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# UNIT-I

MATRICES
A matrix is dened as a rectangular array(or arrangement in rows or columns) of
scalars.
If mn numbers (real or complex) or functions are arranged in the form of a
rectangular array A having m rows and n columns then A is called an mn matrix.
Each of the mn numbers is called an elements of the matrix. An m n matrix is
also called a matrix of order mn.
An mn matrix is usually written as
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
a
11
a
12
a
13
... a
1n
a
21
a
22
a
23
... a
2n
a
31
a
32
a
33
... a
3n
... ... ... ... ...
a
m1
a
m2
a
m3
... a
mn
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
An mn matrix A may be written as
A = [a
ij
]
mn
or A = [a
ij
], where i = 1, 2, 3, ..., m; j = 1, 2, 3, ..., n.
APPLICATION OF MATRICES
In Algebra, the matrices have their largest application in the theory of simulta-
neous equations and linear transformation. e.g., the set of simultaneous equations
a
11
x
1
+ a
12
x
2
+ a
13
x
3
= b
1
a
21
x
1
+ a
22
x
2
+ a
23
x
3
= b
2
a
31
x
1
+ a
32
x
2
+ a
33
x
3
= b
3
may be symbolically represented by the equation
AX = B
1
where A =
_

_
a
11
a
12
a
13
a
21
a
22
a
23
a
31
a
32
a
33
_

_
, X =
_

_
x
1
x
2
x
3
_

_
, B =
_

_
b
1
b
2
b
3
_

_
The theory of matrices has been found of great utility in many branches of higher
mathematics such as algebraic and dierential equations, astronomy, mechanics, the-
ory of electrical circuits, quantum mechanics, nuclear physics and aerodynamics.
1.1 CHARACTERISTIC EQUATION
The characteristic equation is the equation which is solved to nd a matrixs
eigenvalues, also called the characteristic polynomial.
Let A = [a
ij
] be a square matrix of order n. the characteristic equation in
variable , is dened by
|A I| = 0.
The equation |A I| = 0 is called characteristic equation of matrix A.
In a 2 2 case, where:
A =
_
_
a
11
a
12
a
21
a
22
_
_
then:
A I =
_
_
a
11
a
12
a
21
a
22

_
_
so the characteristic equation is:
|A I| = (a
11
)(a
22
) a
21
a
12
= 0
or simply:
|A I| =
2
(a
11
+ a
22
) + (a
11
a
22
a
21
a
12
) = 0.
2
1.2 CHARACTERISTIC POLYNOMIAL
The determinant |A I| when expanded will give a polynomial of degree n
in which is called characteristic polynomial of matrix A.
SOLVED EXAMPLES
Example.1 Find the characteristic equation of the matrix A =
_
_
5 4
1 2
_
_
.
Solution: The characteristic equation of A is
|A I| = 0.

5 4
1 2

= 0.

2
7 + 6 = 0.
Example.2
Find the characteristic polynomial of the matrix A =
_
_
1 2
2 1
_
_
.
Solution: The characteristic polynomil of A is
|A I| =

1 2
2 1

2
2 3.
Exercise:
1. Find the characteristic equation of the matrix A =
_
_
_
_
_
2 2 2
1 1 1
1 3 1
_
_
_
_
_
.
2. Find the characteristic polynomial of the matrix A =
_
_
_
_
_
1 1 1
0 1 0
1 1 1
_
_
_
_
_
.
3
1.3 EIGEN VALUES AND EIGEN VECTORS
The roots
1
,
2
...
n
of the characteristic equation are called eigen values or
characteristic roots. Corresponding to each characteristic root there corresponds
non-zero vector X which satises the equation (AI)X = 0. The non-zero vectors
X are called eigen vectors or characteristic vectors.
If we take the rst eigenvalue
1
then our equation system is
(A
1
I)x = 0
For the 2 2 case, we can write this out in a systems of two equations:
(a
11

