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HDTV Formats

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Contents
Articles
Digital television Ultra high definition television 8K resolution 4K resolution High Efficiency Video Coding Rec. 2020 Rec. 601 Rec. 709 1 6 18 19 24 38 40 41

References
Article Sources and Contributors Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors 44 45

Article Licenses
License 46

Digital television

Digital television
Digital television (DTV) is the transmission of audio and video by digitally processed and multiplexed signal, in contrast to the totally analog and channel separated signals used by analog TV. It is an innovative service that represents a significant evolution in television technology since color television in the 1950s.[1] Many countries are replacing broadcast analog television with digital television to allow other uses of the television radio spectrum. Several regions of the world are in different stages of adaptation and are implementing different broadcasting standards. There are four different digital television terrestrial broadcasting standards (DTTB) and they are: Advanced Television System Committee (ATSC) uses eight-level vestigial sideband (8 VSB) for terrestrial broadcasting. This standard has been adopted in the United States and in other countries. Digital Video Broadcasting-Terrestrial (DVB-T) uses coded orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (C-OFDM) modulation and supports hierarchical transmission. This standard has been adapted in Europe, Australia and New Zealand. Terrestrial Integrated Services Digital Broadcasting (ISDB-T) is a system designed to provide good reception to fix receivers and also portable or mobile receivers. It utilizes OFDM and two-dimensional interleaving. It supports hierarchical transmission of up to three layers and uses MPEG-2 video and advanced audio coding. This standard has been adopted in Japan and most of South America. Digital Terrestrial Multimedia Broadcasting (DTMB) adopts time-domain synchronous(TDS)- OFDM technology utilizing a pseudo random signal frame to serve as the guard interval (GI) of the OFDM block and the training symbol. The DTMB standard has been adopted in the People's Republic of China (PRC), including Hong Kong and Macau.[2]

Technical information
Formats and bandwidth
Digital television supports many different picture formats defined by the broadcast television systems which are a combination of size, aspect ratio (width to height ratio). With digital terrestrial television (DTV) broadcasting, the range of formats can be broadly divided into two categories: high definition television (HDTV) for the transmission of high-definition video and standard-definition television (SDTV). These terms by themselves are not very precise, and many subtle intermediate cases exist. One of several different HDTV formats that can be transmitted over DTV is: 1280720 pixels in progressive scan mode (abbreviated 720p) or 19201080 pixels in interlaced video mode (1080i). Each of these utilizes a 16:9 aspect ratio. (Some televisions are capable of receiving an HD resolution of 19201080 at a 60Hz progressive scan frame rate known as 1080p.) HDTV cannot be transmitted over current analog television channels because of channel capacity issues. Standard definition TV (SDTV), by comparison, may use one of several different formats taking the form of various aspect ratios depending on the technology used in the country of broadcast. For 4:3 aspect-ratio broadcasts, the 640480 format is used in NTSC countries, while 720576 is used in PAL countries. For 16:9 broadcasts, the 720480 format is used in NTSC countries, while 720576 is used in PAL countries. However, broadcasters may choose to reduce these resolutions to save bandwidth (e.g., many DVB-T channels in the United Kingdom use a horizontal resolution of 544 or 704 pixels per line).[3] Each commercial broadcasting terrestrial television DTV channel in North America is permitted to be broadcast at a bit rate up to 19 megabits per second. However, the broadcaster does not need to use this entire bandwidth for just one broadcast channel. Instead the broadcast can use the channel to include PSIP and can also subdivide across several video subchannels (aka feeds) of varying quality and compression rates, including non-video datacasting services that allow one-way high-bandwidth streaming of data to computers like National Datacast.

Digital television A broadcaster may opt to use a standard-definition (SDTV) digital signal instead of an HDTV signal, because current convention allows the bandwidth of a DTV channel (or "multiplex") to be subdivided into multiple digital subchannels, (similar to what most FM radio stations offer with HD Radio), providing multiple feeds of entirely different television programming on the same channel. This ability to provide either a single HDTV feed or multiple lower-resolution feeds is often referred to as distributing one's "bit budget" or multicasting. This can sometimes be arranged automatically, using a statistical multiplexer (or "stat-mux"). With some implementations, image resolution may be less directly limited by bandwidth; for example in DVB-T, broadcasters can choose from several different modulation schemes, giving them the option to reduce the transmission bitrate and make reception easier for more distant or mobile viewers.

Reception
There are a number of different ways to receive digital television. One of the oldest means of receiving DTV (and TV in general) is using an antenna (known as an aerial in some countries). This way is known as Digital terrestrial television (DTT). With DTT, viewers are limited to whatever channels the antenna picks up. Signal quality will also vary. Other ways have been devised to receive digital television. Among the most familiar to people are digital cable and digital satellite. In some countries where transmissions of TV signals are normally achieved by microwaves, digital MMDS is used. Other standards, such as Digital multimedia broadcasting (DMB) and DVB-H, have been devised to allow handheld devices such as mobile phones to receive TV signals. Another way is IPTV, that is receiving TV via Internet Protocol, relying on Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) or optical cable line. Finally, an alternative way is to receive digital TV signals via the open Internet. For example, there is P2P (peer-to-peer) Internet television software that can be used to watch TV on a computer. Some signals carry encryption and specify use conditions (such as "may not be recorded" or "may not be viewed on displays larger than 1 m in diagonal measure") backed up with the force of law under the WIPO Copyright Treaty and national legislation implementing it, such as the U.S. Digital Millennium Copyright Act. Access to encrypted channels can be controlled by a removable smart card, for example via the Common Interface (DVB-CI) standard for Europe and via Point Of Deployment (POD) for IS or named differently CableCard.

Protection parameters for terrestrial DTV broadcasting


Digital television signals must not interfere with each other, and they must also coexist with analog television until it is phased out. The following table gives allowable signal-to-noise and signal-to-interference ratios for various interference scenarios. This table is a crucial regulatory tool for controlling the placement and power levels of stations. Digital TV is more tolerant of interference than analog TV, and this is the reason a smaller range of channels can carry an all-digital set of television stations.
System Parameters (protection ratios) C/N for AWGN Channel Canada [13] USA [5] EBU [9, 12] ITU-mode M3 Japan & Brazil [36, 37] +19.2 dB [4]

+19.5 dB [5] (16.5 dB ) +33.8 dB +7.2 dB +19.5 dB [5] (16.5 dB )

+15.19 dB +19.3 dB

Co-Channel DTV into Analog TV Co-Channel Analog TV into DTV Co-Channel DTV into DTV

+34.44 dB +34 ~ 37 dB +1.81 dB +4 dB

+38 dB +4 dB +19 dB

+15.27 dB +19 dB

Lower Adjacent Channel DTV into Analog TV 16 dB Upper Adjacent Channel DTV into Analog TV 12 dB

17.43 dB 5 ~ 11 dB[6] 11.95 dB 1 ~ 10[6]

6 dB 5 dB

Digital television
47.33 dB 34 ~ 37 dB[6] 35 dB 48.71 dB 38 ~ 36 dB[6] 37 dB 28 dB 26 dB 30 dB 30 dB 28 dB 29 dB

Lower Adjacent Channel Analog TV into DTV 48 dB Upper Adjacent Channel Analog TV into DTV 49 dB Lower Adjacent Channel DTV into DTV Upper Adjacent Channel DTV into DTV 27 dB 27 dB

Interaction
Interaction happens between the TV watcher and the DTV system. It can be understood in different ways, depending on which part of the DTV system is concerned. It can also be an interaction with the STB only (to tune to another TV channel or to browse the EPG). Modern DTV systems are able to provide interaction between the end-user and the broadcaster through the use of a return path. With the exceptions of coaxial and fiber optic cable, which can be bidirectional, a dialup modem, Internet connection, or other method is typically used for the return path with unidirectional networks such as satellite or antenna broadcast. In addition to not needing a separate return path, cable also has the advantage of a communication channel localized to a neighborhood rather than a city (terrestrial) or an even larger area (satellite). This provides enough customizable bandwidth to allow true video on demand.

1-segment broadcasting
1seg (1-segment) is a special form of ISDB. Each channel is further divided into 13 segments. The 12 segments of them are allocated for HDTV and remaining segment, the 13th, is used for narrowband receivers such as mobile television or cell phone.

Comparison analog vs digital


DTV has several advantages over analog TV, the most significant being that digital channels take up less bandwidth, and the bandwidth needs are continuously variable, at a corresponding reduction in image quality depending on the level of compression as well as the resolution of the transmitted image. This means that digital broadcasters can provide more digital channels in the same space, provide high-definition television service, or provide other non-television services such as multimedia or interactivity. DTV also permits special services such as multiplexing (more than one program on the same channel), electronic program guides and additional languages (spoken or subtitled). The sale of non-television services may provide an additional revenue source. Digital and analog signals react differently to interference. For example, common problems with analog television include ghosting of images, noise from weak signals, and many other potential problems which degrade the quality of the image and sound, although the program material may still be watchable. With digital television, the audio and video must be synchronized digitally, so reception of the digital signal must be very nearly complete; otherwise, neither audio nor video will be usable. Short of this complete failure, "blocky" video is seen when the digital signal experiences interference.

Effect on existing analog technology


Television sets with only analog tuners cannot decode digital transmissions. When analog broadcasting over the air ceases, users of sets with analog-only tuners may use other sources of programming (e.g. cable, recorded media) or may purchase set-top converter boxes to tune in the digital signals. In the United States, a government-sponsored coupon was available to offset the cost of an external converter box. Analog switch-off (of full-power stations) took place on December 11, 2006 in The Netherlands,[7] June 12, 2009 in the United States,[8] July 24, 2011 in Japan,[9] August 31, 2011 in Canada,[10] February 13, 2012 in Pan-Arab States, May 1, 2012 in Germany, October 24, 2012 in

Digital television the United Kingdom[11] and Ireland,[12] and October 31, 2012 in selected Indian cities.[13] Completion of analog switch-off is scheduled for December 10, 2013 in Australia,[14] December 31, 2014 in the whole of India,[13] by 2015 in the Philippines and Uruguay, and by 2017 in Costa Rica.

Disappearance of TV-audio receivers


Prior to the conversion to digital TV, analog television broadcast audio for TV channels on a separate FM carrier frequency from the video signal. This FM audio signal could be heard using standard radios equipped with the appropriate tuning circuits. However, after the relatively recent transition of many countries to digital TV, no portable radio manufacturer has yet developed an alternative method for portable radios to play just the audio signal of digital TV channels. (DTV radio is not the same thing.)

Environmental issues
The adoption of a broadcast standard incompatible with existing analog receivers has created the problem of large numbers of analog receivers being discarded during digital television transition. An estimated 99 million unused analog TV receivers are currently in storage in the US alone[15] and, while some obsolete receivers are being retrofitted with converters, many more are simply dumped in landfills[16] where they represent a source of toxic metals such as lead as well as lesser amounts of materials such as barium, cadmium and chromium.[17] While the glass in cathode ray tubes contains an average of 3.62 kilograms (8lb) of lead[18] (amount varies from 1.08lb to 11.28lb, depending on screen size but the lead is "stable and immobile"[19]) which can have long-term negative effects on the environment if dumped as landfill,[20] the glass envelope can be recycled at suitably equipped facilities.[21] Other portions of the receiver may be subject to disposal as hazardous material. Local restrictions on disposal of these materials vary widely; in some cases second-hand stores have refused to accept working color television receivers for resale due to the increasing costs of disposing of unsold TVs. Those thrift stores which are still accepting donated TVs have reported significant increases in good-condition working used television receivers abandoned by viewers who often expect them not to work after digital transition.[22] In Michigan, one recycler has estimated that as many as one household in four will dispose of or recycle a TV set in the next year.[23] The digital television transition, migration to high-definition television receivers and the replacement of CRTs with flatscreens are all factors in the increasing number of discarded analog CRT-based television receivers.

Technical limitations
Compression artifacts and allocated bandwidth DTV images have some picture defects that are not present on analog television or motion picture cinema, because of present-day limitations of bandwidth and compression algorithms such as MPEG-2. This defect is sometimes referred to as "mosquito noise".[24] Because of the way the human visual system works, defects in an image that are localized to particular features of the image or that come and go are more perceptible than defects that are uniform and constant. However, the DTV system is designed to take advantage of other limitations of the human visual system to help mask these flaws, e.g. by allowing more compression artifacts during fast motion where the eye cannot track and resolve them as easily and, conversely, minimizing artifacts in still backgrounds that may be closely examined in a scene (since time allows).

Digital television

Effects of poor reception


Changes in signal reception from factors such as degrading antenna connections or changing weather conditions may gradually reduce the quality of analog TV. The nature of digital TV results in a perfectly decodable video initially, until the receiving equipment starts picking up interference that overpowers the desired signal or if the signal is too weak to decode. Some equipment will show a garbled picture with significant damage, while other devices may go directly from perfectly decodable video to no video at all or lock up. This phenomenon is known as the digital cliff effect. For remote locations, distant channels that, as analog signals, were previously usable in a snowy and degraded state may, as digital signals, be perfectly decodable or may become completely unavailable. The use of higher frequencies will add to these problems, especially in cases where a clear line-of-sight from the receiving antenna to the transmitter is not available.

Notes & references


[1] Kruger, L. G. (2001). Digital Television: An Overview. Hauppauge, New York: Nova Publishers. [2] Ong, C. Y., Song, J., Pan, C., & Li, Y.(2010, May). Technology and Standards of Digital Television Terrestrial Multimedia Broadcasting [Topics in Wireless Communications], Communications Magazine, IEEE , 48(5),119-127 [3] Latest snapshots - Freeview/DTT bitrates (http:/ / dtt. me. uk) (Mendip transmitter, UK) [4] [5] [6] [7] ISDB-T (6MHz, 64QAM, R=2/3), Analog TV (M/NTSC). The Canadian parameter, C/(N+I) of noise plus co-channel DTV interface should be 16.5 dB. Depending on analog TV systems used. "How Television went Digital in The Netherlands" (http:/ / www. ivir. nl/ publications/ sloot/ switch-off. pdf) (PDF). Open Society Foundations September 2011. . Retrieved 2013-02-04. [8] "The Digital TV Transition: Will You Be Affected?" (http:/ / www. dtv. gov/ affected. html). FCC. . Retrieved 2009-11-02. [9] "New DTV Hard Date: July 24, 2011?" (http:/ / www. broadcastingcable. com/ blog/ BC_DC_Eggerton_on_Washington/ 15430-New_DTV_Hard_Date_July_24_2011_. php). B&C. . Retrieved 2009-11-02. [10] "DTV Post-Transition Allotment Plan" (http:/ / www. ic. gc. ca/ eic/ site/ smt-gst. nsf/ vwapj/ DTV_PLAN_Dec08-e. pdf/ $file/ DTV_PLAN_Dec08-e. pdf) (PDF). Spectrum Management and Telecommunications. . Retrieved 2009-11-02. [11] "End of analogue TV era as switchover completes in the UK" (http:/ / www. digitaluk. co. uk/ __data/ assets/ pdf_file/ 0004/ 82057/ 24-10-12_DSO_completion. pdf). Digital UK. . Retrieved 2012-12-21. [12] "Analogue switch off has finally happened" (http:/ / www. saorview. ie/ news/ analogue-switch-off-has-finally-happened/ ). SAORVIEW. . Retrieved 2012-12-21. [13] "Find out when digital switch over is coming to you" (http:/ / www. digitalindiamib. com/ digital_switch_over. html). Government of India Ministry of Information & Broadcasting. . Retrieved 2012-12-21. [14] "Digital TV Timetable by Region" (http:/ / www. digitalready. gov. au/ Content/ Documents/ General/ PDF/ Digital-TV-Timetable-by-Region-190612. aspx). Digital Ready AU. . Retrieved 2012-12-21. [15] Unloading that old TV not quite so simple (http:/ / www. jsonline. com/ news/ wisconsin/ 38198929. html), Lee Bergquist, Milwaukee Journal-Sentinel, January 23, 2009 [16] North Tonawanda: council discusses future TV disposal (http:/ / www. tonawanda-news. com/ local/ local_story_027233552. html), Neale Gulley, Tonawanda News, January 27, 2009 [17] Old Toxic TVs Cause Problems (http:/ / www. wltx. com/ news/ story. aspx?storyid=69896& catid=306), USA TODAY, January 27, 2009 [18] Campaigners highlight 'toxic TVs' (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 1/ hi/ technology/ 7820229. stm), Maggie Shiels, BBC News, 9 January 2009 [19] "Lead in Cathode Ray Tubes (CRTs) Information Sheet**" (http:/ / www. premierinc. com/ quality-safety/ tools-services/ safety/ topics/ computers/ downloads/ k_3_lead_in_crts. pdf) (PDF). Electronic Industries Alliance. 2001-11-30. p.1. . Retrieved 2009-09-29. [20] Poon, C.S. (2008). "Management of CRT glass from discarded computer monitors and TV sets" (http:/ / ewasteguide. info/ biblio/ management-cr). Waste Management 28 (9): 14991499. doi:10.1016/j.wasman.2008.06.001. PMID18571917. . Retrieved 2009-09-29. "number of studies have demonstrated that the neck and funnel glasses of CRT are hazardous wastes, while the panel glass exhibits little toxicity." [21] What To Do With Your Old TV's (http:/ / www. wcsh6. com/ news/ local/ story. aspx?storyid=99680& catid=2), Mike Webster, WCSH-TV, January 28, 2009 [22] Many people throwing out perfectly good TVs over digital confusion (http:/ / www. sun-sentinel. com/ business/ custom/ consumer/ sfl-flhlpvasquez0119sbjan19,0,4669489. column), Daniel Vasquez, Sun-Sentinel, Florida, January 19, 2009 [23] Trashing the tube: Digital conversion may spark glut of toxic waste (http:/ / detnews. com/ apps/ pbcs. dll/ article?AID=/ 20090123/ METRO/ 901230383), Jennifer Chambers, Detroit News, January 23, 2009 [24] Le Dinh, Phuc-Tue; Patry, Jacques (February 24, 2006). "Video compression artifacts and MPEG noise reduction" (http:/ / www. videsignline. com/ howto/ 180207350). ideo Imaging DesignLine. . Retrieved April 30, 2010.

