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FINITE CONTROL VOLUME ANALYSIS

Fluid mechanics require analysis of the behaviour of the contents of a


finite region in space
anchoring force required to hold a jet engine in place during test
amount of time to allow for complete filling of a large storage tank
power required to move water from location to another at a higher
elevation
Control volume relations are derived from equations representing
basic laws applied to a system REYNOLDS TRANSPORT THEOREM
CONSERVATION OF MASS OR CONTINUITY EQUATION
TIME RATE OF CHANGE OF SYSTEM MASS = ZERO
0
t D
DM
sys
=
B = mb; B = mass; b =1
Time rate of change
of the mass of the
coincident system
Time rate of change
of the mass of the
contents of the
coincident control
volume
Net rate of flow of
mass through the
control surface
- +
c
=
cs cv
sys
dA n

bV V bd
t t D
DB

o
0 dA n V V d
t
cs cv
= - +
c

o
Steady Flow
0 V d
t
cv
=
c

o
}
-
cs
dA n V
Product of the component of the velocity V,
perpendicular to small portion of the control surface,
differential area Mass flow rate through dA
n V -
Positive for the flow out of the control volume
n V -
Negative for the flow into the control volume
Considered positive when it is pointing out of the control volume n

}

= -
in
cs
out
m m dA n V
Integral is positive net flow is out of the control volume
Integral is negative net flow is into the control volume
}
- =
A
dA n V m
V A m =
Incompressible flow - is distributed uniformly over area A
V
Average value of the component of velocity normal to the section area
involved
A
dA n V
V
A

}
-
=
If the velocity is uniformly distributed (one dimensional flow) over the
section A, then
V
A
dA n V
V
A
=
}
-
=

FIXED AND NON-DEFORMING CONTROL VOLUME


Seawater flows steadily through a simple conical-shaped nozzle at the
end of a fire hose as illustrated in Fig. If the nozzle exit velocity must
be at least 20 m/s. determine the minimum pumping capacity required
in m
3
/s.
0 dA n V V d
t
cs cv
=
}
- +
}
c

o
}
c
cv
V d
t

o
Zero flow is steady
0 m m dA n V
1
cs
2
=
}
= -
1 2
m m =
Q
1
= Q
2
= V
2
A
2
Density is constant
s / m 0251 . 0 10 40
4
20
3
2
3
= =

t
Moist air (a mixture of dry air and water vapor) enters a dehumidifier at the
rate of 324 kg/hr. Liquid water drains out of the dehumidifier at a rate of 7.3
kg/hr Determine the mass flowrate of the dry air and the water vapor
leaving the dehumidifier. A simplified sketch of the process is provided in Fig.
hr / kg 324 m
1
=
hr / kg 3 . 7 m
3
=

0 dA n V V d
t
cs cv
=
}
- +
}
c

o
}
c
cv
V d
t

o
Zero flow is steady
0 m m m dA n V
3 2 1
cs
= + +
}
= -
hr / kg 7 . 316 3 . 7 324 m m m
3 1 2
= = =
The answer is same regardless of which control volume is chosen. If
we select the control volume as before except that we include the
cooling coils to be within the control volume
5 4 5 4 3 1 2
m m and m m m m m = + =
Incompressible laminar water flow develops in a straight pipe having radius R as in
Fig. At section (1), the velocity profile is uniform; the velocity is equal to constant
value U and is parallel to the pipe axis everywhere. At section (2), the velocity
profile is axisymmetric and parabolic, with zero velocity at the pipe wall and a
maximumvalue of u
max
at the center line. Howare U and u
max
related ? Howare the
average velocity at section (2) and maximumvelocity related.
0 dA n V V d
t
cs cv
= - +
c

o
0 = -
}
cs
dA n

V
0
2 2 1 1
= - +
}
cs
dA n

V U A
} }
= -
R
cs
rdr u dA n

V
0
2 2 2 2
2t
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
= -
} }
2
4 2
2
0
2
2
2 2 2
4 2
2 1 2
R
R R
u dr
R
r
r u dA n

