Anda di halaman 1dari 208

UNCLASSIFIED

UH-1N Maneuver Description Guide (MDG)

Prepared by: HMT-303 Department of Safety & Standardization (DOSS) MARINE AIRCRAFT GROUP 39 BOX 555881 CAMP PENDLETON, CALIFORNIA 92055-5881

UNCLASSIFIED

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

Change No.

Date

Title or Brief Description

Entered By

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Description OVERVIEW FAMILIARIZATION SIMULATED EMERGENCIES INSTRUMENT FLYING FORMATION TERRAIN FLIGHT NAVIGATION AIR TO GROUND NIGHT VISION GOGGLE TRAINING CALS, HIE, & EXTERNALS NAVY TACTICS

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

CHAPTER 1 OVERVIEW PARAGRAPH 1001 1002 1003 1004 1005 1006 1007 1008 1009 TOPIC INTRODUCTION CHANGES DEFINITIONS REQUIREMENTS PERFORMANCE STANDARDS PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT UNSATISFACTORY EVALUATION OF A SYLLABUS FLIGHT THROTTLE MANIPULATIONS ATTITUDE GYRO REFERENCE

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

1001. INTRODUCTION. The procedures described in the maneuver description guide that follow are amplifications of flight profiles and procedures that appear in the UH-1N NATOPS Manual, the Instrument Flight Manual, and the Tactics Manual. When followed to the letter, the aircraft will not exceed its safe flight envelope. Additionally and just as important, proper execution of these maneuvers will afford the pilot a greater understanding of the Hueys flight capabilities and limitations, impart basic skills needed in emergency situations, and standardize language that will enable the pilot to easily communicate his/her desires in the cockpit. The goal of this document is standardized training. 1002. CHANGES. If any of the maneuvers or requirements contained herein are in conflict with the NATOPS Manual, or SOPs, the most stringent shall govern. Suggestions for change or revision should be forwarded, in writing, to the UH-1N NATOPS Officer. This document is the training document for HMT-303 and applies to this squadron. Tactical HMLA's may have different MDG's. This guide is to be adhered to while at HMT-303. 1003. DEFINITIONS 1. WARNING: Denotes operating procedures, practices, etc., which if not carefully followed, may result in injury or death. 2. CAUTION: Denotes operating procedures, practices, etc., which if not strictly observed, may damage equipment. 3. Note: Denotes an operating procedure, condition, etc., which is essential to emphasize. 4. Power: Torque (Q), ITT, and Ng. 1004. REQUIREMENTS The Pilot-Under-Instruction (PUI) is expected to study all the introduced maneuvers and emergency procedures assigned to each syllabus flight. When flights are deferred or not required, the PUI is still responsible for the introduced maneuvers and emergency procedures of the flight. The night prior to the flight, the student shall contact his/her instructor to coordinate mission specific requirements after the flight schedule has been signed by the Commanding Officer. 1005. PERFORMANCE STANDARDS 1. The Pilot Under Instruction (PUI) shall strive to elevate his performance to the following maneuver standards:

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

VMC Airspeed: Altitude in flight: Heading: Trim: Altitude in a hover:

+ 10 knots + 50 feet + 10 degrees ball width + 1 foot

IMC Airspeed: Altitude in flight: Heading: Trim:

+ 10 knots + 100 feet + 10 degrees ball width

1006. PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT. Inflight performance will be graded using the following criteria as a guideline. Grade Above Average (AA) Criteria Aeronautical Skills. All performance standards are met. Flight performance is smooth and consistent with appropriate correction of minor deviations. Procedural Knowledge. PUI displays detailed understanding of prerequisite academic knowledge. Average (A) Aeronautical Skills. Majority of performance standards are met without instructor assistance. Flight performance is transitory through desired steady state conditions. PUI recognizes, corrects for deviations and errors. No unsafe trends. Procedural Knowledge. PUI displays a solid understanding of prerequisite academic knowledge. Below Average (BA) Aeronautical Skills. Majority of performance standards are met with instructor assistance. Deviations from standards are sustained in duration and PUI recognition and corrections are slow and or excessive. Procedural Knowledge. PUI recall of prerequisite academic knowledge is incomplete and/or inaccurate. Unsatisfactory (UNSAT) Aeronautical Skills. Instructor is required to assume control to avoid crash/collision/damage to equipment and/or injury to personnel. PUI fails to comply with established NATOPS procedures/standards. Procedural Knowledge. PUI lacks prerequisite academic knowledge necessary to perform objectives.

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

1007. UNSATISFACTORY EVALUATION OF A SYLLABUS FLIGHT 1. Based upon the above criteria, if a PUI is issued an unsatisfactory grade during a syllabus flight, the instructor will recommend reflight(s) and describe his reasoning in the narrative on the ATF. To ensure standardized procedures are applied in the handling of the unsatisfactory flights, the following should be completed: a. Instructor (1) Debrief all aspects of the flight with the PUI, with special emphasis on the unsatisfactory area(s). (2) Complete the ATF in the PUI's presence. (3) Upon completion of the debrief, notify the Flight Officer and the NATOPS Officer of the circumstances surrounding the flight, and make a recommendation concerning reflight(s). b. Flight Officer (1) Debrief the instructor. (2) Review the PUI's Aircrew Performance Record. (3) Counsel the PUI if the unsatisfactory performance was the result of inadequate procedures or systems knowledge. (4) Meet with the NATOPS Officer and develop a recommended course of action for a remedial program. Along with the NATOPS Officer, brief the Operations Officer. (5) Initiate and track the completion of a Pilot Training Performance Report. c. NATOPS Officer (1) Debrief the instructor. (2) Review the PUI's Aircrew Performance Record. (3) Forward the recommended course of action to the Operations Officer.

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

d. Operations Officer (1) Determine the most effective course for implementation of the remedial program. (2) Brief the Executive Officer and the Commanding Officer on the circumstances surrounding the unsatisfactory flight and the recommended remedial program for the PUI. (3) Implement remedial program guidance received from the Command Element. e. Flight Officer (1) Brief the PUI on the approved remedial program. (2) Schedule the PUI for single events until all reflight(s) have been successfully completed. 1008. THROTTLE MANIPULATIONS. Whenever a prescribed maneuver or flight profile requires manipulation of the throttles, the pilot at the controls shall announce, Reducing throttles, to the rest of the crew. The pilot at the controls will announce, Throttles full open, upon completion of returning the throttles to the full open position. The throttles will be returned to full open prior to final approach or executing a waveoff. 1009. ATTITUDE INDICATOR REFERENCE. Before each flight, both (pilots & co-pilots) attitude indicators will be set at 4 degrees above the horizon. Reference: UH TACTICAL MANUAL [6.7.1.1.1]. All references to attitude are assumed with the 4 degrees nose-up set.

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

CHAPTER 2 FAMILIARIZATION

PARAGRAPH 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018

TOPIC GENERAL REQUIREMENTS COMMON TERMS NORMAL TAKEOFF FROM A HOVER CROSSWIND TAKEOFF NO HOVER TAKEOFF MAXIMUM POWER TAKEOFF MAXIMUM GROSS WEIGHT (SLIDING) TAKEOFF NORMAL APPROACH STEEP (PRECISION) APPROACH SLIDING LANDING NO-HOVER LANDING SLOPE LANDING QUICKSTOP HIGH SPEED APPROACH AUTOROTATIONS STRAIGHT-IN AUTOROTATION 90 AUTOROTATION 180 AUTOROTATION

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

PARAGRAPH 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023 2024 2025 2026 2027 2028

TOPIC 360 AUTOROTATION WAVE-OFF (POWER ON) WAVE-OFF (POWER OFF) HOVERING AUTOROTATION (CUT GUN) TAXIING AUTOROTATION HIGH SPEED LOW LEVEL AUTOROTATION AUTOROTATION TO A SPOT HIGH ANGLE OF BANK LOW ROTOR RPM HOVER NIGHT UNAIDED FLIGHT

10

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

2000. GENERAL. Familiarization (FAM) Maneuvers are designed to acquaint the training pilot with the basic handling procedures/qualities of the UH-1N aircraft. Maneuvers are presented generally in the order that they are introduced in the flight syllabus. Maneuvers involving simulated emergencies are covered in Chapter 3. 2001. REQUIREMENTS. 1. The PUI will accomplish the following during each maneuver: a. Clear the area. b. Complete the pre-takeoff checklist or landing checklist as appropriate. c. Once airborne, the Instructor Pilot (IP) will cross check the altimeters, airspeed indicators, and ball to note differences between instruments in the right and left seats. If error exists, the PUI's instruments shall be used and the instructor will interpolate differences. 2002. COMMON TERMS. 1. Normal Pattern. 500 feet and 80 KIAS. 2. Normal Climb. 80 KIAS with a comfortable rate of climb. Climb power range should be 10% or less above hover torque. 3. No Hover Landing. To arrive at the intended point of landing with 0-5 knots ground speed and zero altitude. A stationary reference point should remain in view of the pilot until the aircraft has fully landed or a wave off commenced. 4. Altitudes. All altitudes are AGL unless otherwise stated. 5. Takeoff/Landing Transition. Maintain runway alignment below 50 feet and balanced flight (center the ball) above 50 feet. 6. Normal Hover. 5-7 feet of altitude (skid height) and a constant heading. No forward, rearward, or sideward motion. 7. Turns. After takeoff a turn will not normally be initiated prior to reaching 200 feet and 60 KIAS. 8. Wave-Offs. Should be accomplished prior to 40 KIAS and 50 feet, primarily dependent on gross weight, atmospheric conditions and landing zone characteristics.

11

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

9. Low Work. The altitude for practicing low work will be 5-7 feet (skid height) and the area to be used will be clear of any obstacles that may cause damage to the aircraft. Caution should be taken to avoid areas of freshly cut grass and loosely packed soil. 10. Scan. Refers to a set of gauges, indicators, or outside checkpoints that are important to reference for a given maneuver. 2003. NORMAL TAKEOFF FROM A HOVER. 1. Overview. This maneuver is designed to safely establish the helicopter in a hover from a position on the ground. 2. References. UH-1N NATOPS Flight Manual, Chapter 8, Normal Takeoff to a Hover. 3. Maneuver Description. a. From a hover, stabilize momentarily to determine if flight controls and engines are operating properly. b. Begin forward motion by displacing the cyclic just enough to start air taxiing. c. As the aircraft accelerates smoothly into translational lift, adjust nose attitude as necessary to reach 40 knots prior to 20 feet of altitude (do not exceed 5-7 degrees nose down). Maintain heading with directional control pedals and control drift with cyclic. d. Continue to accelerate so as to reach 70 knots prior to 50 feet of altitude. At this point, adjust the nose to an 80 knot climb attitude and maintain balanced flight. e. Approaching the desired altitude, adjust the collective as necessary to level off and attain desired airspeed. f. When the desired altitude and airspeed are reached the maneuver is complete. 4. Discussion/Techniques. a. The power required to hover will usually result in a 700-800 foot per minute climb. Takeoff power should be maintained until safe autorotative airspeed is attained, then adjusted for desired rate of climb. b. Use the wing down, top pedal correction prior to the transition at 70 knots, and the crab crosswind correction afterward. c. The ideal rate of acceleration is a gain of one foot of altitude for two knots of airspeed up to 40 knots. d. If a turn is required on climbout, wait until the aircraft has reached 200 AGL and / or 60 KIAS, terrain permitting, before turning.

12

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

e. At a point equal to ten percent of the climb rate prior to the desired altitude (i.e., 50 feet for 500 fpm climb), begin collective reduction to avoid overshooting the desired altitude. 5. Common Errors. a. Rapid control applications. This usually result in "chasing" the maneuver parameters. Smooth cyclic and collective movements are the essential elements of a normal takeoff. b. Gaining altitude over airspeed. Adhere to the takeoff numbers whenever possible; they are designed to provide single-engine flyaway capability in the event of single-engine failure. c. An excessive power pull over 10% above hover torque will cause altitude to exceed normal takeoff parameters. 2004. CROSSWIND TAKEOFF. 1. Overview. This maneuver is performed as a normal takeoff from a hover, with additional pilot inputs to prevent the aircraft from drifting with the wind. 2. References. UH-1N NATOPS Flight Manual, Chapter 8, Crosswind Takeoff. 3. Maneuver Description. Description is the same as the normal takeoff from a hover, with the following additions: a. After takeoff, apply sufficient cyclic into the wind to preclude downwind drift. b. Use the wing down/top rudder method as the normal takeoff parameters are achieved. c. Upon reaching 50 feet, the aircraft should transition into balanced flight and if possible, turned into the wind for climbout. 4. Discussion/Techniques. a. Maintain constant heading over the ground to avoid "downwind drift." b. Trim the aircraft throughout the maneuver to reduce pilot workload. 5. Common Errors. N/A.

13

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

2005. NO HOVER TAKEOFF. 1. Overview. This takeoff is utilized for an expeditious departure or when a normal takeoff from a hover is not desirable due to blowing debris. 2. References. UH- IN NATOPS Flight Manual, Chapter 8, Normal Takeoff from the Ground. 3. Maneuver Description. a. Increase collective until light on the skids. Trim out control pressures. b. Smoothly coordinate increasing collective with lowering the nose to transition to forward flight. Do not exceed 5-7 degrees nose down. c. Intercept the normal takeoff parameters. 4. Discussion/Techniques. a. The rate of forward cyclic application must be slow to prevent an excessive nose low attitude and the aircraft settling when in close proximity to the ground. b. When in blowing dust or snow, forward airspeed will help you to fly through the whiteout or brownout conditions quicker than pulling power to fly out of the tops. Do not try to pull an excessive amount of power and fly above the poor visibility. c. When the aircraft is at maximum gross weight make control inputs as small as possible. Utilize ground cushion to reduce power required during this transition. 5. Common Errors. a. Excessive nose-down attitude on takeoff. b. Lifting to a hover prior to transitioning to forward flight. c. Not anticipating the required left pedal input. 2006. MAXIMUM POWER TAKEOFF. 1. Overview. The maximum power takeoff is used to simulate exit from a confined area, which does not allow a normal takeoff due to obstacles. 2. References. UH-1N NATOPS Flight Manual, Chapter 8, Maximum Power Takeoff and Confined Area Takeoff

14

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

3. Maneuver Description. a. Neutralize the controls. Smoothly raise the collective until light on the skids. Stabilize momentarily, trim out control pressures, and then continue to raise the collective. b. As the helicopter leaves the ground, continue to increase collective to military rated power (ensure Ng, ITT, and torque limits are not exceeded). Upon request, the non-flying pilot shall call out indicated torque values and monitor the other performance gauges to ensure engine / transmission limits are not exceeded. c. Eliminate drift with cyclic. Maintain heading with directional control pedals until reaching 100 feet. d At 100 feet smoothly lower the nose to increase airspeed. Once single engine airspeed is attained, reduce collective to obtain the desired climb rate. e. When the desired altitude and airspeed are reached the maneuver is complete. 4. Discussion/Techniques. a. DO NOT JERK THE AIRCRAFT OFF THE GROUND. Apply collective smoothly to the given limit. b. Use crew coordination to avoid exceeding limits and eliminate drift. c. Power should not be reduced until single engine airspeed is attained. 5. Common Errors. a. Exceeding 100% transmission torque. Observe NATOPS limitations. b. Not pulling military torque on takeoff (88-100% transmission torque). 2007. MAXIMUM GROSS WEIGHT (SLIDING) TAKEOFF. 1. Overview. The maximum gross weight (sliding) takeoff is practiced to simulate a takeoff situation (high density altitude, high gross weight), which does not permit a normal takeoff due to a small, or negative difference between power available and power required to hover. 2. References. UH-I N NATOPS Flight Manual, Chapter 8, Sliding Landing and Takeoff.

15

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

3. Maneuver Description. a. Hover into the wind at 2 feet and check the power (torque) necessary to maintain this hover and subtract 5%. This is the maximum power permitted for this maneuver. Land the aircraft. b. Raise the collective to the maximum permitted power setting. Begin a slow forward movement with cyclic. c. Maintaining heading with directional control pedals. Continue to accelerate on the ground until translation lift is attained. Allow aircraft to fly off of the deck. Accelerate to Single Engine A/S within ground cushion. Add power as necessary to prevent settling, but do not exceed the maximum power permitted for the maneuver. d. When Single Engine A/S is attained adjust the collective to climb power and continue with the normal transition to forward flight. e. When the aircraft has accelerated to normal takeoff parameters the maneuver is complete. 4. Discussion/Techniques. a. The rate of forward cyclic application must be slow to prevent settling of the aircraft. DO NOT RUSH THE MANEUVER. b. Should the aircraft initially settle back on to the ground, maintain a level attitude and allow the aircraft to accelerate to attain effective transitional lift. Keep the nose aligned with the ground track of the aircraft with the directional control pedals. c. As the aircraft leaves the ground a slight degree of aft cyclic may be required to prevent an excessively nose low attitude and possible dig-in of the skids or wire cutter. 5. Common Error. a. Rushing the acceleration and exceeding power permitted for the maneuver. 2008. NORMAL APPROACH. 1. Overview. This maneuver is designed to effect a smooth transition from flight to a hover or no-hover landing. 2. References. UH-1N NATOPS Flight Manual, Chapter 8, Normal Approach.

16

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

3. Maneuver Description. a. Maintain 80 knots and 500 feet AGL in the traffic pattern. b. Complete the landing checklist. c. At the abeam (180) position assume a descending decelerating attitude by reducing collective to establish a 500-600 foot per minute descent. Turn to the course line while maintaining balanced flight. d. Arrive at the 90 degree position with 300 feet and 60 knots. e. Continue the turn to intersect the course line with 150 feet of altitude, sufficient straightaway (not greater than 1000 feet), 45 KIAS, and balanced flight. f. When established on the course line, assume a decelerating attitude and maintain crosswind correction utilizing the wing down, top directional control pedal method. g. Apply power as necessary to arrive over the intended point of landing at 5 to 7 feet of altitude, hover power, and zero knots simultaneously. When established in a stable hover the maneuver is complete. h. For no-hover landing, see paragraph 2011. 4. Discussion/Techniques. a. Only a very small change in nose attitude is required to affect a speed change from 80 to 60 knots. b. Do not attempt to reach the 60 knots required at the 90 degree position within the first 1/3 of turn off the 180. If 60 knots is achieved too early, the tendency is to be slow at the 90 degree position with an excessive sink rate. Avoid descent rates in excess of 800 fpm. c. Rate of closure is controlled with cyclic and rate of descent is controlled with collective. d. A smooth application of forward cyclic should be anticipated to control the pendulum effect as collective is applied at the bottom of the approach. e. Avoid an extreme tail low attitude close to the ground. 5. Common Errors. a. Unbalanced flight. Pay attention to the slip indicator (ball). b. Completing the maneuver in an air taxi. Bring the aircraft to a stop; do not allow it to fly you past your intended point of landing.

17

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

2009. STEEP (PRECISION) APPROACH. 1. Overview. The steep approach is used to accomplish a landing in confined areas. 2. References. UH-1N NATOPS Flight Manual, Chapter 8, Steep Approach and Landing. 3. Maneuver Description. a. Maintain 80 knots and 500 feet AGL in the traffic pattern. b. When the intended point of landing is at approximately the 5 or 7 oclock position, commence a coordinated, descending, decelerating turn so as to arrive at the 90 position with 300 feet of altitude and 60 knots. c. Increase collective as necessary to maintain 300 feet. d. Intersect the final approach course with approximately 1500 feet of straightaway and 300 feet of altitude. Establish the wing down top pedal crosswind correction. e. Continue straight ahead at 300 feet and smoothly reduce airspeed to 45 knots until the approach angle is reached (not greater than 1200 feet from the touchdown point). f. Upon intercepting the approach angle (approximately 45 degrees), reduce collective and adjust cyclic to commence a descent along the desired approach angle. Keep the point of landing in sight through the windshield until on very short final; then allow the landing point to disappear beneath the aircraft. g. Adjust collective as necessary, to maintain a slow power-on descent to arrive over the intended point of landing with zero airspeed. Little or no flare is required to arrive over the intended point of landing. When the aircraft is established in a stable hover, or a no-hover landing is accomplished, the maneuver is complete. 4. Discussion/Techniques. a. Anticipate the application of collective at the 90 degree position to maintain 300 feet. The tendency is to descend below 300 feet and commence the approach at a lower altitude. b. When commencing the approach, positive reduction of collective and slight aft cyclic will be necessary to transition the aircraft from straight and level flight to a descent along the desired glideslope. c. Do not chase the glideslope with nose attitude. Use cyclic to control closure rate and collective to control rate of descent to maintain the aircraft on the desired glideslope. Keep the intended point of landing in sight through the windscreen.

18

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

d. Avoid high rates of descent and maintain translational lift with power throughout the approach to reduce the possibility of power settling. Avoid rates of descent in excess of 800 fpm with less than 40 KIAS. 5. Common Errors. a. Chasing the glideslope with nose attitude. Use collective as much as possible to maintain the aircraft on the desired glideslope (approximately 300-500 fpm rate of descent and in translational lift). Keep the intended point of landing in sight. b. High rates of descent. Maintain translational lift with power on throughout the approach to reduce the possibility of power settling. Avoid rates of descent in excess of 800 fpm with less than 40 KIAS. c. Increasing collective too late at the 90 degree position and descending below 300. 2010. SLIDING LANDING. 1. Overview. Sliding landings are practiced to simulate landing situations which do not permit a normal transition to hover and landing because of a small or negative power available / required margin or an emergency situation. Use a firm, smooth surface of sufficient length that is free from obstructions. 2. References. UH-1N NATOPS Flight Manual, Chapter 8, Sliding Landing and Takeoff. 3. Maneuver Description. a. The traffic pattern is flown identically to that of the normal approach. b. Upon intersecting the course line, establish the crosswind correction utilizing the wing down top pedal method. Do not land the aircraft in a crab. c. Assume a deceleration attitude and adjust power to control the rate of descent. d. As the aircraft approaches the ground, maintain sufficient forward speed to retain translational lift. Assume a landing attitude (level skids), and apply collective to affect a smooth, soft landing with 10 - 15 knots ground speed. e. When firmly on the ground, slowly lower collective to bring the aircraft to a gradual stop. Do not lower the collective abruptly during the slide, and maintain heading with directional control pedals. f. When stopped, lower the collective to the full down position. When the collective is full down the maneuver is complete.

19

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

4. Discussion/Techniques. a. To avoid dynamic rollover, touching down with no yaw or drift is critical. b. A glideslope slightly shallower than a normal approach will require less power on touchdown and allow the aircraft to more easily remain in effective translational lift. c. Adjust power to control rate of descent. This is a power-on approach. The object is to arrive at touchdown in effective translational lift prior to reaching hover power requirements. d. Avoid overrotating the cyclic forward on touchdown or rollout. Only a light pressure on the controls is necessary. e. The ideal landing is skids perfectly level at touchdown. However, the primary emphasis should be on controlling the rate of descent. f. An excessive nose low attitude prior to touchdown will produce unnecessary forward ground speed. 2011. NO-HOVER LANDING. 1. Overview. This type of landing may be employed where a transition to a hover is not possible due to power limitations, or is desirable due to visibility reduction caused by blowing debris. 2. References. UH-1N NATOPS Flight Manual, Chapter 8, No Hover Landing. 3. Maneuver Description. a. The traffic pattern is flown identically to that of the normal approach or steep approach. b. When established on the course line, assume a decelerating attitude. Adjust collective to slow the rate of descent, and maintain crosswind correction utilizing the wing down, top pedal method. c. Increase collective as necessary to maintain a slow, controlled, constant poweron descent. d. As translational lift is lost, assume a skids level landing attitude. e. Increase collective to prevent a hard landing. Do not exceed maximum power available or 5 knots ground speed on touchdown. f. When the aircraft is firmly on the ground, slowly lower the collective to the full down position to complete the maneuver.