Digital television

Further reading
Hart, Jeffrey A., Television, technology, and competition : HDTV and digital TV in the United States, Western Europe, and Japan (http://inethub.olvi.net.ua/ftp/Library/SomeLibrary/Techno/Hart J.A.- Technology, Television and Competition[c] The Politics of Digital TV (2004)(en).pdf), New York : Cambridge University Press, 2004. ISBN 0-521-82624-1

External links
Overview of Digital Television Development Worldwide (http://engineering.utsa.edu/~dakopian/ teaching_files/WirelessComm/CommunicationForTV/OverviewDTV.pdf) Proceedings of the IEEE, VOL. 94, NO. 1, JANUARY 2006 (University of Texas at San Antonio) The FCC's U.S. consumer-oriented DTV website (http://www.dtv.gov/) Digital TV Consumer test reports - UK Government-funded website to support Digital Switchover (http://www. ricability-digitaltv.org.uk/) The UK's Ofcom accredited impartial comparison service for digital TV (http://www.simplifydigital.co.uk/ digital-tv/) How to Set up a DTV Digital Converter Box and Antenna, a how-to article from wikiHow How to Scan for DTV Channels Using a Digital TV Converter Box (and why this must be done 11 June 2009 in US), a how-to article from wikiHow How to Use Your Older VCR, TiVo, or DVR With a DTV Converter Box, a how-to article from wikiHow Finding-the-Right-DTV-Antenna-for-your-location (http://www.hdtvantenna.com/)

Ultra high definition television


Ultra high definition television (also known as Ultra HD television or UHDTV) includes 4K UHD (2160p) and 8K UHD (4320p), which are two digital video formats proposed by NHK Science & Technology Research Laboratories and defined and approved by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU). The Consumer Electronics Association announced on October 17, 2012, that "Ultra High-Definition", or "Ultra HD", would be Chart showing resolutions for 8K UHDTV, 4K UHDTV, 1080p HDTV, and 480i used for displays that have an aspect ratio of SDTV at least 16:9 and at least one digital input capable of carrying and presenting native video at a minimum resolution of 3,840 2,160 pixels.

Ultra high definition television

Alternative terms
Ultra high definition is also known as Ultra HD, UHD, and UHDTV.[1][2][3][4][5] In Japan, 8K UHDTV will be known as Super Hi-Vision since Hi-Vision was the term used in Japan for HDTV.[6][7] Companies had previously only used the term 4K at the 2012 International CES but that had changed to Ultra HD during the 2013 International CES.[4][5] The Ultra HD term is an umbrella term that was selected by the Consumer Electronics Association after extensive consumer research.[8]

Technical details
Resolution
Currently two UHDTV:[1][2][3] resolutions are called
Diagram of the CIE 1931 color space that shows the Rec. 2020 (UHDTV) color space in the outer triangle and Rec. 709 (HDTV) color space in the inner triangle. Both Rec. 2020 and Rec. 709 use Illuminant D65 for the white point.

4K UHDTV (2160p) has a resolution of 3840 2160 (8.3 megapixels), 4 times the pixels of 1080p.

8K UHDTV (4320p) has a resolution of 7680 4320 (33.2 megapixels), 16 times the pixels of current 1080p HDTV, which brings it closer the detail level of 15/70mm IMAX.[2][9][10] NHK advocates the 8K UHDTV format with 22.2 surround sound as Super Hi-Vision. The p in 2160p and 4320p stand for progressive scan or non-interlaced.

Color space and frame rate


The Rec. 2020 (UHDTV) color space can reproduce colors that can not be shown with the Rec. 709 (HDTV) color space.[6] In coverage of the CIE 1931 color space the Rec.2020 color space covers 75.8%, digital cinema covers 53.6%, the Adobe RGB color space covers 52.1%, and Rec.709 covers 35.9%.[6] Rec. 2020 allows for frame rates up to 120 frames per second (fps).[11][3]
Super Hi-Vision specifications:
[6][7][12]

Number of pixels: 7680 4320 Aspect ratio: 16:9 Viewing distance: 0.75 H Viewing angle: 100 Colorimetry: Rec. 2020 Frame rate: 120Hz progressive Bit depth: 12-bit Sampling rate: 48/96kHz

Audio system: 22.2 surround sound

Ultra high definition television Bit length: 16/20/24 bit Number of channels: 24 ch Upper layer: 9 ch Middle layer: 10 ch Lower layer: 3 ch LFE: 2 ch

Upscaling
The 4K resolution of 3840 2160 simplifies video scaling from the popular high-definition source formats 720p and 1080p. A 1080p video source can be scaled perfectly by simply doubling each pixel horizontally and vertically, using 4 pixels on the 4K display to represent each pixel from the 1080p source. Similarly, a 720p source pixel can be tripled horizontally and vertically, using 9 pixels on the 4K display for each pixel from the 720p source. The 720p and 1080p resolutions will also evenly divide the 8K resolution of 7680 4320.

History
20032011
NHK researchers built their own UHDTV prototype from scratch, which they demonstrated in 2003.[13] They used an array of 16 HDTV recorders with a total capacity of almost 3.5 TB that could capture up to 18 minutes of test footage.[13] The camera itself was built with four 2.5inch (64mm) CCDs, each with a resolution of only 3840 2048.[13] Using two CCDs for green and one each for red and blue, they then used a spatial pixel offset method to bring it to 7680 4320.[13][14] Subsequently, an improved and more compact system was built using CMOS image sensor technology[15] and the CMOS image sensor system was demonstrated at Expo 2005, Aichi, Japan, the NAB 2006 and NAB 2007 conferences, Las Vegas, at IBC 2006 and IBC 2008,[16] Amsterdam, Netherlands, and CES 2009. A review of the NAB 2006 demo was published in a Broadcast Engineering e-newsletter.[17] The final goal is for UHDTV to be available in domestic homes, though the timeframe for this happening varies between 2015 to 2020 but Japan and China may get it in the 20132014 time frame.[18] On November 2, 2006, NHK demonstrated a live relay of a UHDTV program over a 260kilometer (km) distance by a fiber-optic network.[19] Using dense wavelength division multiplex (DWDM), 24 Gbit/s speed was achieved with a total of 16 different wavelength signals.[19] On December 31, 2006, NHK demonstrated a live relay of their annual Khaku Uta Gassen over IP from Tokyo to a 450in (11.4m) screen in Osaka. Using a codec developed by NHK, the video was compressed from 24Gbit/s to 180600 Mbit/s and the audio was compressed from 28Mbit/s to 728Mbit/s.[20] Uncompressed, a 20-minute broadcast would require roughly 4TB of storage. The SMPTE first released Standard 2036 for UHDTV in 2007.[21] UHDTV was defined as having two levels called UHDTV1 (3840 2160 or 4K UHDTV) and UHDTV2 (7680 4320 or 8K UHDTV).[21][22] In May 2007, the NHK did an indoor demonstration at the NHK Open House in which a UHDTV signal (7680 4320 at 60 fps) was compressed to a 250Mbit/s MPEG2 stream.[23] The signal was input to a 300MHz wide band modulator and broadcast using a 500MHz QPSK modulation.[23] This "on the air" transmission had a very limited range (less than 2 meters), but shows the feasibility of a satellite transmission in the 36,000km orbit.[23] In 2008, Aptina Imaging announced the introduction of a new CMOS image sensor specifically designed for the NHK UHDTV project.[24] During IBC 2008 Japan's NHK, Italy's RAI, BSkyB, Sony, Samsung, Panasonic Corporation, Sharp Corporation, and Toshiba (with various partners) demonstrated the first ever public live transmission of UHDTV, from London to the conference site in Amsterdam.[25][26]

Ultra high definition television On September 29, 2010, the NHK partnered up and recorded The Charlatans live in the UK in the UHDTV format, before broadcasting over the internet to Japan.[27] On May 19, 2011, SHARP in collaboration with NHK demonstrated a direct-view 85 inches (220cm) LCD display capable of 7680 4320 pixels at 10 bits per pixel.[28] It was the first direct-view Super Hi-Vision-compatible display to be released.[29] Before 2011, UHDTV allowed for frame rates of 24, 25, 50, and 60 fps.[22] In an ITU-R meeting during 2011, an additional frame rate was added to UHDTV of 120 fps.[30]

2012
On February 23, 2012, NHK announced that with Shizuoka University they had developed an 8K sensor that can shoot video at 120 fps.[31][32][33] In April 2012, NHK (in collaboration with Panasonic) announced a 145in (370cm) display (7680 4320 at 60 fps), which has 33.2 million 0.417mm square pixels.[34] In April 2012, the four major Korean terrestrial broadcasters (KBS, MBC, SBS, and EBS) announced that in the future, they would begin test broadcasts of UHDTV on channel 66 in Seoul.[35][36] At the time of the announcement, the UHDTV technical details had not yet been decided.[35][36] LG Electronics and Samsung will also be involved in the test broadcasts of UHDTV.[36] In May 2012, NHK showed the world's first ultra-high-definition shoulder-mount camera.[37] By reducing the size and weight of the camera, the portability had been improved, making it more maneuverable than previous prototypes, so it can be used in a wide variety of shooting situations.[37] The single-chip sensor uses a Bayer color-filter array, where only one color component is acquired per pixel.[37] Researchers at NHK have also developed a high-quality up-converter, which estimates the other two-color components to convert the output into full resolution video.[37] Also in May 2012, NHK showed the ultra-high-definition imaging system it has developed in conjunction with Shizuoka University, which outputs 33.2 megapixel video at 120 fps with a color depth of 12 bits.[38][39] As ultra-high-definition broadcasts at full resolution are designed for large, wall-sized displays, there is a possibility that fast-moving subjects may not be clear when shot at 60 fps, so the option of 120 fps has been standardized for these situations.[38] To handle the sensor output of approximately 4 billion pixels per second with a data rate as high as 51.2Gbit/s, a faster analog-to-digital converter has been developed to process the data from the pixels, and then a high-speed output circuit distributes the resulting digital signals into 96 parallel channels.[38] This 1.5in (38mm) CMOS sensor is smaller and uses less power when compared to conventional ultra-high-definition sensors, and it is also the world's first to support the full specifications of the ultra-high-definition standard.[38] During the 2012 Summer Olympics in Great Britain, the format was publicly showcased by the world's largest broadcaster, the BBC,[40] which set up 15 meter wide screens in London, Glasgow, and Bradford to allow viewers to see the Games in ultra-high definition.[41][42] On May 31, 2012,[43] Sony released the VPL-VW1000ES 4K 3D Projector,[44] the world's first consumer-prosumer projector using the 4K UHDTV system, with the shutter-glasses stereoscopic 3D technology priced at US$24,999.99.[45][46] On August 22, 2012, LG announced the world's first 3D UHDTV using the 4K system.[47] On August 23, 2012, UHDTV was officially approved as a standard by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU), standardizing both 4K and 8K resolutions for the format in ITU-R Recommendation BT.2020 (Rec. 2020).[11][48] On September 15, 2012, David Wood, Deputy Director of the EBU Technology and Development Department (who chairs the ITU working group that created Rec. 2020), told The Hollywood Reporter that Korea plans to begin test broadcasts of 4K UHDTV next year.[49][50][51] Wood also said that many broadcasters have the opinion that going

Ultra high definition television from HDTV to 8K UHDTV is too much of a leap and that it would be better to start with 4K UHDTV.[49] In the same article Masakazu Iwaki, NHK Research senior manager, said that the NHK plan to go with 8K UHDTV is for economic reasons since directly going to 8K UHDTV would avoid an additional transition from 4K UHDTV to 8K UHDTV.[49] On October 18, 2012, the Consumer Electronics Association (CEA) announced that it had been unanimously agreed on by a vote of the CEAs Board of Industry Leaders that the term "Ultra High-Definition", or "Ultra HD", would be used for displays that have a resolution of at least 8 megapixels with a vertical resolution of at least 2,160 pixels and a horizontal resolution of at least 3,840 pixels.[52][53][54][55] The Ultra HD label also requires the display to have an aspect ratio of at least 16 x 9 and to have at least one digital input that can carry and present a native video signal of 3840 2160 without having to rely on a video scaler.[52][53][54][55] Sony announced that their 4K products will be marketed as "4K Ultra High-Definition (4K UHD)".[56] On October 23, 2012, Ortus Technology Co., Ltd announced the development of the world's smallest 3840 2160 pixel LCD panel with a size of 9.6in (24cm) and a pixel density of 458ppi.[57][58][59] The LCD panel is designed for medical equipment and professional video equipment.[57][58][59] On October 25, 2012, LG Electronics began selling the first flat panel Ultra HD display in the United States with a resolution of 3840 2160.[60][61][62] The LG 84LM9600 is a 84in (210cm) flat panel LED-backlit LCD display with a price of US$19,999 though the retail store was selling it for US$16,999.[60][61][62] On October 26, 2012, AU Optronics announced that it had developed a 65in (170cm) Ultra HD IGZO TV panel with a resolution of 3840 2160.[63][64] On November 13, 2012, Samsung announced that they would show an 85in (220cm) Ultra HD TV at the 2013 International CES.[65][66] On November 28, 2012, Sharp Corporation announced the PN-K321 which is a professional 32in (81cm) LCD Monitor that uses a IGZO panel and edge-lit LED backlighting.[67][68] The PN-K321 will have a resolution of 38402160 pixels and will support 60 fps with the DisplayPort connection, 60 fps using two HDMI connections, or 30fps using a single HDMI connection.[67][68] The PN-K321 will be released in Japan on February 15, 2013.[67][68] On November 29, 2012, Sony announced the 4K Ultra HD Video Player, which is a hard disk server preloaded with ten 4K movies and several 4K video clips that will be included with the Sony XBR-84X900.[69][70][71] The preloaded 4K movies will be The Amazing Spider-Man, Total Recall (2012), The Karate Kid (2010), Salt, Battle: Los Angeles, The Other Guys, Bad Teacher, Thats My Boy, Taxi Driver, and The Bridge on the River Kwai.[69][70][71] Additional 4K movies and 4K video clips will be offered for the 4K Ultra HD Video Player in the future .[69][70][71] On November 30, 2012, Red Digital Cinema Camera Company announced that they were taking pre-orders for the US$1,450 REDRAY 4K Cinema Player which is capable of outputting 4K resolution to a single 4K display or to four 1080p displays arranged in any configuration and connected using four HDMI 1.4 connections.[72][73] Video output can be 4K DCI (4096x2160), 4K Ultra HD, 1080p, and 720p at frame rates of up to 60 fps with a bit depth of up to 12-bits with 4:2:2 chroma subsampling.[72] Audio output can be up to 7.1 channels.[72] Content will be distributed online using the ODEMAX video service.[72] External storage can be connected using eSATA, Ethernet, USB, or a Secure Digital memory card.[72] On December 13, 2012, Helinet Aviation Services announced that they had bought Shotover Camera Systems, which developed the world's first gyro-stabilized Ultra HD aerial camera system.[74][75] The system will be used in aerial cinematography by a team with credits in a total of over 300 films.[74][75] On December 26, 2012, LG Display announced that they would show three Ultra HD TVs at the 2013 International CES in sizes of 55in (140cm), 65in (170cm), and 84in (210cm).[76][77] The TVs will have a resolution of 3840 2160 and will support polarized 3D glasses.[76][77] LG Display will also show a 30in (76cm) computer monitor with a resolution of 4096 2160.[76][77]

10

Ultra high definition television On December 27, 2012, Westinghouse Digital announced that they would release four Ultra HD TVs with a resolution of 3840 2160 in sizes of 50in (130cm), 55in (140cm), 65in (170cm), and 110in (280cm) in Q1 2013.[78][79][80] On the same day it was announced that an 84in (210cm) Ultra HD TV from JVC is expected to ship in Q1 2013 and that it will be priced at under $20,000.[81] The TV will come in two versions with the JVC RS-840UD sold to custom installers and the JVC PS-840UD sold to businesses.[81]