1
)x1 + a
12
x
2
= 0
a
21
x
1
+ (a
22

1
)x
2
= 0
Although it might not be obvious, the rst equation is a linear transformation of the
second equation, thus the ratio x
1
/x
2
will be the same regardless of how we solve
it, i.e.
a
12
/(a
11

1
) = x
1
/x
2
= (a
22

1
)/a
21
Once x
1
/x
2
is obtained, the only thing that remains to obtain some levels of x
1
and
x
2
, we have to normalize the system, e.g. we could take x
2
= 1 or impose x
1
+x
2
= 1
or x
2
1
+x
2
2
= 1 as a normalization device. From this we would thus obtain the vector
x = [x
1
x
2
]
T
. This x is the eigenvector associated with the eigenvalue
1
. If we then
took the second eigenvalue
2
, we would also nd another eigenvector x associated
with that by the same means. In an n-dimensional system, we would have n eigen-
values with associated eigenvectors.
4
Example.1
Find the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the matrix A =
_
_
1 1
3 1
_
_
.
Solution: The characteristic equation of A is
|A I| = 0.

1 1
3 1

= 0.

2
4 = 0.
= 2, 2
i.e. The eigenvalues of A are 2, 2.
The eigenvector corresponding to any is given by (A I)X = 0
i.e.

1 1
3 1

_
_
x
1
x
2
_
_
= 0
Case(i) When = 2, the eigenvector is given by the equations
x
1
+ x
2
= 0 and
3x
1
3x
2
= 0, which are one and the same.
Solving, x
1
= x
2
. Taking x
1
= 1 we get x
2
= 1.
The eigenvector is
_
_
1
1
_
_
Case(ii) When = 2, the eigenvector is given by the equations
3x
1
+ x
2
= 0 and
3x
1
+ x
2
= 0, which are one and the same.
Solving, 3x
1
= x
2
. Taking x
1
= 1 we get x
2
= 3.
The eigenvector is
_
_
1
3
_
_
5
Example.2
Find the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the matrix A
_
_
_
_
_
1 1 3
1 5 1
3 1 1
_
_
_
_
_
Solution: The characteristic equation of A is
|A I| = 0.

1 1 3
1 5 1
3 1 1

= 0
The characteristic equation of A is
3
7
2
+ 36 = 0.
The eigenvalues of A are = 2, 3, 6.
Case(i) When = 2,
The eigenvector is given by
_

_
3 1 3
1 7 1
3 1 3
_

_
_

_
x
1
x
2
x
3
_

_
= 0
i.e. x
1
+ 7x
2
+ x
3
= 0
3x
1
+ x
2
+ 3x
3
= 0
Solving these equation by rule of cross-multiplication, we have
x
1
20
=
x
2
0
=
x
3
20
Thus the eigenvector corresponding to = 2 is
X
1
=
_
_
_
_
_
1
0
1
_
_
_
_
_
6
Case(ii) When = 3,
The eigenvector is given by
_

_
2 1 3
1 2 1
3 1 2
_

_
_

_
x
1
x
2
x
3
_

_
= 0
x
1
1
=
x
2
1
=
x
3
1
Thus the eigenvector corresponding to = 3 is
X
2
=
_
_
_
_
_
1
1
1
_
_
_
_
_
Case(iii) When = 6,
The eigenvector is given by
_

_
5 1 3
1 1 1
3 1 5
_

_
_

_
x
1
x
2
x
3
_

_
= 0
x
1
1
=
x
2
2
=
x
3
1
Thus the eigenvector corresponding to = 6 is
X
3
=
_
_
_
_
_
1
2
1
_
_
_
_
_
7
1.4 PROPERTIES OF EIGENVALUES:
1. A square matrix A and its transpose A
T
have the same eigenvalues.
2. The sum of the eigenvalues of a matrix A is equal to the sum of the principal
diagonal elements of A (The sum of the principal diagonal elements is called
the Trace of the matrix).
3. The product of the eigenvalues of a matrix A is equal to |A|.
4. If
1
,
2
, ...
n
are the eigenvalues of a matrix A, then
(i) k
1
, k
2
, ...k
n
are the eigenvalues of the matrix kA, where k is a non-zero
scalar.
(ii)
p
1
,
p
2
, ...
p
n
are the eigenvalues of the matrix A
p
, where p is a positive
integer.
(iii) 1/
1
, 1/
2
, ...1/
n
are the eigenvalues of the inverse matrix A
1
, provided