20

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

4. Discussion/Techniques. a. Touching down with no yaw or drift is critical. b. A sliding landing is recommended in conditions of extreme high density altitude or maximum gross weight. c. Anticipate an increased effectiveness of collective application as the aircraft approaches the ground. 5. Common Errors. a. Premature leveling of the skids. This results in excessive ground speed and ground slide distance. Skids should be leveled at approximately 2-3 feet. b. Touching down nose high, hitting the aft part of the skid first and rocking forward. If this occurs, do not pull aft cyclic to prevent aggravating the rocking motion and possible tail strike. Maintain forward pressure on the cyclic until the aircraft has stopped. 2012. SLOPE LANDING. 1. Overview. This maneuver is practiced to familiarize the pilot with the requirements necessary for landing on an uneven landing surface. 2. References. UH-1N NATOPS Flight Manual, Chapter 8, Slope Landing & Takeoff. 3. Maneuver Description. a. Complete the landing checklist. b. Note that the area is clear of obstructions. c. Perform a normal or CAL approach terminating in a hover. Make the slope landing by positioning the helicopter cross-slope over the touchdown area. Descend slowly, placing the upslope skid on the ground first. d. Coordinate reduction of collective and application of cyclic into the slope until all the weight of the aircraft is resting firmly on the skids. If the cyclic control contacts the stop before the downslope skid is resting firmly on the ground, or aircraft roll attitude is approaching 10, return to a hover and select a position where the degree of slope is not as great. e. After completion of the slope landing, and after determining that the aircraft will maintain its position on the slope, place the cyclic in a neutral position.

21

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

4. Discussion/Techniques. a. Keep the aircraft trimmed throughout the maneuver and do not allow aircraft roll rates to build up. Smooth power and cyclic applications are critical since angular momentum may exceed correctable limits. b. Be ready to effect an immediate takeoff to a hover in the event the helicopter settles unevenly or encounters any difficulty while landing. c. Prior to landing, note aircraft heading to assist in maintaining alignment. Yaw control is essential to avoid sliding downhill. WARNING If the aircraft reaches 15 degrees angle of bank with one skid on the ground and thrust is approximately equal to weight, the aircraft will roll over on its side. Adjust collective to stop roll and correct the bank angle to wings level. YAW AND DRIFT CONTROL ARE CRITICAL. Note Slope landings may be performed with either skid down slope, but right skid down reduces the critical dynamic rollover angle; i.e., it is better to land left skid down (NATOPS Flight Manual, Chapter 13, Rollover Characteristics. 2013. QUICKSTOP. 1. Overview. The quickstop is a maneuver used to safely reduce airspeed as rapidly as feasible. It is useful in aborting takeoffs or avoiding hazards while maintaining the aircraft in a safe flight envelope. 2. References. UH-1N NATOPS Flight Manual, Chapter 8, Quickstop. 3. Maneuver Description. a. Maintain 80 knots and 500 feet in the traffic pattern. b. At the 180 degree position begin a coordinated descending; accelerating turn to arrive on the final approach course with 100 KIAS at 50 feet. c. When stabilized at 100 knots and 50 feet, smoothly reduce the collective and apply coordinated aft cyclic to slow airspeed. Maintain 50 feet and 100 percent Nr.

22

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

d. As the aircraft approaches 60 knots ensure throttles are full open. Coordinate forward cyclic with increased collective to maintain 50 feet and no less than 45 knots. e. Accelerate to 80 KIAS and climb to pattern altitude. When 80 KIAS is reached the maneuver is complete. 4. Discussion/Techniques. a. Anticipate power and attitude changes required to maintain 50 feet. b. Too much collective reduction and a large flare may cause the aircraft to balloon or Nr to overspeed. Initial control inputs are moderate. c. Slight throttle reduction is allowed to control climbing Nr. Ensure throttles are full open before initiating recovery.

5. Common Errors. a. Descending below 50 feet as the aircraft slows, small collective application may be necessary to maintain altitude. b. Increasing collective rapidly from flat pitch upon recovery. Use smooth collective application to avoid Nf/Nr droop and/or overtorque.

2014. HIGH SPEED APPROACH. 1. Overview. The high speed approach is practiced to afford the pilot experience in transitioning from high speed, low level flight to a safe and expeditious landing. 2. References. UH-1N NATOPS Flight Manual, Chapter 8, Quickstop / High Speed Approach, Low Level Approach. 3. Maneuver Description. a. The beginning of the high speed approach is identical to steps 1 3 of the quickstop. b. As the aircraft approaches a steep approach glide angle, increase collective to maintain 50 feet, adjust aircraft attitude as necessary to intercept the glideslope, and accomplish a no hover landing. c. When the aircraft is firmly on the deck and collective is full down the maneuver is complete.

23

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

4. Discussion/Techniques. a. Anticipate power and attitude changes required to maintain 50 feet until intercepting the glideslope. b. Too much collective reduction and a large flare may cause the aircraft to balloon or Nr to overspeed. Initial control inputs are moderate. c. Do not begin the descent prior to intersecting the steep approach glide slope. The tendency is to fly a shallow glideslope to touchdown. d. Slight throttle reduction is allowed to control climbing Nr. Ensure throttles are full open before transitioning to the steep approach glideslope 5. Common Errors. a. Trying to intercept the steep glide slope too fast; causing a long, shallow approach. Hold altitude and decelerate to approximately 15-20 KIAS before decending.

2015. AUTOROTATIONS. 1. Overview. The autorotation is designed to acquaint the pilot with the aircraft's poweroff flight characteristics. Practice autorotations shall be performed only at approved landing areas, airfields, or facilities where crash crews are on duty, and should not be attempted during conditions of critical CG. 2. References. UH-1N NATOPS Flight Manual. Chapter 8, Power Recovery Autorotations. 13.19, Autorotative Entry. 13.20, Autoroations Characteristics. 13.20.2 Rotor RPM 3. Maneuver Description. a. Maintain 80 knots and 1000 feet AGL in the traffic pattern for 180 degree autos, 750 feet AGL for 90 degree autos, and 500 feet AGL for straight-in autos. b. Enter the autorotation by first lowering the collective to full down, then rotating the throttles to flight idle, and centering the ball. c. The non-flying pilot will check Ngs at 61+/-2% and report Two good Ngs, and turn to intercept the final course line as appropriate. d. Maintain an 80 knot attitude and balanced flight throughout the descent.

24

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

Note If the aircraft is slightly out of balanced flight, the rate of descent will increase approximately 500 fpm. An acute unbalanced condition will result in extreme rates of descent. e. Adjust collective as necessary to maintain 94-100 percent Nr during the descent. f. At approximately 100 feet AGL, smoothly apply aft cyclic to be established in the flare by 75-100 feet AGL. g. Once established in the flare, smoothly advance the throttles to the full open position. h. At approximately 25 feet AGL, lower the nose to a skids level attitude while ensuring throttles are full open. Align the skids with direction of landing and increase collective to stop rate of descent at 7-10 feet with 0-10 knots ground speed. i. Check for proper engine instrument and Nr indications. 4. Discussion/Techniques. a. Start from balanced flight, on airspeed, on altitude, VSI reading zero, wings level, and with the area cleared below. b. The recommended autorotation scan is: RPM, BALL, AIRSPEED, OUTSIDE. c. Increased rotor RPM results in an increased rate of descent. Nr will tend to build during turns and deceleration flares, conversely Nr will decay when forward cyclic is applied to accelerate. Nr must be monitored closely and controlled using collective. Maintain Nr between 94-100 %. d. The flare is a progressive maneuver that may require increased or decreased pitch as the aircraft slows. e. The amount of flare necessary will be a function of density altitude, airspeed, gross weight, and existing ambient conditions. Do not flare so much that the aircraft balloons. Control the flare so that you evenly trade off airspeed for rate of descent. f. An excessively nose high attitude below 50 feet may result in dragging the tail skid (at 8 degrees nose up, skids and tail stinger are at the same height above ground).

25

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

5. Common Errors. a. Entering the auto from unbalanced flight, or with a climb/descent rate. b. Fixating or relying on the radar altimeter for altitudes below 100 ft. Continue to scan outside and judge distances from the ground using visual references after you commence the flare. c. Initiating flare without a corresponding collective pull to control NR. Failing to control NR during the flare will keep ground speed and rate of descent constant. d. Rapid throttle application will cause NR to overspeed. Throttle application should be in a measured rate. On a standard day throttle application should take at least 4-5 seconds. e. Slow airspeed prior to the flare. f. Rapid and unnecessary cyclic input on entry. g. Pulling in collective before ensuring aircraft is level. 2016. STRAIGHT-IN AUTOROTATION. 1. Overview. A straight-in autorotation is initiated at 500 feet, 80 KIAS, and established on the landing heading. 2. References. Same as paragraph 2015.

3. Maneuver Description and Requirements. a. Complete the landing checklist. b. Establish balanced flight, 80 KIAS and 500 feet on final, with no rate of climb or descent. c. Complete the maneuver as described in paragraph 2015. 4. Discussion/Techniques. a. Straight-in autorotations require greater attention to airspeed control. Do not exceed 15 nose down attitude.

26

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

b. The lower altitude requires immediate and correct reaction to Nr, ball and airspeed deviations. 5. Common Errors. As described in paragraph 2015. 2017. 90 AUTOROTATION. 1. Overview. A 90 autorotation is initiated at 750 feet, 80 KIAS, and perpendicular to the landing heading. 3. Maneuver Description. a. Complete the landing checklist. b. Establish balanced flight, 80 KIAS and 750 feet, perpendicular to landing heading (base leg). c. Complete maneuver as described in paragraph 2015. 4. Discussion/Techniques. a. 90 autorotations require attention to Nr control while ensuring a smooth turn to final. An effective scan and reaction to Nr, ball and airspeed trends will result in the smooth execution of an autorotation. 5. Common Errors. As described in paragraph 2015. 2018. 180 AUTOROTATION. 1. Overview. A 180 autorotation is initiated at 1000 feet, 80 KIAS, and 180 from the intended landing heading (downwind). 3. Maneuver Description. a. Complete the landing checklist. b. Establish balanced flight, 80 KIAS on downwind, 1000 feet. c. Complete maneuver as described in paragraph 2015. 4. Discussion/Techniques. 180 autorotations require greater attention to Nr control. An effective scan and reaction to Nr, ball and airspeed trends will result in the smooth execution of an autorotation. 5. Common Errors. As described in paragraph 2015.

27

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

2019. 360 AUTOROTATION. 1. Overview. A 360 autorotation is initiated at 1500 feet, 80 KIAS, and on the desired landing heading. Although not a maneuver for grade, practice of this maneuver provides valuable learning tools for aircraft control and pilot technique. 3. Maneuver Description. a. Complete landing checklist. b. Establish balanced flight, 80 KIAS, 1500 feet on the desired landing heading. c. Complete maneuver as described in paragraph 2015. 4. Discussion/Techniques. a. A 360 autorotation requires an immediate turn (left or right) upon initiation. If the turn is delayed, the pilot may not have enough altitude to complete a 360 turn. b. A 360 autorotation also requires a nose down attitude in excess of 15 when it is initiated from the minimum altitude of 1500 feet. c. To a greater extent than a 180 autorotation, a 360 autorotation requires significant attention and reaction to Nr, trim and initiation of the turn to final. Due to the extreme turning radius, airspeed variations will occur in the initial phase of the maneuver. Emphasis should be made to roll out on final with a minimum of 100 feet of altitude for proper flare entry. 5. Common Errors. As described in paragraph 2015.

2020. WAVE-OFF (POWER ON). 1. Overview. This maneuver is practiced to familiarize the pilot with the techniques needed to safely abandon an unsafe approach. 2. References. UH- IN NATOPS Flight Manual, Chapter 8, Waveoff.

28

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

3. Maneuver Description. a. Increase collective to stop descent. b. Level the wings and center the ball. c. Increase collective to establish a positive rate of climb, and make a radio call if appropriate. d. Accelerate to 70-80 KIAS and the maneuver is complete. 4. Discussion/Techniques. AVOID HIGH RATES OF DESCENT. Rapidly raising the collective to recover from a high sink rate may cause decay of Nr, Nf, and lift. 2021. WAVE-OFF (POWER OFF). 1. Overview. This maneuver is practiced to teach the pilot the proper method of waving off after returning power to the aircraft during a power-off approach. Reference: UH1N NATOPS Flight Manual, Chapter 8, Waveoff. 2. References. UH- IN NATOPS Flight Manual, Chapter 8, Waveoff. 3. Maneuver Description. a. Roll throttles to full open while smoothly raising the collective to stop any rate of descent, while maintaining Nr between 97-100%. b. Check Ngs, in order to ensure both engines are back on-line. c. Increase airspeed to 70-80 KIAS. d. Adjust cyclic to establish a climb. e. Leveling wings will decrease rate of descent prior to recover and reduce gloading on aircraft during recovery. Do not attempt a rolling pull out. 4. Discussion/Techniques. a. Avoid rolling on the throttles too rapidly. b. If the aircraft has a high rate of descent near the ground it may be necessary to raise the collective prior to having the throttles FULL OPEN. c. Maintain Nr at 97-100 percent during the procedure.

29

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

2022. HOVERING AUTOROTATION (CUT GUN). 1. Overview. This maneuver is practiced to simulate a sudden power loss when hovering the aircraft. The maneuver may be initiated by either the IP or PUI retarding the throttles to flight idle. 2. References. UH-1N NATOPS Flight Manual, Chapter 8, Hovering Autorotation, Chapter 14, Dual Engine Failure. CAUTION MAXIMUM GROSS WEIGHT FOR PRACTICING HOVERING AUTOS IS 8500 POUNDS. 3. Maneuver Description. a. Establish the aircraft in a stable hover into the wind (5-7 feet). b. Roll the throttles to flight idle. HOLD COLLECTIVE PITCH CONSTANT. Eliminate any yaw and drift. c. As the aircraft settles, increase collective to cushion the landing. d. When firmly on the ground lower the collective to the full down position completing the maneuver. 4. Discussion/Techniques. a. The single most important aspect of the maneuver is eliminating drift prior to touchdown. b. Smoothly roll the throttles back to flight idle without moving the collective. Anticipate a small right pedal input. c. The pause prior to pulling collective will result in more Nr available for cushioning the landing. d. The rate of collective pull should be approximately equal to the perceived rate of descent: Too quick will result in not descending or climbing; too slow will result in a hard landing. e. Be sure to continue scanning forward and to the side. Fixation may result in undetected drift and possible damage to the skids. 5. Common Errors. Landing with a drift or with skids not level.

30

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

2023. TAXIING AUTOROTATION. 1. Overview. This maneuver is practiced to familiarize the pilot with the correct action to take in the event of a dual engine failure during taxiing. It may be initiated by either the IP or PUI retarding the throttles to flight idle. Caution: Maximum gross weight for practicing taxiing autos is 8500 pounds. 2. References. UH-1N NATOPS Flight Manual, Chapter 8, Hovering Autorotation, Chapter 14, Dual Engine Failure. 3. Maneuver Description. a. From a hover over level terrain apply sufficient forward cyclic to attain normal taxi speed into the wind. b. Roll the throttles to flight idle taking care not to inadvertently raise or lower the collective. Use directional control pedals to maintain heading. c. Eliminate lateral drift. Level the skids and allow the helicopter to continue its forward motion. d. As the aircraft settles, increase collective pitch at a rate, which allows the aircraft to gently slide onto the deck. e. Do not lower collective to stop aircraft movement after touchdown. f. Once aircraft motion has stopped, smoothly lower the collective to the full down position to complete the maneuver. 4. Discussion/Techniques. a. Keep the skids aligned with the direction of movement on touchdown. b. As the aircraft settles, do not jerk the collective up; slowly increase it to cushion the landing. c. Remember, as Nr decays, flight controls become less effective. d. Do not flare to stop forward motion. An excessive nose high attitude may result in a tail strike. 5. Common Errors. Landing with a drift or with skids not level. 2024. HIGH SPEED LOW LEVEL AUTOROTATION. 1. Overview. This maneuver is practiced to simulate a power loss at low altitude and high airspeed that may occur when the aircraft is being flown in a terrain flight profile. 2. References. UH-1N NATOPS Flight Manual, Chapter 8, High Speed Low Level Autorotation.

31

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

3. Maneuver Description. a. Execute the High Speed Approach pattern, except maintain 100 feet on final. b. Once stabilized at 100 KIAS and 100 feet AGL, enter the autorotation by simultaneously rotating the throttles to flight idle, lowering the collective to maintain Nr, and adjusting the pedals to maintain balanced flight. Simultaneously apply aft cyclic to initiate a flare. Check Ngs at 61 (+) 2 %. c. Steps g-i of the normal power recovery autorotation complete the maneuver. 4. Discussion/Techniques. a. Do not delay in lowering the collective upon entry. At high power settings Nr decays rapidly. However, do not slam the collective full down or pull rapidly back on the cyclic after entering the maneuver. Because of higher entry airspeed and lack of high descent rate, the technique for entering the flare must be less abrupt than normal to avoid ballooning. b. When the flare is established without ballooning, the maneuver is flown as a normal power recovery autorotation. c. If excessive altitude is gained due to improper flare entry, a waveoff should be accomplished. 5. Common Errors. a. Slamming the collective full down or pulling back rapidly on the cyclic after entering the maneuver. Together, these inputs may cause an Nr overspeed or excessive ballooning. b. Hesitating to reduce collective at entry. At a high power setting Nr will decrease rapidly and low rotor warning will be heard. Do not increase throttle application any faster than normal to avoid an overspeed condition. Low rotor aural alert may be continual and drown out the radar altimeter low altitude warning. If necessary, use visual cues for flare entry. 2025. AUTOROTATION TO A SPOT. 1. Overview. This maneuver allows the pilot to practice autorotations to a specific spot, thereby improving the pilot's skill in evaluating a potential landing site, and in maneuvering the aircraft to that site. 2. References. UH-lN NATOPS Flight Manual. Chapter 8, Power Recovery Autorotations.

32

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

3. Maneuver Description. a. Procedures are covered in paragraph 2015, with the following exceptions: (1) Entry altitude and position may be varied (at or above minimum entry altitudes). (2) Entry airspeed may be varied (70-100 KIAS). (3) During autorotation, the airspeed, angle of bank (S-turns), Nr (91100%), and out of balanced flight (ball), may be varied to make the intended point of landing. b. No turns below 100 feet. c. Avoid out of balance flight. 4. Discussion/Techniques. As described in paragraph 2015. 5. Common Errors. As described in paragraph 2015. 2026. HIGH ANGLE OF BANK. 1. Overview. This maneuver is practiced to demonstrate the need to increase power in high angle of bank turns. To maintain level flight while in a turn, the number of gs must increase. For a 60 degree AOB turn this computes to 2 gs. 2. References. UH-IN NATOPS Flight Manual, Chapter 13, Level Flight Characteristics. 3. Maneuver Description. a. Clear the area prior to commencement. b. Initiate maneuver at 1000 minimum and 90 KIAS. The max g limit is 2.2 gs. c. Smoothly roll into a level 60 degree angle of bank, while simultaneously increasing power, and turn for 180 degrees. d. Maintain altitude. e. Roll out after 180 degrees. 4. Discussion/Techniques. a. Smooth cyclic applications are critical.

33

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

b. Maintain altitude. c. Ensure the ball is centered. d. Anticipate left hand turns requiring increased torque and right hand turns causing higher Nr. 5. Common Errors. a. Letting the nose drop, or losing altitude. b. Not scanning transmission torque gauge, which results in an over-torque. 2027. LOW ROTOR RPM HOVER. 1. Overview. This maneuver is designed to demonstrate aircraft controllability at a reduced main rotor RPM and will be performed by the instructor only. 2. References. UH-1N NATOPS Flight Manual, Chapter 11, Hover Checks, Low RPM Hover. 3. Maneuver Description. a. Hover into the wind at five to seven feet. b. Slowly reduce both throttles to establish a low RPM hover (92% Nr). c. Maintain heading and altitude with pedals and collective; eliminate drift with cyclic control. d. Execute left and right pedal turns for 45 degrees of heading change. e. Reestablish a stable hover, then smoothly increase throttles to 100% Nf/Nr. 4. Discussion/Techniques. a. As throttles are reduced, collective must be increased to prevent settling. b. All control inputs must be smooth to prevent ground contact. c. Upon completion, throttles must be slowly increased to avoid an over torque situation.

2028. NIGHT UNAIDED FLIGHT. 1. Night unaided flight will be done during the FAM stage and may be done during the instrument syllabus as well. All other stage events that are flown at night will be done using night vision goggles.

34

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

2. All maneuvers flown at night unaided shall be flown just as they are during the day as far as parameters. Simulated emergencies shall be flown the same way. Extra time will be required during these simulated emergencies to accomplish all the required items. Pilots must realize that and not try to rush the maneuvers to completion. 3. Lighting for nights will be as follows: a. Anti-collision Light: On (red). b. Navigation Lights: On, steady bright. c. Formation lights (Strip lighting): On, POS 5, green. d. Searchlight: On, no later than 90 position. e. Fuselage Lights Circuit Breaker: Pulled. 4. The non-flying pilot may turn the searchlight on and off when required. 5. The searchlight shall be used when taxiing in the line environment or in and out of the fuel pits. Additionally, the searchlight shall be used to signal personnel in and out of the rotor arc, and to indicate to hot refueling personnel to shut off fuel flow to the aircraft.

35

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

CHAPTER 3 SIMULATED EMERGENCIES

PARAGRAPH 3000 3001 3002 3003 3004 3005 3006 3007 3008 3009 3010 3011 3012 3013

TOPIC GENERAL DISCUSSION SIMULATED DUAL ENGINE FAILURE AT ALTITUDE SIMULATED DUAL ENGINE FAIL IN A HOVER OR TAXI SIMULATED SINGLE ENGINE FAILURE SIMULATED AFCU/ Nf GOV FAILURE (MANUAL FUEL) SIMULATED TAIL ROTOR MALF (FIXED PITCH) SIMULATED DUAL HYDRAULIC SYSTEM FAILURE APPR SIMULATED #1 HYDRAULIC SYSYEM FAILURE SIMULATED AFCS MALFUNCTIONS AUTOROTATION FROM MASS-3 TO HOME FIELD HAE TO HOME FIELD OR AUXILIARY FIELD TOOLS REMOVED FROM PLANE CAPTAIN'S TOOL POUCH DISABELING BDHI AND ATTITUDE GYRO CBs PROHIBITED SIMULATED/COMPOUND EMERGENCIES

36

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

3000. GENERAL DISCUSSION. 1. Simulated emergencies present unusual aircraft conditions for the crew. It was not intended that the UH-1N be flown in an emergency condition during normal flight operations. When practicing simulated emergencies it is extremely important that a thorough preflight brief detailing all aspects of the simulated emergency procedures to be conducted. 2. Simulated aircraft emergencies shall be conducted only during scheduled syllabus flights, which have predetermined simulated emergencies as training objectives. Simulated emergencies shall be initiated by a designated squadron instructor pilot or by the pilot under instruction, when briefed by the instructor pilot to do so. 3. With each simulated emergency the instructor pilot shall announce that the emergency is simulated so that all crewmembers are assured an actual emergency has not occurred. 4. With each simulated emergency the pilot under instruction shall announce or perform the immediate action steps required for the particular emergency. In addition, the pilot under instruction shall request the instructor pilot to pull out the pocket checklist and simulate completing the non-immediate steps required for the particular emergency. 5. The following restrictions apply to the conduct of all simulated aircraft emergencies: a. Simulated emergencies shall not be continued to a point where if an actual aircraft emergency developed, the instructor pilot could not recover the aircraft in accordance with NATOPS procedures. b. Simulated aircraft emergencies shall not be conducted with passengers embarked. c. All simulated aircraft emergencies shall be briefed. d. Simulated dual engine failures conducted at other than an airfield with an available crash / fire / rescue shall be recovered by 300 feet AGL and a minimum of 60 KIAS. Note SIMULATED COMPOUND EMERGENCIES ARE PROHIBITED.