V
max
R
max
cs
t t
2 4
2
2
2
2
2 2 2
R u R
u dA n

V
max
max
cs
t
t = = -
}
0
2
0
2
2
1 1 2 2 1 1
= + = - +
}
R u
U A dA n

V U A
max
cs
t

0
2
2
2 2
= +
R u
U R
max
t
t
2
max
u
U =
2
2
2
2 2
R u
dA n

V
max
cs
t
= -
}
2
2
2
2 2
R u
dA n

V
max
cs
t
= -
}
A
dA n V
V
A

}
-
=
2
2
2
2
max
max
A
u
R
R u
A
dA n

V
V = =
-
=
}
t
t

2
max
u
V =
MOVING CONTROL VOLUMES
V
1
velocity of the fluid which strikes the vane
V
o
velocity of the moving vane
Determine the force that puts on the vane
steam, gas and hydraulic turbines
To find Reynolds Transport theorem for moving control volumes
Moving control volume and system
Shape, size and orientation of control volume do not change with time
Control volume translates with constant velocity V
cv
FIXED CONTROL VOLUME
Absolute velocity V that carries
fluid across the fixed control
volume
MOVING CONTROL VOLUME
Relative velocity W that carries
fluid across the moving control
volume
Relative velocity is the fluids velocity relative to the moving control volume the
velocity seen by an observer ridingalong on the control volume
Absolute velocity is the fluid velocity as seen by a stationary observer in a fixed
coordinatesystem
V = W + V
cv
In general, absolute velocity V and control volume velocity V
cv
will
have different directions, hence we should use VECTOR ADDITION
cs cv
sys
dA n

bW V bd
t t D
DB
REYNOLDS TRANSPORT THEOREM FOR MOVING CONTROL VOLUMES
}
- +
}
c
=
cs cv
sys
dA n

bV V bd
t t D
DB

o
FOR FIXED CONTROL VOLUME
FOR MOVING CONTROL VOLUME
Replace V by W because Relative velocity W that carries fluid across
the moving control volume
Moving and non-deforming control volume
When a moving control volume is used, fluid velocity relative to the
moving control volume (relative velocity) is important
V = W + V
cv
W relative velocity is the fluid velocity seen by the observer moving
with the control volume
V
cv
velocity of the control volume as seen from a fixed coordinate
system
V Absolute velocity i.e, the fluid velocity seen by a stationary
observer in a fixed co-ordinate system
0 dA n W V d
t
cs cv
=
}
- +
}
c

o
An airplane moves forward at a speed of 971 kmph as shown in Fig. The frontal intake
area of the jet engine is 0.8m
2
and the entering air density is 0.736 kg/m
3.
A stationary
observer determines that relative to the earth, the jet engine exhaust gases move away
from the engine with a speed of 1050 kmph. The engine exhaust area is 0.558 m
2
and
the exhaust gas density is 0.515kg/m
3
. Estimate the mass flowrate of fuel into the
engine.
0 dA n W V d
t
cs cv
=
}
- +
}
c

o
}
c
cv
V d
t

o
Zero flow relative to the moving control volume is
considered steady
0 W A W A m
2 2 2 1 1 1 in fuel
= +
1 1 1 2 2 2 in fuel
W A W A m =
V
2
= W
2
+ V
plane
; W
2
= V
2
V
plane
= 1050 + 971 = 2021 kmph
) s / m 3600 / 1000 2021 )( m 558 . 0 )( m / kg 515 . 0 ( m
3 3
in fuel
=
) s / m 3600 / 1000 971 )( m 8 . 0 )( m / kg 736 . 0 (
3 3

s / kg 5278 . 2 m
in fuel
=
Newtons Second Law The Linear Momentum Equation
Time rate of change of the
linear momentum of the system
Newtons second law of motion for a system is
Sum of external forces
acting on the system
=

}
=
sys
sys
F V d V
t D
D

Any reference or coordinate system for which this statement is true is called
INERTIAL
Fixed co-ordinate system
Coordinate system which moves in a straight line with constant
velocity

=
cv sys
F F
} } }
- +
c
=
cs cv sys
dA n V V V Vd
t
V Vd
t D
D

o

Time rate of change of


linear momentum of the
system
Time rate of change of
linear momentum of the
contents of the control
volume
= +
Net rate of flow of
linear momentum
through the control
surface

