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GS 160-1 EMERGENCY GENERATOR PACKAGE

December 1993

Copyright The British Petroleum Company p.l.c.

Copyright The British Petroleum Company p.l.c.


All rights reserved. The information contained in this document is subject to the terms and conditions of the agreement or contract under which the document was supplied to the recipient's organisation. None of the information contained in this document shall be disclosed outside the recipient's own organisation without the prior written permission of Manager, Standards, BP International Limited, unless the terms of such agreement or contract expressly allow.

BP GROUP RECOMMENDED PRACTICES AND SPECIFICATIONS FOR ENGINEERING Issue Date Doc. No.

December 1993

GS 160-1

Latest Amendment Date

Document Title

EMERGENCY GENERATOR PACKAGE


APPLICABILITY Regional Applicability: SCOPE AND PURPOSE This document specifies the general requirements for the design and testing of an Emergency Generator Package. Its purpose is for the specification of a reliable fit-forpurpose Emergency Generator Package at optimum cost.

International

AMENDMENTS Amd Date Page(s) Description ___________________________________________________________________

CUSTODIAN (See Quarterly Status List for Contact)

Electrical
Issued by:-

Engineering Practices Group, BP International Limited, Research & Engineering Centre Chertsey Road, Sunbury-on-Thames, Middlesex, TW16 7LN, UNITED KINGDOM Tel: +44 1932 76 4067 Fax: +44 1932 76 4077 Telex: 296041

CONTENTS Section Page FOREWORD ............................................................................................................... iii 1. INTRODUCTION................................................................................................... 1 1.1 Scope ................................................................................................................ 1 1.2 Quality Assurance................................................................................................ 1 2. GENERAL REQUIREMENTS .............................................................................. 1 3. DIESEL ENGINES ................................................................................................. 4 3.1 Performance ........................................................................................................ 4 3.2 Starting Systems .................................................................................................. 4 3.3 Cooling System ................................................................................................... 7 3.4 Fuel System ......................................................................................................... 8 3.5 Exhaust System ................................................................................................... 9 3.6 Air Intake System .............................................................................................. 10 3.7 Lubrication System ............................................................................................ 10 3.8 Couplings .......................................................................................................... 10 3.9 Torsional Vibration and Critical Speed............................................................... 11 3.10 Speed Control................................................................................................. 11 4. GENERATOR....................................................................................................... 12 4.1 General.............................................................................................................. 12 4.2 Special Design Requirements for Electrical Rotating Machines .......................... 12 5. EXCITATION SYSTEM ...................................................................................... 14 6. NOISE.................................................................................................................... 16 6.1 Limits .............................................................................................................. 16 6.2 Measurement and Testing Procedures ................................................................ 16 6.3 Noise Reduction ................................................................................................ 17 7. CONTROL AND INSTRUMENTATION ........................................................... 17 7.1 General.............................................................................................................. 17 7.2 Starting, Stopping and Synchronising................................................................. 18 7.3 Local Controls................................................................................................... 18 7.4 Indication and Alarms ........................................................................................ 19 8. PAINTING ............................................................................................................ 19 9. TESTING AND INSPECTION ............................................................................ 19 10. PACKAGING........................................................................................................ 22 10.1 Enclosures ...................................................................................................... 22 10.2 Ventilation...................................................................................................... 22 11. DOCUMENTATION ............................................................................................ 22

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APPENDIX A.............................................................................................................. 24 DEFINITIONS AND ABBREVIATIONS .............................................................. 24 APPENDIX B.............................................................................................................. 25 LIST OF REFERENCED DOCUMENTS............................................................... 25

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FOREWORD Introduction to BP Group Recommended Practices and Specifications for Engineering The Introductory Volume contains a series of documents that provide an introduction to the BP Group Recommended Practices and Specifications for Engineering (RPSEs). In particular, the 'General Foreword' sets out the philosophy of the RPSEs. Other documents in the Introductory Volume provide general guidance on using the RPSEs and background information to Engineering Standards in BP. There are also recommendations for specific definitions and requirements. Value of this Guidance for Specification This Guidance for Specification was developed under the BP Exploration XEU Simple Specification Initiative. This initiative is intended to simplify the purchasing requirements through a minimum conditions of satisfaction approach in regions where there is a mature supplier source. Application This Guidance for Specification is intended to guide the purchaser in the use or creation of a fit-for-purpose specification for enquiry or purchasing activity. Text in italics is Commentary. Commentary provides background information which supports the requirements of the Specification, and may discuss alternative options. This document may refer to certain local, national or international regulations but the responsibility to ensure compliance with legislation and any other statutory requirements lies with the user. The user should adapt or supplement this document to ensure compliance for the specific application. Specification Ready for Application A Specification (BP Spec 160-1) is available which may be suitable for enquiry or purchasing without modification. It is derived from this BP Group Guidance for Specification by retaining the technical body unaltered but omitting all commentary, omitting the data page and inserting a modified Foreword.

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Feedback and Further Information Users are invited to feed back any comments and to detail experiences in the application of BP RPSE's, to assist in the process of their continuous improvement. For feedback and further information, please contact Standards Group, BP International or the Custodian. See Quarterly Status List for contacts.

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1.

INTRODUCTION 1.1 1.1.1 Scope This document specifies the requirements for emergency generator packages comprising generator, diesel engine driver, coupling, starting system, control system and, if required enclosure. It is intended, primarily, for use on hydro-carbon production, processing and exporting facilities offshore.
This specification is intended for use in conjunction with a functional specification and associated Data Sheets and drawings which give specific Project requirements.