3001. SIMULATED DUAL ENGINE FAILURE AT ALTITUDE. 1. Overview. This maneuver is designed to instill in the pilot the proficiency required to deal with a sudden, unexpected loss of power at altitude. The NATOPS Manual contains extensive information concerning dual engine failures and autorotations. Each pilot shall thoroughly familiarize himself with the procedures found in the NATOPS Manual.

37

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

2. References. UH-1N NATOPS Flight Manual, Chapter 13, Autorotation Characteristics; Chapter 14, Dual Engine Failure. 3. Maneuver Description. a. A simulated dual engine failure at altitude is performed in the same manner as an autorotation discussed in the familiarization section except as noted below: (1) A simulated dual engine failure at altitude may be initiated and simultaneously announced by the instructor pilot provided that a preflight brief was conducted to discuss all aspects of this simulated emergency situation. (2) Recovery shall be complete at a minimum of 300 feet AGL and 60 knots unless performed at an airfield with an available crash / fire / rescue. If a crash/fire/rescue is available, a simulated dual engine failure may be flown to the completion of a power recovery auto. See paragraph 2015, steps (b) thru (i) of the practice autorotation maneuver description for further details. 4. Discussion/Techniques. a. During the recovery phase from a simulated dual engine failure, care must be exercised while advancing the throttles to the full open position. The aircraft is extremely vulnerable to an overspeed condition during this transition. 5. Common Errors. a. Making too much of a right pedal input immediately after entering the auto, resulting in the ball being too far out to the left. b. Getting too slow or too fast, outside the 63-89 KIAS range. c. Failing to make the intended point of landing due to poor distance estimation, or due to proper distance estimation but poor execution of autorotational range modifiers (S-turns, airspeed variation between 63-89 KIAS). d. Rolling the throttles open too rapidly, causing a rotor overspeed. 3002. SIMULATED DUAL ENGINE FAIL IN A HOVER OR TAXI. 1. Overview. These maneuvers are designed to develop pilot proficiency in handling a sudden, unexpected loss of power while hovering or taxiing. 2. References. UH-1N NATOPS Flight Manual, Chapter 13, Hovering / Taxiing Autorotation Chapter 14, Dual Engine Failure.

38

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

3. Maneuver Description. a. These maneuvers are conducted in the same manner as hovering / taxing autorotations discussed in the familiarization section, paragraph 2022. The instructor or PUI may reduce the throttles. b. This maneuver shall not be executed at gross weights in excess of 8,500 pounds. c. Simulated dual engine failures in a hover or taxi should be practiced into the wind on a firm, level surface. CAUTION The copilots window adjustment knob in the UH-1N is in a position which may catch on the copilots flight suit. Care must be exercised to ensure that that the flight glove is tucked into the sleeve of the flight suit and the sleeve is securely fastened.

3003. SIMULATED SINGLE ENGINE FAILURE. 1. Overview. This maneuver is designed to familiarize the pilot under instruction with the procedures required to deal with the sudden loss of power from one engine. A thorough knowledge of the procedures discussed in the NATOPS Manual is required to ensure that the correct procedures are followed in the event of an actual single engine failure. 2. References. UH-1N NATOPS Flight Manual, Chapter 14, Single Engine Failure. 3. Maneuver Decription. a. The altitude, airspeed, gross weight, and wind conditions at which an actual engine failure occurs will dictate the action to be followed to affect a safe landing. Level flight can be maintained at low altitude and normal gross weights with standard day conditions. At high gross weights / high altitude, level flight cannot be maintained when hovering or operating at low airspeed. The maximum gross weight at which level flight can be maintained decreases as altitude above sea level increases. b. Simulated single engine takeoffs are prohibited.

39

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

c. Simulated single engine flight for the purpose of practicing single engine emergencies is authorized under the following conditions: (1) Power available is sufficient for single engine flight. (2) A suitable landing area is accessible. d. Simulated single engine emergencies shall not be initiated below 200 feet of altitude and 80 knots on takeoff, and 200 feet of altitude and 70 knots on landing. Indicated torque at the time of initiating the simulated single engine failure shall not be more than single engine maximum power (Q, ITT, Ng) available. e. A single engine waveoff shall not be initiated below 300 feet. If a waveoff below 300 feet is required the engine at flight idle will be increased to the full open position. f. A simulated single engine failure may be taken to a sliding landing to the right grass at MCAS, Camp Pendleton. See paragraph 2010, for a description of sliding landings. CAUTION Avoid exceeding Ng, ITT, and max torque available on the good engine. NOTE The PUI shall have accomplished a sliding landing with both throttles full open as a prerequisite to performing a simulated single engine failure to a sliding landing. CAUTION During simulated single engine flight the possibility of the unaffected engine failing is always present. In the event of an actual failure of the unaffected engine, the pilot at the controls must take immediate action in order to ensure continued flight to a safe landing. Priority must be given to maintaining or regaining rotor RPM by immediately entering an autorotation before attempting to advance the throttle to full open on the good engine. If single engine flight can be maintained, accomplish a landing in accordance with the single engine emergency procedures. If unable to establish single engine flight, continue to a full autorotative landing. Caution must be exercised to ensure that only one engine is rolled to the flight idle position when initiating a simulated single engine failure. CAUTION Maintain safe autorotation airspeed until the pilot at the controls is assured he will reach the safe landing area. Avoid a high rate of descent during an underpowered condition.

40

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

3004. SIMUALTED AFCU/ Nf GOV FAILURE (MANUAL FUEL). 1. Overview. a. This maneuver is designed to develop proficiency in the pilot under instruction in flying the aircraft with one engine in manual fuel. b. Actual malfunction of the fuel control will be evidenced by an abnormal change in gas producer (Ng), inter turbine temperature (ITT), fuel flow, and free power turbine (Nf). The NATOPS Manual details the various methods of analysis required to determine the type of fuel control failure which has occurred. (1) If a Nf governor or automatic fuel control unit (AFCU) fails, it will either lead to an underspeed (rollback) or overspeed situation. If one engine is underspeeding, initial indications will be a torque split caused by the underspeed and low Nr and Nf. The low torque and low Ng (as low as 40%) indicate the underspeeding engine. (2) If the engine is overspeeding, initial indications will be a torque split and high Nr and Nf. The higher torque needle indicates the overspeeding engine. Incidentally, the Nf governor for the good engine sees the high Nf condition and attempts to control the overspeed by spooling down, causing low Ng on the good engine. c. The key is determining which engine is causing the problem. When flying straight and level with a normal power setting, low Nr means the engine with low torque and low Ng is underspeeding. High Nr means the engine with high torque and high Ng is overspeeding. In every instance, the appropriate corrective action for fuel control malfunction is to roll the affected engine to flight idle and switch from the AUTOMATIC to MANUAL fuel control mode. Therefore, it is essential that all pilots be familiar with the manual mode of operation, and that they develop proficiency in actually flying in the manual mode. CAUTION: Failure to roll the throttle of the affected engine to the flight idle position prior to switching to manual mode will result in rapid overpseed and damage to the engine. Note that it is the throttle position, not Ng reading, that is critical when switching to manual fuel. d. Manual fuel control operations shall be prebriefed and discussed prior to and during the switch into the manual fuel control mode. 2. References. UH- 1N NATOPS Flight Manual, Chapter 14, Fuel System Malfunctions.

41

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

3. Maneuver Description. a. In order to reduce the chance of severely overspeeding an engine, switching from automatic to manual fuel and back shall be performed while on the deck with both throttles at flight idle while in the training command. b. While on the deck, the PUI (PAC) will roll both throttles down to flight idle. Then the PUI will direct the instructor to place his/her finger on the appropriate governor switch. The PUI will concur with the correct switch, at which time the instructor will switch to manual fuel. The PUI shall note and announce a flux in Ng, ITT, fuel flow, and that the appropriate governor manual caution light has illuminated. c. While the PUI is still holding the manual throttle at flight idle, the instructor will roll up the automatic throttle to the full open position. Once full open, the throttle friction of the automatic engine may be tightened down. d. The PUI should now roll the manual throttle up to approximately 4% below the automatic throttle. While flying in manual fuel, the torque needle of the engine in manual fuel should remain within 4% (approximate width of the transmission Q needle) and below the torque needle of the engine in automatic. e. The pattern is flown the same as for a normal approach. f. Terminate the approach in a stabilized hover. g. Once on deck, smoothly roll both throttles to flight idle. h. The instructor will again get dual concurrence before switching the governor switch back to automatic. CAUTION While operating in the Manual Fuel mode, the engine will respond directly to your inputs without automatic protection features. To prevent exceeding limitations, aggressively scan engine/Nr instruments throughout the maneuver. Any time the manual torque comes above the automatic torque, Nr will tend to overspeed. 4. Discussion/Techniques. a. As a general rule, while operating in the Manual Fuel mode, when increasing power, lead with collective increase and follow with rolling up throttle. When decreasing power, lead with throttle decrease and follow with collective reduction.

42

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

b. Anticipate power changes in three areas: leveling off from climbout, at the abeam position, and on short final. Start the power change earlier than normal to give you more time to make a smooth, gradual power change. Adjust the collective and throttles in small increments at a time to keep the torque split under control. c. The automatic torque needle moves up and down as you move the collective. The manual torque does not respond to collective. Rather, it moves as you roll the throttle up and down. d. Torque splits are controlled by manipulating either the manual throttle (to affect the manual torque) or the collective (to affect the automatic torque), depending on if the manual torque is high or low, and if more or less power is needed. (1) Large torque splits with the manual torque low are undesirable because the automatic engine assumes the entire load. If this happens on climbout, smoothly roll up the manual throttle to bring up the manual torque. If this happens on descent, reduce the collective to bring down the automatic torque. (2) Large torque splits with the manual torque high are undesirable because Nr tends to overspeed. If this happens on climbout, increase collective to put more pitch on the blades to prevent the overspeed and raise the governed torque up above the manual torque. If this happens on descent, reduce the manual throttle to bring manual torque down below the automatic torque. e. Landing and rolling both throttles to idle is a HMT-303 maneuver training restriction only. Realize that if an actual governor failure is experienced in flight, the good throttle will stay full open and only the bad throttle will be rolled to flight idle. It will be switched to manual and rolled back up while in flight. The aircraft will be flown in manual mode only far enough to land as soon as practical. 5. Common Errors. a. Leaving Nr out of the cockpit scan. When Nr is high, the manual fuel engine throttle is too high. b. Leaving Nf needles out of the cockpit scan. When Nr is at 100%, the AFCU governed engine could still be doing all the work. The intent is to load share the engines while in manual fuel. Do not allow a significant split with the manual fuel engine Nf below 100%.

43

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

c. Deviating from normal pattern altitudes. The engines are still working. The same power exists to fly the aircraft through the normal pattern numbers. Do not become so fixated on controlling the manual fuel engine that the approach suffers.

3005. SIMULATED TAIL ROTOR MALFUNCTION (FIXED PITCH). 1. Overview. a. These maneuvers are designed to build confidence in handling fixed pitch tail rotor malfunctions. b. Immovable directional control pedals or the lack of directional response characterizes loss of tail rotor pitch change control when the pedals are moved. The tail rotor is now a fixed pitch propeller, and the thrust it produces varies directly with rotor RPM. c. Whenever possible, execution of simulated fixed pitch failures should be accomplished to an active runway. This will allow sufficient straightaway as well as clearance for a waveoff. 2. References. UH-1N NATOPS Flight Manual, Chapter 14, Tail Rotor Malfunctions. 3. Maneuver Description. a. Diagnosis of the simulated emergency may be accomplished by either one or a combination of the following procedures: (1) On downwind, fly the aircraft at 60-80 KIAS with hover torque. If the ball is out to the left it will probably be a stuck right. If the ball is out to the right it will probably be a stuck left. (2) Remember the position of the pedals while in a hover. When the simulated emergency is initiated, again note the pedal position. If the left pedal is farther forward than the hover position it will probably be stuck left. If the right pedal is farther forward than in the hover position it will probably be a stuck right. b. The steps for simulated fixed pitch, RIGHT YAW contained in the pocket checklist shall be followed with the following additions / exceptions for training purposes: (1) Downwind is 60-80 KIAS and 500 feet AGL. (2) The instructor shall set the desired yaw angle on downwind (30 degrees maximum). The instructor shall guard the directional control pedals in a fixed position. (3) Do not exceed one ball width deflection until on the final approach.

44

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

(4) Maintain 60-80 knots on final until reaching 50 feet AGL to keep the aircraft aligned with the left of the runway. (5) Approaching 25 feet begin a deceleration of the aircraft. As the aircraft slows, the nose of the aircraft will yaw to the right. When the nose of the aircraft has yawed approximately 15-20 degrees from runway centerline, reduce throttles as necessary to align aircraft with the runway prior to a simulated touchdown at 10 feet. CAUTION The PUI will announce, Reducing throttles, prior to reducing throttles. Do not reduce the throttles below 25 feet AGL or the 10 foot minimum altitude may be exceeded. NOTE To recover from a right yaw situation, the throttles must be reduced sharply. However, the amount of reduction is minimal. c. Maintain heading over the around with directional control pedals while smoothly advancing the throttles to the full open position, completing the maneuver. d. Steps for simulated fixed pitch LEFT YAW in flight contained in the pocket checklist, shall be followed with the following additions / exceptions for training purposes: (1) Downwind is 60-80 KIAS and 500 feet AGL. Left downwind is desirable. (2) Set desired yaw angle on downwind (75 degrees maximum). Instructor pilot shall guard directional control pedals in a fixed position. Pilot at controls will not relinquish tail rotor pedal control. (3) Do not exceed one ball width deflection until on final approach. (4) Maintain 60-80 knots on final to keep the aircraft aligned with the runway. Throttles may be reduced on final to attain a rate of descent within a comfortable sideslip angle (minimum 91% Nr). (5) At 25 feet begin a deceleration of the aircraft. As the aircraft slows, the nose of the aircraft will initially yaw left. As power is increased the rate of left yaw will either slow, stop, or the aircraft will begin a right yaw. Coordinate cyclic, collective, and throttles to terminate at a 10 foot hover or taxi and aligned with the runway. NOTE At no time shall RPM be allowed to decay below 91 % Nf or Nr.

45

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

e. Waveoffs from simulated fixed pitch situations: (1) Waveoff shall be executed if any of the following conditions occur: (a) Yaw limitations on final are exceeded (30 degrees right / 75 degrees left) (b) Nf or Nr decreases below 91%. (c) A safe approach cannot be executed. (d) At the instructor pilots direction. (2) The PUI shall use directional control pedals to maintain runway heading, ensure the throttles are full open, and report such to the instructor pilot. (3) In an actual low power fixed pitch RIGHT YAW situation the cyclic is the primary waveoff flight control. Displace the cyclic in the desired direction of flight, and as the airspeed increases the aircraft will streamline into the wind. (4) In a high power fixed pitch LEFT YAW situation, a combination of cyclic and collective can be used for a safe climbout. 4. Discussion/Techniques. a. When given a stuck pedal emergency, the PUI may not accurately identify the type of stuck pedal situation. A moderately stuck left can easily turn into a stuck right profile with the nose swinging through to the right. b. Use the entire runway to determine the best landing solution. c. Do not use large collective movements. d. A left crosswind is desirable to recover from both stuck left and stuck right situations. e. To recover from the right yaw situation, the throttles must be reduced sharply. The amount of throttle reduction, however, is minimal. f. Do not allow RPM to decay below 91% Nf/Nr. Do not descend below 10 feet AGL. 5. Common Errors. a. Rushing the maneuver. Allow the aircraft time to respond to control inputs before making additional inputs and anticipate adjustments that affect the yaw rate, as the nose does not respond immediately to inputs. b. Getting too slow during a fixed tail rotor pitch at high power. For one of these, it may be necessary to slow the aircraft below 20 KIAS. At these slow airspeeds,

46

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

the aircraft loses the streamlining effect from the vertical fin, and tends to yaw to the right. There is a small margin for reaction time if the nose begins to break right at slow airspeeds. If this happens, immediately increase airspeed. If altitude permits, simply lower the nose. If it does not, use a combination of slight collective increase and lowered nose. c. Not finding the slowest airspeed that still allows the nose to be pointed in the direction of travel on final. d. Advancing throttles too abruptly during recovery from stuck right. Throttles can be smoothly and gradually rolled back to full open.

3006. SIMULATED DUAL HYDRAULIC SYSTEM FAILURE APPROACH. 1. Overview. This maneuver is designed to develop proficiency in flying the aircraft without the benefit of hydraulic assist. Whenever a dual hydraulic systems failure occurs, control forces will be abnormally heavy, especially collective forces. In most cases the collective can be increased to sustain level flight or to climb until commitment to final approach. A shallow approach should be planned to a long hard surface. 2. References. UH- IN NATOPS Flight Manual, Chapter 14, Hydraulic System Failure. 3. Maneuver Description. a. The EP will be initiated by the IP announcing Simulated dual hydraulic failure. b. THE HYDR CONTROL MASTER SWITCH SHALL NOT BE SECURED IN FLIGHT. c. When the PUI is given a simulated dual hydraulics system failure, he/she will initiate the immediate action items. d. Establish / maintain a 55 knot climb attitude and level off at 500 feet AGL. Simulate completion of the NATOPS pocket checklist procedures. e. An extended downwind leg is recommended to allow for a long shallow glide path to final. f. Decrease the throttles to establish a long, shallow descent to arrive just prior to your intended point of landing over the runway at 100 feet AGL. Initial descent will be slow; do not overreact. At no time shall RPM be allowed to decay below 91% Nr. Airspeed may be adjusted slightly faster or slower than 55 knots.

47

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

g. At the intended point of landing and no lower than 100 feet smoothly advance the throttles to the full open position and terminate the maneuver. 4. Discussion/Techniques. a. All turns should be made to the right. Turns to the right (opposite the direction of rotation of the main rotor) are more difficult, and by turning right the pilot is assured that sufficient left cyclic is available to recover from the turn. b. At the instructor pilots discretion he may secure AFCS and ride directional control pedals and cyclic to simulate realistic control responses. 3007. SIMULATED #1 HYDRAULIC SYSTEM FAILURE. 1. Overview. This maneuver is practiced to enable the pilot to safely land the aircraft in the event of a No. 1 hydraulic system failure. 2. References. UH-1N NATOPS Flight Manual, Chapter 14, Single Hydraulic System. 3. Maneuver Description. a. Secure the No. 1 hydraulic system by moving the HYDR CONTROL selector switch to the No.2 system position. Note that the corresponding caution light illuminates. Reset the Master Caution light. b. Confirm that the YAW SCAS channel is disengaged. c. Downwind should be 80 KIAS 500 feet AGL. d. Fly a normal or slightly extended pattern to final. e. Below 50 feet AGL align nose with runway. f. Terminate the approach in a stabilized hover. g. Smoothly land the aircraft. Ensure that yaw rates are controlled. h. Lower the collective to full down and center the pedals. i. Reengage No. 1 hydraulics. j. Reengage YAW SCAS.

48

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

4. Discussion/Techniques. a. All controls will react normally except the directional control pedals, which will require significantly increased force for a given displacement. Directional pedal control will require leading the inputs and waiting for the desired response. Normally, an input will require an opposing input, or neutralization of the input to arrest the rate of movement. Anticipate early application of left pedal with power requirements. b. On final, maintain a constant approach angle and controlled, continuous deceleration. A steeper approach profile and slower descent rate can help reduce the amount of pedal input required at the bottom of the maneuver. 5. Common Errors. a. Pilot-induced oscillations in yaw. Allow time for pedal inputs to take effect, especially in a hover. b. Not stabilizing the yaw prior to attempting to land from a hover. c. Waiting to arrest the rate of descent too late. Power should be pulled in gradually and early in order to avoid large yaw oscillations.

3008. SIMULATED AFCS MALFUNCTIONS. 1. Overview. Maneuvers performed with SCAS off are designed to develop proficiency and confidence in flying the aircraft with inoperable SCAS. 2. References. UH-IN NATOPS Flight Manual, Chapter 14, AFCS Malfunctions. 3. Maneuver Description. a. If the SCAS mode of the AFCS becomes inoperative, adequate control of the aircraft can be maintained to a safe landing. The instructor pilot may initiate this simulated emergency at any time during the flight. b. The emphasis should be on small smooth control inputs to avoid over controlling the aircraft. c. A normal approach profile is flown to practice SCAS off flight.

49

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

3009. AUTOROTATION FROM MASS-3 TO HOME FIELD. 1. Minimum altitude over MASS-3 shall be 3700 feet MSL. 2. Coordination and approval from Camp Pendleton tower are mandatory. Runway 21 must be in use. 3. Airspeed shall be maintained between 63 and 89 KIAS, as appropriate, in order to arrive at the abeam position at 1000 feet. 4. At the abeam position, the flying pilot shall maintain normal autorotational parameters as described in paragraph 2018 (180 AUTOROTATION). 3010. HAE TO HOME FIELD. 1. Shall only be conducted when altitude is sufficient to allow the aircraft to be maneuvered so as to ensure a safe autorotational recovery to the duty runway or the appropriate grass area. Below 100 feet, the flying pilot shall comply with normal autorotation checkpoints. 2. Coordination with tower is mandatory. If flown at an auxiliary field, a crash crew must be on station. 3011. TOOLS REMOVED FROM PLANE CAPTAIN'S TOOL POUCH. 1. A tool may be removed from the Plane Captains tool pouch, but may not be hidden in the aircraft. 2. The tool pouch shall be shown to the PUI for corrective action prior to start. 3. Always ensure an ATAF is completed.

3012. DISABELING BDHI AND PULLING ATTD GYRO CIRCUIT BREAKERS. 1. Pulling circuit breakers is authorized only while VMC. 2. The use of alternate instruments (partial panel) shall be prebriefed.

50

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

3013. PROHIBITED SIMULATED/COMPOUND EMERGENCIES. 1. Single engine failure from a practice autorotation. 2. Disengaging SCAS just prior to landing. However, this does not preclude the IP from disengaging SCAS for takeoff/landing checklist review, while in the downwind, or on deck. 3. Blade tie downs left on for start. 4. Plane Captain signaling fire on start. 5. Complete loss of electrical power in flight. 6. Initiating fixed tail rotor pitch conditions below 200 feet or 70 KIAS. 7. Compound emergencies of any type not specifically addressed in this publication. 8. Dual engine throttle chops (simulated hovering/taxiing autorotations) at the completion of any other simulated emergency or practice autorotation.