11

2013
On January 3, 2013, ViewSonic announced a 84in (210cm) 4K Ultra HD interactive touch digital sign that will be sold to the commercial market and a 32in (81cm) 4K Ultra HD desktop display.[82][83] An interactive demo of the 4K Ultra HD displays will be shown at the ViewSonic booth at the 2013 International CES.[82][83] On January 4, 2013, LG Electronics announced that all three of their Ultra HD TVs will support their Triple XD Engine and Resolution Upscaler Plus.[84][85] LG Electronics also announced an agreement with Korean terrestrial broadcaster KBS for the creation of 4K Ultra HD content.[84][85] On January 6, 2013, Toshiba announced their L93000 series of 4K Ultra HD TVs that will come in sizes of 58in (150cm), 65in (170cm), and 84in (210cm) with an expected release date of summer 2013.[86][87][88] The TVs will have a resolution of 3840 2160, a CEVO 4K Quad+Dual core processor for upscaling, have edge-lit LED backlighting with local dimming, support passive 3D, and have a ClearScan 240 Hz refresh rate.[86][87][88] On the same day NHK announced that Super Hi-Vision satellite broadcasts could begin in Japan in 2016.[89] On January 7, 2013, Sharp Corporation announced the PN-K321 which is a 32in (81cm) Ultra HD computer monitor with an IGZO panel and a resolution of 3840 2160.[90][91] The PN-K321 will be released in February and a Sharp Aquos 60in (150cm) Ultra HD TV called the Sharp Purios will be released in the second half of 2013.[90][91][92][93] The Sharp Purios will be the first display to receive THX 4K Display certification.[93] On the same day Vizio announced the XVT70 series which are three 4K Ultra HD TVs in sizes of 55in (140cm), 65in (170cm), and 70in (180cm) that will ship in 2013.[94][95][96] The XVT70 series will have edge-lit LED backlighting and support passive 3D.[94][95][96] Also on the same day Sony announced the X900A series of 4K Ultra HD TVs that will ship in sizes of 55in (140cm) and 65in (170cm) with a resolution of 3840 2160.[97][98] The X900 series supports wide color gamut using TRILUMINOS Color and will ship in the spring of 2013.[97][98] At the 2013 International CES both Panasonic and Sony showed prototypes of 56in (140cm) 4k Ultra HD OLED displays.[99][100][101] On January 7, 2013, Eutelsat announced the first dedicated 4K Ultra HD channel.[102][103][104][105] ATEME uplinks the H.264/MPEG-4 AVC channel to the EUTELSAT 10A satellite.[102][103][104][105] The 4K Ultra HD channel has a frame rate of 50 fps and is encoded at 40 Mbit/s.[102][103][104][105] The channel started transmission on January 8, 2013.[102][103][104][105] On the same day Qualcomm CEO Paul Jacobs announced that mobile devices capable of playing and recording 4K Ultra HD video will be released in 2013 using the Snapdragon 800 chip.[106][107][108] Also on the same day Hisense announced their XT900 series of 4K Ultra HD TVs that will come in sizes of 65in (170cm), 84in (210cm), and 110in (280cm).[109][110] The XT900 series has a resolution of 3840 2160, a refresh rate of 120 Hz, and support active shutter 3D glasses.[109][110] On the same day Samsung announced the S9 Ultra HD TV series that will come in sizes of 85in (220cm), 95in (240cm), and 110in (280cm).[111][112][113] The S9 series features a floating frame design, a 120 watt 2.2 channel speaker system, and a quad core processor for upscaling.[111][112][113] The S9 85in (220cm) UN85S9 is available for pre-order in Korea at a price of 40 million Korean won or just under US$38,000.[111][112][113] On January 8, 2013, Broadcom announced the BCM7445 which is an Ultra HD decoding chip capable of decoding High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) at up to 4096 2160p at 60 fps.[114][115][116][117] The BCM7445 is a 28 nm ARM architecture chip capable of 21,000 Dhrystone MIPS with volume production estimated for the middle of 2014.[114][115][116][117] On the same day THX announced the "THX 4K Certification" program for Ultra HD displays with the first certification going to the Sharp LC-60HQ10.[118][119][120] The certification involves up to 600 tests and

Ultra high definition television the goal of the program is so that "content viewed on a THX Certified Ultra HD display meets the most exacting video standards achievable in a consumer television today".[118][119][120] On January 9, 2013, AU Optronics announced that they had jointly developed the 4K Ultra HD OLED panel that Sony was showing at the 2013 International CES.[121][122] AU Optronics also announced 4K Ultra HD LCD TV panels in sizes of 55in (140cm) and 65in (170cm).[121][122] The panels have a resolution of 3840 2160 and the 55in (140cm) panel supports a wide color gamut that covers 96% of the NTSC color space.[121][122] On January 14, 2013, Blu-ray Disc Association president Andy Parsons stated that a task force created three months ago is studying an extension to the Blu-ray Disc specification that would add support for 4K Ultra HD video.[123][124] On January 25, 2013, the BBC announced that the BBC Natural History Unit will produce Survival which will be the first wildlife TV series to be filmed in 4K resolution.[125][126] On January 27, 2013, Asahi Shimbun reported that 4K Ultra HD satellite broadcasts will start in Japan with the 2014 FIFA World Cup.[126][127][128] Japans Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications decided on this move to stimulate demand for 4K Ultra HD TVs.[126][127][128]

12

Standards
Standards that deal with UHDTV include: Rec. ITU-R BT.1201-1 (2004)[129] Rec. ITU-R BT.1769 (2006))[130] Rec. ITU-R BT.2020 (2012)[11] SMPTE 2036-1 (2009)[131] SMPTE 2036-2 (2008)[131] SMPTE 2036-3 (2010)[131]

Prototype camera head (2006)

Prototype camera head (2009)

Ultra high definition television

13

References
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14

Ultra high definition television


[61] Mike Snider (2012-10-25). "New Ultra HD TVs arrive in stores" (http:/ / www. usatoday. com/ story/ tech/ personal/ 2012/ 10/ 25/ ultra-hd-tvs-hit-market/ 1653665/ ). USA Today. . Retrieved 2012-10-26. [62] Julie Jacobson (2012-10-25). "Street Price set at $16,999 for LGs 84-in 4K Ultra HD TV" (http:/ / www. cepro. com/ article/ street_price_set_at_16999_for_lgs_84-in_4k_ultra_hd_tv/ ). CEPro. . Retrieved 2012-10-26. [63] "AUO Reveals 65-inch 4K by 2K IGZO TV Panel Technology" (http:/ / www. auo. com/ ?sn=107& lang=en-US& c=10& n=1459). AUO. 2012-10-26. . Retrieved 2012-10-27. [64] Alex Wolfgram (2012-10-26). "AUO reveals 65-inch ultra HD IGZO TV panel technology" (http:/ / www. digitimes. com/ news/ a20121026PR201. html). Digitimes. . Retrieved 2012-10-27. [65] Don Reisinger (2012-11-13). "Samsung readies 85-inch Ultra HDTV for CES 2013" (http:/ / news. cnet. com/ 8301-1023_3-57549063-93/ samsung-readies-85-inch-ultra-hdtv-for-ces-2013/ ). CNet. . Retrieved 2012-12-28. [66] Zak Islam (2012-11-14). "Samsung to Reveal World's Largest Ultra HD TV at CES 2013" (http:/ / www. tomshardware. com/ news/ Samsung-TV-CES-2013-LG,19072. html). Tom's Hardware. . Retrieved 2012-12-28. [67] "Sharp to Introduce PN-K321 LCD Monitor Featuring the Industry's Thinnest Design in a High-Resolution 4K2K Display" (http:/ / www. sharp-world. com/ corporate/ news/ 121128. html). Sharp Corporation. 2012-11-28. . Retrieved 2012-11-28. [68] Kevin Parrish (2012-11-28). "Sharp Intros IGZO 32-inch 4K2K (3840 x 2160) Display" (http:/ / www. tomshardware. com/ news/ IGZO-4K2K-PN-K321-DisplayPort-HDMI,19403. html). tomshardware.com. . Retrieved 2012-11-28. [69] "Sony's First Collection Of 4K Ultra HD Content For The Home Now Available For Consumers" (https:/ / news. sel. sony. com/ en/ press_room/ consumer/ television/ release/ 64159. html?CSRT=16233021794348780052). Sony. 2012-11-29. . Retrieved 2012-11-29. [70] "Sony's First Collection Of 4K Ultra HD Content For The Home Now Available For Consumers" (http:/ / www. prnewswire. com/ news-releases/ sonys-first-collection-of-4k-ultra-hd-content-for-the-home-now-available-for-consumers-181358331. html). PRNewswire. 2012-11-29. . Retrieved 2012-11-29.

15

[71] Richard Lawler (2012-11-29). "Sony's 4K Ultra HD Video Player revealed, COO Phil Molyneux tells us what 'only Sony can do'" (http:/ / www. engadget. com/ 2012/ 11/ 29/ sony-4k-ultra-hd-video-player-phil-molyneux/ ). Engadget. . Retrieved 2012-11-29. [72] "REDRAY 4K Cinema Player" (http:/ / www. red. com/ products/ redray). Red Digital Cinema. 2012-11-30. . Retrieved 2012-12-01. [73] Richard Lawler (2012-11-30). "Redray 4K Cinema Player is ready to pre-order: $1,450 for high-res, high framerate home viewing" (http:/ / www. engadget. com/ 2012/ 11/ 30/ redray-4k-cinema-player-1-450-pre-order/ ). Engadget. . Retrieved 2012-12-07. [74] "Helinet Aviation Acquires Shotover, Developer of World's First Ultra HD Aerial Camera System for Motion Picture and Television Production" (http:/ / www. prnewswire. com/ news-releases/ helinet-aviation-acquires-shotover-developer-of-worlds-first-ultra-hd-aerial-camera-system-for-motion-picture-and-television-production-183336351. html). PRNewswire. 2012-12-13. . Retrieved 2012-12-13. [75] "Helinet Aviation acquires developer of Ultra HD aerial camera system" (http:/ / broadcastengineering. com/ cameras-amp-lenses/ helinet-aviation-acquires-developer-ultra-hd-aerial-camera-system). Broadcast Engineering. 2013-01-07. . Retrieved 2013-01-07. [76] Richard Lawler (2012-12-26). "LG Display is bringing Ultra HD TVs in multiple sizes, high res mobile screens and more to CES" (http:/ / www. engadget. com/ 2012/ 12/ 26/ lg-display-is-bringing-ultra-hd-tvs-in-multiple-sizes-high-res/ ). Engadget. . Retrieved 2012-12-27. [77] "LG Display to unveil Ultra HD TV range, monitor at CES 2013" (http:/ / www. electronista. com/ articles/ 12/ 12/ 27/ ultra. hd. high. on. the. agenda. for. lg. along. with. thin. bezels/ ). electronista. 2012-12-27. . Retrieved 2012-12-27. [78] Zach Honig (2012-12-27). "Westinghouse 110-inch 4K TV to ship alongside 65, 55 and 50-inch models in Q1" (http:/ / www. engadget. com/ 2012/ 12/ 27/ westinghouse-4k-tvs-at-ces/ ). Engadget. . Retrieved 2012-12-27. [79] Rachel Cericola (2012-12-28). "Westinghouse 110-inch Ultra HDTV Debuting at CES" (http:/ / www. cepro. com/ article/ westinghouse_110-inch_ultra_hdtv_debuting_at_ces/ K15). CE Pro. . Retrieved 2012-12-28. [80] Rasmus Larsen (2012-12-28). "Westinghouse: 65, 55 & 50" Ultra HD TVs in Q1" (http:/ / www. flatpanelshd. com/ news. php?subaction=showfull& id=1356671923). FlatpanelsHD. . Retrieved 2012-12-28. [81] Julie Jacobson (2012-12-27). "AVAD Gets Exclusive on JVC 4K Ultra HD Display" (http:/ / www. cepro. com/ article/ avad_gets_exclusive_on_jvc_4k_ultra_hd_display/ ). CE Pro. . Retrieved 2012-12-27. [82] "ViewSonic to Preview 84" 4K Ultra HD Display at CES" (http:/ / www. marketwire. com/ press-release/ viewsonic-to-preview-84-4k-ultra-hd-display-at-ces-1742005. htm). Marketwire. 2013-01-03. . Retrieved 2013-01-04. [83] "ViewSonic to Preview 84" 4K Ultra HD Display at CES" (http:/ / finance. yahoo. com/ news/ viewsonic-preview-84-4k-ultra-130000765. html). Yahoo! Finance. 2013-01-03. . Retrieved 2013-01-04. [84] "LG To Expand Ultra HD TV Lineup For 2013" (http:/ / www. prnewswire. com/ news-releases/ lg-to-expand-ultra-hd-tv-lineup-for-2013-185631352. html). PRNewswire. 2013-01-04. . Retrieved 2013-01-04. [85] Ian Paul (2013-01-04). "LG gets a jump on CES, announces Ultra HD TV lineup for 2013" (http:/ / www. pcworld. com/ article/ 2023700/ lg-gets-a-jump-on-ces-announces-ultra-hd-tv-lineup-for-2013. html). PC World. . Retrieved 2013-01-04. [86] Joanna Stern (2013-01-06). "CES 2013: Toshiba Kicks Off the Ultra HD TV Flood with its L9300 Series" (http:/ / abcnews. go. com/ blogs/ technology/ 2013/ 01/ ces-2013-toshiba-kicks-off-the-ultra-hd-tv-flood-with-its-l9300-series/ ). ABC News. . Retrieved 2013-01-07. [87] Grant Clauser (2013-01-07). "Toshiba Ultra HD 4K TVs Launch at CES 2013" (http:/ / www. cepro. com/ article/ toshiba_ultra_hd_4k_tvs_launch_at_ces_2013/ ). CEPro. . Retrieved 2013-01-07. [88] Sebastian Pop (2013-01-07). "CES 2013: Toshiba's 84-Inch 4K LED UHDTV" (http:/ / news. softpedia. com/ news/ CES-2013-Toshiba-s-84-Inch-4K-LED-UHDTV-318920. shtml). Softpedia. . Retrieved 2013-01-07.

Ultra high definition television

16

[89] Martyn Williams (2013-01-06). "Japan's NHK eyes 8K TV broadcasting from 2016" (http:/ / www. pcworld. idg. com. au/ article/ 445664/ japan_nhk_eyes_8k_tv_broadcasting_from_2016/ ). PC World. . Retrieved 2013-01-23. [90] Richard Lawler (2013-01-07). "Sharp AQUOS Ultra HD, 1080p HDTVs eyes-on" (http:/ / www. engadget. com/ 2013/ 01/ 07/ sharp-aquos-ultra-hd-1080p-hdtvs-eyes-on/ ). Engadget. . Retrieved 2013-01-07. [91] Sean Cooper (2013-01-07). "Sharp launches AQUOS Ultra HD panel for second half 2013" (http:/ / www. engadget. com/ 2013/ 01/ 07/ sharp-launches-aquos-ultra-hd-panel/ ). Engadget. . Retrieved 2013-01-07. [92] Jeff Blagdon (2013-01-07). "Sharp unveils its first 4K Ultra HD TVs for the US market" (http:/ / www. theverge. com/ 2013/ 1/ 7/ 3847102/ sharp-unveils-its-first-4k-ultra-hd-tvs-for-the-us-market). The Verge. . Retrieved 2013-01-07. [93] Ty Pendlebury (2013-01-07). "Sharp Purios about Ultra HD TV" (http:/ / ces. cnet. com/ 8301-34451_1-57562520/ sharp-purios-about-ultra-hd-tv/ ). CNET. . Retrieved 2013-01-07. [94] "VIZIO Reveals Expanded 2013 HDTV Collection Adding Ultra HD and Enhanced Smart TVs to Already Award-Winning All-LED HDTV Line-Up" (http:/ / www. prnewswire. com/ news-releases/ vizio-reveals-expanded-2013-hdtv-collection-adding-ultra-hd-and-enhanced-smart-tvs-to-already-award-winning-all-led-hdtv-line-up-185862562. html). PRNewswire. 2013-01-07. . Retrieved 2013-01-12. [95] Scott Lowe (2013-01-07). "CES: Vizio Introduces 70-inch 4K Ultra HD TV" (http:/ / www. ign. com/ articles/ 2013/ 01/ 07/ ces-vizio-introduces-70-inch-4k-ultra-hd-tv). IGN. . Retrieved 2013-01-07. [96] Alex Wawro (2013-01-07). "Vizio leaps onto the Ultra HD bandwagon at CES" (http:/ / www. pcworld. com/ article/ 2023975/ vizio-leaps-onto-the-ultra-hd-bandwagon-at-ces. html). PC World. . Retrieved 2013-01-07. [97] "Sony Announces 2013 BRAVIA TVs" (https:/ / blog. sony. com/ press/ sony-announces-2013-bravia-tvs/ ). Sony. 2013-01-07. . Retrieved 2013-01-12. [98] Daniel Cooper (2013-01-07). "Sony announces 65-and 55-inch Ultra HD TVs at CES: arriving this spring, pricing a mystery" (http:/ / www. engadget. com/ 2013/ 01/ 07/ sony-smaller-size-4k-tvs/ ). Engadget. . Retrieved 2013-01-08. [99] "Eyes on: Panasonic's 56 Ultra HD OLED TV" (http:/ / www. electronista. com/ articles/ 13/ 01/ 08/ claimed. largest. ultra. hd. oled. tv/ ). electronista. 2013-01-08. . Retrieved 2013-01-08. [100] Mario Aguilar (2013-01-07). "Sony 56-Inch 4K OLED TV Hands-On: So Bright, So Beautiful, So Far From Existing (Updated)" (http:/ / www. engadget. com/ 2013/ 01/ 07/ sony-smaller-size-4k-tvs/ ). Gizmodo. . Retrieved 2013-01-08. [101] Michael Rougeau (2013-01-07). "Eyes on: Sony and Panasonic's 56-inch 4K Ultra HD OLED TVs" (http:/ / www. techradar. com/ news/ television/ hdtv/ eyes-on-sony-and-panasonics-56-inch-4k-ultra-hd-oled-tvs-1123767). TechRadar. . Retrieved 2013-01-08. [102] "Eutelsat Launches Europe's First Dedicated Ultra HD (4K) Channel" (http:/ / www. prnewswire. com/ news-releases/ eutelsat-launches-europes-first-dedicated-ultra-hd-4k-channel-185893172. html). PRNewswire. 2013-01-07. . Retrieved 2013-01-08. [103] "Eutelsat Launches Europe's First Dedicated Ultra HD (4K) Channel" (http:/ / www. eutelsat. com/ news/ compress/ en/ 2013/ pdf/ PR0313-Ultra-HD. pdf) (PDF). Eutelsat. 2013-01-07. . Retrieved 2013-01-08. [104] Ben Drawbaugh (2013-01-14). "First Ultra HD channel goes live in Europe" (http:/ / www. engadget. com/ 2013/ 01/ 14/ first-ultra-hd-channel-goes-live-in-europe/ ). Engadget. . Retrieved 2013-01-15. [105] Philip Hunter (2013-01-11). "Eutelsat provides Europe's first ultra HD channel" (http:/ / broadcastengineering. com/ hdtv/ eutelsat-provides-europes-first-ultra-hd-channel). Broadcast Engineering. . Retrieved 2013-01-15. [106] Raj Talluri (2013-01-07). "Snapdragon 800 Series and 600 Processors Unveiled" (http:/ / www. qualcomm. com/ media/ blog/ 2013/ 01/ 07/ snapdragon-800-series-and-600-processors-unveiled). Qualcomm. . Retrieved 2013-01-10. [107] Nate Lanxon (2013-01-08). "Mobiles that capture 4K 'Ultra HD' coming this year, confirms Qualcomm CEO" (http:/ / www. wired. co. uk/ news/ archive/ 2013-01/ 08/ 4k-tablets). Wired (website). . Retrieved 2013-01-10. [108] Charlie Osborne (2013-01-08). "Qualcomm unveils Snapdragon 800 chips, aimed at 'premium' mobiles" (http:/ / www. zdnet. com/ qualcomm-unveils-snapdragon-800-chips-aimed-at-premium-mobiles-7000009513/ ). ZDNet. . Retrieved 2013-01-10. [109] Jon Fingas (2013-01-07). "The World's First/Largest 4K OLED TV Panel Makes Its Debut at CES" (http:/ / www. engadget. com/ 2013/ 01/ 07/ hisense-previews-2013-tv-lineup-that-includes-a-110-inch-4k-set/ ). Engadget. . Retrieved 2013-01-13. [110] Matt Swider (2013-01-07). "Hands on: 110-inch HiSense XT900 review" (http:/ / www. techradar. com/ us/ reviews/ audio-visual/ televisions/ 110-inch-hisense-xt900-review-1123786/ review). TechRadar. . Retrieved 2013-01-13. [111] Andrew Goldfarb (2013-01-07). "CES: Samsung Reveals Floating 85-inch 4K TV" (http:/ / www. ign. com/ articles/ 2013/ 01/ 07/ ces-samsung-reveals-floating-85-inch-4k-tv). IGN. . Retrieved 2013-01-15. [112] Sam Byford (2013-01-15). "Samsung unveils amazing 85-inch 4K TV with 'floating' design" (http:/ / www. theverge. com/ 2013/ 1/ 7/ 3842602/ samsung-un85s9-85-inch-4k-uhd-tv-announced). The Verge. . Retrieved 2013-01-15. [113] Salvador Rodriguez (2013-01-15). "Samsung takes pre-orders for Ultra HD TV in Korea priced at $38,000" (http:/ / www. latimes. com/ business/ technology/ la-fi-tn-samsung-ultra-hd-4k-38000-20130115,0,7916854. story). Los Angeles Times. . Retrieved 2013-01-15. [114] "BCM7445" (http:/ / www. broadcom. com/ products/ Cable/ Cable-Set-Top-Box-Solutions/ BCM7445). Broadcom. . Retrieved 2013-01-08. [115] "Broadcom Unveils World's First UltraHD TV Home Gateway Chip" (http:/ / www. broadcom. com/ press/ release. php?id=s732069). Broadcom. 2013-01-08. . Retrieved 2013-01-08. [116] Joseph Volpe (2013-01-08). "Broadcom's new ARM-based chip boosts Ultra HD TV into living rooms of the future" (http:/ / www. engadget. com/ 2013/ 01/ 08/ broadcoms-arm-based-chip-ultra-hd-tv/ ). Engadget. . Retrieved 2013-01-08.