=
}
- +
}
c
volume control
of contents
cs cv
F dA n

V V V Vd
t

o
For a control volume that is fixed (and thus inertial) and non-
deforming
Surface forces
Body forces - weight
Net Pressure Force on a Closed Control Surface
UNIFORM PRESSURE
0 = =
}
cs
a UP
dA n p F
( )
}
=
cs
press
dA n p F
( )
} }
= = =
cs
a
cs
a UP SSURE UNIFORMPRE
dA n p dA n p F F
}
=
cs
a UP
dA n p F
This result is independent of the shape of the surface as long as the surface is closed
and all our control volumes are closed.
Thus a seemingly complicated pressure-force problem can be simplified by
subtracting any convenient uniform pressure P
atm
and working only with the pieces
of gage pressurewhich remain
NON-UNIFORM PRESSURE
( )
}
=
cs
a
dA n p p F
( )
}
=
cs
gage
dA n p F
This trick can mean quite a saving in computation
A control volume of a nozzle section has surface pressures of 2.8 atm (absolute) at
section 1 and atmospheric pressure of 1 atm (absolute) at section 2 and on the
external rounded part of the nozzle as in Fig. Compute the net pressure force if D
1
=
75 mmand D
2
= 25 mm.
2.8 atmabs 1.0 atmabs
1.0 atmabs
1.0 bar
abs
1.8 atmgauge
0.0 atmgauge
0.0 atmgauge
0 atmgauge
2 2 1 1
A p A p F =
2
2
3
0 10 75
4
101325 8 1 A . F =

t
N . F 8 805 =
Determine the anchoring force required to
hold in place a conical nozzle attached to
the end of a laboratory sink faucet shown
in Fig. when the water flowrate is 0.6
liters. The nozzle
mass is 0.1 kg. The nozzle inlet and exit
diameters are 16 mm and 5 mm,
respectively.
The nozzle axis is vertical and the axial
distance between sections (1) and (2) is 30
mm. The pressure at section (1) is 464 kPa.
The anchoring force sought is the reaction
force between the faucet and nozzle
threads. To evaluate this force, control
volume selected includes the nozzle and
the water contained in the nozzle
W
n
F
A
p
1
A
1
w
1
W
w
p
2
A
2
w
2
z
F
A
anchoring force that holds the nozzle in
place
W
n
weight of the nozzle
W
w
weight of the water in the nozzle
P
1
gage pressure at section (1)
A
1
cross section area at section (1)
P
2
gage pressure at section (2)
A
2
cross section area at section (2)
w
1
z direction velocity at the control volume
entrance
w
2
z direction velocity at the control volume
exit
The action of atmospheric pressure cancels out in
every direction and is not shown

} }
= - +
c
volume control
of contents
cs cv
F dA n V V V Vd
t

o Flow is
steady
2 2 w 1 1 n A
cs
A p W A p W F dA n V w + = -
}

n V -
Positive for the flow out of the control volume
n V -
Negative for the flow into the control volume
( )( ) ( )( )
2 2 1 1
w m w m dA n

V w
cs
+ + = -

( )( ) ( )( )
2 2 1 1 2 2 1 1
A p W A p W F w m w m
w n A
+ = + +

2 2 1 1 2 2 1 1
A p W A p W w m w m F
w n A
+ + + =

( )
2 2 1 1 2 1
A p W A p W w w m F
w n A
+ + + =

Conservation of mass;
m m m
2 1
= =
s / kg . . Q w A m 6 0 10 6 0 1000
3
1 1
= = = =

( )
2 4
2
3 2
1 1
m 10 011 . 2 10 16
4
D
4
A

= = =
t t
( )
2 5
2
3 2
2 2
m 10 964 . 1 10 5
4
D
4
A

= = =
t t
s / m .
.
.
A
Q
w 98 2
10 011 2
10 6 0
4
3
1
1
=

= =

s / m .
.
.
A
Q
w 6 30
10 964 1
10 6 0
5
3
2
2
=

= =

N 981 . 0 81 . 9 1 . 0 g m W
n n
= = =
g D D D D
12
h
g V W
2 1
2
2
2
1 w w
+ + = =
t

( )
( ) ( ) ( )( ) N 0278 . 0 81 . 9 004 . 0 016 . 0 004 . 0 016 . 0
12
03 . 0
1000 W
2 2
w
= + + =
t
0 p
2
=
Atmospheric pressure
( )
2 2 1 1 2 1
A p W A p W w w m F
w n A
+ + + =