r
= 0 i.e. A is non-singular.
5. The eigenvalues of a real symmetric matrix are real.
6. The eigenvectors corresponding to distinct eigenvalues of a real symmetric
matrix are orthogonal.
SOLVED EXAMPLES
Example.1 Find the sum and product of the eigenvalues of
_
_
8 4
2 2
_
_
.
Solution:
Sum of the eigenvalues of a matrix A = Sum of the principal diagonal elements of
A.
Sum of the eigenvalues of a matrix A = 8+2=10.
8
The product of the eigenvalues of a matrix A = |A|.
The product of the eigenvalues of a matrix A = 24.
Example.2 The product of two eigenvalues of the matrix
_
_
_
_
_
6 2 2
2 3 1
2 1 3
_
_
_
_
_
is 16.
Find the third eigenvalue.
Solution:
The product of the eigenvalues of a matrix A = |A|.
16
3
=32.

3
=2.
Exercise:
1. Find the eigenvalues of 2A
2
if A =
_
_
4 1
3 2
_
_
without nding A
2
.
2. If 3 and 15 are two eigenvalues of A =
_
_
_
_
_
8 6 2
6 7 4
2 4 3
_
_
_
_
_
. Find the eigenvalues
of A 5I and A
2
.
1.5 CAYLEY-HAMILTON THEOREM:
Statement:
Every square matrix satises its own characteristic equation.
If c
0