Ultra high definition television


[117] Dean Takahashi (2013-01-08). "Broadcom unveils first Ultra HD TV home gateway chip" (http:/ / venturebeat. com/ 2013/ 01/ 08/ broadcom-launches-first-ultra-hd-tv-home-gateway-chip/ ). VentureBeat. . Retrieved 2013-01-08. [118] "THX Unveils New 4K Certification Program for Ultra High-Definition Displays" (http:/ / www. thx. com/ press-releases/ thx-unveils-new-4k-certification-program-for-ultra-high-definition-displays/ ). THX. 2013-01-08. . Retrieved 2013-01-12. [119] "THX Unveils New 4K Certification Program for Ultra High-Definition Displays" (http:/ / finance. yahoo. com/ news/ thx-unveils-4k-certification-program-133000114. html). Yahoo! Finance. 2013-01-08. . Retrieved 2013-01-12. [120] "THX Unveils New 4K Certification Program for Ultra High-Definition Displays" (http:/ / www. businesswire. com/ news/ home/ 20130108005125/ en/ THX-Unveils-4K-Certification-Program-Ultra-High-Definition). Business Wire. 2013-01-08. . Retrieved 2013-01-12. [121] "The World's First/Largest 4K OLED TV Panel Makes Its Debut at CES" (http:/ / www. prnewswire. com/ news-releases/ the-worlds-firstlargest-4k-oled-tv-panel-makes-its-debut-at-ces-186123722. html). PRNewswire. 2013-01-09. . Retrieved 2013-01-13. [122] "LG To Expand Ultra HD TV Lineup For 2013" (http:/ / www. prnewswire. com/ news-releases/ lg-to-expand-ultra-hd-tv-lineup-for-2013-185631352. html). PRNewswire. 2013-01-04. . Retrieved 2013-01-04. [123] Melissa J. Perenson (2013-01-14). "Blu-ray looks ahead to 4K" (http:/ / www. pcworld. com/ article/ 2024919/ blu-ray-looks-ahead-to-4k. html). PC World. . Retrieved 2013-01-17. [124] Gareth Halfacree (2013-01-16). "Ultra HD Blu-ray discs being researched by the BDA" (http:/ / www. expertreviews. co. uk/ blu-ray-players/ 1297180/ ultra-hd-blu-ray-discs-being-researched-by-the-bda). expertreviews.co.uk. . Retrieved 2013-01-17. [125] Ian Burrell (2013-01-25). "HD? 3D? No, the future of television is 4K and its brought to you by some very sharp meerkats" (http:/ / www. independent. co. uk/ arts-entertainment/ tv/ news/ hd-3d-no-the-future-of-television-is-4k--and-its-brought-to-you-by-some-very-sharp-meerkats-8467820. html). The Independent. . Retrieved 2013-01-28. [126] Kate Solomon (2013-01-28). "Meerkats to go Ultra HD in BBC's first 4K broadcast" (http:/ / www. techradar. com/ news/ tv/ television/ meerkats-to-go-ultra-hd-in-bbcs-first-4k-broadcast-1127915). TechRadar. . Retrieved 2013-01-28. [127] Tony Smith (2013-01-28). "Japan promised Ultra HD TV broadcasts two years early" (http:/ / www. theregister. co. uk/ 2013/ 01/ 28/ japan_promised_ultra_hd_tv_early/ ). The Register. . Retrieved 2013-01-28. [128] Ricardo Bilton (2013-01-27). "Japan wants to bring 4K Ultra HD broadcasts to televisions by next year" (http:/ / venturebeat. com/ 2013/ 01/ 27/ japanese-government-4k-broadcasting/ ). VentureBeat. . Retrieved 2013-01-28. [129] "BT.1201-1 : Extremely high resolution imagery" (http:/ / www. itu. int/ rec/ R-REC-BT. 1201/ en). ITU. 2004-03-01. . Retrieved 2012-11-04. [130] "BT.1769 : Parameter values for an expanded hierarchy of LSDI image formats for production and international programme exchange" (http:/ / www. itu. int/ rec/ R-REC-BT. 1769/ en). ITU. 2006-07-01. . Retrieved 2012-11-04. [131] "ST 2036-1-2009" (http:/ / store. smpte. org/ product-p/ st 2036-1-2009. htm). SMPTE. . Retrieved 2012-11-05.

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External links
Official sites of NHK NHK Super Hi-Vision (http://www.nhk.or.jp/digital/en/super_hi/index.html) NHK Science & Technical Research Laboratories (http://www.nhk.or.jp/strl/english/index.html) Annual report 2009 about NHK STRL, Super Hi-Vision research (http://www.nhk.or.jp/strl/english/ aboutstrl/annual2009/en/r1-1-1.html) Articles What is Ultra HDTV? (http://www.ultrahdtv.net/what-is-ultra-hdtv/) 4k and 8k Production Workflows Become More Mainstream by Donn Gurule (http://lightbeamsystems.com/ lightbeam-blog/83-4k-and-8k-production-workflows-become-more-mainstream.html) What is the meaning of UHDTV and its difference to HDTV? (http://www.uhdmi.com) Ultra high resolution television (UHDV) prototype (http://www.cdfreaks.com/news/ Ultra-high-resolution-television-UHDV-prototype.html) CD Freaks Just Like High-Definition TV, but With Higher Definition (http://www.nytimes.com/2004/06/03/technology/ circuits/03next.html?ex=1401595200&en=935183cee9a4bd49&ei=5007) The New York Times Japan demonstrates next-gen TV broadcast (http://www.eetimes.com/news/latest/showArticle. jhtml?articleID=173402762) Electronic Engineering Times Europe gets glimpse of HD future (http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/technology/5335870.stm) BBC News Online Researchers craft HDTV's successor (http://www.pcworld.com/article/id,132289-pg,1/article.html) PC World (magazine)

Ultra high definition television Super Hi-Vision research on a future ultra-HDTV system (http://www.ebu.ch/en/technical/trev/ trev_2008-Q2_nhk-ultra-hd.pdf) Masayuki Sugawara, EBU Technical Review Farewell to the Kingdom of Shadows (http://www.christopherleeball.com/musings/2008/10/ farewell-to-the-kingdom-of-shadows/) A filmmaker's first impression of Super Hi-Vision television Video The TV format to replace HD (http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/technology/7617702.stm) BBC News Online

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8K resolution
Several 8K resolutions exist in digital television and digital cinematography. The term 8K refers to the horizontal resolution of these formats, which are all on the order of 8,000 pixels.

Resolutions
8192 4320 (17:9) (35.3 megapxels)[1]

Digital cinema
8K represents the horizontal resolution because there are numerous aspect ratios used in film. So while the horizontal resolution is kept constant, the vertical depends on the aspect ratio with the principal decides to work.

8K UHD
8K UHD[2] is a resolution of 7680 4320 (33.1 megapixels) and is one of the two resolutions of ultra high definition television, the other being 4K UHD. 8K UHD has four times the horizontal and vertical resolution of the 1080p HDTV format, with sixteen times as many pixels overall. Examples: 1920 x 4 = 7680 1080 x 4 = 4320
8K UHDV (76804320) 1080p 1080p 1080p 1080p (1920x1080) (1920x1080) (1920x1080) (1920x1080) 1080p 1080p 1080p 1080p (1920x1080) (1920x1080) (1920x1080) (1920x1080) 1080p 1080p 1080p 1080p (1920x1080) (1920x1080) (1920x1080) (1920x1080) 1080p 1080p 1080p 1080p (1920x1080) (1920x1080) (1920x1080) (1920x1080)

8K resolution

19

History References
[1] "NHK Has Finally Shrunk Their 8K Resolution Camera, but How Close Are We to Shooting in 8K?" (http:/ / nofilmschool. com/ 2012/ 05/ nhk-finally-shrunk-8k-camera-data-rates/ ). http:/ / nofilmschool. com/ . . [2] "CES 2013: Sharp Demoes Double-UHD (8K) Set, Two 4K Sets, 21 New Aquos 3D Smart TVs" (http:/ / www. dailytech. com/ CES+ 2013+ Sharp+ Demoes+ DoubleUHD+ 8K+ Set+ Two+ 4K+ Sets+ 21+ New+ Aquos+ 3D+ Smart+ TVs/ article29579. htm). http:/ / www. dailytech. com/ . .

4K resolution
Several 4K resolutions exist in digital television and digital cinematography. The term 4K refers to the horizontal resolution of these formats, which are all on the order of 4,000 pixels.

Resolutions
4K Ultra HD
4K UHD is a resolution of 3840 pixels 2160 pixels (8.3 megapixels, aspect ratio 16:9) and is one of the two resolutions of ultra high definition television, the other being 8K UHD which is 7680 pixels 4320 pixels (33.2 megapixels). Both are aimed at consumer televisions. 4K UHD has twice the horizontal and vertical resolution of the 1080p HDTV format, with four times as many pixels overall.[1]
4K movie sample (4,096 2,304 pixels), though to view at the full 4k resolution, the file needs to be downloaded and viewed on a high pixel count monitor.

Digital cinema
The Digital Cinema Initiatives consortium established a standard resolution of 4096 2160 (8.8 megapixels, aspect ratio 256:135) for 16:9 resolutions in comparison 4K film projection. This is the native resolution for DCI-compliant 4K digital projectors and monitors; pixels are cropped from the top or sides depending on the aspect ratio of the content being projected. The DCI 4K standard has twice the horizontal and vertical resolution of DCI 2K, with four times as many pixels overall. 4K digital films may be produced, scanned, or stored in a number of other resolutions depending on what storage aspect ratio is used.[2][3] On professional production, 4K/UltraHD content is produced from high-end film captured by 8K scanners (7680x4320 pixels) or 8K sensors cameras (7680x4320 pels) or 4K CGI (4096px X 2160px). (Content produced from digital cameras using "4K sensors" (3840 pel x 2160 pels) is not considered 4K-Digital-Film/UltraHD but 2K)

4K resolution

20

Streaming video
YouTube allows a maximum upload resolution of 4096 3072 (12.6 megapixels, aspect ratio 4:3).[4][5] However, YouTube's web-based video player is limited to a maximum of only 2048 1536 (3.1 megapixels).[6] 4K videos on YouTube can still be downloaded in their original resolution using a YouTube downloader.

Resolutions of common formats


Format 4K Ultra high definition television Resolution Display aspect ratio Pixels 8,294,400 8,847,360 7,020,544 8,631,360 9,739,584 12,746,752

3840 2160 1.78:1

Digital Cinema Initiatives 4k (native resolution) 4096 2160 1.90:1 DCI 4K (CinemaScope cropped) DCI 4K (flat cropped) Academy 4K (storage format) Full aperture 4K (storage format) 4096 1714 2.39:1 3996 2160 1.85:1 3656 2664 1.37:1 4096 3112 1.32:1

Source equipment
Examples of 4K cameras: Dalsa Origin - released in 2006 and records at 4096 2048 (8.3 megapixels) RED ONE - released in 2007 and records at 4096 2304 (9.4 megapixels) RED EPIC - released in 2011 and records at DCI 4K (4096 2160, 8.8 megapixels) RED Scarlet-X - released in November 2011 JVC GY-HMQ10 - released in 2012 and records at UHD 4K (3840 2160, 8.3 megapixels) Sony CineAlta F65 - released in 2012 and records at DCI 4K Canon EOS C500 - released in 2012 and records in DCI 4K Canon EOS-1D C DSLR - released in 2012 and records at DCI 4K GoPro HERO3 Black - released in 2012 and records at DCI 4K (the framerate is limited to 15 fps)

List of 4K monitors and projectors


The following monitors and projectors support 4K, in some cases downsampling them to Ultra HD for display:
Manufacturer Astro Device Type monitor Model Resolution Diagonal PPI Launch date MSRP Signal Inputs

[7] DM-3428 [7] DM-3410-A [7] DM-3412

38402160 28 inch 38402160 32 inch 38402160 56 inch 60 inch

157.4 pixel/inch 78.7 pixel/inch 73.4 pixel/inch

$50,000 USD (28 inch) $45,000 USD (32 inch)

4K resolution
[8] LC-5621 [9] DP4K-23B [10] DP4K-32B [11] SIM 10 [12] Galaxy 4K-12 [13] Galaxy 4K-23 [14] Galaxy 4K-32

21
monitor projector 38402160 40962160 40962160 40962400 40962160 40962160 40962160 56 inch Up to 23m/75ft Up to 32m/105ft Up to 23m/75ft Up to 23m/75ft Up to 32m/105ft 78.7 pixel/inch varies varies varies varies varies varies Apr 16, 2007 Mar 24, 2011 Mar 24, 2011 Nov 29, 2010 Jun 11, 2011 Jun 11, 2011 Jun 11, 2011 2 DLDVI-D 2 DVI-D, 3G-SDI 2 DVI-D, 3G-SDI 4 DLDVI-D 2 DVI-D, 3G-SDI 2 DVI-D, 3G-SDI 2 DVI-D, 3G-SDI

Barco

Christie

DLP projector monitor

D4K35

[15]

40962160 Up to 30.5m 40962160 36.4 inch

varies

2 or 4 3G HD-SDI, 2 HDMI 1.3 $34,844 USD 26,002 EUR <$10,000 USD 2 DLDVI-D, 2 DP

Eizo

DuraVision [16] FDH3601 XT880

127.2 Sep pixel/inch 2011 Oct 2012

Hisense

TV

38402160 50 inch 58 inch 65 inch 38402400 22.2 inch

IBM

monitor

IBM T220/T221

204 June pixel/inch 2001 Jan 2013 52.5 Aug pixel/inch 2012

$17,999 USD

4 DVI-D

JVC

monitor

PS-840UD [17] RS-840UD 84LM9600 [18]

38402160 84 inch

<$20,000 USD

LG

TV

38402160 84 inch

$16,999 / $19,999 [19] USD (MSRP) 25 [18][20][21] million $44,140.00 USD [24]

4 HDMI 1.4

[22]

Mitsubishi Electric NEC

monitor

56P-QF65LCU [25]

[23]

38402160 56 inch

78.7 Apr pixel/inch 2012 Mar 24, 2011

DLP projector

NC3240S

40962160 Up to 32m varies (105ft) 38402160 56 inch

4x HD-SDI, 2x DVI-D DC801:2 DVI-DL, DC802:4(DVI-D, HDMI, DisplayPort) DC804:4(DVI-D, HDMI, DisplayPort, 3G-SDI) $500,000 USD [29] 2 HDMI1.4a, 4 DVI-D

Optik View monitor

[26] DC801, [27] DC802 [26] DC804,

78.4 Sep pixel/inch 2011 Jan 2012 Jun 2012 30.5 Jul 1, pixel/inch 2010

Panasonic

monitor (television); 3D (active shutter glasses) monitor

TH-152UX1

[28]

40962160 152 inch

Sharp, Eyevis Sony

EYE-LCD6400-4K

40962160 64 inch

72.4 pixel/inch 78.7 Dec pixel/inch 2009 varies Dec 2011

$53,000 USD

4 DVI-D

monitor projector

[30] SRM-L560 VPL-VW1000ES

38402160 56 inch 40962160 varies

<$25,000 USD

2 HDMI

4K resolution
[31]

22
TV 38402160 84 inch 52.5 Sep pixel/inch 2012 80.1 Dec pixel/inch 2011 (JP) Dec 2011 (DE) Mar 2012 (EU) 78.4 Apr pixel/inch 2011 $25,000 USD 4 HDMI