( )( ) ( ) 0 0278 . 0 10 011 . 2 464000 981 . 0 6 . 30 98 . 2 6 . 0 F
4
A
+ + + =

0 0278 . 0 3104 . 93 981 . 0 572 . 16 F
A
+ + + =
N 75 . 77 F
A
=
A horizontal jet of water exits a nozzle with a uniform speed of 3 m/s strikes a vane and is
turned through a vane, and is turned through an u. Determine the anchoring force needed to
hold the vane stationary. Neglect gravity and viscous effects. A
1
= 0.06 m
2
2 2 1 1
V A V A =
2 1
A A =
2 1
V V =

} }
= - +
c
volume control
of contents
cs cv
F dA n V V V Vd
t

o
Flow is steady

}
= -
x
cs
F dA n

V u
}
= -
z
cs
F dA n

V w
( ) ( )
Ax x
cs
F A V cos V A V V F dA n

V u = + = -

}
2 1 1 1 1 1
u
( ) ( ) ( )
Az z
cs
F A V sin V A V F dA n

V w = + = -

}
2 1 1 1 1
0 u
( ) ( ) ( ) u u cos V A F A V cos V A V V
Ax
= = + 1
2
1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1
( ) ( ) ( ) u u sin A V F A V sin V A V
Az 1
2
1 1 1 1 1 1
0 = = +
( ) u cos V A F
Ax
= 1
2
1 1
u sin A V F
Az 1
2
1
=
Water flows through a horizontal, pipe bend as illustrated in Fig. The flow cross-
sectional area is constant at a value of 0.09 m
2
through the bend. The flow velocity
everywhere in the bend is axial and 15.24 m/s. The absolute pressures at the
entrance and exit of the bend are 2.07 bar and 1.66 bar, respectively. Calculate the
horizontal (x) and (y) components of the anchoring force required to hold the bend
in place
V = 15.24 m/s
V
0.09m
2
F
Ax
= 0 No net inflow or
outflowin the x-direction
( )( ) ( )( )
2 2 1 1 2 2 1 1
A p A p F v m v m
Ay
+ + = + + +

}
= -
x
cs
F dA n

V u
= -
y
cs
F dA n

V v
= -
z
cs
F dA n

V w
m m m
2 1
= =
( )( )
2 2 1 1 2 1
A p A p F v v m
Ay
+ + = +

( )( )
2 1 2 2 1 1
v v m A p A p F
Ay
+ + =

( ) ( )
( )( ) 24 15 24 15 24 15 09 0 1000
09 0 10 01325 1 10 66 1 09 0 10 01325 1 10 2
5 5 5 5
. . . .
. . . . . F
Ay
+ +
=
N . F
Ay
868 27104 =
W F
Az
=
Air flows steadily between two cross sections in a long, straight portion of 100 mm
inside diameter pipe as indicated in Fig., where the uniformly distributed
temperature and pressure at each cross section are given. If the average velocity at
section (2) is 305 m/s. Assuming the uniformvelocity distributions at sections (1) and
(2), determine the frictional force exerted by the pipe wall on the air flow between
sections (1) and (2).
P
1
= 6.9 bar (abs)
T
1
= 27 deg C
P
2
= 1.27 bar (abs)
T
2
= -21 deg C

}
= -
x
cs
F dA n

V u
( )( ) ( )( )
2 2 1 1 2 2 1 1
A p A p R u m u m
x
+ = + + + +

m m m
2 1
= =
( )
2 2 1 1 2 1
A p A p R u u m
x
+ = +

P
1
= 6.9 bar (abs)
T
1
= 27 deg C
P
2
= 1.27 bar (abs)
T
2
= -21 deg C
( )
3
5
1
1
1
014 8
273 27 287
10 9 6
m / kg .
.
RT
P
=
+