n
+ c
1

n1
+ ... + c
n1
+ c
n
= 0 is the characteristic equation of a square
matrix of order n, then
c
0
A
n
+ c
1
A
n1
+ ... + c
n1
A + c
n
I = 0. (1)
Corollary:
(i). If A is non-singular. i.e.A = 0, using this theorem, we can nd A
1
as follows.
Multiply (1) by A
1
,
9
c
0
A
n1
+ c
1
A
n2
+ ... + c
n1
I + c
n
A
1
= 0.
A
1
=
1
c
n
[c
0
A
n1
+ c
1
A
n2
+ ... + c
n1
I].
(ii). The higher positive integral powers of A can be computed by the following way.
Multiply (1) by A,
c
0
A
n+1
+ c
1
A
n
+ ... + c
n1
A
2
+ c
n
A = 0.
A
n+1
=
1
c
0
[c
1
A
n
+ ... + c
n1
A
2
+ c
n
A].
Example:
Verify Cayley-Hamilton theorem for the matrix A =
_
_
_
_
_
1 2 2
1 3 0
0 2 1
_
_
_
_
_
and hence
nd A
1
.
Solution:
The characteristic equation of A is
3
5
2
+ 9 1 = 0.
To verify A
3
5A
2
+ 9A I = 0.
A
2
=A.A; A
2
=
_
_
_
_
_
1 12 4
4 7 2
2 8 1
_
_
_
_
_
A
3
=A
2
.A; A
3
=
_
_
_
_
_
13 42 2
11 9 10
10 22 3
_
_
_
_
_
A
3
5A
2
+ 9A I = 0
=
_
_
_
_
_
13 42 2
11 9 10
10 22 3
_
_
_
_
_
+
_
_
_
_
_
5 60 20
20 35 10
10 40 5
_
_
_
_
_
+
_
_
_
_
_
9 18 18
9 27 0
0 18 9
_
_
_
_
_
+
_
_
_
_
_
1 0 0
0 1 0
0 0 1
_
_
_
_
_
=
_
_
_
_
_
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
_
_
_
_
_
10
To Find A
1
:
A
3
5A
2
+ 9A I = 0
Multiply by A
1
, A
2
5A + 9I A
1
= 0
A
1
= A
2
5A + 9I
A
1
=
_
_
_
_
_
1 12 4
4 7 2
2 8 1
_
_
_
_
_
+
_
_
_
_
_
5 10 10
5 15 0
0 10 5
_
_
_
_
_
+
_
_
_
_
_
9 0 0
0 9 0
0 0 9
_
_
_
_
_
A
1
=
_
_
_
_
_
3 2 6
1 1 2
2 2 5
_
_
_
_
_
.
Exercise:
1. Find A
n
, using Cayley-Hamilton theorem, when A =
_
_
5 3
1 3
_
_
. Hence nd A
4
.
2. Verify Cayley-Hamilton theorem for the matrix A =
_
_
_
_
_
1 0 2
2 2 4
0 0 2
_
_
_
_
_
and hence
nd (i) A
1
and (ii) A
4
.
3. Find the characteristic equation of the A =
_
_
_
_
_
1 0 3
2 1 1
1 1 1
_
_
_
_
_
. Verify that the
matrix satises its own characteristic equation. Also calculate (i) A
1
and (ii) A
4
.
4. Use Cayley-Hamilton theorem, to nd the value of the matrix given by
(A
8
5A
7
+7A
6
3A
5
+A
4
5A
3
+8A
2
2A+I), if the matrix A =
_
_
_
_
_
2 1 1
0 1 0
1 1 2
_
_
_
_
_
.
11
1.6 DIAGONALISATION OF A MATRIX:
Similarity of Matrices:
Let A and B be two square matrices of the same order. Then the matrix B is
said to be similar to the matrix A if there exists a non-singular matrix P such that
B = P
1
AP. The transformation A to P
1
AP is called similarity transformation.
Property:
Two similar matrices have the same eigenvalues.
Proof:
Let A and B be two similar matrices.
Then by denition, B = P
1
AP
B I = P
1
AP I
=P
1
AP P
1
IP
=P
1
(A I)P
|B I| = |P
1
||A I||P|
=|A I||P
1
P|
=|A I||I|
=|A I|
Thus A and B have the same Characteristic polynomials and hence the same char-
acteristic equations.
A and B have the same eigenvalues.
DIAGONALISATION OF A MATRIX BY MEANS OF A SIMILAR-
ITY TRANSFORMATION:
A square matrix A of order n has n linearly independent Eigenvectors, the a
matrix M can be found such that M
1
AM = D, where D is a diagonal matrix, is
12
called diagonalisation of the matrix A. As M
1
AM = D is a similarity transforma-
tion, the matrices A and D are similar and hence A and D have the same eigenvalues.
Denition:
A square matrix A is said to be orthogonal if A.A
T
= A
T
.A = I . Note:
A is said to be orthogonal if A.A
T
= A
T
.A = I. (1)
we know that A.A
1
= A
1
.A = I . (2)
From (1) and (2) if A is orthogonal A
T
= A
1
.
PROPERTIES OF ORTHOGONAL MATRIX:
1. If A is an orthogonal matrix then A
T
and A
1
are also an orthogonal matrix.
2. If A and B are orthogonal, then AB is also orthogonal.
3. A square matrix A is orthogonal if and only if A
1
= A
T
.
DIAGONALISATION OF A MATRIX BY ORTHOGONAL TRANSFOR-
MATION (OR) ORTHOGONAL REDUCTION:
If A is a real symmetric matrix, then the eigen vectors of A are not only Linearly
independent but also pairwise orthogonal.
The Normalized eigenvectors of A is formed by divide each element of the vector X,
by the square-root of the sum of the squares of all the elements of X.
Let N be the Normalized modal matrix whose columns are the normalized eigen vec-
tors of A. Then N ia as orthogonal matrix and by the property N
T
= N
1
.
If A be a real symmetric matrix, then there exists an orthogonal matrix such that
N
T
AN = N
1
AN = D is known as Orthogonal Reduction (or) Orthogonal Transforma-
tion.
Note: Orthogonal transformation is possible only for a real symmetric matrix.
13
Example:
Diagonalize the matrix A
_
_
_
_
_
3 1 1
1 3 1
1 1 3
_
_
_
_
_
by means of an orthogonal transformation.
Solution: The characteristic equation of A is
|AI| = 0.
The characteristic equation of A is
3
9
2
+ 24 16 = 0.
The eigenvalues of A are = 1, 4, 4.
Case(i) When = 1,
The eigenvector X
1
is X
1
=
_
_
_
_
_
1
1
1
_
_
_
_
_
Case(ii) When = 4,
The eigenvector X
2
is X
2
=
_
_
_
_
_
0
1
1
_
_
_
_
_
Let X
3
=
_
_
_
_
_
a
b
c
_
_
_
_
_
be the third eigenvectors which is orthogonal to X
1
and X
2
.
X
3
is orthogonal to X
1
a +b +c = 0
X
3
is orthogonal to X
2
b +c = 0
Solving we get X
3
=
_
_
_
_
_
2
1
1
_
_
_
_
_
Now X
T
1
X
2
= X
T
2
X
3
= X
T
3
X
1
= 0
The Normalized Model matrix is N =
_
_
_
_
_
1