1.1.2

The requirements detailed within this document are applicable irrespective of the final location. Details which are site specific, e.g. generator size, environmental data, are provided by the purchaser.
Quality Assurance Verification of the vendor's quality system is normally part of the pre-qualification procedure, and is therefore not specified in the core text of this specification. If this is not the case, clauses should be inserted to require the vendor to operate and be prepared to demonstrate the quality system to the purchaser. The quality system should ensure that the technical and QA requirements specified in the enquiry and purchase documents are applied to all materials, equipment and services provided by sub-contractors and to any free issue materials. Further suggestions may be found in the BP Group RPSEs Introductory Volume.

1.2

2.

GENERAL REQUIREMENTS 2.1 The overall design should recognise that the generator package will be required to operate on an intermittent basis and may, in addition to being an emergency generator, be required to act as a 'black start' generator. The package shall therefore be able to start and operate independent of external supplies. For installation start-up and routine testing the package will be required to operate in parallel with other electrical supplies. The generator and driver will be located within a non-hazardous area within a fully walled and roofed room or enclosure. The enclosure, if included as part of this package may be located in an exposed location as indicated in the Data Sheets.
The consequence of this will be that hand priming should be available on any air or hydraulic start system and that there should be a synchronising system supplied in order to facilitate parallel operation. Where parallel operation with other diesel sets may be considered the effect of cyclic torque and vibration should be considered.

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2.2

In case of conflict between this document and inquiry or requisition, the order of precedence shall be:(a) (b) (c) (d) Local Authority or Statutory Regulations The Equipment Requisition and Data Sheets This Document Other Industry and National Standards and Specifications.

2.3

The vendor shall co-ordinate the design, and ensure the satisfactory functioning of the complete package, i.e. generator, driver, controls and other ancillaries. In cases where the vendor supplies equipment that he has not manufactured, the vendor shall ensure that the designs of these are compatible with each other and with his own equipment The satisfactory functioning of the complete package shall form part of the vendor's guarantee.
A high degree of standardisation of components used as part of the package is to be desired. It is desirable that the package should use standard components common to other components associated with the overall plant but this degree of standardisation should not be forced to the detriment of cost and later ease of maintenance.

2.4

High priority shall be given to the design, package construction and installation to ensure simple and reliable starting of generator driver unit and ease of access and maintenance.
In particular consideration should be given to alignments should this be required during subsequent maintenance of the emergency generator.

2.5

For floating installations, equipment shall be capable of operating at a sustained maximum inclination as shown on the General Information Data Sheets.
The requirements for the equipment to operate at inclined angles are given in the Recommendations for the Electrical and Electronic Equipment of Mobile and Fixed Offshore Installations, published by the IEE.

2.6

Unless identified in the Data Sheets all equipment shall be mounted on a single skid frame. The skid frame shall be provided with lifting lugs to enable the package to be moved by the use of an overhead crane.
The use of a single skid installation is preferred. However in special circumstances arising through the detailed design considerations, it may be economic to divide the installation into packages. An example of this is remote mounting of radiators.

2.7

When indicated in the Data Sheets the vendor shall include, within his scope of supply, all necessary spreader beams, slings, shackles and

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lifting gear, etc. to enable the package to be handled at the job site and all necessary special tools to enable maintenance to be carried out.
Where the Emergency Generator offloading and all subsequent handling will be other than by the manufacturer, as will normally be the case where an overseas installation is to be carried out, it is to be advised that there should be easy and readily accessible lifting arrangements without reliance upon riggers (perhaps) not familiar with the handling of this type of equipment.

2.8

The vendor shall declare at the tender stage a descriptive list of the materials comprising the emergency generator package.
Where considered necessary the combustion nature of the materials may be respecified, e.g. the cable bedding and sheathing could be required to be Flame Retardant or possibly Fire Resistant. Flame retardancy would be required where the amount of cabling associated with the emergency contract were high. Fire resistance would be required only for interconnection of the emergency generator skid to other services where such integrity is particularly required and where the interconnection is part of the emergency generator package. The selection of materials should be considered in relation to the environment. Potential electrochemical corrosion problems should be avoided. In particular the package of equipment should be asbestos free.

2.9

The vendor shall list and define the terminal points of the emergency generator package including any specific requirements contained elsewhere in this document.
The terminal points and arrangements for cable, fuel and cooling water interconnections with the emergency generator package should be defined and should be accepted by the purchaser before the contract is completed. This will enable suitable co-ordination of auxiliary services.

2.10

The emergency generator package shall be provided with at least two main earthing points to which 70 mm2 copper cable or strip will be made. The location of the earth points shall be in an accessible place to enable external connections to be made and subsequently inspected or tested. Any equipment which is part of the main emergency generator skid shall be effectively bonded to the base frame. Any electrical equipment which will be separately mounted from the base frame shall have provided, means for earth bonding to the main frame.
Earth bonding by holding down bolts will be generally acceptable. However particular attention should be made to the arrangements for bonding that equipment which may rest on insulating anti-vibration mountings. For these applications a supplementary earth bond may be necessary, particularly if the item of equipment has an electrical supply.

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3.

DIESEL ENGINES 3.1 3.1.1 Performance The engine continuous nett brake power, fuel and consumption and lubricating oil consumption, and overload power shall be declared at the standard reference conditions in accordance with BS 5514 Part 1 (ISO 3046/1-1981).
Although declared under ISO conditions it is to be recognised that the unit should be capable of the Emergency Duty as required at the Site maximum ambient conditions. This site rating should be a known value regardless of nameplate declared values.