51

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

CHAPTER 4 INSTRUMENT FLYING PARAGRAPH 4000 4001 4002 4003 4004 4005 4006 4007 4008 4009 4010 4011 4012 4013 4014 4015 4016 4017 4018 4019 TOPIC GENERAL INSTRUMENT CHECKLISTS ATTITUDE INSTRUMENT FLYING INSTRUMENT TAKEOFF STANDARD RATE TURNS TURN PATTERN STANDARD RATE CLIMBS AND DESCENTS LEVEL SPEED CHANGE VERTICAL S-1 PATTERN OSCAR PATTERN PARTIAL PANEL PARTIAL PANEL TIMED TURNS RECOVERY FROM UNUSUAL ATTITUDES INSTRUMENT AUTOROTATION TIME-DISTANCE CHECKS BEARING INTERCEPTS TRACKING HOLDING APPROACHES TACAN (GENERAL)

52

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

PARAGRAPH

TOPIC

4020 4021 4022 4023 4024 4025 4026 4027 4028 4029 4030 4031

TACAN ORIENTATION GROUNDSPEED CHECK ARCING POINT-TO-POINT NAVIGATION TACAN HOLDING TACAN APPROACH MISSED APPROACH RADAR APPROACHES (GENERAL) PRECISION APPROACH RADAR (PAR) AIRPORT SURVEILLANCE RADAR (ASR) NO GYRO APPROACH AIRWAYS NAVIGATION

53

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

4000. GENERAL. Instrument flying, like visual flying, uses reference points to determine the attitude of the aircraft. When flying by visual reference to the earth's surface, the attitude of the aircraft is determined by observing the relationship between the aircraft's nose and the natural horizon. When flying by reference to flight instruments, the attitude of the aircraft is determined by observing indications on the instruments. These indications give essentially the same information as obtained by visual reference to the earth's surface. The same control techniques are employed during attitude instrument flying that are used in visual flying. The largest factor in learning attitude instrument flight is determining the attitude of the aircraft. The applicable references cited in this chapter should be read and their contents thoroughly understood prior to brief time. 4001. INSTRUMENT CHECKLIST. Prior to departure, the PUI shall complete the Pocket NATOPS Pretakeoff & Taxi Checklists, with the following additions: 1. Maps, supplements, approach plates - As required. 2. Fuel packet - If required. 4002. ATTITUDE INSTRUMENT FLYING. 1. The instruments for both basic instruments (BI) and radio instruments (RI) are broken into three groups: control instruments, performance instruments, and position instruments. Power and attitude instruments are "control instruments". A proper combination of pitch, roll, yaw, and power control will achieve the desired aircraft performance. The airspeed indicator, the vertical speed indicator, and in some cases, the altimeter determine the "performance" of the aircraft. The aircraft's "position instruments" include the TACAN, CDI, RMI, the bearing/radial needles, and the altimeter. 2. During instrument flight, pilots must divide their attention between control, performance, and position instruments. Proper division of attention and the sequence of checking the instruments (proper scan) vary with pilots and with the maneuver being performed. 3. Common Errors. a. Omitting an instrument entirely: An example would be level speed changes: Adding power to gain airspeed, the aviator might watch power, RMI, and A/S and completely ignore the altimeter, and gain hundreds of feet. b. Placing too much emphasis on a single instrument: This is a common tendency. Too often a pilot will devote too much of the scan to one instrument while the others are giving indications of an undesirable change in the aircrafts position, altitude or performance. An example would be too much attention to the altimeter while the airspeed continues to bleed off.

54

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

c. Slow scan: This generally exists when a pilot is new to an aircraft or has not flown instruments for a long period of time. 4003. INSTRUMENT TAKEOFF. 1. Overview. The instrument takeoff enables a pilot to expeditiously attain a safe altitude and airspeed during periods of low ceiling/visibility. It may also be used for night, shipboard, or over water takeoffs. If ceiling and visibility permit, attain climb airspeed prior to entering actual instrument meterological conditions (IMC). 2. Reference. UH-1N NATOPS Flight Manual, Chapter 15. 3. Maneuver Description. a. IP will position the aircraft on the runway aligned with runway heading and transfer the controls to the PUI. b. Slowly increase collective until aircraft becomes light on the skids. Trim out control pressures. c. Continue to increase collective to establish a positive rate of climb. d. As the aircraft leaves the ground and you have indications of a positive rate of climb, smoothly lower the nose until the pipper is 5 below the horizon bar. e. Passing through translational lift, some nose attitude adjustment will be necessary to prevent the nose from pitching up and slowing the aircraft's acceleration. f. Maintain runway heading with pedals until established on SID or given vectors by departure. g. Takeoff power and attitude should be maintained until the aircraft has accelerated to 80 KIAS. Then adjust the nose attitude to maintain an 80 KIAS climb at takeoff power until reaching an altitude 1000 feet prior to desired level off altitude. The last 1000 feet of climb should be made at 80 KIAS and 500 fpm. 4. Techniques/Common Errors. a. A common error is the tendency to overcontrol the nose attitude. On takeoff, more than 5 nose down can become dangerous in the event of a sudden power loss. Maintain at least 500 fpm on climbout.

55

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

b. Passing through translational lift, the nose of the aircraft tends to pitch up, which, if not corrected, will significantly reduce the aircraft's acceleration, and will place the aircraft in the "avoid" regions of the height-velocity diagram. c. If obstacle clearance is to be maintained, it is vital to maintain the runway heading during takeoff. Assure that a positive rate of climb is maintained at all times. Climbing turns should not normally be initiated until at least 200 feet AGL, and should not exceed a standard rate angle of bank. 4004. STANDARD RATE TURNS (SRT). 1. Overview. Standard rate turns result in a heading change of 3 per second, (360 in 2 minutes). This maneuver enables the pilot to learn the proper attitude, angle of bank, and scan pattern for turning the helicopter at a prescribed rate. The following angles of bank are recommended for the airspeeds indicated when initially establishing the turn: 80 KIAS 10-12 angle of bank 90 KIAS 13-15 angle of bank 100 KIAS 16-18 angle of bank 2. Reference. NATOPS Instrument Flight Manual, Chapter 17 (Figure 17.11). 3. Maneuver Description. a. Begin the turn three seconds prior to commencing the actual timing of the turn. A two-needle width deflection on the four-minute turn needle will result in a SRT. b. Start or check the clock. c. Cross check angle of bank and needle width deflection with the clock. Remember, 45 of turn for every 15 seconds. d. Ensure the aircraft is in balanced flight. e. Rollouts should be led by one-half the number of degrees of the angle of bank used (i.e. for 20 AOB turn, begin rollout 10 prior). 4. Techniques/Common Errors. a. Once you roll into an angle of bank, hold that angle of bank. The tendency is to reduce the angle of bank after initially setting the attitude. b. Keep your scan moving; a breakdown in scan is one of the most common errors.

56

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

4005. TURN PATTERN. 1. Overview. The turn pattern is a maneuver used to increase proficiency of the pilot at basic instrument flight without incorporating climbs and descents. 2. Reference. NATOPS Instrument Flight Manual, Chapter 17. 3. Maneuver Description. a. Initiate the maneuver on a cardinal heading in level flight, 90 KIAS. b. Turn either direction for 90 at 10 angle of bank. c. Begin rolling the aircraft towards wings level prior to 90. The turn should reverse direction at exactly 90 of heading change from the initial heading. Smoothly continue the turn in the opposite direction, reversing the turn at the initial heading to roll into the next required AOB. d. Continue the sequence for 20 angle of bank and 180 of heading change, then again for 30 angle of bank for 360 of heading change. e. Rollouts should be led by one-half the number of degrees of the angle of bank used. 4. Techniques/Common Errors. a. See Paragraph 4004. b. It is necessary to increase collective to maintain airspeed and altitude during increased AOB. Remember to adjust any power used on final rollout. 4006. STANDARD RATE CLIMBS AND DESCENTS. 1. Overview. Standard rate climbs and descents are the simplest of all basic instrument maneuvers to perform. They are used in most phases of instrument flight. 2. Reference. NATOPS Instrument Flight Manual, Chapter 17 (Paragraph 17.4.2) 3. Maneuver Description. a. Three seconds prior to commencement of timing, adjust power to the value required to establish a standard rate (500 fpm) climb/descent. Coordinate rudder input to maintain heading and balanced flight. b. Start or check the clock.

57

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

c. Maintain constant airspeed and heading during the maneuver and cross check climb/descent performance. Remember 125 feet of altitude change for every 15 seconds. d. Fifty feet prior (10% of 500 fpm) to desired altitude, adjust power as necessary to level off. 4. Techniques/Common Errors. a. A slight nose attitude adjustment may be required to maintain desired airspeed. b. Remember the "P-A-T" principle, "Power - Attitude - Trim". 4007. LEVEL SPEED CHANGE. 1. Overview. The level speed change is a maneuver used to increase the proficiency of the pilot at basic instrument flight without incorporating climbs or descents. 2. Reference. NATOPS Instrument Flight Manual, Chapter 17. 3. Maneuver Description. a. Initiate the maneuver on a specified heading, in level flight, and at 90 KIAS. b. While holding heading and altitude constant, decelerate to 70 KIAS. Stabilize at 70 KIAS only long enough to make adjustments for altitude and heading. c. Accelerate to 100 KIAS. Stabilize at 100 KIAS only long enough to make adjustments for altitude and heading.

d. Decelerate to 90 KIAS. When stabilized on altitude, heading, and 90 KIAS, the maneuver is complete. 4. Techniques/Common Errors. a. A slight nose attitude adjustment may be required to maintain desired airspeed. b. Remember the "P-A-T" principle, "Power - Attitude - Trim".

58

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

4008. VERTICAL S-1 PATTERN. 1. Overview. The vertical S-1 is a proficiency maneuver that develops control coordination while climbing and descending at a standard rate. The vertical S-1 will be performed with airspeed and heading as constants. 2. Reference. NATOPS Instrument Flight Manual, Chapter 18 (Paragraph 18.2.1.1). 3. Maneuver Description. a. Establish 90 KIAS on a 500 foot increment (2000, 2500, etc), and an assigned heading. b. Three seconds prior to the clock's second hand reaching a "cardinal number" (12, 3, 6, 9), begin a transition to a climb by adding sufficient power to attain a 500 fpm climb for one minute, while maintaining 90 KIAS. c. Check performance to ensure a 125 foot climb for every 15 seconds elapsed. d. Fifty feet prior to level off altitude, which is 500 feet above the starting altitude, collective and nose attitude should be adjusted so as to level off on altitude with 90 KIAS. This portion of the maneuver should take one minute. Fly the aircraft straight and level for one minute, and make any small corrections necessary to prepare for the descent portion of the maneuver. e. Three seconds prior to the second hand reaching the same cardinal time, reduce power as necessary to begin a standard rate descent at 90 KIAS for one minute. f. Check performance to ensure a 125 foot descent for every 15 seconds elapsed. g. Fifty feet prior to the original altitude, adjust power and attitude to level off on altitude at 90 KIAS. 4. Techniques/Common Errors. Special care should be given to maintaining 90 KIAS in the climb and descent. Most pilots will tend to let the nose pitch up when adding power for the climb and will let the nose drop when reducing power for the descent. This tendency results in the airspeed being slow on the climb and fast on the descent, which also affects the rate of climb or descent. Scan must be rapid in order to maintain the constants and detect and correct any developing errors. 4009. OSCAR PATTERN. 1. Overview. The OSCAR pattern is a maneuver combining the use of standard rate turns and standard rate climbs and descents, and is designed to develop the pilot's scan proficiency.

59

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

2. Reference. NATOPS Instrument Flight Manual, Chapter 18 (Paragraph 18.2.3). 3. Maneuver Description. a. Establish straight and level flight, 90 KIAS, on a cardinal heading. b. Three seconds prior to the clock's second hand reaching a cardinal time, smoothly add power to begin a 500 fpm climb, while simultaneously rolling into the proper angle of bank for a standard rate turn to the left. c. Scan the VSI and Turn needle and check the clock against the altimeter and BDHI to ensure a standard rate turn and a 500 fpm climb are maintained. There should be a heading change of 45 every 15 seconds with a simultaneous climb of 125 feet. Adjust controls/trim as necessary, use "P-A-T." d. The climbing turn will continue for 1000 feet of altitude, 360 of turn, and will require two minutes. e. Fifty feet prior to the level off altitude, reduce collective and adjust the nose attitude to level off on altitude and heading with 90 KIAS. f. If for any reason the rollout heading or level-off altitude are not reached as the second hand of the clock reaches the cardinal time, the climb and turn will be completed on the desired heading and altitude rather than on the time. g. The aircraft will be flown for one minute straight and level. h. Three seconds prior to the same cardinal time, smoothly reduce power as necessary to begin a 500 fpm descent, while simultaneously rolling the aircraft into a standard rate turn to the right. i. Scan the VSI and Turn needle, and check the clock against the altimeter and BDHI, to ensure a standard rate turn and a 500 fpm descent are maintained. There should be a heading change of 45 and a descent of 125 feet every 15 seconds. Adjust controls/trim as necessary, use "P-A-T." j. The descending turn will be continued for 1000 feet and 360. k. Fifty feet prior to the level-off altitude, increase collective and adjust the nose attitude to level-off on altitude and heading with 90 KIAS of airspeed. l. As mentioned for the climb portion, if a disparity exists, the rollout and leveloff will be performed on altitude and heading rather than on time.

60

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

4. Techniques/Common Errors. a. Due to the power changes required, which in turn affect the yaw attitude, it is best to enter the climb/descent first and then enter the turn. b. The most common errors associated with the OSCAR pattern are as follows: (1) Failing to maintain a standard rate turn. (2) Letting airspeed vary which alters the rate of climb/descent. (3) Fixating on one parameter of the maneuver (e.g., standard rate turn) and allowing the other (e.g., climb) to deteriorate. 4010. PARTIAL PANEL. 1. Overview. Partial panel is practiced to increase the pilot's ability to control the aircraft without the use of the artificial horizon and/or directional gyro. 2. Reference. NATOPS Instrument Flight Manual, Chapter 17 (Paragraph 17.6). 3. Amplification. a. In partial panel flying, the turn and slip indicator becomes the primary roll axis scan instrument. This instrument will indicate whether the aircraft is wings level or in a turn, and if in a turn, the rate of turn. b. The UH-1N is equipped with a four-minute turn needle. Therefore, a standard rate turn is indicated by a two needle-width deflection of the turn needle. c. The airspeed indicator, altimeter and VSI become the primary instruments for the pitch axis. 4. Maneuver Description. a. To initiate, the instructor will have the PUI slew the pitch and roll axis of the attitude gyro, pull the attitude gyro and/or directional gyro circuit breaker, or cover one or both of the gauges with opaque covers. b. PUI will then transition to a partial panel scan. 5. Techniques/Common Errors. a. All corrections for attitude deviations must be small due to the sensitivity of the turn needle and its tendency to oscillate rather than remain stable with a given

61

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

attitude or angle of bank. It is extremely important to have the ball centered or the needle will give erroneous information. b. The results of pitch attitude changes can often be determined most quickly by referring to the VSI. c. A pilot should always be aware that the possibility of experiencing vertigo is much greater under partial panel. Do not be apprehensive about confessing that you are experiencing vertigo. d. Believe the instruments, especially when partial panel. e. Pilots who "walk the rudder pedals" unconsciously will be unable to maintain a wings level attitude and may encounter dangerous lateral oscillations. f. Report any aircraft malfunction to ATC, which in the pilot's opinion, seriously affects the ability to continue under IFR. PARTIAL PANEL IS ONE OF THESE SITUATIONS. g. Rates of climb/descent should be kept to 500 fpm during partial panel flight. 4011. PARTIAL PANEL TIMED TURNS 1. Overview. Timed turns are practiced to enable the pilot to turn the aircraft a desired number of degrees and at a desired rate while partial panel. 2. Reference. NATOPS Instrument Flight Manual, Chapter 17 (Paragraph 17.6.1). 3. Maneuver Description a. Maintain constant airspeed and altitude throughout the maneuver. b. For turns of 30 or more, a standard rate turn will be used. For turns of less than 30, a half standard rate turn will be used. c. To determine the time necessary for turns greater than 30, divide the number of degrees of turn required by 3, and this is the number of seconds required to turn. To facilitate computations the pilot may draw an RMI on the back of the partial panel card and mark the card in 30-degree increments. By noting that 30 of turn require 10 seconds, the pilot can "count" the time, rather than meticulously compute it. d. For turns less than 30, multiply the number of degrees required to turn by 2/3, and this will be the time in seconds required to turn at half standard rate.

62

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

e. All turns should be started and stopped on time and not led by 3 seconds as is done for full panel standard rate turns. 4. Techniques/Common Errors. a. Mathematical errors in multiplication and division result in incorrect timing figures. b. Erratic angles of bank result in greater or lesser rates of turn than desired. c. Rough cyclic movements cause erratic turn needle indications. d. Always ensure that the ball is centered. e. The wet compass can be a great asset in partial panel turns if the proper procedures for its use are followed:

(1) For turns to the north, through which the compass lags, lead your turn by the value shown on the outside of the compass rose in the diagram above. (2) For turns to the south, which the compass leads through, roll out the number of degrees shown above after the compass passes the desired rollout heading. (3) Rule of thumb is to stay out of the north and go through the south. 4012. RECOVERY FROM UNUSUAL ATTITUDES. 1. Overview. During instrument flight, unusual attitudes may be encountered due to turbulence, aircraft malfunctions or spatial disorientation. It is imperative that the pilot be able to analyze the aircraft situation immediately and apply corrective action expeditiously. The aircraft's particular situation during an "unusual attitude" is defined by aircraft attitude, airspeed, and torque setting. All factors must be considered before

63

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

applying corrective action (e.g., an aircraft at 10 nose up, low airspeed, low torque, and 30 AOB requires "extreme nose high" recovery while 15 nose up and 90 KIAS with wings level may require "nose high" recovery). In general, the pilot must avoid reduced G loading, power settling (low airspeed while descending), and rolling pullouts. Partial panel unusual attitudes are taught in order to enable the pilot to practice recovering from an undesirable flight condition that may be encountered in instrument conditions while operating without the benefit of the attitude indicator and/or directional gyro. 2. Reference. NATOPS Instrument Flight Manual, Chapter 19 (Paragraph 19.3).

3. Maneuver Description. a. The instructor pilot will brief recovery parameters (heading, airspeed, and altitude) and will maneuver the aircraft into an unusual attitude (not to exceed 30 pitch or 60 AOB). b. When directed, take the controls and initiate one of the following recovery techniques: (1) Full panel. (a) Nose High. If pitch attitude is less than 15 nose high and airspeed is not rapidly decreasing, it is considered a "Nose High" condition. While increasing collective as necessary to maintain G loading (if torque is available), smoothly lower the nose to the horizon, level the wings and readjust power. (b) Extreme Nose High. If pitch attitude is extreme (15 or more nose high) or airspeed is rapidly decreasing, it is considered an "Extreme Nose High" condition. Turn the aircraft in the shortest direction towards the wingover position (do not exceed 60 AOB) and place the nose just below the horizon. Level the wings and raise the nose to the horizon. Use power as necessary throughout the maneuver. (c) Nose Low. If pitch attitude is below the horizon, it is considered a "Nose Low" recovery. Level the wings, raise the nose to the horizon and adjust power as necessary. Avoid a rolling pullout by ensuring wings level prior to pulling aft cyclic. (2) Partial Panel. (a) If airspeed is decreasing and altitude is increasing, adjust controls and power as necessary. Avoid low G flight.

64

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

(b) If airspeed is increasing and altitude is decreasing, roll the aircraft to center the turn needle, then pull nose up to recover from the dive. Adjust power as necessary. (c) As level flight attitude is approached (indicated by the decrease in rate of change of airspeed and altitude), a correction will be required to prevent chasing the VSI (e.g., in recovery from a nose low unusual attitude, once the turn needle has been centered, back stick pressure is applied until performance indicators indicate level flight). 4. Techniques/Common Errors. a. After control is regained, it is usually more prudent to achieve the altitude, airspeed and then heading parameters as briefed, in an orderly progression. b. For a helicopter encountering blade stall in a nose high attitude, collective pitch must be reduced before applying attitude corrections. c. To avoid blade stall when recovering from a steep diving attitude, reduce collective pitch and bank angle before initiating a nose attitude change. d. In all cases, avoid abnormal positive G loads, negative G loads, and AOB in excess of 60. e. For partial panel, because of the inherent lag in pitot static instruments, the pilot should note the rates on the performance instruments and apply opposite corrections as the indicators show the approach of the level flight attitude. f. The unusual attitude during partial panel flight will have to be determined by scanning the turn needle for roll axis information, while the altimeter, VSI, and airspeed indicators must be scanned for nose attitude indications. g. Corrections should be made smoothly and moderately, especially for partial panel flight, to avoid overcorrecting and achieving an opposite unusual attitude. For instance, overcorrecting a descending left turn could result in a climbing right turn if corrections were made too abruptly or were of too great a magnitude. Avoid rapid, random control inputs, as they will make the recovery nearly impossible. h. Making corrections for several errors at once may lead to incorrect instrument interpretation during partial panel flight.

65

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

i. During partial panel recovery, center the ball before any roll axis correction is made. 4013. INSTRUMENT AUTOROTATION. 1. Overview. Instrument autorotations are practiced to develop the confidence and ability to execute a safe autorotative descent in the event of dual engine failure under actual IMC. This maneuver shall be considered an instrument high altitude emergency. It shall be initiated no lower than 2000 feet AGL, and shall be terminated no lower than 1000 feet AGL and no slower than 60 KIAS. 2. Reference. UH-1N NATOPS Flight Manual, Chapter 15. 3. Maneuver Description. a. The instructor shall assign a recovery altitude (NLT 1000 AGL) and heading (recovery heading may be determined by prevailing wind). b. The maneuver shall be initiated by the instructor reducing the throttles to flight idle and telling the PUI that they have a simulated dual engine failure. The maneuver may also be initiated by the PUI as in a normal autorotation. c. After establishing the aircraft in a stable autorotative descent, the nose attitude should be adjusted to 80 KIAS. d. Turn in the direction of last known winds. e. Report over the ICS: (1) "Turns, Ball, Airspeed, Check Ng's " Correct any deviations. (2) Simulated MAYDAY - report over ICS using "Identification, Situation, Position, Intentions (ISPI)." f. At 100-200 feet prior to the base altitude start a power recovery to be level at the base altitude no slower than 60 KIAS. During the recovery phase, care must be exercised while advancing the throttles to the full open position, as the aircraft is vulnerable to an overspeed or overtorque condition during this transition. Do not simulate the flare and deceleration portion of the auto. g. Return to 90 KIAS on the recovery altitude and heading.

66

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

Note Zero airspeed recoveries during instrument autorotations are not authorized. The primary purpose of an instrument autorotation is to return to VMC. A full autorotation landing in IMC is not likely to be successful. 4. Techniques/Common Errors. a. The most common error made in the instrument autorotation is failing to maintain 80 KIAS in the descent. b. Slow execution of the recovery sequence can cause the aircraft to descend below the assigned recovery altitude. c. Insufficient collective increase can also cause the aircraft to settle below the assigned recovery altitude. d. Turns should not exceed standard rate. e. Rotor RPM will tend to build more rapidly at the higher density altitudes at which this maneuver is practiced. 4014. TIME-DISTANCE CHECKS. 1. Overview. This procedure is used to calculate the time and distance from the station to the aircraft. 2. Reference. NATOPS Instrument Flight Manual, Chapter 22 (Paragraph 22.1.1.6). 3. Maneuver Description. a. Tune to the desired station, identify the station, and note the position of the bearing. b. Turn to place the needle on the wing tip and maintain a constant heading until the pointer shows a bearing change of 5 to 20. c. Note the exact time for the bearing change, convert to seconds and apply the following formula:
(TIME IN SECONDS BETWEEN BEARINGS) = MINUTES TO STATION (DEGREES OF BEARING CHANGE)

67

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

Example: If it requires two minutes (120 seconds) to fly a bearing change of 15, the aircraft is: 120 = 8 minutes to the station. 15 d. If a 10 bearing change is used, the time from the station may be found by counting off one decimal point in the seconds. If it requires 75 seconds to fly a 10 bearing change, the aircraft is 7.5 minutes from the station. e. The distance may be computed by multiplying ground speed (in miles per minute) by the time from station. If in the example the ground speed is 120 KIAS (2 miles per minute), the distance is approximately 2 X 8 = 16 nm from the station. 4. Techniques/Common Errors. a. For ease of computation, use 10 of bearing change. b. For increased accuracy, use wind correction and ground speed. 4015. BEARING INTERCEPTS. 1. Overview. These procedures are used to select and fly a heading that will result in intercepting a desired bearing at a predetermined angle. 2. Reference. NATOPS Instrument Flight Manual, Chapter 22 (Paragraph 22.1.1.2) 3. Maneuver Description. Intercepts fall into three categories: inbound, outbound, and over-the-station. a. Inbound: (1) Less than 45 bearing change: (a) Determine the intercept heading and direction of turn. An intercept angle is formed when the bearing pointer is between the desired course and the top index of the BDHI. (b) Turn in the shortest direction to the intercept heading. Set up a 45, 30, or double the angle off the bow intercept, whichever is appropriate. Since distances are not usually known, a 45 angle of intercept is recommended.