Sony

XBR-84X900

Toshiba

monitor (television); 3D (autostereoscopic)

Regza 55X3 [32] (JP) 55ZL2G (EU)

38402160 55 inch

$11,730 USD 7,990 EUR

4 HDMI 1.4 (none 4k enabled)

TVLogic

monitor

LUM-560W

[33]

38402160 56 inch

$65,995 USD

4 DVI-D, 4 1.5/3G-SDI, 4 HDMI 2 DVI-DL, HDMI, DP 2HDMI, DP

ViewSonic

monitor

VP3280-LED

[34]

38402160 31.5 inch

150 End pixel/inch 2012

[35] $30.000-40.000, "about the price of a [36] car" $5,500 USD

Sharp

monitor

PN-K321

[37][38]

38402160 32 inch

138 Nov pixel/inch 2012

History External links


Articles What is Ultra HDTV? [39] 4k and 8k Production Workflows Become More Mainstream by Donn Gurule [40] What is the meaning of UHDTV and its difference to HDTV? [41] Ultra high resolution television (UHDV) prototype [42] CD Freaks Just Like High-Definition TV, but With Higher Definition [43] The New York Times Japan demonstrates next-gen TV broadcast [44] Electronic Engineering Times Europe gets glimpse of HD future [45] BBC News Online Researchers craft HDTV's successor [46] PC World (magazine) Super Hi-Vision research on a future ultra-HDTV system [47] Masayuki Sugawara, EBU Technical Review Farewell to the Kingdom of Shadows [48] A filmmaker's first impression of Super Hi-Vision television

Official sites of NHK NHK Super Hi-Vision [49] NHK Science & Technical Research Laboratories [50] Annual report 2009 about NHK STRL, Super Hi-Vision research [51] Video The TV format to replace HD [52] BBC News Online

4K resolution

23

References
[1] "Ultra High Definition Television: Threshold of a new age" (http:/ / www. itu. int/ net/ pressoffice/ press_releases/ 2012/ 31. aspx). ITU. 2012-05-24. . Retrieved 2012-08-18. [2] http:/ / renderman. pixar. com/ view/ resolution-table [3] "4K resolution Definition from PC Magazine Encyclopedia" (http:/ / www. pcmag. com/ encyclopedia_term/ 0,2542,t=4K+ resolution& i=57419,00. asp). PC Magazine. 1994-12-01. . Retrieved 2010-05-28. [4] Ramesh Sarukkai (2010-07-09). "What's bigger than 1080p? 4K video comes to YouTube" (http:/ / youtube-global. blogspot. com/ 2010/ 07/ whats-bigger-than-1080p-4k-video-comes. html). Archived (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20110716174036/ http:/ / youtube-global. blogspot. com/ 2010/ 07/ whats-bigger-than-1080p-4k-video-comes. html) from the original on 16 July 2011. . Retrieved 2011-08-20. [5] https:/ / support. google. com/ youtube/ bin/ answer. py?hl=en& topic=1728573& hlrm=zh-Hant& ctx=topic& answer=1722171 [6] http:/ / productforums. google. com/ d/ topic/ youtube/ n9Olt_nEp08 [7] "DM-3428/DM-3432/DM-3410-A/DM-3412 4K Monitor Lineup | ASTRODESIGN.Inc" (http:/ / www. astrodesign. co. jp/ english/ product/ dm-3428-dm-3410-a#section5). Astrodesign.co.jp. . Retrieved 2012-08-17. [8] "Products & Solutions | Displays, monitors & workstations | Large format displays | LC-5621" (http:/ / www. barco. com/ en/ product/ 1831). Barco. 2010-10-21. . Retrieved 2012-08-17. [9] "Products & Solutions | Projectors | Digital cinema projectors | DP4K-23B" (http:/ / www. barco. com/ en/ product/ 2383). Barco. 2012-07-03. . Retrieved 2012-08-17. [10] "Products & Solutions | Projectors | Digital cinema projectors | DP4K-32B" (http:/ / www. barco. com/ en/ product/ 2310). Barco. . Retrieved 2012-08-17. [11] "Products & Solutions | Projectors | Simulation projectors | SIM 10" (http:/ / www. barco. com/ en/ product/ 2333). Barco. 2010-12-08. . Retrieved 2012-08-17. [12] "Products & Solutions | Projectors | Stereoscopic projectors | Galaxy 4K-12" (http:/ / www. barco. com/ en/ product/ 2442). Barco. . Retrieved 2012-08-17. [13] "Products & Solutions | Projectors | Stereoscopic projectors | Galaxy 4K-23" (http:/ / www. barco. com/ en/ product/ 2436). Barco. 2012-04-05. . Retrieved 2012-08-17. [14] "Products & Solutions | Projectors | Stereoscopic projectors | Galaxy 4K-32" (http:/ / www. barco. com/ en/ product/ 2437). Barco. . Retrieved 2012-08-17. [15] (http:/ / www. christiedigital. com/ SupportDocs/ Anonymous/ Christie-D4K35-Brochure. pdf) [16] "DuraVision FDH3601" (http:/ / www. eizo. com/ global/ products/ duravision/ fdh3601/ index. html). EIZO. . Retrieved 2012-08-17. [17] http:/ / broadcastengineering. com/ video-monitors/ jvc-professional-announces-two-84in-professional-4k-lcd-monitors [18] LG 84-inch 'ultra definition' 4K HDTV going on sale in limited quantities in Korea (http:/ / www. engadget. com/ 2012/ 07/ 19/ lg-84-inch-ultra-definition-4k-hdtv/ ) [19] http:/ / www. cepro. com/ article/ street_price_set_at_16999_for_lgs_84-in_4k_ultra_hd_tv/ [20] http:/ / www. bbc. co. uk/ news/ technology-19344834 LG releases 'world's biggest' ultra-definition TV [21] http:/ / www. theverge. com/ 2012/ 8/ 22/ 3259613/ lg-84-inch-4k-tv-korea-release-north-america-europe-latin-asia LG's 84-inch 4K TV hits Korean stores, coming to North America and Europe in September [22] http:/ / www. lg. com/ ae/ tvs/ lg-84LM9600 [23] "Mitsubishi Video Wall Products - All Products" (http:/ / www. mitsubishi-megaview. com/ products/ model56P-QF66LCU. html). Mitsubishi-megaview.com. 2009-05-29. . Retrieved 2012-08-17. [24] "Troxell Communications Inc. | Audio Visual Supplier | 56in Quad Hd Lcd Display | 56PQF65LCU | 56P-QF65LCU | MSU MIT56PQF65LCU| LCD Projectors | Interactive whiteboards | Document cameras, AV Equipment,Systems, Monitors, Screens, Plasma | infocus lp120" (http:/ / troxweb. teamtroxell. com/ www/ product. htm?ls1=& ls2=& sval=quad& brand=& so=h& User=& Sessn=& seen_last=& minpr=& maxpr=& ded=& esgrp=& ). Troxweb.teamtroxell.com. . Retrieved 2012-08-17. [25] http:/ / www. nec-display. com/ ap/ en_projector/ dlpcinema/ nc3240s/ spec. html [26] Optik View DC 801 (http:/ / www. optikview. com/ ?p=228) [27] Optik View DC802 (http:/ / www. optikview. com/ ?p=228) [28] "Panasonic to Launch the World's First Ultra-Large Full HD 3D Professional Plasma Displays | Headquarters News | Panasonic Global" (http:/ / panasonic. co. jp/ corp/ news/ official. data/ data. dir/ en100609-3/ en100609-3. html). Panasonic.co.jp. . Retrieved 2012-08-17. [29] "Learn about Panasonic's TH-152UX1" (http:/ / catalog2. panasonic. com/ webapp/ wcs/ stores/ servlet/ ModelDetail?storeId=11201& catalogId=13051& itemId=490650& catGroupId=14624& surfModel=TH-152UX1& displayTab=O). Catalog2.panasonic.com. . Retrieved 2012-08-17. [30] http:/ / pro. sony. com/ bbsc/ ssr/ product-SRML560/ [31] http:/ / www. pcadvisor. co. uk/ reviews/ digital-home/ 3379185/ sony-xbr-84x900-4k-tv-review/ Sony XBR-84X900 4K TV review [32] Electronic House. "Product News: Toshiba 55-inch Glasses-free 4K 3DTV Ships in December, by Grant Clauser" (http:/ / www. electronichouse. com/ article/ toshiba_55-inch_glasses-free_4k_3dtv_ships_in_december/ ?utm_source=eh& utm_medium=rp). Electronic House. . Retrieved 2012-08-17. [33] "TVLogic 56" 10bit 4K LCD monitor" (http:/ / www. tvlogicusa. com/ product/ product. php?model=LUM-560W). Tvlogicusa.com. . Retrieved 2012-08-17.

4K resolution
[34] ViewSonic VP3280-LED 31.5-inch 4K monitor prototype hands-on (video) (http:/ / www. engadget. com/ 2012/ 06/ 05/ viewsonic-vp3280-led-4k-monitor-hands-on/ ) [35] http:/ / on. aol. com/ video/ viewsonic-vp3280-led-31-5-inch-4k-monitor-hands-on-517502308 ViewSonic VP3280-LED 31.5-Inch 4K Monitor Hands-On [36] "ViewSonic VP3280-LED 31.5-inch 4K monitor prototype hands-on (video)" (http:/ / www. engadget. com/ 2012/ 06/ 05/ viewsonic-vp3280-led-4k-monitor-hands-on/ ). Engadget. 2012-06-05. . Retrieved 2012-08-17. [37] http:/ / www. sharp-world. com/ corporate/ news/ 121128. html Sharp to Introduce PN-K321 LCD Monitor Featuring the Industry's Thinnest Design in a High-Resolution 4K2K Display [38] http:/ / www. engadget. com/ 2012/ 11/ 27/ sharp-pn-k321-4k-igzo-lcd-monitor/ Sharp's first 4K 32-inch IGZO LCD is destined for Japanese workstations [39] http:/ / www. ultrahdtv. net/ what-is-ultra-hdtv/ [40] http:/ / lightbeamsystems. com/ lightbeam-blog/ 83-4k-and-8k-production-workflows-become-more-mainstream. html [41] http:/ / www. uhdmi. com [42] http:/ / www. cdfreaks. com/ news/ Ultra-high-resolution-television-UHDV-prototype. html [43] http:/ / www. nytimes. com/ 2004/ 06/ 03/ technology/ circuits/ 03next. html?ex=1401595200& en=935183cee9a4bd49& ei=5007 [44] http:/ / www. eetimes. com/ news/ latest/ showArticle. jhtml?articleID=173402762 [45] http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 1/ hi/ technology/ 5335870. stm [46] http:/ / www. pcworld. com/ article/ id,132289-pg,1/ article. html [47] http:/ / www. ebu. ch/ en/ technical/ trev/ trev_2008-Q2_nhk-ultra-hd. pdf [48] http:/ / www. christopherleeball. com/ musings/ 2008/ 10/ farewell-to-the-kingdom-of-shadows/ [49] http:/ / www. nhk. or. jp/ digital/ en/ super_hi/ index. html [50] http:/ / www. nhk. or. jp/ strl/ english/ index. html [51] http:/ / www. nhk. or. jp/ strl/ english/ aboutstrl/ annual2009/ en/ r1-1-1. html [52] http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 1/ hi/ technology/ 7617702. stm

24

High Efficiency Video Coding


High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) is a video compression standard, a successor to H.264/MPEG-4 AVC (Advanced Video Coding), currently under joint development by the ISO/IEC Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG) and ITU-T Video Coding Experts Group (VCEG) as ISO/IEC 23008-2 MPEG-H Part 2 and ITU-T H.HEVC.[1][2][3][4][5] MPEG and VCEG have established a Joint Collaborative Team on Video Coding (JCT-VC) to develop the HEVC standard.[1][2] HEVC is said to improve video quality, double the data compression ratio compared to H.264/MPEG-4 AVC, and can support 8K UHD and resolutions up to 81924320.[1][2][6]

History
In 2004, the ITU-T Video Coding Experts Group (VCEG) began significant study of technology advances that could enable creation of a new video compression standard (or substantial compression-oriented enhancements of the H.264/MPEG-4 AVC standard).[1] In October 2004, various techniques for potential enhancement of the H.264/MPEG-4 AVC standard were surveyed. In January 2005, at the next meeting of VCEG, VCEG began designating certain topics as "Key Technical Areas" (KTA) for further investigation. A software codebase called the KTA codebase was established for evaluating such proposals.[7] The KTA software was based on the Joint Model (JM) reference software that was developed by the MPEG & VCEG Joint Video Team for H.264/MPEG-4 AVC. Additional proposed technologies were integrated into the KTA software and tested in experiment evaluations over the next four years. [8] Two approaches for standardizing enhanced compression technology were considered: either creating a new standard or creating extensions of H.264/MPEG-4 AVC.[9] The project had tentative names H.265 and H.NGVC (Next-generation Video Coding), and was a major part of the work of VCEG until its evolution into the HEVC joint project with MPEG in 2010.[9][10][11] The preliminary requirements for NGVC was the capability to have a bit rate reduction of 50% at the same subjective image quality compared to the H.264/MPEG-4 AVC High profile and computational complexity ranging

High Efficiency Video Coding from 1/2 to 3 times that of the High profile.[11] NGVC would be able to provide 25% bit rate reduction along with 50% reduction in complexity at the same perceived video quality as the High profile, or to provide greater bit rate reduction with somewhat higher complexity.[11][12] The ISO/IEC Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG) started a similar project in 2007, tentatively named High-performance Video Coding.[13][14] An agreement of getting a bit rate reduction of 50% had been decided as the goal of the project by July 2007.[13] Early evaluations were performed with modifications of the KTA reference software encoder developed by VCEG.[1] By July 2009, experimental results showed average bit reduction of around 20% compared with AVC High Profile; these results prompted MPEG to initiate its standardization effort in collaboration with VCEG.[14] A formal joint Call for Proposals (CfP) on video compression technology was issued in January 2010 by VCEG and MPEG, and proposals were evaluated at the first meeting of the MPEG & VCEG Joint Collaborative Team on Video Coding (JCT-VC), which took place in April 2010.[1][9] A total of 27 full proposals were submitted.[9][15] Evaluations showed that some proposals could reach the same visual quality as AVC at only half the bit rate in many of the test cases, at the cost of 2-10 increase in computational complexity; and some proposals achieved good subjective quality and bit rate results with lower computational complexity than the reference AVC High profile encodings. At that meeting, the name High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) was adopted for the joint project.[9][1] Starting at that meeting, the JCT-VC integrated features of some of the best proposals into a single software codebase and a "Test Model under Consideration", and performed further experiments to evaluate various proposed features.[1][16] The first working draft specification of HEVC was produced at the third JCT-VC meeting in October 2010.[1] Many changes in the coding tools and configuration of HEVC were made in later JCT-VC meetings.[1] The Committee Draft of HEVC, based on the sixth working draft specification, was approved in February 2012.[1][17] On May 25, 2012, the JCT-VC announced that an evaluation of HEVC proposals for Scalable Video Coding (SVC) would be held in October 2012.[18] This will eventually lead to an amendment to HEVC that will add support for SVC.[19] On June 26, 2012, the MPEG LA announced that they would start the process of making a joint license for HEVC patents.[20][21] The Draft International Standard of HEVC, based on the eighth working draft specification, was approved in July 2012.[1][22] Per Frjdh, Chairman of the Swedish MPEG delegation, believes that commercial products that support HEVC could be released in 2013.[22] On January 25, 2013, the ITU announced that HEVC had received first stage approval (consent) in the ITU-T Alternative Approval Process (AAP).[23][24][25] The JCT-VC will continue to work on extensions for HEVC such as support for 12-bit video and 4:2:2/4:4:4 chroma subsampling.[23][24] On the same day MPEG announced that HEVC had been promoted to Final Draft International Standard (FDIS) status in the MPEG standardization process.[26][27]

25

High Efficiency Video Coding

26

Schedule
The timescale for completing the HEVC standard is as follows:[1] February 2012: Committee Draft (complete draft of standard)[17] July 2012: Draft International Standard[22] January 2013: Final Draft International Standard[23][24][26][28]

Implementations
On February 29, 2012, at the 2012 Mobile World Congress, Qualcomm demonstrated a HEVC decoder running on an Android tablet, with a Qualcomm Snapdragon S4 dual-core processor running at 1.5GHz, showing H.264/MPEG-4 AVC and HEVC versions of the same video content playing side by side.[29] In this demonstration HEVC showed almost a 50% bit rate reduction compared with H.264/MPEG-4 AVC.[29] On August 22, 2012, Ericsson announced that the world's first HEVC encoder, the Ericsson SVP 5500, would be shown at the upcoming International Broadcasting Convention (IBC) 2012 trade show.[30][31] The Ericsson SVP 5500 HEVC encoder is designed for real-time encoding of video for delivery to mobile devices.[30][31] On the same day, it was announced that researchers are planning to extend MPEG-DASH to support HEVC by April 2013.[32] On August 31, 2012, Allegro DVT announced two HEVC broadcast encoders called the AL1200 HD-SDI encoder and the AL2200 IP Transcoder.[33] Allegro DVT says that hardware HEVC decoders shouldn't be expected before 2014 but that HEVC can be used earlier for applications that use software based decoding.[33] At the IBC 2012 trade show Allegro DVT will demonstrate a HEVC delivery system based on the AL2200 IP Transcoder with a live IP video stream.[33] On September 2, 2012, Vanguard Software Solutions (VSS) announced a x86 PC software based HEVC encoder based on the Draft International Standard that was designed for real time performance.[34][35] The Vanguard HEVC encoder will be available later this year and will be shown at the IBC 2012 trade show.[34][35] On September 9, 2012, VSS demonstrated that their real time HEVC software encoder could encode 1080p (19201080) at 30 frames per second (fps) video using a single Intel Xeon processor.[35] On September 6, 2012, Rovi Corporation announced that a MainConcept SDK for HEVC would be released in early 2013 shortly after HEVC is officially ratified.[36] The HEVC MainConcept SDK will include a decoder, encoder, and transport multiplexer for Microsoft Windows, Mac OS, Linux, iOS, and Android.[36] The HEVC MainConcept SDK encoder was demonstrated at the IBC 2012 trade show.[36][37] On September 9, 2012, ATEME demonstrated at the IBC 2012 trade show a HEVC encoder that encoded video with a resolution of 38402160p at 60 fps with an average bit rate of 15 Mbit/s.[38][39] ATEME is planning to release their HEVC encoder in October 2013.[38][39][40] On January 3, 2013, Allegro DVT announced that they will show HEVC video hardware decoder IP at the 2013 International CES.[41] The HEVC decoder IP can be used on FPGA and SoC with support for up to 4K resolution.[41] The HEVC decoder IP is compliant with the HM 9.1 reference software and will be made compliant with the final standard after it is released.[41] On January 7, 2013, ViXS Systems announced that they will show the first hardware SoC capable of transcoding video to the Main 10 profile of HEVC at the 2013 International CES.[42][43] On the same day Rovi Corporation announced that after the HEVC standard is released that they plan to start adding support for HEVC to their MainConcept SDK and to their DivX products.[44][45] On January 7, 2013, Samsung Electronics announced at the 2013 International CES that their F8500 series of plasma TVs will support HEVC video decoding.[46] On January 8, 2013, Broadcom announced the BCM7445 which is an Ultra HD decoding chip capable of decoding HEVC at up to 40962160p at 60 fps.[47][48][49][50] The BCM7445 is a 28 nm ARM architecture chip capable of 21,000 Dhrystone MIPS with volume production estimated for the middle of 2014.[47][48][49][50] On the same day