3.1.2

The engine's continuous net brake power at all operating conditions shall be sufficient to enable the generator to produce power as specified in the name plate rating. Any contingencies will be included by the purchaser when deriving the load list upon which the generator size will be based. Starting Systems General Each engine shall be provided with two starting systems. The preferred primary system shall be electric, based on the use of batteries; the secondary system may be either hydraulic or compressed air. Any Project preference for the type of secondary will be identified in the data sheets.
An alternative compressed air system would be normal but no specific preference can confidently be made.

3.2 3.2.1

Initiation of the secondary start system shall be by the manual operation of a single control button or equivalent.
Often, Emergency Generators are auto started. Where the primary start system proves inadequate for the task, a manual start would need to be undertaken. The question of whether manual start, and thus the switchover to standby starting method, should be local to the generator or duplicated at a centrally manned point should be considered and appropriately specified.

3.2.2

Electric Starting Systems Power for successive cranking cycles shall be provided by a battery unit having sufficient capacity, at the site extremes of temperature, to maintain the cranking speed recommended by the engine manufacturer through a 192 second cycle (8 seconds cranking and 8 seconds rest in 12 consecutive cycles). Where auto started, the engine shall attempt 9

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of the possible 12 starts and then show a fail alarm. The remaining three start attempts shall be individually initiated manually.
Where the Emergency Generator is considered sufficiently critical, all 12 automatic start attempts may be specified for the primary starting method leaving the alternative start method as that available to assist subsequent manual starting following intervention.

All batteries shall be of the recombination cell type.


Sealed Lead-acid battery types represent the usual recombination type of battery expected. Pasted plate Lead-acid battery types incorporating recombination catalysts within their stopper systems can offer minimal gassing performance but it is considered that their lifetime expectation (and therefore their reliability) would be low. Tubular Lead-acid plate battery designs with recombination catalysts in their stoppers would be satisfactory and Nickel Cadmium types would represent the highest reliability, performance and expected price.

On offshore installations the starting battery, shall be capable of being isolated by a remotely controlled contactor contained within an EExd enclosure. The contactor shall be used for isolation purposes only. Control of this contactor will be from the installation's Fire and Gas Detection system supplied by others.
It is expected that the battery system provided would be equipped with suitable electrical protection devices, fuses or circuit breakers would be acceptable, and that the battery wiring would be sensibly arranged to eliminate the probability of short circuits.

An independent dedicated constant voltage type charger and charge control system shall be provided. Each charger shall comply with the following:(a) Have a rate of charge consistent with:(i) (ii) (iii) (iv) recharging the respective battery in the minimum time not causing damage to the battery not reducing battery design life restoring full charge to the battery within 24 hours following any style of discharge.

(b)

The charger shall be marked with the ampere-hour rating of the largest capacity battery that it can recharge in compliance with (a) above. An ammeter with an accuracy of 5% of the normal charging rate shall be furnished to indicate the operation of the charger.

(c)

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(d)

Have an electrical supply which is independent of the terminal output of the Emergency Generator.

It is expected that the battery charger will be supplied from the electrical supply switchboard which will receive supply from the Emergency Generator but will be normally live, fed by the power system when the Emergency Generator is off line. NB There should be adequate safety notices arranged on the Emergency Generator charger to show the system is live unless isolated elsewhere. See also section 7.1.7

3.2.3

Hydraulic Starting Systems When hydraulic starting is used the accumulators and other accessories shall be located on the package skid base. The hydraulic starting facility shall comply with the following conditions:(a) The hydraulic cranking device shall operate independently of external power supplies. The overall hydraulic system shall contain at least two accumulators each capable of being isolated from the system and removed for maintenance without depressurising the system. The removal arrangements shall also facilitate in-situ checking of the accumulator pre-charger pressure. For recharging the accumulators, the hydraulic systems should contain one engine driven pump and one manually operated pump. The capacity of the hydraulic cranking system shall provide not less than six cranking cycles at the site minimum ambient temperature Pipework shall be stainless steel.

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e) 3.2.4

Air Starting Systems The air start facility shall normally be by use of an air driver starting motor using compressed air from a storage reservoir. Direct air injection systems may only be considered for larger engines when available as a standard engine feature. The air storage reservoir shall be sized for 48 seconds (6 cranking cycles of 8 seconds each) continuous cranking without recharging.

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The air starting system, including the reservoir, shall either be recharged from high pressure storage bottles, or, via an intensifier, from a separate air supply, provided by the purchaser independent of the generator package. In both cases a hand started diesel engine driven compressor shall be provided as back-up. A by-pass with manual valve or switch shall be provided for supplying compressed air to the engine starter in the event of control circuit failure. 3.3 3.3.1 Cooling System General Either direct air cooling or water cooling of the engine is acceptable providing they are of the manufacturer's standard design. The vendor shall identify the method within the data sheets to be completed as part of the proposal. 3.3.2 Water Based Cooling The cooling system shall be sized for the engine continuous nett brake power as defined in 3.1.2 at the maximum ambient and cooling water temperatures. If specified on the data sheets the system shall also include capacity for cooling the air within the engine/generator enclosure or room and for cooling the engine exhaust: as an alternative the vendor may propose separate systems for each duty.
Under some circumstances it may prove necessary for the exhaust of the engine to be cooled sufficiently to ensure that the temperature is below the ignition point of the hydrocarbon explosion hazard. This may be achieved with the aid of a water bath around the exhaust manifold. See also section 3.5.4

