL-WV

Doa Lawaan H. Lopez Campus Bito-on, Jaro, Iloilo City Baby Its C-c-c-cold Outside!

December 27, 2012

The Effect of the Shape of the Water Bottle in the Freezing Time of Water

BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY: There are times when we wanted to drink cold water and we forgot to put it in the refrigerator long before we wanted to drink it. So we would just put the water bottle in the fridge and after a few minutes we would get it and drink even though it is not really that cold. In this investigatory project, we found out what is the best shape of water container that when put in the fridge, would make a much colder water. PROBLEM:

What would be the best shape of water container that retained heat the least?

OBJECTIVE:

We measured the temperature (C) of the water in different containers after they have been stored in the fridge for thirty minutes.

RATIONALE/ SIGNIFICANCE: This investigatory project would be really helpful for people who always forgot to put their water bottles in the fridge early, for the ones who were in a rush and impatient to wait. If people would be aware on what bottles can have the coldest water for a few minutes, then they would surely use this kind of bottle for they could save time waiting for water to be cold, at the same time they could save electricity because it would take them less time to have their much awaited cold water. Therefore, we could 1

conclude that the results in this experiment could be used by everyone and it could help the majority even in this simple little way.

PIP PARADIGM-CONCEPT MAP: 330 mL Water Bottles

Refresh (Spheric

Shape

Surface Area Time

Temperature

Wilkins Absolute Heat

RELATED INFORMATION:

A convenient operational definition of temperature is that it is a measure of the average translational kinetic energy associated with the disordered microscopic motion of atoms and molecules. (Hyperphysics) Freezing point is the temperature at which a liquid becomes a solid. As with the melting point, increased pressure usually raises the freezing point. (Britannica) Heat transfer is a discipline of thermal engineering that concerns the generation, use, conversion, and exchange of thermal energy and heat between physical systems. Heat transfer is classified into various mechanisms, such as thermal conduction, thermal convection, thermal radiation, and transfer of energy by phase changes. Engineers also consider the transfer of mass of differing chemical species, either cold or hot, to achieve heat transfer. While these mechanisms have distinct characteristics, they often occur simultaneously in the same system. (Wikipedia)

There were many factors that affected the freezing of water, like: how much water you have, how cold it was to start out, and how cold the things around it are. Surface area - The larger the surface area of the conducting interfaces, the greater the heat transfer rate. Water actually freezes when it got to 32 degrees Fahrenheit (0 degrees Celsius), but the time it takes to got there may be different (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign - Department of Physics 2012). Freezing the same volume of water in a water bottle or other container would take much longer than freezing the same volume of water in ice cube trays that are only filled half full. The increased surface area would make the water freeze faster because more of the water came into contact with the cold air at a given time. Spread the water out over a larger surface area if you want it to freeze faster.

MATERIALS: 1 pc. 330 mL Wilkins Water Bottle 1 pc. 330 mL Absolute Water Bottle 1 pc. 330 mL Refresh Water Bottle drinking water (distilled) refrigerator thermometer (C) timer

METHODOLOGY: 1. Prepare containers that are all made of the same material (ex: plastic) and have the same capacities but have different shapes. There would be three bottles of different shapes. 2. Pour the same amount of water to all the bottles/ container. 3. Put them inside the refrigerator at the same temperature. 4. After thirty minutes, get the water containers and measure the temperature of the water in each bottle/ container.

RESULTS:
21.2

Average Temperature of Water

21

20.8

Temperature (C) 20.6


Average 20.4

20.2

20

19.8 Wilkins Absolute Refresh

DISCUSSION: There were many factors that affected the freezing of water like pressure, impurities and many more (wiki.answers.com, 2012). Also the freezing of water is affected by factors, like: how much water you have, how cold it was to start out, and how cold the things around it are. In this experiment we manipulated the shape of the container and controlled the remaining variables. The freezing point decreased slightly with the increased pressure. The higher the pressure, the lower the surface area. The spherical ones (Refresh Water Bottle) have a larger surface area therefore the pressure is lower so, when the pressure is lower, then the freezing point is increased. The higher the freezing point the faster it freezes. Since the Refresh bottle, which has the spherical shape has the lowest average temperature, we conclude that it is the solution to the problem which is, the best shape of water container that retains heat the least. And therefore, has a colder water compare to the other two. The Absolute bottle

(rectangular) has higher average temperature than the Wilkins and Refresh bottle; therefore the water inside freezes the slowest.

Freezing water is an exothermic process, meaning that it gave off heat or it released energy. Therefore, when one gave off heat, it became cold and slowly, it approached freezing point. In this experiment, we found out the best shape of water container which retains heat the least or in other words, we found out the best shape of water container which has the lowest average temperature which made it the coldest when examined after thirty minutes inside the fridge.

CONCLUSION:

The Refresh bottle was the best shape of water container that retained heat the least.

RECOMMENDATION: For colder water, firstly, let the bottle/s stay for at least thirty minutes inside the refrigerator, the bottle/s must have a large surface area and use bottles that are spherical in shape.

REFERENCES: Ask the Van. [Internet]. Department of Physics University of Illinois at Urbana- Champaign: 1994-2012. [cited on 2012 October 13]. Available from: http://van.physics.illinois.edu Factors that will affect the freezing point of water?. [Internet]. [cited on 2012 October 13]. Available from: http://wiki.answers.com/Q/Factors_that_will_affect_the_freezing_point_of_water

Freezing Point. [Internet]. [cited on 2012 December 24]. Available from: http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/218744/freezing-point

Heat Transfer. [Internet]. [cited on 2012 December 24]. Available from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heat_transfer

HEAT TRANSFER - PRINCIPLES & EQUIPMENT - FACTORS AFFECTING HEAT TRANSFER. [Internet]. [cited on 2012 December 24]. Available from: http://articles.compressionjobs.com/articles/oilfield-101/1856-heat-exchangers-boilers-furnaces?start=8

How does pressure affect freezing point? [Internet]. [cited on 2012 October 13]. Available from: http://wiki.answers.com/Q/How_does_pressure_affect_the_freezing_point_of_water#ixzz29ESDprjm Temperature. [Internet]. [cited on 2012 December 24]. Available from: http://hyperphysics.phyastr.gsu.edu/hbase/thermo/temper.html

APPENDIX: Table of Results Shape of Bottle (330 mL Water Bottle) Wilkins Absolute Refresh Temperature (C) Replicate 1 22 23 21 Replicate 2 20 21 20 Replicate 3 20 19 20 20.67 21 20.33 Average

Revised Budget Item No. 1 2 3 Quantity 1 pc. 1 pc. 1 pc. Unit Item 330 mL Wilkins Water Bottle 330 mL Absolute Water Bottle 330 mL Refresh Water Bottle Unit Cost 20.00 20.00 20.00 Actual Cost 20.00 20.00 20.00

TOTAL: Php 60.00

Figure 1: Placing 300 mL of water into the Wilkins water bottle.

Figure 2: Placing 300 mL of water into the Refresh water bottle.

Figure 3: Placing 300 mL of water into the Absolute water bottle.

Figure 4: The three water bottles inside the refrigerator.

Figure 5: Measuring the temperature (C) in the Wilkins water bottle.

Figure 6: Measuring the temperature (C) in the Absolute water bottle.

Figure 7: Measuring the temperature (C) in the Refresh water bottle.