68

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

(c) Maintain the intercept heading and complete the intercept by turning inbound to the station on the new bearing. (2) Greater than 45 bearing change: (a) Turn in the shortest direction towards the new bearing. (b) Place the bearing pointer on the appropriate wingtip position and use the arcing procedure described in the TACAN section to arrive at the new bearing. (c) At an appropriate lead point, turn towards the station to place the aircraft on the new bearing. b. Outbound: (1) Less than 45 bearing change: (a) Determine which bearing the aircraft is on by noting the tail of the bearing pointer. Determine the direction of turn to the new bearing. (b) Determine the new course. (c) Turn to the intercept heading in the direction determined in step (a). Set up a 45, 30, or a double the angle off the bow intercept, as appropriate. (d) Maintain the intercept heading until a lead point is reached, then complete the intercept by turning away from the station and placing the aircraft on the new bearing. (2) Greater than 45 bearing change: (a) Use the arcing method described in the inbound intercepts section, except turn outbound from the station when the new bearing is reached. (b) If appropriate, the over the station method may be used if the aircraft is close to the station. c. Over the station: (1) Once station passage is indicated, turn in the shortest direction to a heading that will parallel or intercept the outbound course.

69

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

(2) Allow the bearing pointer to settle down. (3) Turn to set up an appropriate intercept, if not previously accomplished. (4) Maintain the intercept heading until a lead point is reached, then complete the intercept by turning away from the station and placing the aircraft on the new bearing. 4. Techniques/Common Errors. a. Pay close attention to the speed with which the tail of the needle is rising when determining the proper amount of "lead" in order to avoid undershooting/overshooting the desired bearing. b. When selecting an intercept heading to form an angle of intercept, consider the following factors: Degrees from course, distance from the station, true airspeed and wind (ground speed). c. Placing the new heading (the heading that will be flown once the aircraft is established on the new bearing) under the appropriate 45 benchmark ahead of the wingtip position, will result in a 45 intercept. d. Station passage is indicated by minimum DME, not the needle movement through the 90 benchmark. 4016. TRACKING. 1. Overview. Tracking is the procedure for determining a magnetic heading which will correct for wind drift and enable the aircraft to maintain a track over the ground that coincides with a desired bearing to or from a station. 2. Reference. NATOPS Instrument Flight Manual, Chapter 22 (Paragraph 22.1.1.5). 3. Maneuver Description. a. Turn the aircraft to the desired inbound or outbound heading and apply a wind correction for any known wind. Once the aircraft has drifted off the desired bearing, re-intercept, and apply an additional wind correction. b. When tracking inbound, use the head of the needle for magnetic course information. As the aircraft drifts off course, the head of the needle will drift off in the opposite direction.

70

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

c. When tracking outbound, use the tail of the needle for the bearing from the station. As the aircraft drifts off course, the tail will drift in the same direction. d. Correct towards the desired bearing. The amount of correction required depends on the length of time required to drift off course and the distance from the station. Several attempts may be required before the proper drift correction is determined. 4. Techniques/Common Errors. a. Do not overcorrect close to the station. b. Allow time for corrections to work. Overcorrecting will lead to "chasing" the needle. c. Lead point to re-intercept bearing will depend on pointer rate of movement and time required to turn. d. The CDI can be used to detect drift of the aircraft off the desired radial. The CDI should be considered more accurate than the number 2 needle; however, the needle is more reliable. 4017. HOLDING. 1. Overview. Holding allows the pilot to maintain the aircraft within a limited area while waiting for further clearance. 2. Reference. NATOPS Instrument Flight Manual, Chapter 20 (Paragraph 20.3.12). 3. Maneuver Description. a. Holding Instructions. (1) Holding fixes often have published holding patterns; however, some do not. Unless otherwise instructed by ATC, pilots are expected to hold as depicted or in a standard pattern. The following general information will be given in a holding clearance: (a) Direction of holding pattern from the holding fix. (b) Name of the holding fix. (c) Radial or bearing on which the aircraft is to hold. (d) Length of legs if greater than one minute is desired.

71

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

(e) Left turns if a non-standard pattern is to be used. (f) Expected further clearance (EFC) time. (2) If the controlling agency issues a clearance limit (for example, "ATLAS 06, your clearance limit is now Chope intersection, expect further clearance at 50") and no further instructions are received, hold as depicted, or in a standard pattern on the course on which the aircraft approaches the fix. b. Holding Procedures. (1) When the aircraft is three minutes or less from a clearance limit and a clearance beyond the fix has not been received, reduce speed to cross the fix at 80 KIAS. (2) Upon initial arrival over the holding fix, note time. Start timing over or abeam the fix, whichever occurs later. (3) Turn to the appropriate outbound heading (refer to figure 4-1). (a) Parallel procedure: Parallel holding course outbound turn left (or right for non-standard) toward outbound course; a left turn (or right non-standard) will be required to intercept the holding course. (b) Teardrop procedure: proceed on outbound track of 30 less than (more than for non-standard) the outbound course; a right turn (or left for non-standard) will be required to intercept the holding course. (c) Direct entry procedure: turn right (or left for non-standard) and fly the pattern. (d) Remain within assigned airspace as oriented about the holding fix despite the entry procedure used.

72

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

Figure 4-1

(4) Make the voice report as soon as practical (not required when radar contact). (5) Fly the outbound heading for one minute on initial passage and as required for one minute inbound on subsequent legs. (6) Turn to intercept the holding course inbound to the fix, and return to the fix to complete the entry pattern. (7) Fly a no-wind pattern noting inbound timing and drift. Apply corrections on subsequent pattern to obtain the proper inbound course and timing. 4018. APPROACHES 1. Overview. This approach is a navigation procedure to effect a safe letdown to an airport while in instrument conditions. 2. Reference. NATOPS Instrument Flight Manual, Chapter 22 (Paragraph 22.1.2.3). 3. Maneuver Description. a. Approach Clearance. Transitioning from the enroute structure to the approach normally follows one of these procedures: (1) Radar vectors to the final approach course (FAC). This saves time and space and eliminates the need for a procedure turn. (2) Clearance direct to IAF. When receiving a clearance to the IAF the pilot should plan to execute the published approach, including the procedure turn.

73

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

(3) Departing the enroute structure from a "No PT" fix. In this situation, a pilot should proceed direct to the final approach fix (FAF) and descend to the FAF altitude while enroute. b. Procedures. (1) Before reaching the IAF the pilot shall complete the following: (a) Review the approach chart. (b) Recheck destination/alternate weather. Determine the duty runway. (c) Brief the approach (include time from station outbound and time to missed approach point, if applicable). (d) Ensure proper NAVAIDS are tuned and identified. (e) Brief the copilot on his/her specific duties. (2) At the IAF the pilot shall: (a) Note time at IAF. (b) Turn to intercept the outbound (inbound, if straight-in) bearing. (c) Transition to final approach speed of 90 KIAS. (d) Make the appropriate voice report. (e) Descend as depicted on the approach plate. (f) Execute procedure turn, if applicable. On the outbound leg the aircraft shall not exceed the protected airspace depicted. If the approach shows a barbed procedure turn symbol, course reversal may be accomplished by using opposing 90 and then a 270 standard rate turn, the depicted procedure turn headings, or any other method that safely reverses course and keeps the aircraft on the procedure turn (PT) side of the approach course within the protected airspace. If a teardrop or holding pattern procedure turn is shown, that pattern is mandatory. (g) Intercept and track on the inbound course.

74

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

(h) Make voice reports as required. (i) Descend as depicted on the approach plate. (j) Proceed inbound to FAF. (3) Prior to the FAF, complete landing checks. (4) At the FAF the pilot shall: (a) Note time. (b) Commence descent to MDA. (c) Intercept Final Approach Course. (d) Make appropriate voice report. (5) At the Missed Approach Point, the pilot shall: (a) Continue for landing or execute a missed approach. If a missed approach is required, the pilot should: 1. Transition to climb airspeed. 2. Comply with missed approach procedures as published or as directed by controller. 3. Make voice report stating intentions using DRAFT format: Destination Route Altitude Fuel remaining Time enroute 4019. TACAN (GENERAL). 1. Tactical Air Navigation (TACAN) is used by the FAA for airways flight and instrument approaches and by the Naval Service for tactical control of aircraft. It is therefore necessary that all Naval Aviators be well versed in TACAN orientation, tracking, radial intercepts, navigation, holding, approaches, and missed approach procedures.

75

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

2. TACAN is a navigational aid that provides azimuth and slant range distance (DME) information to the pilot enabling him to precisely fix the aircrafts geographical position at all times. Most airways in the United States are defined by combination VOR and TACAN stations (VORTAC). Almost all fleet aircraft, naval air stations, and ships conducting helicopter operations are TACAN equipped. Operating procedures for aircraft TACAN equipment is located in the UH-1N NATOPS Manual. Information regarding navigational aids may be found in the Aeronautical Information Manual (AIM). 4020. TACAN ORIENTATION. 1. Overview. Orientation is the procedure for determining aircraft position with respect to a TACAN station. The aircraft position is given in "Polar" coordinates (azimuth and distance). 2. Reference. NATOPS Instrument Flight Manual, Chapter 21 (Paragraph 21.2). 3. Maneuver Description. a. Tune and identify the TACAN station. b. The tail of the number two needle indicates the radial on which the helicopter is located and the head of the number two needle indicates the course to the station. c. Slant range from the station is shown by the DME indication. 4. Techniques/Common Errors. a. A TACAN station should not be used for navigation until it can be identified using its Morse code identifier, even though it may appear that a good "lock-on" is obtained. b. TACAN signals are subject to line of sight restrictions and may be blocked by the aircraft fuselage or other obstructions. c. TACAN is susceptible to azimuth errors of 40 or multiples thereof. Rechannelizing the receiver may rectify this. 4021. GROUND SPEED CHECK. 1. Overview. Ground speed checks enable the pilot to accurately determine ground speed when tracking on a radial. 2. Reference. NATOPS Instrument Flight Manual, Chapter 21 (Paragraph 21.2.3.2)

76

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

3. Maneuver Description. a. Once established on a radial and tracking either outbound or inbound, start the clock's sweep second hand and note DME. b. After six minutes have elapsed note DME and determine distance flown. c. Multiply this distance by ten. The result is the ground speed. d. More accurate ground speed checks can be obtained by timing for longer periods. e. If in "radar contact", ATC can usually provide a groundspeed check upon request. 4. Techniques/Common Errors. a. Ground speed checks should be performed only when the aircraft's slant range distance is more than the aircraft's altitude divided by 1000. Checks made below 5000 feet are accurate at any distance. b. Failure to track properly will result in inaccurate ground speed checks. 4022. ARCING. 1. Overview. Arcing provides a means of maintaining a constant DME from a station and is an integral part of some TACAN approaches. 2. Reference. NATOPS Instrument Flight Manual, Chapter 21 (Paragraph 21.2.3.5). 3. Maneuver Description. a. Track on the desired radial towards the DME at which the arcing will be accomplished. b. At .5 DME prior to the Arc DME, turn to place the head of the #2 needle on the appropriate wing tip position. c. If a particular radial is to be intercepted at the end of the arc, set the radial with the CRS knob. d. Maintain a slight but constant angle of bank to keep the needle within 5 of the abeam point on the BDHI until the CDI begins to center. e. Turn inbound or outbound on the new radial and track.

77

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

4. Techniques/Common Errors. a. While arcing, wind drift corrections will constantly change. If the aircraft has drifted off the arc, correct 10-20 for each .5 DME away from the desired arc. b. To determine the number of radials to lead the turn to intercept a radial from an arc use the following formula: 30/present DME = number of radials to lead the turn. 4023. POINT-TO-POINT NAVIGATION. 1. Overview. Point-To-Point navigation is a procedure used to fly directly from one TACAN fix to another. 2. Reference. NATOPS Instrument Flight Manual, Chapter 21 (Paragraph 21.2.3.8) 3. Maneuver Description. a. Determine which fix (present or desired) is the greatest distance from the TACAN station. Using the RMI as a plotting board and its center as the TACAN station, place the most distant fix on its radial at the edge of the BDHI. The edge of the BDHI card is now equal to the DME of the most distant fix. b. Determine what fraction the DME of the closer (to the station) fix is to the DME of the farthest fix and place the closest fix on its radial on the BDHI at a distance from the center of the BDHI equal to that fraction. c. Connect the two fixes with a straight edge. Move the straight edge to the center of the BDHI card so that it is parallel to the original line. d. Read the no-wind heading where the straight edge crosses the compass card. (Always read in the direction from the aircraft position to the desired fix). e. Turn to this heading and apply an estimated wind correction. f. Repeat the above procedure when approximately halfway to the desired fix.

4. Techniques/Common Errors. a. The key to point-to-point navigation is in learning to visually establish the aircraft and the desired fix on the compass card of the BDHI.

78

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

b. An alternative to using the straight edge is to turn the aircraft in a direction towards the new fix and visually place the new fix directly above the present fix on the BDHI card and note the heading. Maintain this heading until the point-topoint progress is checked and the new heading is computed using the same method. c. Since a scale is established for the compass card when the fixes are plotted, distance to the new fix can also be estimated; thus, ETE can be estimated using predetermined ground speed. 4024. TACAN HOLDING. 1. Overview. TACAN holding is the delay of an aircraft at a DME fix. Two types are used: station side and non-station side. 2. Reference. NATOPS Instrument Flight Manual, Chapter 21 (Paragraph 21.2.3.9) 3. Maneuver Description. a. Upon receipt of holding instruction, ensure that expected further clearance time, weather, altimeter, and duty runway (if applicable) have been received. b. Visualize the holding pattern on the BDHI and determine the correct entry heading and turn direction to be used once the fix is reached, using the diagram as shown in Figure 4-1. c. Reduce speed so as to cross the fix at 80 KIAS. d. Set the inbound course to the holding fix in the CDI. e. Note the time crossing the fix. f. Turn the appropriate entry heading outbound from the fix. g. Make the holding entry voice report (non-radar environment). h. At the required DME, turn as so to intercept the holding radial inbound to the fix. i. Fly a no-wind pattern noting the drift. Apply corrections on subsequent pattern to obtain proper inbound course.

79

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

4. Techniques/Common Errors. a. To meet the expected approach time (if applicable), the pattern may be shortened but never lengthened. b. Since TACAN holding pattern may be a considerable distance from the TACAN station, course corrections to intercept course prior to reaching the holding fix will be larger than those normally used in ADF holding. c. The direction of TACAN holding (inbound, outbound) is relative to the holding fix, not the station. 4025. TACAN APPROACH. 1. Application. A TACAN approach is a procedure that enables a pilot to perform an instrument let down and position the aircraft such that a safe landing can be made. Because of the versatility of TACAN, many types of approaches exist, such as straight-in, teardrop, arcing, etc. Because TACAN provides continuous distance information, the landing minimums are usually lower than VOR. 2. Reference. NATOPS Instrument Flight Manual, Chapter 21 (Paragraph 21.2.4) 3. Maneuver Description. a. The following items shall be accomplished prior to arrival at the initial approach fix. (1) Review the approach plate. (2) Obtain clearance for the approach. (3) Re-check weather. (4) Transition to 90 KIAS. (5) Tune and identify the TACAN station. (6) Brief the co-pilot on their duties during the approach. (7) Set the desired radial in the Course Selector Index (bug). b. At the initial approach fix: (1) Note time.

80

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

(2) Turn and/or begin descent to conform with the TACAN approach plate. (3) Make voice report, if required. c. Prior to the final approach fix, complete landing checklist. d. At the final approach fix: (1) Note time. (2) Continue descent to MDA. (3) Make voice report, if required. e. At the missed approach point, continue to a landing or execute a missed approach. 4. Techniques/Common Errors. On the final approach course, using the ADI will result in a more precise approach. If a disparity exists between the #2 needle and the CDI, use the needle, as it is more reliable. 4026. MISSED APPROACH. 1. Overview. A missed approach shall be executed when the runway environment is not in sight at minimums, when directed by the controlling agency, or when the pilot is unable to make a safe landing. 2. Reference. NATOPS Instrument Flight Manual, Chapter 29 (Paragraph 29.2.6) 3. Maneuver Description. a. Establish approximately a two-pipper (2) nose up attitude indication. Add climb power and transition to 80 KIAS. b. Cross check the VSI and barometric altimeter for positive climb indications. c. Comply with missed approach instructions on the approach plate or as received from the controlling agency. d. As soon as practical, make the appropriate missed approach voice report to the controlling agency.

81

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

4. Techniques/Common Errors. a. It is imperative that a positive rate of climb be established prior to turning, talking, or twisting. b. Remember: aviate, navigate, and then communicate. 4027. RADAR APPROACHES (GENERAL). 1. Overview. Radar Approaches (PAR/ASR) are talk-down systems that allow an instrument approach without reliance on a navigation aid. 2. Reference. NATOPS Instrument Flight Manual, Chapter 24 (Paragraph 24.1). 3. Maneuver Description. a. Prior to each radar approach the following items will be accomplished: (1) Ensure lost communications and missed approach instructions are obtained from the controller. (2) Have appropriate navigational aids tuned and identified in order to execute lost communication or missed approach instructions should it become necessary. (3) Complete the landing checklist. (4) Obtain weather, direction of landing, runway information, and latest altimeter setting. (5) Using information found in the enroute supplement and terminal approach charts, determine approximate initial rate of descent and decision height or MDA. b. Radar Approach Procedures. (1) Maintain 90 KIAS unless requested by controller to speed up or slow down for traffic separation. (2) When directed to turn or descend by the controller, execute as soon as the instructions are received, not after instructions are read back. (3) Make standard rate turns in the pattern and one-half standard rate turns on final.

82

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

(4) After a new heading is assigned, the controller assumes that this is being maintained and additional heading corrections will be based on the last assigned heading. FLY THE ASSIGNED HEADING. (5) Read back to controller all headings, altitudes, altimeter settings, and start/stop turn indications, unless directed not to by the controller. If understood, lost communications and missed approach instructions my be Rogered. However, if any doubt exists, read back or ask for clarification. 4. Techniques/Common Errors. a. Do not hesitate to request additional information from the controller. b. Use the copilot to copy clearances, review missed approach procedures, etc. c. In order to facilitate small, smooth expeditious control corrections and have them result in the desired effect on the aircraft, balanced flight is essential. 4028. PRECISION APPROACH (PAR). 1. Overview. Precision Approach Radar provides course and glideslope information to the pilot in order to perform a precise instrument approach. 2. Reference. Instrument Flight Manual, Chapter 24 (Paragraph 24.3) 3. Maneuver Description. a. The precision final approach starts when the final controller informs the pilot that the aircraft is on final. Contact with the final controller usually occurs in the following sequence: Radar: Atlas 06, turn left to 240. Maintain 1200, standby for final controller. Aircraft: Left to 240, Atlas 06. Radar: Atlas 06, Camp Pendleton final controller, how do you hear this transmission? Aircraft: Loud and clear, Atlas 06. b. When the controller advises that the aircraft is intercepting the glide slope, adjust power to establish the predetermined approximate rate of descent while maintaining both airspeed and assigned heading.

83

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

c. After the decision height is reached, course and glideslope information will continue to be provided until reaching the landing threshold. This information is advisory only. 4. Techniques/Common Errors. a. Avoid excessive power corrections. b. Make corrections immediately after instructions are given. c. On final, to prevent overshooting, the angle of bank should approximate the number of degrees to be turned, not to exceed one-half SRT. 4029. AIRPORT SURVEILLANCE RADAR (ASR). 1. Overview. A surveillance approach (ASR) is also a ground controlled approach, but is not a precision approach because no glide slope information is available. Consequently, landing weather minimums are higher for an ASR than a PAR. Although no glide slope information is available during an ASR approach, the pilot may request the controller to provide recommended altitudes on final. 2. Reference. Instrument Flight Manual, Chapter 24 (Paragraph 24.3) 3. Maneuver Description. Procedures are identical to those for PAR, except, without glideslope provided, the controller will instruct the pilot to descend to the MDA or to intermediate altitudes and then to the MDA. 4. Techniques/Common Errors. a. See PAR techniques. b. Adjust the rate of descent to ensure reaching the MDA before reaching the Missed Approach Point (MDA), which is usually located one mile from the landing threshold. 4030. NO GYRO APPROACH. 1. Overview. This type of approach is performed if the aircrafts heading indicator has failed. 2. Reference. Instrument Flight Manual, Chapter 24 (Paragraph 24.3.1.4)

84

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

3. Maneuver Description. a. The maneuver may be initiated by disabling the BDHI (VMC conditions only). b. A No Gyro Approach, must be requested, and may be either a PAR or ASR. c. When making a No Gyro Approach, the pilot will be instructed to turn standard rate in the pattern and standard rate on final. If the pilot is unable to comply with these turn rates, alert the controller. d. Start and stop all turns upon receipt of instruction from the controller, and respond with Turn Right/Left, Stop turn, as appropriate. 4. Techniques/Common Errors. The No Gyro Approach, like other GCAs is essentially a basic instruction pattern and communications exercise. 4031. AIRWAYS NAVIGATION. 1. Overview. Airways navigation is used extensively in cross-country flying under both IFR and VFR conditions. 2. Reference. a. NATOPS Instrument Flight Manual, Chapters 25-29. b. General Planning (GP), Area Planning (APs). c. IFR Supplement. d. Terminal Charts (Approach Plates). e. Enroute Charts. f. Aeronautical Information Manual (AIM). 3. Maneuver Description. a. In preparing for an airways navigation flight, the pilot should: (1) Check the FLIP IFR Supplement to determine the suitability of the destination airfield. (2) Have on hand current copies of the following: (a) Terminal approach procedure charts.

85

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

(b) Navigation computer. (c) Navigation flight log forms. (d) Appropriate IFR and VFR aeronautical charts. (e) Enroute Supplements (VFR and IFR). (f) NATOPS Manual/PCL. (3) Once the destination airport has been selected and the appropriate preflight planning publications have been obtained, the pilot should accomplish the following: (a) Determine the route of flight using standard instrument departure (SID), low altitude charts, and terminal charts. (b) Complete a preflight planning worksheet and flight plan. It will be necessary to obtain a preliminary weather briefing including winds and temperature to determine the optimum altitude. Consult NATOPS to determine fuel consumption values and recommended airspeeds for long range cruise speed. In addition, the route to the alternate, if applicable, should be planned. (c) Obtain PPRs, if required. (d) Complete DD-175 in accordance with FLIP Planning Chapter 4. (e) Ensure that the pilot in command (in this case the instructor) has signed the flight plan and has checked the flight planning worksheet, jet logs, and DD-175 for corrections. (f) Obtain a formal weather brief (Form DD-175-1) and check the NOTAMS. (g) File the flight plan with the Operations Duty Officer, base ops, or with the nearest Flight Service Station, whichever is applicable. (h) Obtain fuel packet and survival gear. (4) Once the preflight planning is complete and the flight plan filed, the pilot should be ready for takeoff at the time proposed on their flight plan.