The radiator fan shall be driven from the engine either directly or electrically taking power direct from the generator output terminals or by the use of hydraulic transmission. When the electrical drive option is used the generator rating quoted in the data sheets shall be increased by an amount at least equal to the rating of the fan motor. It shall not be independently powered. The engine shall be provided with thermo-statically controlled jacket water heaters and, if necessary, a circulating pump, to ensure optimum engine starting temperature at the minimum specified ambient temperature.
Where a water circulating pump will be provided and independently powered from the utilities supplies to the emergency generator package, the voltage of the motor should be selected in accordance with the information regarding Utilities contained in the Data Sheets. See also section 7.1.7

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If necessary provision shall be made for the prevention of over heating of the coolant due to local high temperature after shut down. 3.4 3.4.1 Fuel System Each diesel engine shall have a dedicated fuel storage tank. It shall be sized to provide a nett capacity of fuel in accordance with statutory regulations (e.g. for offshore use in UK, 24 hours based on fuel consumption at engine continuous nett rated power).
The statutory requirements for UK offshore installations is contained in the Department of Energy Offshore Installations: Guidance for Design, Construction and Certification, Section 90. For other than offshore applications the fuel storage requirements may be modified or supplemented. However it is to be recognised that Emergency Diesel Generators would generally be expected to have a dedicated "Day Tank" and therefore any additional diesel storage and fuel forwarding system should incorporate the local tank within the overall design.

3.4.2

The fuel tank location will be specified in the data sheets. Under no circumstances shall the tank be located above the hot exhaust ducting or the engine itself.
Where the fuel tank cannot be accommodated as an integral part of the Emergency Generator skid, the location will be arranged according to the available space availability taking into account other plant and services.

Where gravity fed fuel systems are employed a locally operated manual valve shall be installed in the fuel line to the engine at the tank outlet. If the tank is located within the room/enclosure this valve shall also be operable from outside the room/enclosure.
It is a statutory requirement that fuel can be shut off from outside of the room where a fire may be present. For Emergency Generators with base mounted fuel tanks and fuel lift pumps, stopping the pump achieves the objective of shutting off the fuel supply. It is therefore unnecessary to incorporate additional valving and remote shut off on base mounted fuel tanks other than the systems which would represent part of the manufacturers normal provisions.

3.4.3

The tank shall be provided with a manway opening, and connections for filling, swan neck vent, flow, return, drain, overflow and instrumentation, e.g. level gauge and high/low level alarms. A thermo-statically controlled tank heating system shall be provided if ambient conditions could result in the viscosity of the fuel exceeding the maximum recommended by the engine vendor.
It has been noted that fuel (or lube oil) heating systems can cause a hazardous situation should the liquid level fall below the heater (and thermostat) level. Under this condition the heater could be causing the surface temperature of external parts to rise to unacceptably high values and, although the vapour in the interior of the

3.4.4

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tank may be in concentrations above the Higher Explosive Limit, there is always the chance that air can enter the tank and dilute this concentration. Therefore overheating protection or low level cut off should be considered.

3.4.5

The fuel suction filters shall be of the duplex type with replaceable elements and a changeover facility to permit removal and replacement of either element without need for engine shutdown. Filter mesh size shall be specified by the engine supplier.
It is expected that there would be no possibility of there being water within the diesel day tank and therefore coalescing filters would not be required. However should the emergency diesel package include a main fuel tank, consideration of the need for water removal from fuel oil should be given.

3.4.6

Provision shall be made for priming and bleeding the fuel injection system. For unmanned installations high pressure fuel lines between remote fuel pumps and injectors shall be double-skinned, seamless tubing with fuel leak monitoring and alarm. On manned installations the fuel lines may be as above or heavy seamless tubing. Flame resistant flexible hoses shall be provided within the fuel supply and return piping systems between the engine and off skid pipework at the edge of the engine skid. There shall be no shut-off valve in the return line to the tank. Exhaust System The exhaust system shall include silencers, bellows and spark arresters. If two or more generator packages are provided each engine shall have its own exhaust system. The discharge location from the exhaust system will be specified by the purchaser. The extent of the vendor's supply will be identified within the Data Sheets.
For some installations the amount of exhaust pipework can be extensive and it is considered that there could be a demarcation between the material supplied by the Emergency Generator manufacturer and by others.

3.4.7

3.4.8

3.5 3.5.1

3.5.2

3.5.3

Hot exhaust system piping within the confines of the package and constituting a danger to personnel shall be insulated or protected to limit surface temperature to 65C. Where exhaust systems can be exposed to hazardous area conditions, they shall be water cooled to limit surface temperature. The

3.5.4

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temperature and the length of the system requiring cooling will be specified by the purchaser within the Data Sheets.
See also the commentary on section 3.3.2 of this specification. The manufacturer may offer an exhaust cooler which is located close to the engine and which effectively limits the maximum surface temperature of all of the downstream pipework.

3.5.5

The vendor shall propose the materials of construction and submit reasons for his selection.
With information on materials supplied by the vendor, special features which may be inappropriate to specify as part of a standard may be considered, e.g. it may be useful to be aware that the elastomerics used in the construction of the package are Low Smoke, Zero Halogen, Fire Resistant design.

3.6 3.6.1

Air Intake System Dry replaceable filters shall be provided for the combustion air intake. Filter condition gauges shall be provided.
The location of the air intake should be arranged to be in a "safe" area with no possibility of hydrocarbon ingestion.

3.6.2

An automatic shut-off valve actuated by engine overspeed shall be fitted in the air intake manifold. Operation of the valve shall be independent of external power sources and shall be capable of manual operation. Lubrication System Lube oil filters shall be of the replaceable element type, and shall be equipped with relief valves and, if no other lube oil pressure indication is provided, a differential pressure gauge. Filters shall be of duplex type with manual changeover facility. Engines shall be suitable for starting under all conditions without the need for engine pre-lube. Electric sump heaters, if provided, shall have a power density not exceeding 2.3w/cm2.
See also the commentary to section 3.4.4

3.7 3.7.1

3.7.3

3.7.4

3.8 3.8.1

Couplings It shall be possible to remove couplings without the need to move the engine or driven equipment.