= =
( )
3
5
2
2
2
756 1
273 21 287
10 27 1
m / kg .
.
RT
P
=
+

= =
2 2 2 1 1 1 2 1
u A u A m m m = = =

2 1 2 2 1 1
A A u u = =
s / m .
.
. u
u 83 66
014 8
305 756 1
1
2 2
1
=

= =

s / m . u 83 66
1
=
( ) s / m . . . . u A m 2064 4 83 66 1 0
4
014 8
2
1 1 1
= = =
t

s / m . m 2064 4 =

( )
2 2 1 1 2 1
A p A p R u u m
x
+ = +

( ) ( ) ( ) | |
2 5
1 0
4
10 01325 1 27 1 01325 1 9 6 305 83 66 2064 4 . . . . . R . .
x
+ = +
t
79 4421 84 1001 . R .
x
+ =
N R
x
3420 =
A static thrust stand as sketched in Fig. is to be designed for testing a jet engine. The
following conditions are known for atypical test:
Intake air velocity = 200 m/s,
Exhaust gas velocity = 500 m/s,
Intake cross-sectional area= 1 m
2
;
Intake static pressure= -22.5 kPa (gauge) = 78.5 kPa (abs);
Intake static temperature =268 K;
Exhaust static pressure=101 kPa (abs).
Estimate the nominal thrust for which to design.

}
= -
x
cs
F dA n

V u
( )( ) ( )( )
2 2 1 1 2 2 1 1
A p A p F u m u m
th
+ = + + + +

m m m
2 1
= =
u
1
= 200 m/s,
u
2
= 500 m/s,
A
1
= 1 m
2
;
P
1
= -22.5 kPa (gauge)= = 78.5 kPa
(abs);
T
1
= 268 K;
P
2
= 101 kPa (abs).
3
1
1
1
021 1
268 287
1000 5 78
m / kg .
.
RT
P
=

= =
s / kg . . u A m 2 204 200 1 021 1
1 1 1
= = =

( )( ) ( )( ) ( ) ( )
2
0 1 1000 5 22 500 2 204 200 2 204 A . F . .
th
+ = +
N F
th
83760 =
LINEAR MOMENTUM EQUATION FOR MOVING NON-DEFORMING
CONTROL VOLUMES (MOVING AT A CONSTANT VELOCITY)
}
- +
}
c
=
cs cv
sys
dA n

bW V bd
t t D
DB

o
b = V
}
= - +
}
c
cs cv
dA n

W V V Vd
t

o

volume control
of contents
F
V = W + V
cv
( ) ( )
}

= - + +
}
+
c
cs Volume control
of contents cv
cv
cv
F dA n

W V W V d V W
t

o
Zero for steady flow
( )
} }
- + -
}
= - +
cs cs
cv
cs
cv
dA n

W V dA n

W W dA n

W V W
( )
} }
- + -
}
= - +
cs cs
cv
cs
cv
dA n

W V dA n

W W dA n

W V W
Zero for steady flow
}

= -
cs Volume control
of contents
F dA n

W W
A vane on wheels moves with constant velocity V
o
when a streamof water having a
nozzle exit velocity of V
1
is turned 45
o
by the vane as indicated in Fig. Determine the
magnitude and direction of the force, F, exerted by the stream of water on the
vane surface. The speed of the water jet leaving the nozzle is 33 m/s, and the vane is
moving to the right with a constant speed of 6 m/s.
A
1
= 5.6 10
-4
m
2
0.3 m
W
}
= -
cs
x
R dA n

V u
= -
cs
z z
W R dA n

W W
( )( ) ( )( )
x 2 2 1 1
R 45 cos W m W m = + + +

Conservation of mass;
m m m
2 1
= =
; W A m ; W A m
2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1
= =

x-direction
z-direction
( )( ) W R 45 sin W m
z 2 2
= + +

Water flow is frictionless and that the change in water elevation across the vane is
negligible. Therefore, Wis constant
The relative veloicty of the stream of water entering the control volume W
1
= V
1

V
o
= 33- 6 = 27 m/s = W
2
W
1
= W
2
;
s / kg 12 . 15 27 10 6 . 5 1000 m m
4
2 1
= = =


( )( ) ( )( )
x 2 2 1 1
R 45 cos W m W m = + + +

( )( ) ( )( )
x
R 45 cos 27 12 . 15 27 12 . 15 = + +
N 6 . 119 R
x
=
( )( ) W R 45 sin W m
z 2 2
= + +

s / kg 65 . 1 3 . 0 10 6 . 5 81 . 9 1000 l A g W
4
1
= = =

( )( ) 65 . 1 R 45 sin 27 12 . 15
z
= +
N 3 . 290 R
z
=
N 314 3 . 290 6 . 119 R R R
2 2 2
z
2
x
= + = + =
43 . 2
6 . 119
3 . 290
Tan
R
R
Tan
1
x
z 1
= = =

o
o
6 . 67 = o