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Numeral systems by culture Hindu-Arabic numerals Western Arabic Eastern Arabic Indian family Tamil Telugu Burmese Khmer Lao Mongolian Thai East Asian numerals Chinese Japanese Suzhou Korean Vietnamese Counting rods Alphabetic numerals Abjad Armenian ryabhaa Cyrillic Ge'ez Greek Georgian Hebrew Other historical systems Aegean Attic Babylonian Brahmi Egyptian Etruscan Inuit Kharosthi Mayan Quipu Roman Positional systems by base

Contents
1 Representation 1.1 Written representation 1.1.1 Using 0-9 and A-F 1.2 Early written representations 1.3 Verbal and digital representations 1.4 Signs 1.5 Hexadecimal exponential notation 2 Conversion 2.1 Binary conversion 2.2 Division-remainder in source base 2.3 Addition and multiplication 2.4 Tools for conversion 3 Real numbers 3.1 Powers 4 Cultural 4.1 Etymology 4.2 Use in Chinese culture 4.3 Common patterns and humor 4.4 Primary numeral system 5 Key to number base notation 6 See also 7 References

Representation
Written representation
Using 0-9 and A-F

Positional systems by base Decimal (10) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 11 12 13 14 15 16 20 24 26 27 32 36 60 64 85 Balanced ternary List of numeral systems

## 0oct 1oct 2oct 3oct 4oct 5oct 6oct 7oct

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1

## 4hex = 4dec = 5hex = 5dec = 6hex = 6dec = 7hex = 7dec =

8hex = 8dec = 10oct 9hex = 9dec = 11oct Ahex = 10dec = 12oct B hex = 11dec = 13oct C hex = 12dec = 14oct D hex = 13dec = 15oct Ehex = 14dec = 16oct Fhex = 15dec = 17oct

v t e

In situations where there is no context, hexadecimal numbers can be ambiguous and confused with numbers expressed in other bases. There are several conventions for expressing values unambiguously. A numerical subscript (itself written in decimal) can give the base explicitly: 15910 is decimal 159; 15916 is hexadecimal 159, which is equal to 34510. Other authors prefer a text subscript, such as 159decimal and 159hex , or 159d and 159h. In linear text systems, such as those used in most computer programming environments, a variety of methods have arisen: In URIs (including URLs), character codes are written as hexadecimal pairs prefixed with %: http://www.example.com/name%20with%20spaces where %20 is the space (blank) character (code value 20 in hex, 32 in decimal). In XML and XHTML, characters can be expressed as hexadecimal numeric character references using the notation &#xcode;, where code is the 1- to 6-digit hex number assigned to the character in the Unicode standard. Thus &#x2019; represents the curled right single quote (Unicode value 2019 in hex, 8217 in decimal). Color references in HTML and CSS and X Window can be expressed with six hexadecimal digits (two each for the red, green, and blue components, in that order) prefixed with #: white, for example, is represented #FFFFFF .[1] CSS allows 3-hexdigit abbreviations with one hexdigit per component: #FA3 abbreviates #FFAA33 (a golden orange: ).