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3.8.2

All flexible couplings incorporating a spacer piece shall be of a design in which the spacer piece is positively constrained from flying out in the event of failure of the flexible elements. The maximum coupling torque shall be limited to a maximum of 80% of the coupling rating. Torsional Vibration and Critical Speed The engine vendor shall carry out a 'torsional vibration analysis' of each complete equipment string and shall submit to the Purchaser for review. Each engine, coupling, driven unit system shall be so designed to ensure that the complete installation starts, operates and stops free from torsional vibration and oscillation. The first lateral and torsional critical speeds for the complete train shall be at least 10% above the maximum operating speed. No lateral or torsional critical speed shall lie within the operating speed range of the system. Diesel engine RMS velocity of vibration shall not exceed 11.2 mm/s at any operating condition. Speed Control Under normal steady state operating conditions the governor shall maintain the frequency of the generators electrical output within 1% of the value identified in the Data Sheets for all loading conditions. A full load rejection shall be possible without causing an overspeed trip.
BS 5514 Part 4 provides the anticipated requirements for speed governing. The requirements here are built around Accuracy class A1 according to that standard. Speed droop will be necessary whenever the Emergency Generator is required to operate in parallel with the power system (for testing and re-instatement purposes). Under these conditions the speed droop should be set at 4%. A mechanically initiated overspeed protection system is expected for engine protection. Additionally an electronic overspeed protection controller should be contemplated. The settings of the devices should be arranged with at least 5% speed between their initiation.

3.8.3

3.9 3.9.1

3.9.2

3.9.3

3.10 3.10.1

3.10.2

When starting the largest size motor identified in the Data Sheets the generators output frequency shall not dip by more than 5%. This requirement shall be based upon the assumption that the motor shall be started with the generator fully loaded except for the motor under start.
A calculation is implied in arriving at this performance. A standard value of 10% speed variation for a step load of 100% would be common for naturally aspirated engines with the step load equating to this speed variation being a function of

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turbocharger performance for those engines provided with turbochargers. It is recommended that specific reference to this requirement is made to Emergency Diesel manufacturer in order to resolve this performance issue. An electrical motor direct on line start would present the engine with up to 250% of its rated demand at one point of its starting transient. The 5% speed variation is based on notional electrical power system expectation and may be relaxed to 10% if electrical loads supplied by the particular Emergency Generator can accept such frequency deviations.

4.

GENERATOR 4.1 4.1.1 General Rotating machines shall comply with IEC 34, Parts 1 to 11 inclusive. All machines shall be of continuous running duty S1 and continuous maximum rating.
Previously, BP practice has required that all machines have Class F insulation with a design temperature rise limited to class B. This specification of lower than allowable temperature rises is based upon years of BP practice. The approach is that a premium payment is accepted for rotating machines in the interests of reliability and insulation life. The case for this expenditure is questionable and any installation is at liberty to relax the limit for Class B temperature rise and allow the additional 20 to 25C which Class F insulations allow. However it is possible that long term operational costs could increase.

4.1.2 4.1.3 4.1.4

The degree of protection of the machines shall be IP 54. Rotating machines shall comply with IEC 72 and IEC 72A. AC generators driven by reciprocating internal combustion engines shall comply with BS 5000 Part 3. Special Design Requirements for Electrical Rotating Machines Cooling Air cooling is the preferred cooling method. If water cooling is used the water system shall be included as part of the package: cooling water supplies shall not be derived from outside the package except in the case of an off skid located radiator. Wherever the generator employs a closed circuit cooling system using heat exchangers, then the latter shall include temperature detectors in the air flow ducting to and from the generator with appropriate contacts for alarm annunciators.

4.2 4.2.1

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4.2.2

Built-in Temperature Detection Machines shall include built-in thermal protection in accordance with IEC 34-11. Two levels of detection, alarm and trip, shall be included. The alarm and trip setting differential should be such that adequate time is available for the plant operator to shed load in the event of slow overload. Trip settings, slow and rapid, should be as high as is practicable under all operating conditions.
In order for the operator to be able to manually shed electrical load from the Emergency Generator, special provision for the control of circuit switching contactors will be required from a manned point in order that important loads are not inadvertently lost.

4.2.3

Main Terminals Terminal boxes shall be of the air insulated pattern in which the protection of phase conductors against electrical failure is by adequately spaced bare conductors with appropriate insulated supports
BS 4999 Part 145 details requirements for the terminations. Similar standards of other nationalities would be equally acceptable provided the arrangements for cable termination meet the needs of the project.

Generators including the terminal box, windings, and cable terminations shall be suitable for operation at the fault level given in the Data Sheet when protected by the means also specified in the Data Sheet.
Where prolonged parallel operation with an external power system is likely the fault level will include the contribution from the power system. Where the Emergency generator will be effectively the sole power source, the fault level would be that imposed by the emergency generator only.

Means shall be provided for electrically isolating individual windings from each other and from the main incoming cables without involving major dismantling of the machine or risking damage to the windings or cables. Where specified in the Date Sheets, space shall be provided for the installation, at the manufacturers works, of current transformers to be supplied by the purchaser.
Any electrical protection arrangements for the generator would normally be placed under the responsibility of the output switchgear manufacturer. This may include supply of Current Transformers for differential duty or for back up duty where mounting in the generator earth or neutral star point would prove advantageous.