High Efficiency Video Coding Vanguard Video announced the release of the V.265 which is a professional HEVC software encoder.[51] On January 25, 2013, NGCodec announced that it is building a HEVC/H.265 hardware encoder and free 4K compliance test clips.[52] On January 30, 2013, Elemental Technologies, Inc. announced its implementation of HEVC/H.265 encoding.[53] Video processing solutions from Elemental will offer support for the HEVC/H.265 standard via a software upgrade.[53] Elemental first demonstrated H.265 encoding at IBC in September, 2012 in a side-by-side demonstration with AVC/H.264. Elemental will demonstrate concurrent encoding of MPEG-2, H.264/MPEG-4 AVC, and HEVC/H.265 on a single system at the NAB Show in April 2013.[53] On February 4, 2013, NTT DoCoMo announced that starting in March it will begin licensing its implementation of HEVC decoding software.[54][55] The decoding software can allow playback of 4K UHDTV at 60 fps on personal computers and 1080p on smartphones and will be demonstrated at the 2013 Mobile World Congress.[54][55]

27

Coding efficiency
The design of most video coding standards is primarily aimed at having the highest coding efficiency.[56] Coding efficiency is the ability to encode video at the lowest possible bit rate while maintaining a certain level of video quality.[56] There are two standard ways to measure the coding efficiency of a video coding standard which is to use an objective metric, such as peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR), or to use subjective assessment of video quality.[56] Subjective assessment of video quality is the most important way to measure a video coding standard since humans perceive video quality subjectively.[56] HEVC benefits from the use of larger Coding Tree Block (CTB) sizes.[56] This has been shown in PSNR tests with a HM-8.0 HEVC encoder where it was forced to use progressively smaller CTB sizes.[56] For all test sequences when compared to a 6464 CTB size it was shown that the HEVC bitrate increased by 2.2% when forced to use a 3232 CTB size and increased by 11.0% when forced to use a 1616 CTB size.[56] In the Class A test sequences, where the resolution of the video was 25601600, when compared to a 6464 CTB size it was shown that the HEVC bitrate increased by 5.7% when forced to use a 3232 CTB size and increased by 28.2% when forced to use a 1616 CTB size.[56] The tests showed that large CTB sizes become even more important for coding efficiency with higher resolution video.[56] The tests also showed that it took 60% longer to decode HEVC video encoded at 1616 CTB size than at 6464 CTB size.[56] The tests showed that large CTB sizes increase coding efficiency while also reducing decoding time.[56] The HEVC Main Profile (MP) has been compared in coding efficiency to H.264/MPEG-4 AVC High Profile (HP), MPEG-4 Advanced Simple Profile (ASP), H.263 High Latency Profile (HLP), and H.262/MPEG-2 Main Profile (MP).[56] The video encoding was done for entertainment applications and twelve different bitrates were made for the nine video test sequences with a HM-8.0 HEVC encoder being used.[56] Of the nine video test sequences five were at HD resolution while four were at WVGA (800480) resolution.[56] The bit rate reductions for HEVC were determined based on PSNR.[56]

High Efficiency Video Coding

28

Comparison of video coding standards based on equal PSNR[56]


Video coding standard Average bit rate reduction compared to H.264/MPEG-4 AVC HP MPEG-4 ASP H.263 HLP H.262/MPEG-2 MP HEVC MP H.264/MPEG-4 AVC HP MPEG-4 ASP H.263 HLP 35.4% 63.7% 44.5% 65.1% 46.6% 3.9% 70.8% 55.4% 19.7% 16.2%

HEVC MP has also been compared to H.264/MPEG-4 AVC HP for subjective video quality.[56] The video encoding was done for entertainment applications and four different bitrates were made for nine video test sequences with a HM-5.0 HEVC encoder being used.[56] The subjective assessment was done at an earlier date than the PSNR comparison and so it used an earlier version of the HEVC encoder that had slightly lower performance.[56] The bit rate reductions were determined based on subjective assessment using mean opinion score values.[56] The overall subjective bitrate reduction for HEVC MP compared to H.264/MPEG-4 AVC HP was 49.3%.[56] cole Polytechnique Fdrale de Lausanne (EPFL) did a study to evaluate the subjective video quality of HEVC at resolutions higher than HDTV.[57][58][59][60] The study was done with three videos with resolutions of 38401744 at 24 fps, 38402048 at 30 fps, and 38402160 at 30 fps.[57][58][60] The five second video sequences showed people on a street, traffic, and a scene from the open source computer animated movie Sintel.[57][58][60] The video sequences were encoded at five different bitrates using the HM-6.1.1 HEVC encoder and the JM-18.3 H.264/MPEG-4 AVC encoder.[57][58] The subjective bit rate reductions were determined based on subjective assessment using mean opinion score values.[57][58] The study compared HEVC MP with H.264/MPEG-4 AVC HP and showed that for HEVC MP the average bitrate reduction based on PSNR was 44.4% while the average bitrate reduction based on subjective video quality was 66.5%.[57][58]

Features
HEVC was designed to substantially improve coding efficiency compared to H.264/MPEG-4 AVC HP, i.e. to reduce bitrate requirements by half with comparable image quality, at the expense of increased computational complexity.[1] Depending on the application requirements HEVC encoders can trade off computational complexity, compression rate, robustness to errors, and encoding delay time.[1] Two of the key features where HEVC was improved compared to H.264/MPEG-4 AVC was support for higher resolution video and improved parallel processing methods.[1] HEVC is targeted at next-generation HDTV displays and content capture systems which feature progressive scanned frame rates and display resolutions from QVGA (320240) to 4320p (81924320), as well as improved picture quality in terms of noise level, color gamut, and dynamic range.[61][12][62][63]

Video coding layer


The HEVC video coding layer uses the same "hybrid" approach used in all modern video standards, starting from H.261, in that it uses inter-/intra-picture prediction and 2D transform coding.[1] A HEVC encoder first proceeds by splitting a picture into block shaped regions for the first picture, or the first picture of a random access point, which uses intra-picture prediction.[1] Intra-picture prediction is when the prediction of the blocks in the picture is based only on the information in that picture.[1] For all other pictures inter-picture prediction is used in which prediction information is used from other pictures.[1] After the prediction methods are finished and the picture goes through the loop filters the final picture representation is stored in the decoded picture buffer.[1] Pictures stored in the decoded picture buffer can be used for the prediction of other pictures.[1]

High Efficiency Video Coding HEVC was designed with the idea that progressive scan video would be used and no coding features are present specifically for interlaced video.[1] HEVC instead sends meta-stream data that tells how the interlaced video is sent.[1] Interlaced video may be sent either by coding each field as a separate picture or by coding each frame as a different picture.[1] This allows interlaced video to be sent with HEVC without needing special interlaced decoding processes to be added to HEVC decoders.[1]

29

Coding tools
Prediction block size HEVC replaces macroblocks, which were used with previous standards, with a new coding scheme that uses larger block structures of up to 6464 pixels and can better sub-partition the picture into variable sized structures.[1][64] HEVC initially divides the picture into coding tree units (CTUs) which are then divided for each luma/chroma component into coding tree blocks (CTBs).[1][64] A CTB can be 6464, 3232, or 1616 with a larger block size usually increasing the coding efficiency.[1] CTBs are then divided into coding units (CUs).[1] The arrangement of CUs within a CTB is known as a quadtree since a subdivision results in four smaller regions.[1] CUs are then divided into prediction units (PUs) of either intra-picture or inter-picture prediction type which can vary in size from 6464 to 44 (prediction units coded using 2 reference blocks, known as bipredictive coding, are limited to 84 or 48 so as to save on memory bandwidth).[1][64] The prediction residual is then coded using transform units (TUs) which contain coefficients for spatial block transform and quantization.[1][64] A TU can be 3232, 1616, 88, or 44.[1] At the July 2012 HEVC meeting it was decided, based on proposal JCTVC-J0334, that HEVC level 5 and higher would be required to use CTB sizes of either 3232 or 6464.[65][66] This was added to HEVC in the Draft International Standard as a level limit for the Log2MaxCtbSize variable.[67] Log2MaxCtbSize was renamed CtbSizeY in the October 2012 HEVC draft.[68] Internal bit depth increase Internal bit depth increase (IBDI) allows for pictures to be internally processed at a bit depth that is higher than the bit depth they are encoded at.[69][70][71] IBDI can be done at up to 14-bits and is processed at that bit depth up until the point where the pictures are fed into the loop filters.[71] Parallel processing tools Tiles allow for the picture to be divided up into a grid of rectangular regions that can independently be decoded/encoded and the main purpose of tiles is to allow for parallel processing.[1] Tiles can be independently decoded and can even allow for random access to specific regions of a picture in a video stream.[1] Wavefront parallel processing (WPP) is when a slice is divided into rows of CTUs in which the first row is decoded normally but each additional row requires that decisions be made in the previous row.[1] WPP has the entropy encoder use information from the preceding row of CTUs and allows for a method of parallel processing that may allow for better compression than tiles.[1] Slices can for the most part be decoded independently from each other with the main purpose of tiles being re-synchronization in case of data loss in the video stream.[1] Slices can be defined as self-contained in that prediction is not made across slice boundaries.[1] When in-loop filtering is done on a picture though information across slice boundaries may be required.[1] Slices are CTUs decoded in the order of the raster scan and different coding types can be used for slices such as I types, P types, or B types.[1] Dependent slices can allow for data related to tiles or WPP to be accessed more quickly by the system than if the entire slice had to be decoded.[1] The main purpose of dependent slices is to allow for low delay video encoding due to its lower latency.[1]

High Efficiency Video Coding Entropy coding HEVC uses a context-adaptive binary arithmetic coding (CABAC) algorithm that is fundamentally similar to CABAC in H.264/MPEG-4 AVC.[1] CABAC is the only entropy encoder method that is allowed in HEVC while there are two entropy encoder methods allowed by H.264/MPEG-4 AVC.[1] CABAC in HEVC was designed for higher throughput.[72] For instance, the number of context coded bins have been reduced by 8x and the CABAC bypass-mode has been improved in terms of its design to increase throughput.[1][72] Another improvement with HEVC is that the dependencies between the coded data has been changed to further increase throughput.[1][72] Context modeling in HEVC has also been improved so that CABAC can better select a context that increases efficiency when compared to H.264/MPEG-4 AVC.[1] Intra prediction HEVC specifies 33 directional modes for intra prediction compared to the 8 directional modes for intra prediction specified by H.264/MPEG-4 AVC.[1] HEVC also specifies planar and DC intra prediction modes.[1] The intra prediction modes use data from neighboring prediction blocks that have been previously decoded.[1] Motion compensation HEVC uses half-sample or quarter-sample precision with a 7-tap or 8-tap filter while in comparison H.264/MPEG-4 AVC uses half-sample precision and a 6-tap filter.[1] For 4:2:0 video chroma is filtered with eighth-sample precision and a 4-tap filter while in comparison H.264/MPEG-4 AVC uses a 2-tap filter.[1] Weighted prediction in HEVC can be either uni-prediction in which a single prediction value is used or bi-direction in which the prediction values from two prediction blocks are used.[1] Motion vector prediction HEVC defines a signed 16-bit range for both horizontal and vertical motion vectors (MVs).[65][28][73][74] This was added to HEVC at the July 2012 HEVC meeting with the mvLX variables.[65][28][73][74] HEVC horizontal/vertical MVs have a range of -32768 to 32767 which given the quarter pixel precision used by HEVC allows for a MV range of -8192 to 8191.75 luma samples.[65][28][73][74] This compares to H.264/MPEG-4 AVC which allows for a horizontal MV range of -2048 to 2047.75 luma samples and a vertical MV range of -512 to 511.75 luma samples.[73] HEVC allows for two MV modes which are Advanced Motion Vector Prediction (AMVP) and merge mode.[1] AMVP uses data from the reference picture and can also use data from adjacent prediction blocks.[1] The merge mode allows for the MVs to be inherited from neighboring prediction blocks.[1] Merge mode in HEVC is similar to skipped and direct motion inference modes in H.264/MPEG-4 AVC but with two improvements.[1] The first improvement is that HEVC uses index information to select one of several available candidates.[1] The second improvement is that HEVC uses information from the reference picture list and reference picture index.[1] Inverse transforms HEVC specifies four transform units (TUs) sizes of 44, 88, 1616, and 3232 to code the prediction residual.[1] A CTB may be recursively partitioned into 4 or more TUs.[1] TUs use integer basis functions that are similar to the discrete cosine transform (DCT).[1] In addition 44 luma transform blocks that belong to an intra coded region are transformed using an integer transform that is derived from discrete sine transform (DST).[1] This provides a 1% bit rate reduction but was restricted to 44 luma transform blocks due to marginal benefits for the other transform cases.[1] Chroma uses the same TU sizes as luma so there is no 22 transform for chroma.[1]

30

High Efficiency Video Coding Loop filters HEVC specifies two loop filters that are applied in order with the deblocking filter (DBF) applied first and the sample adaptive offset (SAO) filter applied afterwards.[1] Both loop filters operate during the inter-picture prediction loop.[1] Deblocking filter The DBF is similar to the one used by H.264/MPEG-4 AVC but with a simpler design and better support for parallel processing.[1] In HEVC the DBF only applies to a 88 sample grid while with H.264/MPEG-4 AVC the DBF applies to a 44 sample grid.[1] DBF uses a 88 sample grid since it causes no noticeable degradation and significantly improves parallel processing because the DBF no longer causes cascading interactions with other operations.[1] Another change is that HEVC only allows for three DBF strengths of 0 to 2.[1] HEVC also requires that the DBF first apply horizontal filtering for vertical edges to the picture and only after that does it apply vertical filtering for horizontal edges to the picture.[1] This allows for multiple parallel threads to be used for the DBF.[1] Sample adaptive offset The SAO filter is applied after the DBF and is made to allow for better reconstruction of the original signal amplitudes by using offsets from a transmitted look up table.[1][75] Per CTB the SAO filter can be disabled or applied in one of two modes: edge offset mode or band offset mode.[1][75] The edge offset mode operates by comparing the value of a sample to two of its eight neighbors using one of four directional gradient patterns.[1][75] Based on a comparison with these two neighbors, the sample is classified into one of five categories: minimum, two types of edges, maximum, or neither.[1][75] For each of the first four categories an offset is applied.[1][75] The band offset mode applies an offset based on the amplitude of a single sample.[1][75] The sample is categorized by its amplitude into one of 32 bands.[1][75] Offsets are specified for four consecutive of the 32 bands, because in flat areas which are prone to banding artifacts, samples amplitudes tend to be clustered in a small range.[1][75] The SAO filter was designed to increase picture quality, reduce banding artifacts, and reduce ringing artifacts.[1][75]

31

Profiles
The January 2013 HEVC draft defines three profiles: Main, Main 10, and Main Still Picture.[28] It also contains provisions for additional profiles.[28] Future extensions that are being discussed for HEVC include increased bit depth, 4:2:2/4:4:4 chroma subsampling, Multiview Video Coding (MVC), and SVC.[1][76] The first version of HEVC is expected in January 2013 with HEVC range extensions expected in January 2014.[77] A profile is a defined set of coding tools that may be used to create a bitstream that conforms to that profile.[1] An encoder for a profile may choose which features to use as long as it generates a conforming bitstream while a decoder for a profile must support all features that can be used in that profile.[1] Current HEVC profiles have the following constraints:[1][28] Chroma subsampling is limited to 4:2:0. Decoded picture buffer size restricted to 6 pictures for the maximum luma picture size of that level. The decoded picture buffer size can increase to a maximum of 16 pictures if the luma picture size of the video is smaller than the maximum luma picture size of that level. WPP and tiles are allowed but are optional. If tiles are present they must be at least 64 pixels high and 256 pixels wide with a level specific limit on the number of tiles allowed for each level as well.