86

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

(5) Prior to takeoff, the pilot must, with the help of the copilot, accomplish the following: (a) Put IFR clearance on request. (b) Copy the IFR clearance. (c) Call for taxi clearance. (d) Complete the instrument checklist. (e) Ensure proper navigational aids are turned on and tuned in. (f) Obtain IFR release information. (g) Switch to departure control frequency. (h) Squawk code assigned by ATC. (i) Note takeoff time and fuel. (6) After the climbout is complete and the aircraft is at assigned altitude, the copilot shall conform with appropriate enroute and approach procedures as defined in FLIP General Planning, the NATOPS Instrument Flight Manual (NIFM), FARs and the Aeronautical Information Manual (AIM). (7) Prior to reaching the terminal area, the pilot should review the appropriate approach and brief the copilot. Controllers normally try to expedite the flow of air traffic in terminal areas and the pilot needs to be prepared. 4. Techniques/Common Errors. a. Poorly planned jet logs can lead to an emergency fuel situation even with the planned 20-minute reserve. A properly filled out jet log can save the pilot time and effort in flight. b. Use all navigational aids possible. c. Be prepared to execute an instrument approach at any airport along your route of flight in the event an emergency may dictate that you land as soon as possible. d. Use your copilot. Good crew coordination saves time and duplicated effort, and reduces confusion.

87

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

e. Always advise ATC of any significant malfunctions in the navigational equipment or aircraft instruments. f. Always confirm any clearance or amendment to a clearance from ATC if there is any question. g. When descending/climbing enroute, and a climb/descent in excess of 1000 feet is required, descend/climb at the best rate (1000 fpm usually suffices) until within 1000 feet of the desired altitude then transition to the standard rate climb/descent (500 fpm) for the remainder of the climb/descent. For climb/descents of 1000 feet or less, use a standard rate climb/descent.

88

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

CHAPTER 5 FORMATION PARAGRAPH 5000 5001 5002 5003 5004 5005 5006 5007 5008 5009 5010 5011 5012 5013 5014 5015 5016 5017 5018 5019 TOPIC INTRODUCTION REFERENCES BRIEF AND DEBRIEF TURNUP RADIO COMMUNICATION PROCEDURES/DISCIPLINE AIRCRAFT LIGHTING TAXI TAKEOFF PARADE FORMATION FLIGHT CRUISE FORMATION FLIGHT FLIGHT SIGNALS BETWEEN AIRCRAFT CROSSOVER BREAK-UP AND RENDEZVOUS OVERRUN LEAD CHANGE DAY FORMATION SEQUENCE NVG FORMATION FLYING NVG FORMATION SEQUENCE DIVISION FORMATION SEQUENCE TACTICAL FORMATIONS

89

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

PARAGRAPH 5020 5021 5022 5023

TOPIC SECTION TACTICAL FORMATION MANEUVERING DIVISION TACTICAL FORMATION MANEUVERING OVERHEAD BREAK LANDING

90

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

5000. INTRODUCTION. It is essential that the basic fundamentals of formation flying become second nature. The procedures contained herein are intended to provide a foundation for 100 level formation flying but will prove applicable in later stage tactical flying as well. 5001. REFERENCES. 1. UH-1N NATOPS Flight Manual, Chapter 8 2. UH-1N Tactics Manual, Chapter 2, Tactical Formation Flight. 5002. BRIEF AND DEBRIEF. 1. The responsibility for briefing the syllabus formation flight rests with the formation leader. This brief should be detailed enough to allow a complete understanding of the mission. The formation leader should give specific instructions to cover any special situations that may occur. 2. The formation brief shall be conducted using the NATOPS briefing guide and the appropriate syllabus guide. Each pilot will maintain a kneeboard record of all event numbers, call signs, and other data necessary to successfully assume the lead and complete the assigned mission. 3. The formation leader will debrief the flight upon completion of the mission. Debriefing should not be a chronological rehash of the entire flight or a forum for throwing insults and pointing fingers. Rather, the debrief should recap constructive high points and problem areas that will enhance learning for the aircrew. 5003. TURNUP. 1. If it becomes apparent that your aircraft will not make the briefed check-in time, inform the formation leader. If a delay is encountered after turn-up, advise the lead as to the problem and estimated length of delay. 2. Radios should be tuned so as to be ready for radio checks at the designated time regardless of your personal progress on the checklists. If you have a delay, this is the time to inform lead. 3. Ideally, panel checks should be accomplished and all aircraft ready to taxi prior to check-in by the flight leader.

91

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

5004. RADIO COMMUNICATION PROCEDURES/DISCIPLINE. 1. Radio Checkin: a. Initial radio check-in will commence with the formation leader stating, "(Callsign) check Charlie 1," on the assigned frequency. The formation will respond with a ripple, (i.e., "TWO", "THREE", "FOUR", etc.). The same procedures will apply for Charlie 2 & 3 check-in. Note Charlie 1, 2 & 3 denote radio nets, i.e., Comm 1, 2 & 3 and NOT RADIOS. Do not confuse this with radio 1, 2 or 3. It is up to the individual pilot what frequency is put in what radio. Charlie 1, 2 & 3 allow the formation lead to change the flight by net instead of radio. b. On initial check-in the formation leader should be advised of any discrepancies that degrade mission effectiveness or impact the timeline on the flight common net. 2. Frequency switch. a. Frequency switches may be positive or automatic, but all automatic switches must be prebriefed. b. For automatic switches, all crews will change frequencies as lead's aircraft reaches a certain location (i.e., when lead enters/exits a taxiway servicing the active runway, all aircraft will automatically switch to the appropriate tower/ground control frequency), or checks out with a controlling agency. c. For positive switches, the formation leader will normally command, "(call sign) SWITCH (frequency/color/button) Charlie 1, 2 or 3." The wingmen will acknowledge by stating "two," "three," etc., and switch to the appropriate frequency without further command. 3. Golden Frequency. The golden frequency may be the squadron tactical UHF frequency, but will be briefed by the flight leader. Switch to the golden frequency when unable to establish communications with your wingmen or the lead. The uncalled signal to switch to the gold frequency is the yellow pages of your NATOPS checklist in the cockpit door (daytime) or the cockpit light in a circular motion (night time). 4. Radio discipline. The lead aircraft normally handles all calls for the flight. If a wingman in the flight is assigned to make calls for the flight, or Tac Lead is transferred, then the call sign of the flight schedule designated lead aircraft will be used for transmissions external to the flight.

92

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

5005. AIRCRAFT LIGHTING. 1. Daytime aircraft lighting in a flight will be navigation lights set to steady bright, with the white anticollision light on. 2. Nighttime unaided lighting, if required, will be navigation lights set to steady bright, formation lights set to visible, position 5, and red anticollision light off except for the last wingman in the flight. 3. Nighttime aided lighting will be navigation lights set to steady dim, IR anticollision light set to position 3, and formation lights set to IR position 3. The last aircraft in the flight will have his red anticollision light on and his navigation lights set to steady bright. Ensure that the Fuselage Light circuit breaker is pulled. Lighting configuration may be modified to best suit the wingman depending upon visibility and ambient conditions. 4. In areas of high density traffic, or in Class B,C, D airspace, the formation leader may be required to fly with the landing light on. This light will be adjusted so as not to interfere with the wingman. 5. Aircraft light signals for NORDO and/or emergency situations will be briefed and must be thoroughly understood by all crewmembers prior to flight. 5006. TAXI. 1. Taxiing should be done in trail position, allowing enough interval for safety, but close enough to be recognized as a flight (approximately one aircraft length separation between rotor tip path and tail rotor of the aircraft ahead). 2. A wingman normally attempts to mimic the attitude of the lead's aircraft during taxiing (i.e., altitude and alignment). This enhances section/division integrity and wingman awareness. 3. Lead shall ensure a comfortable taxi speed is used to allow all aircraft to maintain proper separation without excessive speed. 5007. TAKEOFF. 1. Overview. This allows the formation to depart as a section, without use of an airborne rendezvous. 2. Reference. UH-1N NATOPS Flight Manual Chapter 8, Formation Takeoff & Landings.

93

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

3. Maneuver Description. a. The lead aircraft should be positioned on the downwind side of the runway with at least 1000 feet of takeoff runway available. The wingman will be on a 45 bearing from the leader in a normal hover. The standard formation for takeoff is sections in cruise, division in trail with a three second interval between sections. b. When the flight is in position, the last aircraft in the flight will give two clicks on the radio. c. Lead will smoothly add power, and takeoff from a hover. Section takeoffs should be shallower and acceleration slower than those performed during the normal take-off. d. Once takeoff is initiated, the wingman should anticipate obtaining proper parade position by gradually increasing step-up to ten feet. e. Lead will climb out, level off, and accelerate to the briefed airspeed. f. After a division takeoff, the division should be joined in fingertip for the division formation sequence or as briefed by division leader. 4. Techniques/Common Errors. a. Lead should anticipate translational lift and, if necessary, reduce collective to prevent ballooning. b. Collective application by lead should be gradual to allow wing to stay in position. 5008. PARADE FORMATION FLIGHT. 1. Overview. Parade formations are used when missions require close, fixed positions and maximum maneuverability is not essential. Parade formations are commonly employed for flight demonstrations or for departures and arrivals at airfields/ships. 2. Reference. UH-1N NATOPS Flight Manual, Chapter 8. 3. Maneuver Description. a. Parade is flown using a fixed bearing, fixed lateral distance, and fixed step-up. Because of the relatively close and fixed position, a flight's maneuvering capability is reduced while in parade. Power should be varied to maintain position.

94

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

b. The parade position is flown on the 45 relative bearing from lead's aircraft, 10 feet of step-up, and 1-2 rotor diameters diagonal separation between rotor tips. c. The 45 position is defined by the intersection of the farside, forward crosstube and the near-side aft crosstube, and the elevator intersection of the center of the Marines marking on the tail boom. The rotor hub should be on the horizon for proper 10 foot step-up. d. The wingman will rotate about the leader's axis during turns into and about the wingmans own axis on turns away. Lateral and vertical clearance in a parade formation is always the responsibility of the wingman. Lead should roll into and out of turns using a slow, even roll rate. 4. Techniques/Common Errors. a. The formation leader is responsible for all aspects of the flight (planning, briefing, safety, and radio calls). b. Formation leaders are the key to the formation. They must be smooth and considerate of their wingmen in order for them to maintain position. If they are smooth, signals for parade turns, climbs, descents, and power changes are not necessary for experienced wingmen. However, on all 100 syllabus formation hops, all maneuvers will be called on the radio. c. Parade is a positive control formation, requiring lead to initiate all wingman position changes. No change can be made until the wingmen have acknowledged the signal (visually or verbally). The wingman should always remain in his respective position until given a crossover (unless pre-briefed).

B
A A

A- 45 Degree Bearing B- 1-2 Rotor Diameters Horizontal Separation C- 10 Foot Step-up

Figure 5-1: 4 Plane Division Fingertip d. Figure 5-1 displays proper position for division fingertip. Smooth airwork from lead is required to allow wingmen to remain in position. Do not over control for corrections of position, which in turn requires greater corrections from wingmen. When in division parade, the dash two aircraft does not balance the

95

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

flight. If the lead aircraft moves the second section from one side of the flight to the other, the dash two stays in position putting the flight into echelon. 5009. CRUISE FORMATION FLIGHT 1. Overview. Cruise formation affords lead flexibility to more readily maneuver the flight. Cruise also minimizes wingman pilot workload and conserves fuel. 2. Reference. UH-1N NATOPS Flight Manual Chapter 8. 3. Maneuver Description. a. Cruise formation is flown with 3-5 rotor diameter separation, 10 feet of stepup, and on the 45 bearing off of leads tail. While maneuvering, the bearing will change as necessary to maintain relative separation. Step-up is constant. The 45 bearing checkpoints are same as described in paragraph 5008.

A- 45 Degree Bearing B- 3-5 Rotor Diameters Horizontal Separation C- 10 Foot Step-up

Figure 5-2: Cruise 4. Techniques/Common errors. a. Unlike the parade turn sequence, the lead aircraft will not roll out between turns. The cruise turn sequence it is a fluid movement from initiation to completion. Therefore, it is important that the wingman anticipates leads movements and uses them to close distance as required. b. While maneuvering, it is important that the wingman not attempt to rotate about the lead's axis. Doing so puts both aircraft in an unsafe condition. Maintain 10 feet of step-up and the ability to overrun at all times.

96

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

c. During initial night formation flying, the lead aircraft should call direction of turn prior to initiating changes and the wingman should ensure that he maneuvers to stay in position. If the wingmans separation becomes excessive (more than 5 rotor diameters), terminate the turn pattern to regain position. Lead will bring on his anti-collision light if the wingman loses sight ([Callsign] is blind). CAUTION As a wingman in cruise, do not allow your aircraft to be inside of lead's turn and below him. If this happens, maneuver to correct the step-down immediately, and do not hesitate to call "terminate" if the situation is not immediately corrected.

B A A- 45 Degree Bearing B- 3-5 Rotor Diameter Horizontal Separation

B A

Figure 5-3: 4 Plane Division Cruise e. Figure 5-3 displays the positions for division cruise. Dash three must provide ample separation and maneuvering airspace for dash two (ideally no closer than six rotor diameters from lead). When in division cruise, the dash two aircraft is responsible for balancing the flight. If the second section moves from one side of the formation to the other, the dash two aircraft must switch sides as well to keep the flight balanced.

97

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

5010. FLIGHT SIGNALS BETWEEN AIRCRAFT. MEANING Reduce power. Increase power. I am turning right/left. I am going to descend or climb. SIGNAL Head moved backward. Head moved forward. Head moved right or left. Hand opened flat and palm down, moved 45 up or down, simulating climb or descent. Hand moved horizontally. Hand pats the instrument cover. Lead aircraft porpoises (not given in trail). Lead aircraft swishes tail (not given from parade). Fist moved horizontally shoulder to shoulder with thumb extended (hitch hike motion). Striking left open hand with right fist followed by cruise signal. A wing rock from cruise signals combat cruise. Hold hand over eyes, as if looking in the distance, and move head left to right. From cruise, a wing rock left and right signals spread. A wing rock from combat cruise signals spread. Forearm extended vertically with closed fist. Forearm extended vertically with closed fist moved up and down in pumping motion. Leader pats helmet, points to wingman. Hand held over head and moved in circular motion, first two fingers extended. Departing pilot blows kiss.

Leveling off. Landing checklist. Join up on me in next closest formation Go to "trail."

Go to "cruise."

Go to "combat cruise."

Go to "spread."

Single aircraft crossover to opposite side of formation. Section crossover

Passing lead Prepare for breakup and rendezvous.

I am leaving formation.

98

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

MEANING Shift preset radio

SIGNAL Tap headset and indicate by frequency, finger numerals number of channel to which shifting. Tap headset followed by question signal. Tap earphones, extend indicated.forearm vertically (UHF) or horizontally (FM) and rotate fingers formed as if holding a grapefruit, followed by numbers. Raise fist with thumb and little finger extended in a drinking position. Arm bent across a forehead weeping. 1 finger extended upward. 2 fingers extended upward. 4 fingers extended upward. 5 fingers extended.

What frequency are you on? Manually set frequency

How much fuel do you have?

I am having difficulty. Hydraulic trouble. Electrical trouble. Ordnance trouble. Engine trouble.

Radio receiver or transmitter Tap mike/earphone and give thumbs up/down, inoperative, as appropriate. as appropriate. Numeral as indicated. With forearm in vertical position, employ fingers to indicate desired numeral. With forearm and fingers horizontal, indicate number that added to 5 gives desired number from 6 through 9. A clenched fist indicates zero.

5011. CROSSOVER 1. Overview. The crossover is a maneuver to displace the wingman from the starboard parade position to the port parade position or vice versa. 2. Reference. UH-1N NATOPS Flight Manual Chapter 3. Maneuver Description a. Stabilize in the parade position.

99

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

b. Acknowledge the crossover signal. c. Increase step up to 20 feet while maintaining 45 bearing. d. Stabilize momentarily. Slightly adjust cyclic in the direction to crossover. Relative movement should be slow and deliberate. Maintain the 1-2 rotor diameters separation as you cross leads tail. This may require a slide aft. Be cautious of excessive step up that may cause the wingman to lose sight of lead. A power increase will be required proportional to the crossover rate (about 3-5% torque) to prevent becoming sucked as you cross the tail. e. Stabilize momentarily on the opposite side of the lead aircraft while maintaining 20 feet of step up. Collective adjustment may be necessary. f. Reduce step up to 10 feet by reducing collective (about 3-5% torque). Resume the normal parade position. 3. Common Error. Being sucked when crossing over to the opposite side. 5012. BREAK-UP AND RENDEZVOUS 1. Overview. Two types of rendezvous are used: running rendezvous and carrier rendezvous. A combination of the principles of these two is most commonly employed to join aircraft after takeoff. a. Running. The leader uses prebriefed airspeeds/headings which will permit the wingman to use airspeed/radius of turn differential to effect a join-up. b. Carrier. This is a join-up executed while the formation leader makes a 180o level turn, using a 10o to 15o angle of bank and 90 KIAS airspeed. Joining helicopters will assume a rendezvous bearing on the leader using the cutoff vector to effect the join-up. 2. Reference. UH-1N NATOPS Flight Manual Chapter 8. 3. Maneuver Description a. The breakup will be conducted from parade, with a three second interval, at 90 knots. To initiate the maneuver, the wingman reports, In position for the breakup & rendezvous on the left/right side. b. Lead blows a kiss, and then rolls into a 30 angle of bank turn away from the wingman, rolling out after 180 of turn.

100

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

c. After the 3-second interval, the wingman executes the same turn, rolling out in extended trail position (600-800 feet) behind lead. Place lead on the horizon until rejoined. d. Once in extended trail, the wingman gives two clicks on the radio. e. Lead then starts a turn to the right or left, initially using at least 20o angle of bank, then shallowing out to 10. This turn should be continued until the join-up is complete. f. The wingman should turn inside lead and set up on leads 45 relative bearing. This bearing should be maintained until the wingman closes to parade echelon on the inside of lead. During the join-up phase, the wingman will need to adjust power to control the closure rate. g. In the join-up turn, the wingman maintains step-up by keeping the lead's aircraft on the horizon until established in parade. h. Once relative motion has stopped in parade position, the wingman will execute an uncalled crossover to the outside of lead's turn. i. Once in parade position on the outside of lead, the maneuver is complete.

NOTE
If the closure rate becomes excessive or out of control, increase the step-up and reduce the angle of bank to cross above lead's aircraft and to the outside of leads turn. This needs to be identified as the correct action before the closure rate becomes too excessive to correct. See paragraph 5013.

CAUTION
No underruns will be made. The wingman will ALWAYS cross over the top of the aircraft he/she is joining. 4. Techniques/Common Errors a. It is important that lead maintains a constant airspeed throughout the maneuver. The wingman will need to adjust power frequently during the last several hundred feet of the rendezvous and subsequent crossover. b. In the rendezvous turn, the wingman should continue to turn inside of lead until the lead aircraft is 45 off of nose centerline and maintain this sight picture

101

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

throughout the join-up until the 45 bearing checkpoints of lead are distinguishable. c. At night, lead's external lighting scheme may be varied to help the wingman maintain sight during the breakup. The anti-collision light shall be turned on when the aircraft are not together in formation. 5013. OVERRUN 1. Overview. The overrun enables the wingman to recover from a condition where they find themselves either excessively acute on the join-up bearing or has a high closure rate towards the lead. 2. References. UH-1N NATOPS Flight Manual, Chapter 8. 3. Maneuver Description a. When the situation is first realized, obtain 20 feet of step-up and level the wings keeping lead in sight at all times. Do not get tail low in a quickstop sort of maneuver while crossing over lead or you may lose sight of lead under your nose. b. Ensure the aircraft attitude is adjusted as necessary to avoid passing ahead of lead. c. Fly to the outside of lead's turn. d. If in a turning join-up, level the wings. If in straight-and-level flight, wing should turn toward leads six-oclock position. e. Once outside of the turn and adequate separation has been attained, use angle of bank to stop relative motion and move back into position. This will prevent obtaining too much lateral separation. f. To practice this maneuver, two break-up and rendezvous will be performed. During the second break-up and rendezvous, after the lead aircraft has signaled the direction of turn during the rendezvous phase, the lead aircraft will slow to 80 knots to facilitate the overrun.

CAUTION
To be successful, the overrun must be initiated as soon as a dangerous closure rate is recognized. As soon as any closure rate becomes uncomfortable, do not hesitate to initiate the overrun procedures.

102

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

5014. LEAD CHANGE 1. Overview. This maneuver allows the formation leader to pass the lead to the wingman. This could become necessary due to aircraft malfunction, navigational problems, or just for practice. This maneuver is practiced in the parade formation; however, a lead change can be accomplished over the radio in any formation. 2. References. UH-1N NATOPS Flight Manual, Chapter 8. 3. Maneuver Description a. Lead changes will only be executed in level flight or on the deck. b. Lead signals for a lead change, or makes a radio call to wing to "Report in position for lead change." The wingman MUST acknowledge this signal and maneuver to an abeam position. At this point the wingman signals, either visually or verbally, that he/she is in position for the lead. Note Ensure the wing aircraft is ABEAM the lead aircraft prior to passing the lead to avoid the lead aircraft having to look aft at the new lead aircraft. c. Lead aircraft signals relinquishment of lead, or reports, "Roger, you have the lead." The new lead will acknowledge with "Roger, I have the lead." After the last signal is passed, the new wingman will not take their eyes off the new lead aircraft. d. The new wingman will take 10 feet of step up and slide rearward into the parade position. e. The new lead, upon acknowledging the lead change, is responsible for the flight and should avoid maneuvering until the new wingman is in position. 4. Techniques/Common Errors. a. As the wingman moves to assume lead, ensure adequate separation (one rotor diameter between blade tips) is maintained. b. The lead change is accomplished like a control change using positive three way change; i.e., "In position for the lead." "Roger, you have the lead." "Roger, I have the lead."

103

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

5015. DAY FORMATION SEQUENCE 1. Section take-off (parade) or 3-second interval if applicable. 2. Running rendezvous (if applicable). 3. Thumbs-up airspeed check (90 KIAS). 4. Climb, descents, crossover and level off. 5. Parade Sequence (each AOB turn performed to the left and right). a. 10 AOB for a minimum of 90 of heading change. b. 20 AOB for a minimum of 180 of heading change.

NOTE
Parade turns should incorporate a pause during roll out to allow wingman to stabilize in position prior to commencing another turn. Cruise turns should be smoothly reversed without pause. Climbs, descents and crossovers (line 3) may be accomplished during the enroute phase at the section leaders discretion or as briefed.

6. Break-up and rendezvous twice. First done at 90 KIAS. Second done with lead aircraft slowing to 80 KIAS during join up to demonstrate the overrun. 7. Accelerate to 90 KIAS, signal cruise. 8. Cruise Sequence (each AOB turns performed to the left and right) a. 15 AOB (away from wingman) for 180 of heading change, fly straight and level for 30 seconds, turn same direction for 180 at 15 AOB, fly straight and level for 30 seconds, then turn into wingman and repeat. The end result is 2 racetrack patterns. b. 30 AOB portion is executed the same as the 15 AOB pattern. 9. Join-up (Parade). 10. Lead change.

104

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

11. Fuel check. 12. Repeat formation sequence lines 3-8. Then line 14. 13. Return to base or outlying field for section takeoffs and landings.

5016. NVG FORMATION FLYING 1. Overview. All formations (parade, cruise, combat cruise, combat spread) practiced during the day can also be flown at night with the exception of cross turns, center turns, 30 AOB Parade Turns, and 45 AOB Cruise Turns. Reduced visual acuity, depth perception, and peripheral cues will dictate a more conservative approach regarding closure rates. 2. References. UH-1N NATOPS Flight Manual, Chapter 8. 3. Maneuver Description a. All turns and maneuvers other than climbs and descents will be called on the radio. b. Lighting for all NVG formations will normally be as follows: Lead Anticollison light: Navigation Lights: Formation Lights: IR Strobe: Searchlight: Fuse Lt CB: Off (crossing hold short) Steady Dim IR pos 3 As Briefed As Briefed Pulled Wingman On Steady Dim IR pos 3 As Briefed As Briefed Pulled

c. Loss of Visual Contact in VMC. Aircraft that lose sight shall broadcast "Lost Sight" immediately. All aircraft will turn all lights on bright. Lead will transmit heading, altitude and airspeed to the wingman. 5017. NVG FORMATION SEQUENCE. 1. Section take off (parade) or 3-second interval. 2. Thumbs-up airspeed check on radio (90 KIAS). 3. Climbs, descents, crossovers.