4.2.4

Bearings and Lubrication

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For emergency generator applications self lubricated bearings are preferred. On both oil and grease lubricated bearings it shall be possible to relubricate in safety without stopping the machine. A minimum relubrication interval for grease lubricated bearings of 4,000 hours is required irrespective of actual running hours. Where oil lubricated bearings are used level indications or a device for indicating oil flow to each bearing shall be provided. Where hydrodynamic radial bearings are fitted they shall be provided as a minimum with local dial type thermometers to read oil bath temperatures. Machines without thrust or location bearings shall be stated as such in the initial proposal and on the manufacturer's drawing. The machine shall be coupled to the driver by a limited end float coupling. The machine rating plate shall be marked 'limited end float' (LEF). The correct running position of the rotor shall be permanently marked together with the limits of permissible movement. It shall be possible to observe the rotor position at all times relative to the above marks. (See also section 3.8.) All bearings shall be fully insulated from the machine carcass and/or bedplate to prevent a flow of shaft current unless type tests demonstrate that the shaft voltage measured at any load across the ends of the shaft is less that 150 mV rms. The insulation method shall be permanent and non-deteriorating. This shall include any connections to the bearing housing. Machines shall be tested with their service bearings fitted. If transit bearings or other devices are employed for transport purposes, clear labels stating this shall be affixed to the machine. 4.2.5 The critical speeds of the rotor shall not be within 20% of any speed in the operating range nor within 20% of two times operating speed range.

5.

EXCITATION SYSTEM An Automatic Voltage Regulator (AVR) shall be provided which shall include the following features:(a) A trip to manual excitation upon failure of the AVR.

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(b)

Means of adjusting the set point of the main generator output voltage over a range of plus or minus 10% of nominal voltage rating at full load.

The AVR shall be of electronic design accommodating protection against over voltage. The Generator shall be provided with a manual control to the excitation system as standby to the AVR. The manual control set point shall automatically follow the AVR in order that a stepless changeover will occur should the AVR fail.
It is often the case that failure of the AVR will be signified by an overvoltage demand which would make the AVR operate out of tolerance. If under this condition the manual follower would also track the AVR into the unacceptable operating region this would represent an undesirable situation and should be prevented.

The emergency generating set shall be suitable for operation on its own or in parallel with other supplies as detailed in the Data Sheets.
Periodically the Emergency Generator will need to be tested. A test start will partially check the operation but often it is necessary to operate the engine under load periodically in order to be assured of its ability to sustain load. This can be achieved by arranging for parallel operation. In the event that the Emergency Generator is required to undertake its duty following a power system shutdown, the re-instatement of supplies will need to be considered. Should a break-before-make transfer of the Emergency Generator switchboard not be desirable then synchronising arrangements would provide a convenient stepless way of reinstating the supplies.

The generating set shall be capable of starting (DOL) motors of up to the size quoted on the Data Sheet under the worst operating conditions without allowing the voltage to dip below 80%. This condition shall assume the generator is already fully loaded except for the motor under start.
The matching of induction motor starting and Emergency Generator rating may prove to be the subject of integrated design of both components. It is clearly possible to specify induction motors having particular starting performances should this prove to be a more economic overall arrangement.

The temperature stability of the voltage regulation shall be better than 0.5% for temperature between the maximum and minimum ambient. The steady state voltage regulation shall be within 2.5% of the set point between no-load and full load and for all speed droop variations. The excitation system and overall generator design shall allow 100% voltage to be generated at 80% speed.

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This arrangement would allow the AVR to be in service during an auto start and for the voltage to reach operational level as quickly as possible. Load application to the accelerating Generator would be possible and the automatic application of load should take this into account.

The regulation capability of the ac generation and AVR system under transient conditions shall be arranged such that following any transient disturbance, voltage shall be restored to within 2.5% within 10 seconds and voltage will be restored to within 97% of nominal within 1 second.
The expectation would be that the system would have a voltage regulation grade VR2.22 according to BS 4999 Part 140. However should an overvoltage of 20% voltage not be tolerable following load rejection, the voltage regulation grade should be re-specified as VR2.32

6.

NOISE 6.1 6.1.1 Limits In the absence of any stated noise limits the maximum noise level at or beyond 1m from the machine surface shall not exceed 110 dB(A) when operating as a generator package at rated voltage, rated speed and off load.
The noise requirement of any specific Emergency Generator will depend upon the particular circumstance. Unsilenced engines are typically 110 dBA at 1m for a 1250 kVA unit. It is possible to additionally specify noise reduction enclosures to achieve up to 30 dBA noise reduction which would be appropriate for residential area exposure.

6.2 6.2.1

Measurement and Testing Procedures The manufacturer shall provide details of the noise emission from his equipment in octave bands. He shall also provide details of any narrow band noise emitted by his equipment that is noticeable to the ear, together with the octave band or bands in which it occurs. Noise measurements and calculations shall be carried out in accordance with a nationally recognised standard for noise measurement. The manufacturer shall provide full details of the test procedure for approval.
EEMUA publication 140 or BS 4999 Part 109 represent standards which are acceptable for noise measurement.

6.2.2

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6.3 6.3.1

Noise Reduction Where any noise-limiting requirements of this Standard cannot be met without the provision of noise-reducing features, the levels with and without these features shall be stated in any proposal. Such features shall not compromise, in any way, the correct operation of the machine, or any other requirements of this Standard and will only be accepted when there is no alternative form of noise control. Noise-reducing features if provided shall be subject to approval by the purchaser.