3
0
2

6
1

3
1

2
1

6
1

3
1

2
1

6
_
_
_
_
_
The orthogonal transformation is N
T
AN = D.
14
N
T
AN = D =
_
_
_
_
_
1

3
1

3
1

3
0
1

2
1

2
2

6
1

6
1

6
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
3 1 1
1 3 1
1 1 3
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
1

3
0
2

6
1

3
1

2
1

6
1

3
1

2
1

6
_
_
_
_
_
=
_
_
_
_
_
1 0 0
0 4 0
0 0 4
_
_
_
_
_
= D(1, 4, 4)
.
Exercise:
1. Diagonalize the matrix A
_
_
_
_
_
10 2 5
2 2 3
5 3 5
_
_
_
_
_
by means of an orthogonal transformation.
2. Diagonalize the matrix A
_
_
_
_
_
6 2 2
2 3 1
2 1 3
_
_
_
_
_
by means of an orthogonal transformation.
A homogeneous polynomial of the second degree in any number of variable is called a
For examples:
1. x
2
+y
2
+ 2xy is a Q.F in the variable x and y.
2. x
2
1
+ 2x
2
2
+ 3x
2
3
+ 4x
1
x
2
+x
2
x
3
is a Q.F in the variable x
1
, x
2
, x
3
.
Note 1:
The matrix corresponding to the quadratic form is
_

_
co-e x
2
1
1
2
co-e x
1
x
2
1
2
co-e x
1
x
3
1
2
co-e x
2
x
1
co-e x
2
2
1
2
co-e x
2
x
3
1
2
co-e x
3
x
1
1
2
co-e x
3
x
2
co-e x
2
3
_

_
15
Note 2:
Quadratic form corresponding to the matrix A is X
T
AX where X =
_
_
_
_
_
x
1
x
2
x
3
_
_
_
_
_
CANONICAL FORM OF A QUADRATIC FORM:
Let Q = X
T
AX be a quadratic form in n variables x
1
, x
2
, x
3
, ..., x
n
.
Let X = PY be a linear transformation. where P is a non-singular matrix.
Now,
Q = (PY )
T
A(PY )
= Y
T
(P
T
AP)Y
= Y
T
DY
= [y
1
, y
2
, ..., y
n
]
_

1
0 . . . 0
0
2
0 . . 0
. . . . . .
. . . . . .
. . . . . .
0 . . . 0
n
_

_
_

_
y
1
y
2
.
.
.
y
n
_

_
Q =
1
y
2
1
+
2
y
2
2
+... +
n
y
2
n
.
Which is the Canonical form of the given Quadratic Form.
The number of positive terms in the canonical form is called the index and it is denoted
by s.
16
The dierence of number of positive and negative square terms is called the signature
The Quadratic Form Q = X
T
AX in n variables is said to be
Positive denite, if all the eigenvalues are positive numbers.
Negative denite, if all the eigenvalues are negative numbers.
Positive semi denite, if all the eigenvalues os A 0 and atleast one eigenvalue
is zero.
Negative semi denite, if all the eigenvalues os A 0 and atleast one eigenvalue
is zero.
Indenite in all other cases.
Rules for nding nature of Quadratic form using principal sub-determinants:
In this method we can determine the nature of the quadratic form without reducing
it to the canonical form.
Let A be square matrix of order n.
D
1
= |a
11
|
D
2
=

