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Objective 1 Development psychologists: study physical, cognitive and social changes throughout the human life cycle Research

ch centers around 3 different issues: 1. Nature/nuture 2. Continuity/stages 3. Stability/change Objective 2- Conception Process of reproduction: 1. womans ovaries produce egg 2. sperm deposited towards intercourse (race towards egg) *woman were born with immature eggs (only 1 of 5000 will mature and be released) *man, only BEGIN producing sperm during puberty (manufacturing process-24 hrs/day-rest of life) -sperm approaches cell (egg)- 85,000 times their size *few that get to egg-releases digestive enzyme (eats away eggs protective coating)-allows sperm to penetrate *second sperm gets in, eggs surface blocks out other sperms, fingerlike projections sprout around successful sperm, pulling it in. egg and sperm nucleus fuse. Objective 3- Prenatal Development Zygotes- fertilized eggs (fewer than half survive the first 2 weeks) (conception to 2 weeks) Survive-separate (2 to 2, 2 to 4 etc.)-after 1st week (around 100 cells) cells begin to differentiate (different functions/structures) -10 days after conception, cells attach to mothers uterine wall (37 weeks in there) Outer zygote-forms placenta, inner cells-embryo (developing human organism through about 2 weeks after fertilization through the second month) (2-8 weeks) Fetus (9 weeks after conception)-now looks human (9 weeks-birth) 6th month- organs (ex: stomach) are formed-allows for chance of survival , now also responsive to sound (*****babys prefer mothers voice than anyone else*****) Each stage genetic AND environmental factors affect development Placenta transfers nutrients/oxygen to babies but placental screen can admit teratogens (harmful agents such as certain viruses and drugs: ex. Mother who is heroin addict or has AIDS, baby can be born addict or with AIDS) Fetus alcohol syndrome (FAS)- (1 out of 750 babies) marked by misprooportional hear and lifelong brain abnormalities-leading cause of mental retardation Womans mental state when pregnant-affects fetus

Objective 4- The Competent Newborn

Rooting reflex-coordinated sequence of reflexed (ex: something touches cheek, turn towards touch, open mouth and root for a nipple will then suck or cry if unsatisfied)

Objective 17 Psychologist believe childhood set traits: now, development=lifelong. Adolescence-life between childhood/adulthood (starts with physical beginning of sexual maturity and ends with social achievement of independent adult status) G. Stanley Hall-tension between biological maturity/ social dependence-created period of storm and stress (ex: after age 30-many who grew up in independence fostering western college look back-teenage life-dont want to relive it) Embarrassment=adolescent mood Adolescence-time of vitality without cares of adulthood, a time of rewarding friendships, of heightened idealism and a growing snese of lifes exciting possibilities

Objective 18- physical development Adolescence-begins with puberty (time when one is maturing sexually) follows a surge of hormones-(intensifies mood and triggers 2 year rapid physical development) primary sex characteristics (reproductive organs and external genitalia) develops as well as the secondary sex characteristics (ex: pubic hair, breasts, deepened voice-boys) -girls=puberty starts with breast development (10) and menstrual cycle (12), guys-first ejaculation (by age 14) Menarche-(1st menstrual period) seemed as memorable event, positive transition to those who were prepared Spermache-1st ejaculation-nocturnal emission Sequence of physical changes more predictable than their timing(different ages-no effect on height but may have psychological consequences) Early developing boys-more strength, more athletic-more popular, self-assured, independent etc.-more at risk for alcohol use/premature sexual activity Girls-maturation=tricky, body has to be in sync with emotional maturity and friends physical development/experiences-how others react to physical development that counts Adolescent brains-selective pruning of unused neurons and connections-basically what we dont use, we lose.

Frontal lobe development-(during adolescence) growth of myelin (speeds neurotransmission)frontal lobe maturation lags the emotional limbic system. Limbic system +pubertal hormonal stage-explains teens; occasional impulsiveness risky decisions, emotional storms -with frontal lobe maturation-improved judgment, impulse control and ability to plan long term -students-select immediate reward-limbic reward system activate, bigger reward-frontal lobe area more strongly activate

Cognitive Development -cognitive abilities mature-adolescents think about what is ideally possible and criticize their society/parent/and their own shortcoming.

Objective 19-Developing Reasoning Power Early teen years-reasoning=self-focused,-gradually achieve intellectual summit called formal operations (Piaget)-adolescents-capable of abstract logic (if this then that) Ability to reason hypothetically ad deduce consequences enables them to detest inconsistencies in others reasoning and to spot hypocrisy

Objective 20-developing mortality -crucial-discerning right from wrong and developing character-muscles for controlling impulses -moral thinking-think morally and act accordingly (piaget though moral judgments-based on cognitive development) -Lawrence Kohlberge (described) moral reasoning-thinking that occurs as we consider right or wrong (posed moral dilemmas, asked people and analyzed data for evidence of stages) 3 basic stages of basic moral thinking: A. Preconventional mortality: before 9, preconventional mortality of self-interest-obey either to avoid punishment or to gain concrete rewards B. Conventional Mortaliy-early adolescence-level that cares for others and upholds lawas and social rules (because they are laws/rules) C. Postconventional mortality- develop abstract reasoning of formal operational thought, affirms peoples agreed upon rules or follow what one personally believes as basic ethical principles (controversial-appears in European/ n. American educated middle class-prizes individualism) Claimes=moral ladder (bottom to top) as thinking matures, behavior=less selfish/more caring Moral feeling Social intuinionist of mortality- moral feelings precede moral reasoning (support from a study of moral paradoxes ) Moral judgement also depends on gut feeling

Morality-doing the right thing and it also dependdds on social influences Now, education programs teach children empathy for others feelings and self-disciplin needed to restrain ones impulses Service learning-helping others-sense of competence and desire to serve increases Objective 21-Social Development -Erikson each life has own psychosocial task-crisis that needs resolution