6.3.2

7.

CONTROL AND INSTRUMENTATION 7.1 7.1.1 General The control and instrumentation equipment provided as part of this package shall comply within the requirements of BP Group GS 130-2, Electrical and Instrumentation Requirements for Rotating Machinery. The package shall be provided with its own unit control equipment logic system and alarm annunciation necessary for the protection and operation of the complete set as an integral part of the package. Facilities shall be provided to repeat information and alarms to a remote control room. Each alarm signal shall be wired to output terminals in the unit control panel for connection by others. A common remote alarm facility shall also be arranged. The unit control panel and equipment shall be installed in a front access cubicle. The control panel shall have an IP 54 enclosure and be suitably protected against a saline atmosphere. The unit control panel shall be mounted either on or off the equipment skid as indicated on the data sheets. If the panel is mounted on the skid it shall be protected from vibration by means of suitable anti-vibration mountings, and connections between it and the remainder of the package shall be by the vendor. If the panel is mounted remotely from the skid all cables etc., shall be routed to a junction base located on the skid and the panel shall have a matching junction box. Connections between the junction boxes will be undertaken by the purchaser. All shutdowns, except overspeed, shall be via fuel cut-off. Overspeed shutdown shall be by both fuel shut off and air intake closure.

7.1.2

7.1.3

7.1.4

7.1.5

7.1.6

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7.1.7

Electrical power for battery charging etc., shall be derived from a single supply to the package provided by the purchaser. Starting, Stopping and Synchronising The package control system shall be fitted with a Local/Remote (L/R) control switch and a Manual/Auto Standby/Off (M/A/O) control switch. Both switches shall be mounted on the package unit control panel. Local start and stop shall be by push buttons on the unit control panel. The local stop signals shall be operative in both the Local and Remote modes of control. Terminals shall be provided for multiple remote start and stop signals. With the L/R switch in the 'Remote' position, remote control shall only be effective with the remotely located M/A/O switch in the 'Auto' position. Under these circumstances the remote control shall enable a manual override start, if the auto-start has failed. A manual stop shall also be provided at the remote control point. The auto start shall be initiated by a maintained close to start contact. In the 'Manual' or 'Auto Standby' modes the generator shall automatically run up to the selected speed upon start initiation. The closure of the generator circuit breaker (supplied by the Purchaser) will be controlled by the Purchaser. Facilities shall be provided for remote emergency shutdown of the set from the Emergency Shutdown Systems (supplied by others). Local Controls The following controls shall be provided on the unit control panel:(a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) (i) Speed - raise/lower Voltage - raise/lower Emergency Stop Start/stop - push buttons Selection of starting method Jacket water heater switch Excitation selector (Manual/Automatic) Local/remote control switch Start selector - Manual/Auto-Standby/Off

7.2 7.2.1

7.2.2

7.2.3

7.2.4

7.2.5

7.3 7.3.1

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7.4

Indication and Alarms As part of the bid the vendor shall identify all recommended local indicators, control panel indications, control panel alarms and automatic shutdowns that he considers necessary to monitor the performance of the package and to provide adequate protection of the equipment. Instruments shall comply with IEC 51. All abnormal conditions which would ultimately lead to a shut down shall have warning pre alarms. Where possible the interval between set points shall be sufficient for corrective action to be taken. In the event of an equipment trip a 'first out' facility shall be provided to identify the original fault. Repeat 'volt free' contacts shall be provided for remote indication of each alarm and shutdown condition, wired to panel outgoing terminals. Facilities shall be provided to permit remote acceptance of alarms. If identified in the data sheets, additional remote signals shall be provided if these involved the use of analogue signals then 4-20 mA transducers shall be used. In the event of an automatic shutdown due to low engine lube oil pressure, overspeed or high jacket water temperature attempts to restart shall be automatically inhibited until the trip has been locally reset.

8.

PAINTING The Painting system shall be either in accordance with BP Group GS 106-5 or the manufacturer's standard providing it gives the same or better degree of protection. The vendor shall include within his bid details of the painting system he proposes to use.

9.

TESTING AND INSPECTION As part of his proposal the vendor shall include details of the inspection and testing he proposes to undertake in order to ensure that the equipment meets the requirements. These details will be reviewed as part of the bid review process and may be extended by the purchaser. As a minimum the testing should include:(a) Diesel Engine

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(i)

The diesel engine shall be tested against a water brake, to demonstrate full load power and 10% overload capability. The diesel engine shall be tested in accordance with BS 5514 Part 2. The test measurements to be carried out shall be in accordance with Tables 1 and 2 of BS 5514 Part 2, unless otherwise agreed in writing by the Purchaser. The functional checks to be carried out shall be a minimum of checks C1 through C5, C7 and C9 as specified by BS 5514 Part 2. The operation of the overspeed protection system shall be demonstrated mechanically or hydraulically without the use of electrical power. (See also 3.6.2.) All testing shall be carried out using the contract heat exchangers, filters, governor and overspeed device. Oil of identical characteristics of the contract oil shall be used. All testing shall be carried out in accordance with written procedures approved by the Purchaser. The test procedures shall detail as a minimum the scope, duration and acceptance criteria of all test measurements to be taken, and shall include the following data:declaration of power, fuel consumption, lubricating oil consumption and 'Information to be supplied by the engine manufacturer' as detailed in BS 5514 Part 1, Item 13 outline technical documentation concerning the engine and type a clear statement of engine group number as detailed in Table 1 of BS 5514 Part 2.