a
11
a
12
a
21
a
22

D
3
=

a
11
a
12
a
13
a
21
a
22
a
23
a
31
a
32
a
33

.
.
.
D
n
= |A|.
17
Here D
1
, D
2
, D
3
, ..., D
n
are called the principal sub determinants of A.
A Quadratic form is said to be Positive denite, if D
1
, D
2
, D
3
, ..., D
n
are all
positive. (i.e) D
n
> 0 for all n.
A Quadratic form is said to be Negative denite, if D
1
, D
3
, D
5
, ... are all negative
and D
2
, D
4
, D
6
, ... are all positive. (i.e) (1)
n
D
n
> 0 for all n.
A Quadratic form is said to be Positive semi denite, if D
n
0 and atleast one
D
i
= 0.
A Quadratic form is said to be Negative semi denite, if (1)
n
D
n
0 and
atleast one D
i
= 0.
A Quadratic form is said to be Indenite, in all other cases.
Example:
2
1
+ 6x
2
2
+ 2x
2
3
+ 8x
1
x
3
to canonical form by orthogonal
reduction.
Solution: The matrix of quadratic form is
A =
_
_
_
_
_
2 0 4
0 6 0
4 0 2
_
_
_
_
_
The characteristic equation of A is
|AI| = 0.
The characteristic equation of A is
3
10
2
+ 12 + 72 = 0.
The eigenvalues of A are = 2, 6, 6.
Case(i) When = 2,
The eigenvector X
1
is X
1
=
_
_
_
_
_
1
0
1
_
_
_
_
_
18
Case(ii) When = 6,
The eigenvector X
2
is X
2
=
_
_
_
_
_
1
0
1
_
_
_
_
_
Let X
3
=
_
_
_
_
_
a
b
c
_
_
_
_
_
be the third eigenvectors which is orthogonal to X
1
and X
2
.
X
3
is orthogonal to X
1
a c = 0
X
3
is orthogonal to X
2
a +c = 0
Solving we get X
3
=
_
_
_
_
_
0
1
0
_
_
_
_
_
Now X
T
1
X
2
= X
T
2
X
3
= X
T
3
X
1
= 0
The Normalised Model matrix is N =
_
_
_
_
_
1

2
1

2
0
0 0 1
1

2
1

2
0
_
_
_
_
_
The orthogonal transformation is N
T
AN = D.
N
T
AN = D =
_
_
_
_
_
1

2
0
1

2
1

2
0
1

2
0 1 0
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
2 0 4
0 6 0
4 0 2
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
1