High Efficiency Video Coding

32

Main
The Main profile allows for a bit depth of 8-bits per color.[28]

Main 10
The Main 10 profile allows for a bit depth of 8-bits to 10-bits per color.[28] A higher bit depth allows for a greater number of colors.[78] The Main 10 profile allows for improved video quality since it can support video with a higher bit depth than what is supported by the Main profile.[78] The Main 10 profile was added at the October 2012 HEVC meeting based on proposal JCTVC-K0109 which proposed that a 10-bit profile be added to HEVC for consumer applications.[78] The proposal stated that this was to allow for improved video quality and to support the Rec. 2020 color space that will be used by UHDTV.[78] A variety of companies supported the proposal which included ATEME, BBC, BSkyB, CISCO, DirecTV, Ericsson, Motorola Mobility, NGCodec, NHK, RAI, ST, SVT, Thomson Video Networks, Technicolor, and ViXS Systems.[78]

Main Still Picture


The Main Still Picture profile allows for a single still picture to be encoded with the same constraints as the Main profile.[28] An objective performance comparison was done in April 2012 in which HEVC reduced the average bit rate for images by 56% compared to JPEG.[79] A PSNR based performance comparison for still image compression was done in May 2012 using the HEVC HM 6.0 encoder and the reference software encoders for the other standards.[80] For still images HEVC reduced the average bit rate by 15.8% compared to H.264/MPEG-4 AVC, 22.6% compared to JPEG 2000, 30.0% compared to JPEG XR, 31.0% compared to WebP, and 43.0% compared to JPEG.[80] A performance comparison for still image compression was done in January 2013 using the HEVC HM 8.0rc2 encoder, Kakadu version 6.0 for JPEG 2000, and IJG version 6b for JPEG.[81] The performance comparison used PSNR for the objective assessment and mean opinion score (MOS) values for the subjective assessment.[81] The subjective assessment used the same test methodology and images as those used by the JPEG committee when it evaluated JPEG XR.[81] For 4:2:0 chroma subsampled images the average bit rate reduction for HEVC compared to JPEG 2000 was 20.26% for PSNR and 30.96% for MOS while compared to JPEG it was 61.63% for PSNR and 43.10% for MOS.[81]

Comparison of standards for still image compression based on equal PSNR and MOS[81]
Still image coding Average bit rate reduction compared to standard (test method) JPEG 2000 JPEG HEVC (PSNR) HEVC (MOS) 20.26% 30.96% 61.63% 43.10%

A HEVC performance comparison for still image compression was done in January 2013 by Nokia.[82] HEVC has a larger performance improvement for higher resolution images than lower resolution images.[82] For lossless compression HEVC was about equal to JPEG XR and was better than JPEG 2000.[82] For lossy compression when HEVC was used to code an image it took on average 2.2 the bit rate for JPEG to code the same image.[82]

High Efficiency Video Coding

33

Tiers and levels


The January 2013 HEVC draft defines two tiers, Main and High, and thirteen levels.[1][28] A level is a set of constraints for a bitstream.[1][28] For levels below level 4 only the Main tier is allowed.[1][28] The Main tier is a lower tier than the High tier.[1][28] The tiers were made to deal with applications that differ in terms of their maximum bit rate.[1] The Main tier was designed for most applications while the High tier was designed for very demanding applications.[1] A decoder that conforms to a given tier/level is required to be capable of decoding all bitstreams that are encoded for that tier/level and for all lower tiers/levels.[1][28]

Tiers and levels with maximum property values[28]


Level Max luma sample rate (samples/s) Max luma picture Max bit rate for Main and Main 10 profiles (kbit/s) size (samples) Main tier High tier Example picture resolution @ highest frame rate[A] (MaxDpbSize[B]) 12896@33.7 (6) 176144@15.0 (6) 176144@100.0 (16) 352288@30.0 (6) 352288@60.0 (12) 640360@30.0 (6) 640360@67.5 (12) 720576@37.5 (8) 960540@30.0 (6) 720576@75.0 (12) 960540@60.0 (8) 1280720@33.7 (6) 1,280720@68.0 (12) 1,9201,080@32.0 (6) 2,0481,080@30.0 (6) 1,280720@136.0 (12) 1,9201,080@64.0 (6) 2,0481,080@60.0 (6) 1,9201,080@128.0 (16) 3,8402,160@32.0 (6) 4,0962,160@30.0 (6) 1,9201,080@256.0 (16) 3,8402,160@64.0 (6) 4,0962,160@60.0 (6) 1,9201,080@300.0 (16) 3,8402,160@128.0 (6) 4,0962,160@120.0 (6) 3,8402,160@128.0 (16) 7,6804,320@32.0 (6) 8,1924,320@30.0 (6) 3,8402,160@256.0 (16) 7,6804,320@64.0 (6) 8,1924,320@60.0 (6) 3,8402,160@300.0 (16) 7,6804,320@128.0 (6) 8,1924,320@120.0 (6)

552,960

36,864

128

3,686,400

122,880

1,500

2.1

7,372,800

245,760

3,000

16,588,800

552,960

6,000

3.1

33,177,600

983,040

10,000

66,846,720

2,228,224

12,000

30,000

4.1

133,693,440

20,000

50,000

267,386,880

8,912,896

25,000

100,000

5.1

534,773,760

40,000

160,000

5.2

1,069,547,520

60,000

240,000

1,069,547,520

35,651,584

60,000

240,000

6.1

2,139,095,040

120,000

480,000

6.2

4,278,190,080

240,000

800,000

High Efficiency Video Coding

34

A B

The maximum frame rate supported by HEVC is 300 fps.[28]

The MaxDpbSize, maximum number of decoded picture buffers, for the maximum luma picture size of that level is 6 for all levels.[1][28] The MaxDpbSize can increase to a maximum of 16 frames if the luma picture size of the video is smaller than the maximum luma picture size of that level in incremental steps of 4/3, 2, or 4.[1][28]

References
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High Efficiency Video Coding


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35

[38] "ATEME begins countdown to the commercial launch of HEVC" (http:/ / itersnews. com/ ?p=12332). itersnews.com. 2012-09-09. . Retrieved 2012-09-12. [39] "ATEME begins countdown to the commercial launch of HEVC Image" (http:/ / itersnews. com/ ?attachment_id=12363). itersnews.com. 2012-09-10. . Retrieved 2012-09-12. [40] "ATEME at IBC - HEVC press coverage" (http:/ / ateme. com/ ATEME-at-IBC-HEVC-press-coverage). ATEME. 2012-09-11. . Retrieved 2012-09-13. [41] "Allegro DVT Showcases the First HEVC Video Hardware Decoder IP at CES 2013" (http:/ / www. eetimes. com/ electronics-products/ electronic-product-releases/ signal-processing-dsp/ 4404067/ Allegro-DVT-Showcases-the-First-HEVC-Video-Hardware-Decoder-IP-at-CES-2013). EE Times. 2013-01-03. . Retrieved 2013-01-04. [42] "ViXS, The World Leader in Transcoding Semiconductor Shipments, Demonstrates The First Set-top/Gateway System-on-Chip (SoC) Running 10-bit High Efficiency Video CODEC (HEVC)" (http:/ / www. prnewswire. com/ news-releases/ vixs-the-world-leader-in-transcoding-semiconductor-shipments-demonstrates-the-first-set-topgateway-system-on-chip-soc-running-10-bit-high-efficiency-video-co html). PR Newswire. 2013-01-07. . Retrieved 2013-01-07. [43] "ViXS, The World Leader in Transcoding Semiconductor Shipments, Demonstrates The First Set-top/Gateway System-on-Chip (SoC) Running 10-bit High Efficiency Video CODEC (HEVC)" (http:/ / www. eetimes. com/ electronics-products/ electronic-product-releases/ audio-design/ 4404323/ ViXS--The-World-Leader-in-Transcoding-Semiconductor-Shipments-Demonstrates-The-First-Set-top-Gateway-System-on-Chip-SoC-Running-10-bit-High-Effici EE Times. 2013-01-07. . Retrieved 2013-01-07. [44] "Rovi Unveils Program to Drive HEVC Rollout" (http:/ / www. rovicorp. com/ company/ news-center/ pressreleases/ 1434_17172. htm). Rovi Corporation. 2013-01-07. . Retrieved 2013-01-07. [45] "Rovi Unveils Program to Drive HEVC Rollout" (http:/ / www. globenewswire. com/ news-release/ 2013/ 01/ 07/ 514931/ 10017191/ en/ Rovi-Unveils-Program-to-Drive-HEVC-Rollout. html). GlobeNewswire. 2013-01-07. . Retrieved 2013-01-07. [46] Ben Drawbaugh (2013-01-07). "Samsung 2013 LCDs and plasmas revealed: quad core CPU, new menus and more" (http:/ / www. engadget. com/ 2013/ 01/ 07/ dnp-samsung-2013-lcds-and-plasmas/ ). Engadget. . Retrieved 2013-01-08. [47] "BCM7445" (http:/ / www. broadcom. com/ products/ Cable/ Cable-Set-Top-Box-Solutions/ BCM7445). Broadcom. . Retrieved 2013-01-08. [48] "Broadcom Unveils World's First UltraHD TV Home Gateway Chip" (http:/ / www. broadcom. com/ press/ release. php?id=s732069). Broadcom. 2013-01-08. . Retrieved 2013-01-08. [49] Joseph Volpe (2013-01-08). "Broadcom's new ARM-based chip boosts Ultra HD TV into living rooms of the future" (http:/ / www. engadget. com/ 2013/ 01/ 08/ broadcoms-arm-based-chip-ultra-hd-tv/ ). Engadget. . Retrieved 2013-01-08. [50] Dean Takahashi (2013-01-08). "Broadcom unveils first Ultra HD TV home gateway chip" (http:/ / venturebeat. com/ 2013/ 01/ 08/ broadcom-launches-first-ultra-hd-tv-home-gateway-chip/ ). VentureBeat. . Retrieved 2013-01-08. [51] "Vanguard Video Announces Availability of World's First Real-Time, Pure Software HEVC Encoder" (http:/ / www. marketwatch. com/ story/ vanguard-video-announces-availability-of-worlds-first-real-time-pure-software-hevc-encoder-2013-01-08). MarketWatch. 2013-01-08. . Retrieved 2013-01-08. [52] "NGCodec congratulates the Joint Collaborative Team on Video Coding (JCT-VC) on the approval of the new HEVC / H.265 video compression standard" (http:/ / ngcodec. com/ news/ 2013/ 1/ 25/

High Efficiency Video Coding


ngcodec-congratulates-the-joint-collaborative-team-on-video-coding-jct-vc-on-the-approval-of-the-new-hevc-h265-video-compression-standard). NGCodec. 2013-01-25. . Retrieved 2013-01-26. [53] "Elemental Drives Next-Generation Technology Migration with Support for Newly Approved HEVC/H.265 Codec" (http:/ / www. elementaltechnologies. com/ newsroom/ press-releases/ elemental-drives-next-generation-technology-migration-support-newly-approved). Elemental Technologies, Inc.. 2013-01-30. . Retrieved 2013-01-31. [54] "DOCOMO to License HEVC Decoding Software" (http:/ / www. nttdocomo. com/ pr/ 2013/ 001625. html). NTT DoCoMo. 2013-02-04. . Retrieved 2013-02-08. [55] Ryan Huang (2013-02-05). "Docomo to put HEVC video compression on smartphones" (http:/ / www. zdnet. com/ docomo-to-put-hevc-video-compression-on-smartphones-7000010817/ ). ZDNet. . Retrieved 2013-02-08. [56] G.J. Sullivan; Heiko Schwarz; Thiow Keng Tan; Thomas Wiegand (2012-08-22). "Comparison of the Coding Efficiency of Video Coding Standards Including High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC)" (http:/ / iphome. hhi. de/ wiegand/ assets/ pdfs/ 2012_12_IEEE-HEVC-Performance. pdf) (PDF). IEEE Trans. on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology. . Retrieved 2012-09-22. [57] Philippe Hanhart; Martin Rerabek; Francesca De Simone; Touradj Ebrahimi (2012-08-13). "Subjective quality evaluation of the upcoming HEVC video compression standard" (http:/ / infoscience. epfl. ch/ record/ 180494/ files/ hanhart_SPIE2012_1. pdf) (PDF). cole Polytechnique Fdrale de Lausanne (EPFL). . Retrieved 2012-11-08. [58] Philippe Hanhart; Martin Rerabek; Francesca De Simone; Touradj Ebrahimi (2012-08-15). "Subjective quality evaluation of the upcoming HEVC video compression standard" (http:/ / www. slideshare. net/ touradj_ebrahimi/ subjective-quality-evaluation-of-the-upcoming-hevc-video-compression-standard). slideshare.com. . Retrieved 2012-11-08. [59] "Subjective quality evaluation of the upcoming HEVC video compression standard" (http:/ / infoscience. epfl. ch/ record/ 180494). cole Polytechnique Fdrale de Lausanne (EPFL). . Retrieved 2012-11-08. [60] Nic Healey (2012-08-29). "HEVC video compression could be the next step for 4K" (http:/ / www. cnet. com. au/ hevc-video-compression-could-be-the-next-step-for-4k-339341320. htm). cnet. . Retrieved 2012-11-08. [61] "Highlights of the 88th Meeting" (http:/ / mpeg. chiariglione. org/ meetings/ maui09/ maui_press. htm). MPEG. 2009-04-24. . Retrieved 2012-08-24. [62] "Vision, Applications and Requirements for High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC). ISO/IEC JTC1/SC29/WG11/N11872" (http:/ / mpeg. chiariglione. org/ working_documents/ mpeg-h/ hevc/ vision-apps-reqs. zip). ISO/IEC. January 2011. . Retrieved 2012-08-24. [63] Christian Timmerer (2009-02-09). "Vision and Requirements for High-Performance Video Coding (HVC). ISO/IEC JTC1/SC29/WG11/N10361" (http:/ / multimediacommunication. blogspot. com/ 2009/ 02/ vision-and-requirements-for-high. html). ISO/IEC. . Retrieved 2012-08-24. [64] "Description of High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC)" (http:/ / mpeg. chiariglione. org/ technologies/ mpeg-h/ HEVC. htm). JCT-VC. 2011-01-01. . Retrieved 2012-09-15. [65] Gary Sullivan; Jens-Rainer Ohm (2012-07-22). "Meeting report of the 10th meeting of the Joint Collaborative Team on Video Coding (JCT-VC), Stockholm, SE, 11-20 July 2012" (http:/ / wftp3. itu. int/ av-arch/ jctvc-site/ 2012_07_J_Stockholm/ JCTVC-J_Notes_dA. doc) (doc). JCT-VC. . Retrieved 2012-09-22. [66] Wade Wan; Tim Hellman (2012-07-03). "Adding a Level Restriction on Coding Tree Block Size" (http:/ / phenix. it-sudparis. eu/ jct/ doc_end_user/ current_document. php?id=6197). JCT-VC. . Retrieved 2012-09-22. [67] "High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) text specification draft 8" (http:/ / phenix. it-sudparis. eu/ jct/ doc_end_user/ current_document. php?id=6465). JCT-VC. 2012-07-28. . Retrieved 2012-07-31. [68] "High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) text specification draft 9" (http:/ / phenix. it-sudparis. eu/ jct/ doc_end_user/ current_document. php?id=6803). JCT-VC. 2012-10-22. . Retrieved 2012-10-23. [69] Philippe Bordes; Gordon Clare; Flix Henry; Mickal Raulet; Jrme Viron (2012-07-20). "An overview of the emerging HEVC standard" (https:/ / research. technicolor. com/ rennes/ wp-content/ uploads/ publications/ pub_100. pdf) (PDF). Technicolor. . Retrieved 2012-10-05. [70] "Rennes Research & Innovation Center: Publication" (https:/ / research. technicolor. com/ rennes/ publication-26/ ). Technicolor. 2012-07-20. . Retrieved 2012-10-05. [71] Detlev Marpe; Heiko Schwarz; Sebastian Bosse; Benjamin Bross; Philipp Helle; Tobias Hinz; Heiner Kirchhoffer; Haricharan Lakshman et al. "Video Compression Using Nested Quadtree Structures, Leaf Merging and Improved Techniques for Motion Representation and Entropy Coding" (http:/ / iphome. hhi. de/ wiegand/ assets/ pdfs/ video-compression-nested-quadtree. pdf) (PDF). IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology. . Retrieved 2012-11-08. [72] V. Sze; M. Budagavi (2013-01-13). "High Throughput CABAC Entropy Coding in HEVC" (http:/ / ieeexplore. ieee. org/ xpls/ abs_all. jsp?arnumber=6317157) (PDF). IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology. . Retrieved 2013-01-13. [73] Alistair Goudie (2012-07-02). "Restrictions to the maximum motion vector range" (http:/ / phenix. it-sudparis. eu/ jct/ doc_end_user/ current_document. php?id=6088). JCT-VC. . Retrieved 2012-11-26. [74] Keiichi Chono; Minhua Zhou (2012-07-19). "BoG on miscellaneous limits" (http:/ / phenix. it-sudparis. eu/ jct/ doc_end_user/ current_document. php?id=6459). JCT-VC. . Retrieved 2012-11-26. [75] Chih-Ming Fu; Elena Alshina; Alexander Alshin; Yu-Wen Huang; Ching-Yeh Chen; Chia-Yang Tsai; Chih-Wei Hsu; Shaw-Min Lei et al. (2012-12-25). "Sample adaptive offset in the HEVC standard" (https:/ / sites. google. com/ site/ chihmingfu/ paper/ SAO CSVT. pdf?attredirects=0) (PDF). IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology. . Retrieved 2013-01-24. [76] Adrian Pennington (2012-08-01). "Ultra HD: Standards and broadcasters align" (http:/ / content. yudu. com/ A1xsex/ TVBEAug2012/ resources/ 45. htm). www.tvbeurope.com. p.45. . Retrieved 2012-11-25.