(ii)

(iii)

(iv)

(v)

(vi)

Note: The vendor's standard data sheets compiled for BS 5514 purposes are the preferred format for the above data (b) Generator

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The generator shall be tested in accordance with BS 4999 (Part 143). In addition to those tests specified in BS 4999, the following shall also be carried out:generator over-speed test as required by IEC 34-1 insulation testing of bearing pedestal/housings (With lube oil piping connected.) response testing of the AVR to sudden shedding of the load specified by the chosen grade in Table 1 of BS 4999 Part 140.

(c)

Engine/Generator Combination Test Tests shall be carried out on the assembled generator package unit using all contract equipment. The vendor shall submit a procedure for review and approval by the Purchaser. Load tests shall be carried out against resistive and reactive load banks as follows:(i) Eight-hour run at full load current at 0.8 power factor recording; (ii) engine parameters as identified above, vibration of engine, fan and generator, alternator voltage, current and power factor, exciter field volts and current, noise levels.

Rejection of full load current at 0.8 power factor. Recording voltage, frequency and load current on pen recorder or other form of trace.

Generator control tests shall be carried out on an unloaded generator as follows:(d) demonstration of all generator trips and alarms, demonstration of electric start capability.

Package Tests Tests shall be carried out to verify the functioning of all equipment and cabling within the package enclosure. The Vendor shall submit a procedure for review and approval by the purchaser.

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10.

PACKAGING 10.1 10.1.1 Enclosures The need for an enclosure shall be specified by the purchaser. If required, the enclosure shall be designed as an integral part of the package.
Outdoor installations would normally be expected to be supplied with an enclosure in order to be weatherproof. Indoor locations may be specified without enclosures and may involve separate mounting of the cooler radiator, master fuel tank and exhaust system.

10.1.2

For offshore installation the enclosure walls shall have a minimum fire rating of A 60 and shall comply with local regulations. The enclosure shall be designed to allow adequate access for routine maintenance and operation and shall be equipped with as a minimum lighting, lighting points, overhead lifting beams and drainage. Any other requirements shall be detailed in the Data Sheets. Ventilation Where diesel engine powered emergency generator packages have an integral enclosure, a ventilation system shall be provided to maintain the temperature of the enclosure at an acceptable level during operation. The ventilation fan shall be driven off the engine either directly or by the use of hydraulic transmission. Alternatively, an electric motor drive may be used with power derived direct from the generator via a local starter. Where 'unenclosed' diesel engine powered emergency generators are installed in dedicated rooms any requirement for connections (e.g. power and control) to ventilation systems will be specified by the purchaser in the Data Sheets.

10.1.3

10.2 10.2.1

10.2.2

11.

DOCUMENTATION 11.1 All documentation should clearly identify the purchase order and item number. For all machines the following documents shall be submitted and the number of copies required for approval and for final issues shall be as indicated on the purchaser order. (a) General arrangement drawings showing main dimensions, weights, arrangement of components, package terminal points

11.2

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and the minimum space for the erection and future maintenance of the generator and its ancillaries. (b) Foundation plan showing location and details of foundation bolts and static dynamic foundation loadings. Electrical schematic, wiring and interconnection diagrams. Comprehensive data sheets for all major items, including completed data sheets included in the enquiry/purchase order. A description of the excitation system (including AVR operation) together with all necessary diagrams. Installation, operation and maintenance instructions for all equipment included in the purchase order. Open circuit and short circuit curves. Power (active and reactive) charts which indicate the limits of operation of the generator set for the following:(i) Power Factor at any load. Excitation maximum and minimum. Stability limits.

(c) (d)

(e)

(f)

(g) (h)

Recommended list of commissioning spares and spares for two year operation. Recommended list of spares for five year operation. Test reports and test certificates. Utility usages including fuel consumption at generator rated output.

(j) (k)

11.3

As part of the bid, the vendor shall include the information requested in (a), (b), (d), (i) and (k) above.

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APPENDIX A DEFINITIONS AND ABBREVIATIONS Definitions Standardised definitions may be found in the BP Group RPSEs Introductory Volume. Abbreviations AVR BS DOL EEMUA IEC ISO LEF RMS Automatic Voltage Regulator British Standard Direct on Line (starting of machines) Engineering Equipment and Materials Users Association. International Electrotechnical Commission International Standards Organisation Limited End Float Root Mean Square

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APPENDIX B LIST OF REFERENCED DOCUMENTS A reference invokes the latest published issue or amendment unless stated otherwise. Referenced standards may be replaced by equivalent standards that are internationally or otherwise recognised provided that it can be shown to the satisfaction of the purchaser's professional engineer that they meet or exceed the requirements of the referenced standards. BS 4999 General Requirements for Rotating Electrical Machines Part 109 - Specification for Noise Levels including Test Methods Part 140 - Specification for Voltage Regulation and Parallel Operation of a.c. Synchronous Generators Part 143 - Specification for Tests BS 5000 Part 3 - Generators to be Driven by Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines: Performance Part 1 - Specification for Standard Reference Conditions and Declarations of Power, Fuel Consumption and Lubricating Oil Consumption Part 2 - Test Methods IEC 34 Rotating Electrical Machines IEC 51 Direct Acting Indicating Analogue Electrical Measuring Instruments and their Accessories Dimensions and Output Ratings for Rotating Electrical Machines Class 0.5, 1 and 2 Alternating Current Watt Hour Meters Electrical and Instrumentation Requirements for Rotating Machinery

BS 5514 (= ISO 3046/1)

IEC 72&72a

IEC 521 BP Group GS 130-2 (replaces BP Std 128) BP Group GS 106-5 EEMUA Publication 140

Painting of Offshore Packages Noise Procedure Specification

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