2
1

2
0
0 0 1
1

2
1

2
0
_
_
_
_
_
=
_
_
_
_
_
2 0 0
0 6 0
0 0 6
_
_
_
_
_
= D(1, 4, 4)
.
The orthogonal transformation X = NY reduces quadratic form to the canonical form,
which is of the form
Q = Y
T
DY
19
= (y
1
, y
2
, y
3
)
_
_
_
_
_
2 0 0
0 6 0
0 0 6
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
y
1
y
2
y
3
_
_
_
_
_
= 2y
2
1
+ 6y
2
2
+y
2
3
Therefore the Quadratic form is indenite in nature, since canonical form contains
both positive and negative terms.
Exercise:
1. Reduce 8x
2
+7y
2
+3z
2
12xy +4xz 8yz into canonical form by orthogonal reduction.
2. Reduce 6x
2
1
+3x
2
2
+3x
2
3
4x
1
x
2
2x
2
x
3
+4x
3
x
1
into canonical form by an orthogonal
reduction and nd the rank, index, signature and the nature of the quadratic form.
3. Reduce 2x
2
1
+2x
2
2
+3x
2
3
+2x
1
x
2
4x
2
x
3
4x
3
x
1
into canonical form by an orthogonal
reduction and nd the rank, index, signature and the nature of the quadratic form.
ASSIGNMENT
MATRICES
PART-A
1. Dene eigen value and eigen vector of a matrix.
2. Prove that A and A
1
have the same eigen values.
3. Find the eigen values of 2A
2
, if A =
_
_
4 1
3 2
_
_
.
4. Find the sum and product of the eigen values of the matrix A =
_
_
_
_
_
1 2 2
1 0 3
2 1 3
_
_
_
_
_
.
20
5. Two eigen values of the matrix A =
_
_
_
_
_
2 2 1
1 3 1
1 2 2
_
_
_
_
_
are equal to 1 each. Find the
third eigen values.
6. Find the eigen vectors of A =
_
_
1 2
0 3
_
_
.
7. The product of two eigen values of the matrix A =
_
_
_
_
_
6 2 2
3 3 1
2 1 3
_
_
_
_
_
is 16. Find
the third eigen value.
8. State Cayley-Hamilton theorem.
9. Give two applications of Cayley-Hamilton theorem.
10. What do you mean by digitalizing a matrix?
11. Verify Cayley-Hamilton theorem for the matrix A =
_
_
5 3
1 3
_
_
.
12. Use Cayley-Hamilton theorem to nd the inverse of A =
_
_
7 3
2 6
_
_
.
13. Dene a quadratic form and give an example for the same in three variables.
14. Write down the quadratic form corresponding to the matrix
_
_
_
_
_
2 1 2
1 2 2
2 2 3
_
_
_
_
_
.
15. Write down the matrix of the quadratic form 3x
2
1
+ 5x
2
2
+ 5x
2
3
2x
2
x
3
+ 6x
3
x
1
.
16. When is a quadratic form said to be singular?
17. What do you mean by canonical form of a quadratic form?
18. Dene index and signature of the quadratic form.
21
19. Find the index and signature of the quadratic form x
2
1
+ 2x
2
2
3x
2
3
.
20. Write down the nature of quadratic form.
PART-B
1. Find the eigen values and eigen vectors of the matrix
_
_
_
_
_
2 2 7
2 1 2
0 1 3
_
_
_
_
_
.
2. Find the eigen values and eigen vectors of the matrix
_
_
_
_
_
0 1 1
1 0 1
1 1 0
_
_
_
_
_
.
3. Verify Cayley-Hamilton theorem for the matrix A =
_
_
_
_
_
7 2 2
6 1 2
6 2 1
_
_
_
_
_
and hence
nd A
1
.
4. Verify Cayley-Hamilton theorem for the matrix A =
_
_
_
_
_
1 2 3
2 1 4
3 1 1
_
_
_
_
_
and hence
nd A
4
.
5. Find A
n
, using Cayley-Hamilton theorem when A =
_
_
5 3
1 3
_
_
. Hence nd A
4
.
6. Diagonalize the matrix A =
_
_
_
_
_
3 1 0
1 2 1
0 1 3
_
_
_
_
_
by orthogonal transformation.
7. Verify that the eigen vectors of the real symmetric matrix A =
_
_
_
_
_
8 6 2
6 7 4
2 4 3
_
_
_
_
_
are orthogonal in pairs.
22
8. Reduce the quadratic form 3x
2
1
3x
2
2
5x
2
3
2x
1
x
2
6x
2
x
3
6x
3
x
1
to canonical
form by an orthogonal transformation. Also nd the rank, index and signature of
9. Reduce the quadratic form 10x
2
1
2x
2
2
5x
2
3
4x
1
x
2
6x
2
x
3
10x
3
x
1
to a canonical
form by orthogonal reduction.
10. Determine the nature of the following quadratic form without reducting them to
canonical form: x
2
1
+ 2x
2
2
+ 3x
2
3
+ 2x
1
x
2
+ 2x
2
x
3
2x
3
x
1
.
23