36

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[77] Benjamin Bross (2012-11-28). "Relax, its only HEVC" (http:/ / www. nabanet. com/ wbuarea/ library/ docs/ isog/ presentations/ 2012B/ 2. 4 Bross HHI. pdf). www.nabanet.com. p.20. . Retrieved 2012-12-27. [78] Alberto Dueas; Adam Malamy (2012-10-18). "On a 10-bit consumer-oriented profile in High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC)" (http:/ / phenix. it-sudparis. eu/ jct/ doc_end_user/ current_document. php?id=6479). JCT-VC. . Retrieved 2012-11-03. [79] Jani Lainema; Kemal Ugur (2012-04-20). "On HEVC still picture coding performance" (http:/ / phenix. it-sudparis. eu/ jct/ doc_end_user/ current_document. php?id=5721). JCT-VC. . Retrieved 2013-01-22. [80] T. Nguyen; D. Marpe (2012-05-03). "Performance Comparison of HM 6.0 with Existing Still Image Compression Schemes Using a Test Set of Popular Still Images" (http:/ / phenix. it-sudparis. eu/ jct/ doc_end_user/ current_document. php?id=5871). JCT-VC. . Retrieved 2012-12-31. [81] Philippe Hanhart; Martin Rerabek; Pavel Korshunov; Touradj Ebrahimi (2013-01-09). "AhG4: Subjective evaluation of HEVC intra coding for still image compression" (http:/ / phenix. it-sudparis. eu/ jct/ doc_end_user/ current_document. php?id=7167). JCT-VC. . Retrieved 2013-01-11. [82] Kemal Ugur; Jani Lainema (2013-01-04). "AHG4: Performance evaluation of HEVC on still picture coding" (http:/ / phenix. it-sudparis. eu/ jct/ doc_end_user/ current_document. php?id=6825). JCT-VC. . Retrieved 2013-01-22.

37

External links
Official websites Fraunhofer Heinrich Hertz Institute HEVC website (http://hevc.info) Joint Collaborative Team on Video Coding (JCT-VC) (http://www.itu.int/ITU-T/studygroups/com16/jct-vc/ ) JCT-VC Document Management System (http://phenix.it-sudparis.eu/jct/doc_end_user/all_meeting.php) Videos Standardization of High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) (http://www.youtube.com/ watch?v=63YV7LwQBes) Motorola's Ajay Luthra discusses HEVC (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=o3WmOxi9tY4) MainConcept HEVC Demonstration Video -- IBC 2012 (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ETIkEfJJfec) Websites x265 - HEVC/H265 implementation (http://code.google.com/p/x265/)

Rec. 2020

38

Rec. 2020
ITU-R Recommendation BT.2020 or Rec.2020 was posted on the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) website on August 23, 2012.[1][2][3][4] Rec.2020 defines various aspects of ultra high definition television (UHDTV) such as display resolution, frame rate, chroma subsampling, color depth, and color space.[1]

Technical details
Resolution
Rec.2020 defines two resolutions of 3840 2160 and 7680 4320.[1] These resolutions have an aspect ratio of 16:9 and use square pixels.[1]

Frame rate
Rec.2020 specifies the following frame rates: 120p, 60p, 59.94p, 50p, 30p, 29.97p, 25p, 24p, 23.976p.[1] Only progressive frame rates are allowed.[1]

Digital representation
Rec.2020 defines a color depth of either 10-bits or 12-bits.[1] 10-bits per component Rec.2020 uses video levels where the black level is defined as code 64 and the nominal peak is defined as code 940.[1] Codes 0-3 and 1,020-1,023 are used for the timing reference.[1] Codes 4 through 63 provide video data below the black level while codes 941 through 1,019 provide video data above the nominal peak.[1] 12-bits per component Rec.2020 uses video levels where the black level is defined as code 256 and the nominal peak is defined as code 3760.[1] Codes 0-15 and 4,080-4,095 are used for the timing reference.[1] Codes 16 through 255 provide video data below the black level while codes 3,761 through 4,079 provide video data above the nominal peak.[1]

Rec. 2020

39

System colorimetry

Diagram of the CIE 1931 color space that shows the Rec. 2020 (UHDTV) color space in the triangle and the location of the primary colors. Rec. 2020 uses Illuminant D65 for the white point.

RGB color space parameters[1]


Color space White point xW yW xR yR Primary colors xG yG xB yB

ITU-R BT.2020 0.3127 0.3290 0.708 0.292 0.170 0.797 0.131 0.046

The Rec.2020 (UHDTV) color space can reproduce colors that can not be shown with the Rec. 709 (HDTV) color space.[5][6] The RGB primaries used by Rec.2020 are equivalent to monochromatic light sources on the CIE 1931 spectral locus.[6] In coverage of the CIE 1931 color space the Rec.2020 color space covers 75.8%, digital cinema covers 53.6%, the Adobe RGB color space covers 52.1%, and Rec.709 covers 35.9%.[5]

Luma coefficients
Rec.2020 specifies that if a luma (Y') signal is made that it uses the RGB coefficients 0.2627, 0.6780, and 0.0593.[1]

Transfer characteristics
Rec.2020 defines the non-linear transfer function that can be used for gamma correction.[1] 10-bits per component Rec.2020 uses the same formula that is used by Rec. 709.[1][7] 12-bits per component Rec. 2020 makes a single change in the formula in that the minimum point on a 0 to 1 light intensity range where the non-linear transfer function begins is raised from 0.018 to 0.0181.[1][7]

Rec. 2020

40

References
[1] "BT.2020 : Parameter values for ultra-high definition television systems for production and international programme exchange" (http:/ / www. itu. int/ rec/ R-REC-BT. 2020-0-201208-I/ en). International Telecommunication Union. 2012-08-23. . Retrieved 2012-08-24. [2] "The international standard for Super Hi-Vision TV" (http:/ / www. nhk. or. jp/ pr/ marukaji/ m-giju337. html). NHK. 2012-08-23. . Retrieved 2012-08-30. [3] "8K Ultra High Def TV Format Opens Options for TV Viewing" (http:/ / www. hollywoodreporter. com/ news/ 8k-television-world-uhdtv-365768). The Hollywood Reporter. 2012-08-28. . Retrieved 2012-08-30. [4] "ITU approves NHK's Super Hi-Vision as 8K standard, sets the UHDTV ball rolling very slowly" (http:/ / www. engadget. com/ 2012/ 08/ 25/ itu-approves-nhk-super-hi-vision-as-8k-standard/ ). Engadget. 2012-08-25. . Retrieved 2012-08-30. [5] ""Super Hi-Vision" as Next-Generation Television and Its Video Parameters" (http:/ / www. informationdisplay. org/ article. cfm?year=2012& issue=12& file=art6). Information Display. . Retrieved 2012-12-27. [6] "Super Hi-Vision format" (http:/ / www. nhk. or. jp/ strl/ english/ aboutstrl1/ r1-1-1. htm). NHK. . Retrieved 2012-08-24. [7] "BT.709 : Parameter values for the HDTV standards for production and international programme exchange" (http:/ / www. itu. int/ rec/ R-REC-BT. 709-5-200204-I/ en). International Telecommunication Union. 2009-08-27. . Retrieved 2012-09-15.

External links
ITU-R Recommendation BT.2020 (http://www.itu.int/rec/R-REC-BT.2020-0-201208-I/en)

Rec. 601
ITU-R Recommendation BT.601, more commonly known by the abbreviations Rec. 601 or BT.601 (or its former name, CCIR 601,) is a standard published in 1982 by International Telecommunication Union Radiocommunications sector (formerly CCIR) for encoding interlaced analog video signals in digital video form. It includes methods of encoding 525-line 60 Hz and 625-line 50 Hz signals, both with 720 luminance samples and 360 chrominance samples per line. The color encoding system is known as YCbCr 4:2:2. For a pair of pixels, the data are stored in the order Y1:Cb:Y2:Cr, with the chrominance samples co-sited with the first luminance sample. The Rec. 601 signal can be regarded as if it is a digitally encoded analog component video signal, and thus includes data for the horizontal and vertical sync and blanking intervals. Regardless of the frame rate, the luminance sampling frequency is 13.5 MHz. The luminance sample is at least 8 bits, and the chrominance samples are at least 4 bits each. The first version of Rec. 601 defined only a parallel interface, but later versions introduced the bit-serial family of serial digital video interfaces that are now commonly used. The 8 bit serial protocol (216 Mbit/s) was once used in D1 digital video tape recording. Modern standards use an encoding table to expand the data to 9 or 10 bits for improved behavior over long transmission lines. The 9 bit serial version has a data rate of 243 Mbit/s. By far, the most common version of the interface is the 10-bit serial digital interface (which was later standardized as SMPTE 259M), which is now a ubiquitous interconnect standard for professional video equipment which operates on standard-definition digital video. This format, originally used in D5 digital tape recording, has a data rate of 270 Mbit/s. There is an 8 bit version in which only data from the active video periods are transmitted, with a bit rate of only 165.9 Mbit/s. In each 8 bit luminance sample, the range has clamped the value for black at 16 and clamped the value for white to 235, to allow for overshoot and undershoot exposure. The values 0 and 255 are used to encode the sync pulses. The Cb and Cr unsigned samples use the value 128 to encode a null difference value, as used when encoding a white, grey or black area. The Rec. 601 video raster format has been re-used in a number of later standards, including MPEG.

Rec. 601

41

References
International Telecommunications Union, ITU-R BT.601 [1] ITU-R Recommendation BT.601 [2]: Studio encoding parameters of digital television for standard 4:3 and wide-screen 16:9 aspect ratios

References
[1] http:/ / www. itu. int/ ITU-R/ index. asp?category=information& link=rec-601& lang=en [2] http:/ / www. itu. int/ rec/ R-REC-BT. 601/

Rec. 709
ITU-R Recommendation BT.709, more commonly known by the abbreviations Rec.709 or BT.709, standardizes the format of high-definition television, having 16:9 (widescreen) aspect ratio. The first edition of the standard was approved in 1990.

Technical details
Pixel count
Rec.709 refers to HDTV systems having roughly two million luma samples per frame. Rec.709 has two parts: Part1 codifies what are now referred to as 1035i30 and 1152i25 HDTV systems. The 1035i30 system is now obsolete, having been superseded by 1080i and 1080p square-sampled ("square-pixel") systems. The 1152i25 system was used for experimental equipment in Europe and was never commercially deployed. Part2 codifies current and prospective 1080i and 1080p systems with square sampling. In an attempt to unify 1080-line HDTV standards, part2 defines a common image format (CIF) with picture parameters independent of the picture rate.

Frame rate
Rec.709 specifies the following picture rates: 60Hz, 50Hz, 30Hz, 25Hz and 24Hz. "Fractional" rates having the above values divided by 1.001 are also permitted. Initial acquisition is possible in either progressive or interlaced form. Video captured as progressive can be transported with either progressive transport or progressive segmented frame (PsF) transport. Video captured as interlaced can be transported with interlace transport. In cases where a progressive captured image is transported as a segmented frame, segment/field frequency must be twice the frame rate. In practice, the above requirements result in the following frame rates ("fractional" rates are specified in commonly used "decimal" form): 25i, 25PsF, 25p, 50p for 50Hz systems; 23.976p, 23.976PsF, 24p, 24PsF, 29.97i, 29.97p, 29.97PsF, 30PsF, 30p, 59.94p, 60p for 60Hz systems.

Digital representation
Rec.709 coding uses "studio-swing" levels where reference black is defined as 8-bit interface code 16 and reference white is defined as 8-bit interface code235. Interface codes 0 and 255 are used for synchronization, and are prohibited from video data. Eight-bit codes between 1 and 15 provide footroom, and can be used to accommodate transient signal content such as filter undershoots. Eight-bit interface codes 236 through 254 provide headroom, and can be used to accommodate transient signal content such as filter overshoots and specular highlights. Bit-depths deeper than 8 bits are obtained by appending least-significant bits. Ten-bit systems are commonplace in studios.

Rec. 709 (Desktop computer graphic systems ordinarily use "full-swing" encoding that places reference black at code 0 and reference white at code 255, and provide no footroom or headroom.) The 16..235 limits (for luma; 16..240 for chroma) originated with ITU Rec. 601.[1]

42

Primary chromaticities

Diagram of the CIE 1931 color space that shows the Rec.709 (HDTV) color space in the triangle and the location of the primary colors. Rec.709 uses Illuminant D65 for the white point.

RGB color space parameters[2]


Color space White point xW yW xR yR Primaries xG yG xB yB

ITU-R BT.709 0.3127 0.3290 0.64 0.33 0.30 0.60 0.15 0.06

Note that red and blue are the same as the EBU Tech 3213 primaries while green is halfway between EBU Tech 3213 and SMPTE C. In coverage of the CIE 1931 color space the Rec.709 color space covers 35.9%.[3] Standards Conversion When converting between the various HD and SD formats, it would be correct to compensate for the differences in the primaries (e.g. between the Rec. 709, EBU Tech 3213, and SMPTE C primaries). In practice, this conversion is rarely performed and such a conversion would create a liability for post production facilities as they would need to ensure that the color bars on all the new masters are redone. Correcting for differences in the primaries would cause the resulting color bars on the converted tape to be inaccurate. Incorrect color bars will cause a (sub)master to be rejected by quality control checks.[4]

Rec. 709

43

Luma coefficients
HDTV according to Rec.709 forms luma (Y) using RGB coefficients 0.2126, 0.7152, and 0.0722. This means that unlike Rec. 601, the coefficients match the primaries and white points, so luma corresponds more closely to luminance. Some experts feel that the advantages of correct matrix coefficients do not justify the change from Rec. 601 coefficients.[5] Although worldwide agreement on asingle RGB system was achieved upon the adoption of Rec.709, adoption of different luma coefficients created asecond flavour of YCBCR.

Transfer characteristics
Rec.709 is written as if it specifies the capture and transfer characteristics of HDTV encoding - that is, as if it were scene-referred. However, in practice it is output (display) referred with the convention of a 2.4-power function display [2.35 power function in EBU recommendations]. (Rec.709 and sRGB share the same primary chromaticities and white point chromaticity; however, sRGB is explicitly output (display) referred with an average gamma of 2.2.)
[6]

The Rec. 709 transfer function from the linear signal (luminance) to the nonlinear (voltage) is, similarly to sRGB's transfer function, linear in the bottom part and then transfers to a power function for the rest of the range[7]:

References
ITU-R BT.709-5 [8]: Parameter values for the HDTV standards for production and international programme exchange. April, 2002. Note that the -5 is the current version, in May 2008; previous versions were -1 through -4. [9]: Poynton, Charles, Perceptual uniformity, picture rendering, image state, and Rec. 709. May, 2008. sRGB: IEC 61966-2-1:1999
[1] ITU-R Rec. BT.601-5, 1995. Section 3.5.3. [2] ITU-R Rec. BT.709-5 page 18, items 1.3 and 1.4 [3] ""Super Hi-Vision" as Next-Generation Television and Its Video Parameters" (http:/ / www. informationdisplay. org/ article. cfm?year=2012& issue=12& file=art6). Information Display. . Retrieved 2013-01-01. [4] (http:/ / www. glennchan. info/ articles/ technical/ hd-versus-sd-color-space/ hd-versus-sd-color-space. htm): Chan, Glenn, "HD versus SD Color Space". [5] (http:/ / www. poynton. com/ papers/ SMPTE_98_YYZ_Luma/ index. html): Poynton, Charles, "Luminance, luma, and the migration to DTV" (Feb.6, 1998) [6] Poynton, Charles (2012). Digital Video and HD Algorithms and Interfaces. Burlington, Mass.: Elsevire/Morgan Kaufmann. p.321. ISBN978-0-12-391926-7. [7] ITU-R Rec. BT.709-5 page 2, item 1.2 [8] http:/ / www. itu. int/ rec/ R-REC-BT. 709/ en [9] http:/ / www. poynton. com/ notes/ PU-PR-IS/ index. html

External links
ITU-R Recommendation BT.709-5 (http://www.itu.int/rec/R-REC-BT.709/en)

Article Sources and Contributors

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Tristanb, Truth Be Told Again, Tvbiz50, Tvfan01nine, Twinkie eater91, Tyaco700, Ukwebmedia, Ungvichian, Unimath, User F203, Usertaffy3, VEO15, VMS Mosaic, Vanessaezekowitz, Vkem, Voidxor, Vvhh2002, Vsk, Wackywackywiki, Wangi, Watchreader, Waveguide2, WayKurat, Wdicksonucok, Webconquest, Wenli, Wi9x, Wik, Wiki alf, Wikiklrsc, Willhsmit, Windwagonsmith, Wk muriithi, Woohookitty, Wtshymanski, Wwechamp45, Xaaan5, Xezbeth, Xhaoz, Xleax, Xwu, Yintan, Yipjcs88, Yosh3000, Yueh, Yyy, Zacha, Zachlipton, ZanderSchubert, Zigger, 844 anonymous edits Ultra high definition television Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=536759842 Contributors: Alansohn, Alonduro, Alphathon, Andrew c, Andrewcrawford, AndyRFC1, Anthonydeane, Apfsds, Apteva, BarrelProof, Bencey, BokicaK, Bonuch, Bpothier, Cacophony, Capricorn42, Classicrockfan42, CoolingGibbon, Cpoynton, Cquarksnow, Cyclonius, D V, DGG, Darkfrei, Dcamp314, Diannaa, Dicklyon, DmitryKo, Drsmoo, Electron, Ellery, Elockid, ElvisFan1981, 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File:UHDTV resolution chart.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:UHDTV_resolution_chart.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: User:GrandDrake, User:Melksoft File:CIExy1931 Rec 2020 and Rec 709.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:CIExy1931_Rec_2020_and_Rec_709.svg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0 Contributors: User:GrandDrake, User:Sakurambo File:Fuji UHDTV prototype camera, 2006.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Fuji_UHDTV_prototype_camera,_2006.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.0 Contributors: vonkrogh File:8K Camera (2009 version).jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:8K_Camera_(2009_version).jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Contributors: refeia File:4K resolution sample.ogv Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:4K_resolution_sample.ogv License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0 Contributors: User:Jihei File:Digital video resolutions (VCD to 4K).svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Digital_video_resolutions_(VCD_to_4K).svg License: Creative Commons Zero Contributors: User:TRauMa File:CIExy1931 Rec 2020.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:CIExy1931_Rec_2020.svg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0 Contributors: User:GrandDrake, User:Sakurambo File:CIExy1931 Rec 709.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:CIExy1931_Rec_709.svg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0 Contributors: User:GrandDrake, User:Sakurambo

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