105

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

4. Parade Sequence (each AOB turns performed to the left and right) a. 10 angle of bank for a minimum of 90 of heading change b. 20 angle of bank for a minimum of 180 of heading change 5. Break-up and rendezvous 6. Accelerate to 90 KIAS, signal cruise. 7. Cruise Sequence (each AOB turns performed to the left and right) a. 15 angle of bank for a minimum of 90 of heading change b. 30 angle of bank for a minimum of 180 of heading change 8. Rejoin in parade. 9. Slow to 90 KIAS. 10. Lead change, fuel check. 11. Repeat lines 2 through 8. Then line 12. 12. Section Landings. 13. Return to base. 5018. DIVISION FORMATION SEQUENCE 1. Overview. Same as paragraph 5015, but with the changes noted below. 2. References. UH-1N NATOPS Flight Manual, Chapter 8. UH-1N Tactical Manual, Chapter 3. 3. Maneuver Description. a. Division in trail, sections in parade take-off (3 second interval). b. Running rendezvous (join in fingertip). c. Thumbs-up airspeed check (90 knots). d. Climb, descents, crossovers and level off. e. Parade sequence (Each AOB turn performed to the left and right.)

106

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

(1) Fingertip: a. 10 angle of bank for a minimum of 90 of heading change. b. 20 angle of bank for a minimum of 180 of heading change. (2) Echelon (left or right): a. 10 angle of bank for a minimum of 90 of heading change. b. 20 angle of bank for a minimum of 180 of heading change. f. Maintain 90 KIAS, signal out to cruise. g. Cruise sequence (each AOB turns performed to the left and right) (1) 15 angle of bank for a minimum of 90 of heading change. (2) 30 angle of bank for a minimum of 180 of heading change. h. Signal out to combat cruise. i. Division tactical formation, multiple lead changes. j. Signal out to Combat Cruise or Spread. k. Tactical Formation maneuvers. l. Signal back into parade. m. Return to base or outlying field for overhead break (echelon formation as briefed), and landing. 4. Techniques a. Cruise, combat cruise, and combat spread turns require greater vigilance for aircraft separation during maneuvering flight. b. Division leaders should attempt to let each aircraft rotate through lead and see fingertip and echelon parade turns.

5019. TACTICAL FORMATIONS.

107

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

1. Reference. UH-1N Tactical Manual, Chapter 3. The basic tactical unit is the section. Larger units will base their employment on section integrity and maneuvering. Three basic section tactical formations are used: cruise, combat cruise, and combat spread. The formation chosen for a particular mission will depend on METTTSL factors and may be pre-briefed or changed in-flight as the situation dictates. Likewise, separation will be dictated by METT-TSL and may vary over the course of a mission. 1. Proper use of tactical formations will maximize the following: a. Flight leader flexibility. b. Lookout doctrine. c. Evasive action. d. Immediate weapons employment. e. Intra-flight aircraft separation. f. Fuel conservation. 2. Combat Cruise. Combat Cruise is designed to maximize section maneuverability and to free the wingman from concentration on his/her position relative to lead. This does not permit sloppy formation flying, but does allow the wingman to concentrate on navigation, tactical use of terrain, and threat detection and avoidance. a. The preferred position for combat cruise is on a 45 bearing from lead, at a minimum distance of 500 feet, and co-altitude. The wingman is allowed to maneuver anywhere with a rearward arc from 10 forward of abeam on either side of lead (See Figure 5-4). Prolonged flight in the area within 30 either side of lead's tail should be avoided. The wingman should attempt to attain a position where the lead aircraft can best be visually covered and should be prepared to deliver ordnance in support of lead whenever necessary. Terrain, visibility and the tactical situation affect the position of the wingman. In rough terrain, the formation is normally much tighter than in open terrain. When the enemy situation is unknown or attack could come from any direction, the wingman should remain closer to the 45 bearing. When maximum observation to the front is desirable or when attempting to limit exposure time over open areas, the wingman should move toward a more abeam or combat spread position (as described in the following paragraph). b. Turns in combat cruise may be called or uncalled, and the wingman maintains proper position using radius of turn.

108

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

10 10 45 45 45

10 10 10

Figure 5-4 Combat Cruise 4. Combat Spread. Combat spread is useful when crossing large open areas to minimize exposure, and when maximum lookout and weapons coverage to the front is desired. a. The combat spread position is within 10 of lead's beam, a minimum of 500 feet separation, and co-altitude (see Figure 5-5). Lateral separation is dependent on terrain, visibility and the threat. b. Turns from combat spread may be called or uncalled.

10 10

10 10

Figure 5-5 Combat Spread

5020. SECTION TACTICAL FORMATION MANEUVERING.

109

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

1. Control of the Flight. The combat cruise and combat spread formations increase the flight leader's flexibility in controlling the flight. They also promote security by providing overlapping fields of view. Normal cruise principles can be used for most turns in the combat cruise position. Break turns are turns effected to face an enemy attacker and are easy to manage from the basic combat cruise position if the concepts of flight lead and tactical lead are understood. The flight leader is the designated NATOPS formation leader responsible for organizing and controlling the flight from planning through debriefing. On the other hand, the tactical lead is not determined by rank, experience, or ability. During attack, the aircrew of the aircraft that is directly engaged normally becomes the tactical leader. At this point, the tactical wingman is responsible for maintaining separation between aircraft and providing mutual support. 2. Type of Maneuvers. Aircrews use ten basic tactical flight formation maneuvers. These maneuvers include tactical (tac) turns, center turns, in place turns, split turns, cross turns, break turns, the dig, the pinch, the reversal, and cover. These maneuvers are performed from either the combat cruise or combat spread formation. They give the flight leader maximum command and control of the flight while increasing flexibility and space for individual aircraft to maneuver. During formation maneuvering there will be times when aircraft are in a level horizontal plane converging laterally. When this occurs, the tactical wingman always has the ultimate responsibility for maintaining adequate clearance from the tactical leader. This is done by varying airspeed, altitude or angle of bank in order to pass behind, in front of, or over the lead aircraft. Note Unless an engagement forces the tactical lead to change from one aircraft to another, the tactical lead will not typically change hands during any of these maneuvers. Rather, the wingman should vary angle of bank or airspeed in order to resume an appropriate position once the maneuver is completed (e.g., a split turn initiated while a section is in a combat cruise formation will require that the wingman lessen angle of bank to avoid rolling out of the turn in front of the flight leader). 3. Basic Maneuvers. The maneuvers described in this paragraph can be used during aerial combat engagements (ACM), air to ground engagements, or simply directing a section from point A to point B. a. Tac Turns. Aircrews use two types of tac turns: the tac turn away from the wingman and the tac turn into the wingman. These turns can be accomplished easily from the combat cruise or combat spread formation. They are used to change the direction of a formation from 60 to 120. With the command, "call sign, tac left (or right)", a turn of 90 is understood. If a smaller or larger change is desired, the tactical leader may elect to specify the new heading in the command. The tac turns enable aircrews to turn into an approaching enemy while

110

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

maintaining formation integrity to facilitate mutual fire support. They are also used to avoid presenting a linear target to an approaching enemy aircraft. (1) Tac Turn Away From the Wingman in Combat Cruise. In this turn, the lead must hold the original heading until after the command, "tac left (or right)", is given. When the wingman receives the command, he/she immediately turns to the new direction and rolls out. As the wingman approaches the lead's 5 o'clock position for a left turn or 7 o'clock position for a right turn, the lead turns to the new direction (see Figure 5-6).

-1 -1

-2 -2

Figure 5-6 Tac Turn Away From the Wingman, Combat Cruise (2) Tac Turn Into the Wingman in Combat Cruise. When the command, "tac left (or right)", is given, the tactical leader immediately turns to the new direction and, depending on the wingman's position, either passes behind or in front of the wingman. The wingman maintains separation, crosses to the opposite side of the leader and turns to the new direction (see Figure 5-7).

-1

-2 -1 -2

Figure 5-7 Tac Turn Into the Wingman, Combat Cruise

111

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

(3) Tac Turn Away From the Wingman in Combat Spread. Once the command is given, the tactical lead maintains the current heading. The tactical wingman, upon receiving the command, immediately turns to the new direction and passes behind the lead. As the wingman passes the lead's 5 o'clock position for a left turn or 7 o'clock position for a right turn, the leader turns to the new direction (see Figure 5-8).

-1

-2 -2 -1

Figure 5-8 Tac Turn Away From the Wingman, Combat Spread (4) Tac Turn Into the Wingman in Combat Spread. Once the command is given, the tactical lead turns immediately to the new direction and passes behind the tactical wingman. The wingman holds the current heading until the lead has passed the 5 o'clock position for a left turn or the 7 o'clock position for a right turn. The wingman then turns to the new direction and positions the aircraft in combat spread abeam the lead (see Figure 5-9).

Note All Tac Turns are easily understood if analyzed from the following perspective: (1) The aircraft on the outside of the turn will always turn first. (2) The tactical wingman will always change sides in the formation. (3) The tactical wingman is always responsible for clearance, regardless of whether he/she initiates the turn or not.

112

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

-2

-1

-1 -2

Figure 5-9 Tac Turn Into the Wingman, Combat Spread b. Center Turns. Center turns are turns of 120 to 240 (usually 180) and can be performed from either combat cruise or combat spread. When the command "center" is given, both aircraft turn toward each other while maintaining power. The center turn is normally executed when excessive separation has developed between a friendly section, and a threat approaches from the rear hemisphere which dictates that aircraft separation be decreased in order to provide mutual support (see Figure 5-10).

Figure 5-10 Center Turn Note Aircrews must take care to ensure that adequate separation exists between aircraft prior to commencing a center turn. In any case, the tactical wingman is always responsible for clearance. c. In Place Turns. In place turns can be accomplished from either combat cruise or combat spread. They can be used for small heading changes of 60 or less, or large changes of 120 - 240. For small heading changes, the command includes the amount of heading change ("In place left, 030"). When used as such, the in

113

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

place turn replaces the check turn as a means of clearing the section's rear hemisphere. For large turns, a heading change of 180 is assumed unless lead specifies a new rollout heading ("In place right, rollout 145"). For small turns, both aircraft simultaneously turn the appropriate number of degrees in the direction specified. The wingman will then adjust aircraft position relative to lead as necessary. For large turns, both aircraft simultaneously turn to the new heading in the direction specified. If other than a 180 turn is performed, the wingman will have to adjust aircraft position relative to lead. Rolling out of a large in place turn, the wingman will end up on the opposite side of lead (see Figure 5-11).

Figure 5-11 In Place Turn d. Split Turns. Spilt turns can be performed from either the combat cruise or combat spread formation. They involve making heading changes of 120 - 240. With the command, "split", 180 of change is understood. If a smaller or larger change is desired, the leader may elect to specify the new heading in the command (e.g., "split, rollout 145"). When aircrews receive the command, they turn away from each other while maintaining power. The aircraft then continue to turn and rollout in the new direction (see Figure 5-12). Split turns are used to increase lateral separation while turning to face a threat from the rear.

Figure 5-12 Split Turn

114

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

e. Cross Turns. Cross turns can be performed from either the combat cruise or combat spread formation. They involve making heading changes of 120 - 240. With the command, "Cross", 180 of change is understood. If a smaller or larger change is desired, the leader may elect to specify the new heading in the command ("Cross, rollout 145"). It is always understood that Tac Lead will turn inside on a cross turn. If Tac Lead desires to modify this convention, the command would be, "Cross outside", indicating that the Tac Lead will assume the outside position in the turn. The aircrew that will assume the inside position should turn first towards the other aircraft. Initial separation determines the angle of bank needed to reestablish each aircraft on the new heading with the desired separation. The cross turn should not be used in situations where an aggressor might deliver ordnance at the apex of the turn since both helicopters are closely aligned at this point. If terrain dictates the use of a cross turn during an engagement, the tactical wingman should climb or descend (cover) in order to at least break the horizontal plane (see Figure 5-13).

-2

-1

Figure 5-13 Cross Turn f. Break Turns. Break turns are maximum aircraft performance maneuvers which orient the flight toward an enemy aircraft that has penetrated within weapons engagement parameters or which orient the flight away from hostile ground fire. Against fixed wing aircraft they are normally used when the attack comes from near the abeam point (8 to 10 o'clock or 2 to 4 o'clock). For example, the aircrew who initiates the maneuver gives the command, "(Flight callsign)", bandit two o'clock level, break right." This tells the aircrew on the right side of the formation to make an immediate turn to face the enemy head-on or with a small aspect angle. If the wingman is now engaged or has the best grasp of the existing tactical situation, he/she should assume the role of Tac Lead. The aircrew on the far side of the formation will also turn towards the enemy, but will continue to maneuver in order to break plane and phase, and to provide mutual support (see Figure 5-14).

115

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

Figure 5-14 Break Turn g. Dig and Pinch. Tac Lead uses these maneuvers to adjust the separation of the flight while the flight moves in a constant direction. Separate maneuvers, the dig increases lateral separation of the flight while the pinch decreases it. Aircrews begin the dig or the pinch while flying a constant heading in either the combat cruise or combat spread formation. When Tac Lead commands, "Dig", aircraft simultaneously turn away from each other for 30 - 45 of heading change. When the desired lateral separation is attained, the leader may command, "Resume", and both aircraft return to the original heading. When the leader commands, "Pinch", the aircraft simultaneously turn toward each other for 30 - 45 of heading change. When the aircraft are the desired distance apart the leader commands, "Resume", and both aircraft once again return to the original heading (see Figure 5-14).

Figure 5-14 Dig and Pinch h. Reversal. Reversals are used to quickly turn the section approximately 180. It is used when other turns (cross turn, two tac turns, etc.) would not be appropriate due to terrain restrictions, time or escort considerations. Reversals are uncalled maneuvers, signaled by lead raising the aircraft's nose to gain approximately 200 feet of altitude followed by a 45 - 60 AOB turn for

116

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

approximately 180 of turn. Halfway through the turn, the nose is lowered to regain airspeed and descend to the original altitude. The wingman will turn in the same direction as lead (see Figure 5-15).

Figure 5-15 Reversal

Note Reversals are not maximum performance turns. Do not exceed published aircraft limitations. It is recommended to keep 100 KIAS or more of airspeed throughout the maneuver as the flight is extremely vulnerable at the peak of the maneuver. Ideally, you should recover at the same altitude and airspeed at which you entered and heading 180 from your initial heading (or whatever roll out heading was called by lead).

i. Cover. The command, "Cover", can be added to any of the other formation maneuvers to tell the tac wingman to break the horizontal plane with Tac Lead by either increasing or decreasing altitude. For example, the command, "Cross turn and cover", if given in the low level flight regime, would tell the tac wingman to take the outside of the turn and increase altitude to break the horizontal plane with Tac Lead. This command is particularly useful in cross turns and break turns because it is often difficult to avoid creating a linear target when employing these turns during an ACM engagement. 5021. DIVISION TACTICAL MANEUVERING. The following are depictions of how Division Tactical Formation should look. It is based on the section tactical maneuvering described previous, so the definitions of the individual maneuvers have been omitted. This simply illustrates how the maneuvers are accomplished when flying in a division. If you are flying in a division of three aircraft, it is assumed that the dash three aircraft is its section as if there was a dash four in the flight. Simply delete the dash four if your division is made up of three aircraft. While flying in parade, the lead aircraft will position the aircraft the way he/she wants. While flying cruise, dash two "balances" the flight, or maintains position on the opposite side of the second section comprised of dash three and four. Dash three is free to move its

117

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

section to the other side of lead but must leave room for dash two to cross over. Dash two is responsible for maneuvering clear of the second section as it crosses over.

Figure 5-16. Tac Turn Into the Second Section (not to scale)

Figure 5-17. Tac Turn Away from the Second Section (not to scale)

118

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

Figure 5-18. Center Turn

Figure 5-19. In Place Turn

Figure 5-20. Split Turn

119

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

4 3 1 2

Figure 5-21. Cross Turn During cross turns, the lead section turns inside of the second section. Dash 2 and 4 may cross their respective section leads tail during the cross turn. Dash 3 must ensure clearance for its section from the lead section during the turn.

Figure 5-22. Reversal 5022. OVERHEAD BREAK 1. Overview. Overhead breaks allow a formation to visually identify the landing area while achieving interval for landing, and is used extensively during ship operations. 2. References. UH-1N NATOPS Flight Manual, Chapter 8.

120

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

3. Maneuver Description a. Breaks will be conducted from echelon at a prebriefed airspeed. b. Once cleared, lead "kisses off" and turns away from the flight using a maximum of 45 angle of bank. c. The remaining aircraft break off at the briefed interval (minimum of three seconds) using the same angle of back as lead. Aircraft separation in the turn and downwind is determined by the dash two aircraft. d. When lead arrives at the abeam position, he/she will call for landing for the entire flight, unless briefed or instructed otherwise. 4. Techniques/Common Errors a. The correct echelon should be set up prior to the formation entering the Class D airspace, if possible. b. The dash two aircraft sets the interval both approaching the break and rolling out on downwind. c. Lead should execute the break so as to allow enough downwind to effect a normal approach and landing. d. A common mistake is a tendency to overbank initially causing sloppy altitude control. The break angle of bank should be achieved with smooth control inputs, not snapped. 5023. LANDING 1. Overview. This allows the formation to land as a section, and serves to sharpen parade formation flying skills. 2. References. UH-1N NATOPS Flight Manual, Chapter 9. 3. Maneuver Description a. After giving the appropriate landing checklist signal, lead will fly a slightly wider and flatter approach than normal. b. The final straightaway should be longer than normal to allow a gentler deceleration.

121

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

c. During the final portion of the approach, the wingmans scan must alternate between the leader and his/her own landing spot. d. During section landings, two landings should be made with each aircraft in the lead. This will allow the wingman to land on both the left and right of lead. If pre-briefed, the wingman may execute uncalled crossovers between landings on the crosswind turn or downwind leg. e. During division landings, the sections will land in trail of one another. The dash two of each section shall land off their respective lead aircraft. If the overhead break has been used, the aircraft will all land in trail. The lead aircraft can either call for the division landing once abeam, or each aircraft can call using their position as a call sign (Atlas 06, Atlas 06 dash 2, Atlas 06 dash 3 and Atlas 06 dash 4). 4. Techniques/Common Errors a. Once the approach turn has commenced, lead will usually not give further hand and arm signals until after landing. b. By alternating his/her scan as the section turns to final, the wingman can anticipate power changes. c. Anticipate loss of translational lift and beware of turbulence when landing downwind of lead's downwash. Maintaining step-up may help minimize the effect of lead's downwash. d. Lead needs to provide ample maneuvering space, reasonable descent rate and comfortable approach speed for the wingman to successfully maintain position and land.

122

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

CHAPTER 6 TERRAIN FLIGHT

PARAGRAPH 6000 6001 6002 6003 6004 6005 6006 6007 6008 6009 6010 6011 6012 6013 6014

TOPIC GENERAL REFERENCES CREW COORDINATION TERF POLICY GUIDELINES LOW LEVEL FLIGHT CONTOUR FLIGHT NAP OF THE EARTH (NOE) FLIGHT POWER CHECKS NOE TAKEOFF NOE APPROACH NOE QUICKSTOP MASKING AND UNMASKING BUNT ROLL TURNS

123

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

6000. GENERAL. Terrain flight (TERF) is a term used to describe any helicopter flight structured to counter a "sophisticated threat environment". TERF employs terrain, vegetation, and man-made objects to degrade the enemy's ability to detect a helicopter. TERF is composed of three basic flight techniques: low level, contour, and Nap of the Earth (NOE). 6001. REFERENCES. 1. UH-1N NATOPS Flight Manual, Chapter 8, Terrain Flight. 2. UH-1N Tactical Manual, Chapter 2, Tactical Flight Techniques. 3. MAWTS-1 Helicopter Night Vision Device Manual Chapter 7. 6002. CREW COORDINATION. Terrain flying is a demanding activity that requires precise aircrew teamwork and coordination. The use of effective aircrew coordination to establish a division of responsibilities and to organize cockpit duties is a prerequisite for safe, effective terrain flight. 1. Pilot Duties: The pilot at the controls of the helicopter has two primary responsibilities; controlling the aircraft and avoiding obstacles. He must keep his vision outside the aircraft and avoid distractions; particularly cockpit-related distractions that could hinder his external scan. He reports terrain and landmark information to the copilot/navigator to assist in navigation. He retains control of the aircraft during an aircraft/systems emergency and executes those emergency procedures required of the pilot in control (in accordance with the instructions set forth in the preflight briefing). 2. Copilot Duties: The pilot not at the controls of the aircraft is primarily responsible for accurate navigation. He must remain oriented at all times and inform the pilot as to the direction and route to be flown, and when necessary, the appropriate airspeed adjustments for timing purposes. He assists the pilot by monitoring cockpit instruments and the mechanical functions of the aircraft. 3. Crew Duties: The crew-chiefs are responsible for terrain/obstacle clearance (10 bubble), the blade walk, gauge back-up, and assisting in navigation. 6003. POLICY GUIDELINES. The following policy guidelines have been established for the conduct of TERF training while ensuring aircrew derive maximum benefit from the training. 1. Prior to commencing TERF, aircrew shall be thoroughly trained in map reading, navigation, and operations at high density altitudes (MITAC) Map Interpretation Tactics. 2. No terrain flights will be conducted in instrument meteorological conditions (Below 1000/3).

124

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

3. TERF maneuvers will not exceed aircraft limitations. HMT-303 aircraft will not operate in the NOE environment when the sustained winds in the operating area are 15 knots or greater. 4. A safety aircraft (high bird) IS required for all TERF/TERF NAV syllabus flights, with the sole exception of single-ship terrain flight operations conducted within the Mike TERF area. 5. A safety aircraft (high bird) IS required when flying a TERF navigation route below 200 ft AGL. Its purpose is to monitor the flight path of the TERF aircraft to ensure safety (i.e., wires and aircraft avoidance) and navigational accuracy. 6. All TERF NAV routes must be prebriefed as to altitudes, airspeeds, and intended course. 7. Positive radio communications must be established between the safety aircraft and the navigating aircraft prior to commencing the route. 8. Prior to flying TERF, power checks shall be conducted at altitudes of 10, 25 and 50 feet AGL. UNDER NO CIRCUMSTANCES will TERF be conducted when power required is less than the 10% total power available, as determined during the 50 foot power check. 6004. LOW LEVEL FLIGHT. Low-level flight is conducted between 100 200 feet AGL. It is characterized by the aircraft maintaining a constant airspeed and altitude (MSL). Routes are preselected and generally straight between checkpoints. Speed, formation, control and ease of navigation are enhanced. 6005. CONTOUR FLIGHT. Contour flight is conducted low enough to conform to the contours of the earth. It is characterized by airspeed and altitude varying with vegetation and obstacles and takes advantages of available cover to avoid aircraft detection and/or its points of departure and landing. These flights are to be conducted between 50 - 100 feet AGL at airspeeds above 40 KIAS. 6006. NAP OF THE EARTH (NOE). Nap of the earth flight is conducted as close to the earth's surface as vegetation and obstacles will safely permit, generally following the contours of the earth. Airspeed and altitude may vary according to mission, terrain, weather, time available, and enemy situation. These flights are to be conducted below 50 feet AGL and at airspeeds less than 40 KIAS. A 10-foot bubble should be maintained around the aircraft for obstacle avoidance. 6007. POWER CHECKS. 1. Overview. This procedure ensures that the aircraft will have sufficient power to hover out of ground effect in a downwind condition and have sufficient tailrotor authority available. It allows a verification of computed power required figures.

125

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

2. Maneuver Description. a. At a stabilized 10-foot hover into the wind over a safe area, check hover power. Initiate a 360 left pedal turn, stopping the turn every 90 of heading change, and note maximum transmission torque required to hover. Always ensure there is adequate tail rotor clearance prior to beginning turns. b. If power margin is adequate throughout the turn, vertically ascend to a stabilized 25-foot hover while adjusting cyclic and pedals to remain over the reference point and maintain heading. Check hover power and initiate a 360 left pedal turn, stopping the turn every 90 of heading change, and note maximum transmission torque required. c. If power margin is adequate throughout the turn, vertically ascend to a stabilized 50 feet AGL hover. Check hover power and initiate a 360 left pedal turn, stopping the turn every 90 of heading change, and note maximum transmission torque required. d. Lower collective to initiate a smooth, constant rate of descent and return to a 10-foot AGL hover, and then proceed with the flight. 3. Techniques/Common Errors. a. Proper preflight planning will ensure an accurate estimate of the power requirements for the hop. Use the power charts found in the UH-1N NATOPS manual, Chapter 20. b. Common errors include: (1) Failure to maintain heading control. (2) Abrupt antitorque pedal movements causing erratic torque readings. (3) Failure to remain over the reference point. 6008. NOE TAKEOFF. 1. Overview. The NOE takeoff differs from a normal takeoff in that it is a positive transition to the "low and slow" (NOE) profile. 2. Maneuver Description. a. Place the cyclic slightly forward of the neutral position. Simultaneously increase collective pitch to maintain a constant rate of climb until any obstacles are cleared.

126

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

b. As the obstacles are cleared, lower the collective to smoothly transition to NOE flight. 3. Techniques/Common Errors. a. If conditions warrant, a power check should be performed prior to takeoff. b. Takeoff should be made over the lowest obstacles to provide masking for the aircraft. c. Common errors include: (1) Failure to maintain heading. (2) Application of excess power. (3) Failure to maintain a constant angle of climb. (4) Failure to smoothly transition to NOE flight. 6009. NOE APPROACH. 1. Overview. This maneuver allows the pilot to initiate a landing sequence from the NOE profile without using a landing pattern or descent from an altitude above the NOE profile. 2. Maneuver Description. a. The copilot must navigate to the LZ and inform the pilot when he is 1/2 to 1/4 mile from the LZ to allow the pilot to adjust airspeed. b. After intercepting the minimum safe approach angle, reduce the collective to maintain approach angle. Complete the approach in a 10-foot AGL hover over the desired spot. 3. Techniques/Common Errors. a. Proper navigation setup by the crew is required for a successful first pass approach. b. Common Errors include: (1) Early or late landing transition due to navigational error.

127

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

(2) Failure to maintain proper rate of closure. (3) Excessive airspeed on final. (4) Rapid power changes at termination of approach, causing potential Nr deterioration and /or loss of tailrotor effectiveness. (5) Failure to rotate around the axis of the tail, which may result in tail strike. 6010. NOE QUICK STOP. 1. Overview. Performing a normal quick stop when operating in the NOE flight profile could cause the tail rotor to strike the ground or other obstacles. The NOE quick stop is a decelerating technique that rotates the aircraft about the tail rotor, vice the center of the aircraft, thus ensuring tail rotor clearance at low altitudes. 2. Maneuver Description. a. Coordinate aft cyclic with increased collective to initiate a flare in which the tail rotor is kept at a constant height above the ground, and the aircraft rotates about the tail rotor. Maintain heading with pedals. b. As the aircraft decelerates to a hover, allow the nose of the aircraft to descend while continuing to maintain the altitude of the tail rotor. 3. Techniques/Common Errors. a. Use an aggressive sideward scan to maintain visual references to the ground throughout the maneuver. b. Despite the decelerating nature of the maneuver, the collective may actually need to be increased in order to make the aircraft pivot about the tail rotor. c. This maneuver need not be "quick" or a complete stop. d. Common Errors include: (1) Failure to maintain altitude of tail rotor. (2) Failure to maintain heading. (3) Failure to level at original altitude. Pivoting about the center of the aircraft (tail rising/ nose descending) vice rotating about the tail at original altitude.

128

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

(4) Increasing collective excessively and causing excessive altitude gain (ballooning). 6011. MASKING AND UNMASKING. 1. Overview. This is a maneuver that minimizes exposure to enemy observation while affording friendly aircraft the opportunity to observe terrain along the axis of advance. Unmasking from behind an obstacle can be done vertically or horizontally. 2. Maneuver Description. a. Vertically. (1) From a hover, increase collective, ascending vertically until altitude is sufficient to gain observation. (2) Descend vertically to a masked position. b. Horizontally. (1) From a hover increase collective slightly while sliding left or right until the aircrew can gain observation. (2) Slide left or right to a masked position. 3. Techniques/Common Errors. a. Prior to unmasking, cross check the power required in the masked position with previously completed power checks. b. Perform a thorough map reconnaissance to minimize exposure of the aircraft to either enemy visual or electronic detection. c. Whenever possible, perform masking and unmasking at a safe distance from the target to allow the aircraft to rapidly descend or slide left or right from an unmasked to a masked position in the event the aircraft is detected and fired on or experiences any aircraft emergency. d. When determining a hover-hold position, consideration should be given to allow for a right egress due to a loss of power or loss of tailrotor thrust. e. Common Errors include: (1) Remaining unmasked longer than necessary to observe or shoot.

129

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

(2) Over exposure due to incorrect terrain interpretation, or excessive rate of climb. (3) Allowing the helicopter to drift forward or up the slope, thus reducing obstacle and terrain clearance and reducing your ability to remask or land quickly if necessary. This also potentially increases your aircraft signature. (4) Poor heading control during vertical climb/descent. (5) Masking and remasking in the same spot, thus giving position away to enemy. 6012. BUNT. 1. Overview. This is a maneuver that enables the pilot to negotiate a terrain obstacle that lies generally perpendicular to his flight path by gaining minimum altitude and maintaining forward movement. The bunt specifically allows the pilot to negotiate an obstacle in a wings level attitude using a combination of collective reduction and/or forward cyclic displacement to minimize visual or electronic exposure. 2. Maneuver Description. a. Approaching the obstacle, initiate a climb to the approximate height of the obstacle. b. Lead the descent with a reduction in collective pitch, prior to crossing the obstacle. c. As the obstacle is crossed, the nose is lowered to facilitate the descent and provide terrain clearance for the tail rotor. d. Maintain balanced flight. 3. Techniques/Common Errors. a. Ensure that a proper map study is performed to allow the crew to negotiate the obstacle using the appropriate maneuver. b. Smooth, slow control movements must be used when displacing the cyclic forward, to prevent unloading the rotor system. c. Common errors include: (1) Abrupt flight control movements.

130

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

(2) Late initiation of maneuver which causes the aircraft to be highlighted by ballooning. (3) Excessive nose down causing unintentional increase in airspeed. (4) Failure to maintain balanced flight. 6013. ROLL. 1. Overview. This is a maneuver that enables the pilot to negotiate an obstacle/terrain feature from other than a wings level attitude. Generally, the obstacle will be parallel to the direction of movement. Rolls can be used to continue flight in the same general direction, or to change the direction of flight once the obstacle is cleared. 2. Maneuver Description. a. Approaching the obstacle, initiate a climb to the approximate height of the obstacle. b. Approaching the crest of the obstacle, begin a rolling maneuver into the obstacle while maintaining rotor to obstacle clearance. c. Crossing the crest, coordinate a roll back to the desired direction of flight and coordinate a descent to remask. 3. Techniques/Common Errors. a. Smooth, coordinated control movements will ensure proper negotiation of terrain obstacles while maintaining balanced flight. b. Common errors include: (1) Abrupt control movements that can contribute to low "G" flight. (2) Lack of awareness of rotor/tail rotor clearance. (3) Allowing the tip path to dip below the reference height above the obstacles.
Note One technique for a roll is to turn perpendicular to the terrain, then bunt over the terrain to minimize exposure time. Once the aircraft is on the other side of the terrain feature, turn towards the next intended direction.

131

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

6014. TURNS. 1. Overview. NOE turns differ from turns at altitude due to the limited terrain clearance available, requiring increased awareness of main rotor and tail rotor tip path clearance. 2. Maneuver Description. a. Main Rotor. (1) Prior to lateral cyclic inputs to initiate the turn, increase collective to gain altitude and maintain the tip path plane at its current altitude. (2) When rolling out of the turn, simultaneously lower collective to maintain altitude. b. Tail Rotor. If turning space is limited, turn the aircraft about the tail rotor. 3. Techniques/Common Errors. a. Smooth, coordinated control movements will ensure that excessive altitude is not gained or lost. b. Common errors include: (1) Gaining excessive altitude. (2) Not considering tail wind conditions, or wind line control corrections.

132

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

CHAPTER 7 NAVIGATION

PARAGRAPH 7000 7001 7002 7003 7004 7005 7006 7007 7008 7009 7010 7011 7012

TOPIC INTRODUCTION REFERENCE TACTICAL RADIO NAVIGATION DEAD RECKONING (DR) PILOTAGE MAPS AND CHARTS MAP PREPARATION ROUTE CARDS MAP STUDY ROUTE BRIEF INFLIGHT DUTIES DISORIENTATION AND REORIENTATION TERRAIN (TERF) NAVIGATION

133

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

7000. INTRODUCTION. Basic map skills and navigational abilities are essential to virtually every tactical mission. As the threat level increases, forcing aircraft to fly lower, the skills required to navigate accurately increase greatly. More attention must be paid to map preparation, map study, terrain appreciation and crew coordination. This section will cover TERF navigation as well as navigation in general. 7001. REFERENCES. 1. UH-1N NATOPS Flight Manual, Chapter 16, Navigation. 2. UH-1N Tactical Manual Volume I Chapters 2 (Terrain Flight), 9 (Tactical Planning Considerations), & 11 (Urban Navigation). 7002. TACTICAL RADIO NAVIGATION. 1. Tactical instrument flight is defined as flight in IMC in an area directly affected by the threat. It is used as a means to complete assigned missions when ceiling or visibility conditions preclude VMC flight. However, since radio navigation aids (NDB, RADAR, TACAN) require line of sight propagation, they become virtually unreliable at lower altitudes. 2. Additionally, the enemy will make every effort to make normal air traffic control procedures ineffective. Control frequencies, as well as operational frequencies, can be jammed. Jamming can also be used against radar and navigational aids. Meaconing (false navigational aid signals) will be used to try to lure aircraft off the desired course. Therefore, NAVAIDS will be used only as a backup. 3. GPS can be spoofed as well. Therefore, comm-nav upgrade (CDNU) aircraft should use cryptovariables to help prevent this. These cryptovariables are loaded by the avionics department using the CYZ-10. 4. Due to the low altitudes associated with terrain flight, ground-control radar will probably be useless. 7003. DEAD RECKONING (DR). During navigational flights at night or when recognizable terrain features are not available, pre-calculated times and headings (dead reckoning) must be flown between two points. Estimation (by the pilots senses) of distances and time flown are misleading and normally result in disorientation. To prevent over-flight of checkpoints, accurate estimates are computed using DR procedures. When these procedures are used, the aircraft must adhere to the heading and airspeed at which the estimates were originally computed. At night, shorter legs and reduced airspeeds are required for increased accuracy. Course changes in excess of 60 are not recommended during night operations while in a flight of aircraft, as this will be a detractor to control of the formation.

134

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

7004. PILOTAGE. Pilotage is the primary means of all navigation. Because of the requirement for accuracy, each crewmember must be familiar with the layout of the flight route and prominent navigation features, checkpoints (CPs) and reference points before the mission. As the aircraft is flown along the route, a continuous comparison is made between what is seen on the ground and what is represented on the map. The navigator must remain oriented and know the location of the aircraft at all times. Mission requirements often demand that the aircraft be flown on a pre-selected route to exact points (LZs, BPs, etc). 7005. MAPS AND CHARTS. 1. The key to success in navigation will be the time spent in putting your maps together. Three different maps, the Joint Operations Graphic (1:250,000), VFR Sectional (1:500,000) and the Tactical Map (1:50,000) may be used individually or together, depending on the type of mission to be flown. 2. Joint Operational Graphic (JOG). The JOG is the primary map for planning and flying the enroute portion of the mission and is about as large a scale as is practical. This scale works well with long range navigation operations. 3. VFR Sectional. As the VFR sectional is updated frequently, it is consulted to update the JOGs being used. Its large scale makes it a poor choice for missions requiring pilotage but it can be used for enroute portions of missions that are not tactical in nature. 4. Tactical Map. a. For operations in a small area and in certain types of terrain, a 1:50,000 map may be appropriate. This map is used to accurately locate and confirm unique map features and to transfer them to the JOG. It serves to display, in more detail, those areas that may be difficult to interpret on the JOG. Any enroute landing or holding areas can be accurately plotted and studied on this map. In addition, this map is used during the objective phase of the operation and whenever navigating in a TERF environment. b. Transition from the JOG to the tactical (1:50,000) map should occur at 5-10 nm from the objective. The 1:50,000 map should be used for the remaining navigation and for operations within the objective area.
Note

Use caution when transitioning from the JOG to the tactical map. Remember that the aircraft is traveling five times as fast over the tactical map, and your aircraft covers more apparent distance than on the JOG. Select a terrain feature that is easily identifiable on both maps (map change-over point).

135

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

7006. MAP PREPARATION. Once the route has been determined and the appropriate JOGs and tactical maps obtained, the following techniques should be used to prepare the map for day or night navigation. Once the map is completed, it should be a one-source document. That means that it should have everything on it (including frequencies, sun-moon data, all control measures, enemy & friendly positions, etc.), so that the map has all the information required on it in order to complete the mission. 1. Use red ink for hazards and black ink for route and mission planning; lighter colors may be invisible when using NVG compatible lights. 2. First, plot the threats and hazards. Then place all routes, CPs, barriers, mileage tick marks, times, headings, etc. on the map. 3. The navigation route to and from the objective area or navigation point must be tactically sound, but not so difficult as to deter successful navigation. 4. CPs should be unique features which are detectable at a distance, vice visible only when flying directly overhead. Intermediate reference points (large, prominent terrain features are recommended) may be used along each leg of the route for course confirmation and timing. Man-made features, though not desirable, may be used if needed. Note that man-made features such as windmills or towers may have been added or removed. Make sure your map is current. Checkpoints should be 5-10 minutes apart when possible. 5. Always select prominent barriers near CPs, especially where a turn is planned. It is often better to discard a good CP with a poor barrier in favor of a less prominent CP with an excellent barrier. 6. To permit orientation of the map quickly in flight, place a north-seeking arrow on each fold of the map. 7. Any towers, beacons, cities, etc. should be marked. 8. Do not over-prepare the map. Outline only those features that you will expect to see (specially at night), e.g., obstacles, rivers, mountain peaks, lakes, etc. Marking contour lines may obscure your ability to read the map and should not be done. 9. All notes and writing should be oriented in the direction of flight for that particular leg. 10. Standardize/memorize the following symbols: a. COURSE LINE b. SMALL TOWN c. MAJOR PAVED ROAD

136

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

d. CITIES e. SECONDARY ROAD f. AIRPORTS WITH BEACONS g. POWER LINES h. TOWERS i. MAJOR RIVER j. BRIDGES k. BODIES OF WATER l. MOUNTAINS/HILLS m. SMALL RIVER/STREAM n. DRY WASHES o. RAILROAD TRACKS p. TARGETS 7007. ROUTE CARDS. For navigational flights, prepare route cards. They should include headings, distances, time and fuel estimates for each leg. 7008. MAP STUDY. This is probably the most critical phase of navigational flight. As you plot your route and prepare your map, you should mentally fly the route selected. Try to visualize the reference points and CPs, and how they will appear. Devise a plan for reading the map, checking the time, keeping your co-pilot informed, and all of the other duties you will be required to perform. Rehearse your actions to optimize the use of time. 7009. ROUTE BRIEF. Thorough route briefs are essential for all crewmembers. Prominent landmarks should be noted, identifying features pointed out and terrain features discussed. A chronological sequence may be the best way to organize this discussion. An in-depth study and discussion of LZs, CPs, APs and firing points, targets, etc. is extremely important to successful navigation. Never assume that any portion of the brief is self-explanatory.

137

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

7010. INFLIGHT DUTIES. 1. As discussed earlier, dead reckoning and pilotage are the primary means of navigation. As the navigator, you will be responsible for landmark identification and orientation. The non-flying pilot furnishes the flying pilot information required to remain on course. 2. Standard terminology must be agreed upon in the brief to reduce inflight confusion. 3. The non-flying pilot should give directions to the flying pilot that do not require insidecockpit reference. For example, use Right Turn and Stop Turn vice Turn right to 240. Provide references well ahead of the aircraft, such as peaks or lakes to which the flying pilot can steer. Good cockpit crew coordination dictates that you utilize brief standardized terminology such as wires, check nav, bunt, roll, etc. This becomes crucial in TERF navigation. 4. Relate the features on the ground to the map and not vice versa. 7011. DISORIENTATION AND REORIENTATION. If disorientation occurs, admit it as soon as you realize it. Have the pilot hover, land, or orbit as you try to reorient. Try to pick out some prominent feature for orientation. If that doesnt work, head back to the last point that was positively identified, and begin again. If you have a prominent barrier ahead, continue to it and adjust timing. Flying past a planned DR time in hopes that a headwind caused your error will probably disorient you further. Use common sense in your actions, and when all else fails, use the Five Cs. 7012. TERRAIN (TERF) NAVIGATION. Certain aspects of terrain flight navigation differ depending on whether low-level, contour, or NOE flight is being performed. The threat, tactical situation and mission accomplishment may require that a combination of these flight techniques be employed. Therefore, aircrew must be familiar with the navigational orientation techniques associated with each mode of terrain flight. For low-level navigation, computed time-distance can be used effectively since low-level flight employs constant airspeed and predetermined distances. The pilot can be instructed to fly specific headings and airspeeds as he has increased reaction time and obstacle clearance. Lowlevel altitudes also may permit the use of electronic navigational aids for orientation and navigation. Contour navigation must be more precise than low level, as the contour route is normally less broad. Since the contour route is planned to use the contours of terrain to maintain cover and concealment, it must be followed closely. Due to constant (and generally higher) airspeed characterizing contour flight, checkpoints on the route should be readily identifiable. The navigator must provide the pilot with airspeed information so that the checkpoints are crossed on schedule. However, reference to speed should be given as Speed up and Slow down instead

138

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

of directing that a certain airspeed be flown. Likewise, heading information should be given that doesnt require the pilot to reference his gauges, other than the HUD. 4. NOE navigation requires continuous detailed orientation, to a greater extent than contour or low-level navigation. To remain continuously oriented, the navigator must use all terrain features depicted along his route, and associate features depicted on the map with the actual terrain features. This requires that the navigator be highly proficient in map/terrain correlation and that he and the pilot work as a team. To an even greater degree than in the contour modes, standardized intercockpit communications are essential. All directions to the pilot must be given so as to preclude inside-cockpit references. 7013. GPS NAVIGATION. 1. Application. The use of navigational aids and their limitations have already been discussed, but with the technological advances of today, methods to ensure you remain oriented and locate your CPs (as well as LZs, APs and targets) continue to improve. CDNU aircraft have an embedded Global Positioning System/Doppler installed that can be used for flight plan selection, orientation, target marking and waypoint/route selection in order to assist the pilot in navigation and weapons employment. 2. Reference. UH-1N NATOPS Flight Manual, Appendix A. 3. Discussion. Although not all UH-1s currently have the same navigation components, you should become familiar with all of their operations, programming and uses. All route cards for TERF and VFR navigation should list Lat/Long coordinates and eight digit grids for use in the aircrafts navigation system. Additionally, ensure that you note the map datum at the bottom of each map and use this same map datum when entering grids into the aircrafts navigation system. a. The following is a list of items related to the navigation system with which you need to become familiar: 1) Change frequencies 2) Turn on and off guard and squelch
3) Set up and use a scan list

4) Enter in a squawk and switch to Normal mode and back to standby 5) Tune and ident a TACAN station 6) Power page, including Turning on the Doppler 7) Check the Status page 8) Check to see if picking up satellites/check Figure Of Merit 9) Switch between L/L and MGRS

139

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

10) Get current location 11) Check and switch between WGS-84 and NAD-27 (switching Datum) 12) GPS route entry - both L/L and MGRS 13) Label a route point 14) Insert an intermediate waypoint 15) Direct to 16) Load a flight plan from a brick 17) Initialize the radios 18) Mark a position 19) Basic sincgars and havequick operation + A2 and receive GPS time 20) Check presets (including regular and sincgars & havequick net IDs) 21) Aft control head operation - preset and manual freq changes b. An in-depth knowledge and understanding of the UH-1N NATOPS Flight Manual Navigation and Communications chapters (?and ?, respectively) will allow you to greatly reduce cockpit workload and increase your ability to successfully navigate to your objective. c. Remember not to rely completely on the aircrafts imbedded navigation systems. Although these systems are very good, the basic ability to navigate on a map and identify both your position and the position of your targets is a basic skill that every pilot needs to master.

140

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

CHAPTER 8 AIR TO GROUND

PARAGRAPH 8000 8001 8002 8003 8004 8005 8006 8007 8008 8009 8010 8011 8012 8013 8014 8015

TOPIC INTRODUCTION REFERENCES DEFINITIONS PREFLIGHT PLANNING ORDNANCE PREFLIGHT AND POSTFLIGHT ARMING AREA PROCEDURES RANGE PROCEDURES DELIVERY PATTERN DIVING FIRE RUNNING FIRE POP-UP FIRE HOVER FIRE CREW-SERVED GUN DELIVERY RELEASE CONDITION ERRORS EFFECTS OF RELEASE CONDITION ERRORS DIRECT FIRE ADJUSTMENTS/CORRECTIONS

141

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

8000. INTRODUCTION. This section is published as a supplement to the references and will assist the execution of basic ordnance delivery techniques that are essential to mission accomplishment. A thorough understanding of the definitions, procedures, and analysis of delivery errors is needed prior to actual ordnance delivery. Applying these principles and techniques will enable UH-1N pilots to minimize their circular error probability (CEP). 8001. REFERENCES. 1. UH-1N NATOPS Flight Manual, Chapter 17. 2. UH-1N Tactical Manual, Chapters 5, 6, & 7. 3. Basic Conventional Weapons Delivery class (To be scheduled before beginning air to ground flight phase). 8002. DEFINITIONS. 1. Angle of Attack - The angle measured in degrees between the fuselage reference line (FRL) and the helicopter flightpath. 2. C.E.P. - Circular error probable. A circle within which 50% of the impacts fall. 3. Hangfire Motor ignites and the rocket fails to separate. If a hangfire occurs, attempt to maintain control of the helicopter and jettison the selected store (if feasible). 4. In dry There is no intent to fire on this pass. This call may be used for simulated ordnance delivery, such as for range sweeps, or when other aircraft still have ordnance remaining, but the aircraft making the call does not. The Master Arm switch is not placed to ARM. 5. In hot There is intent to fire on this pass; the aircraft is wings level and the nose is pointed at the intended target. This call must be made prior to placing the Master Arm switch to ARM. 6. Fuselage Reference Line (FRL) - A fixed reference line parallel to the longitudinal axis of the aircraft. 7. Launcher Line - The longitudinal axis of a rocket when attached to the launcher. 8. Launcher Angle (L) - The angle between the launcher line and the fuselage reference line. 9. Milliradian (mil) - A unit of angular measurement that equates to 1/6400 of the circumference of a circle. It is commonly referred to as a mil. At 1000 meters, an

142

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

angular deflection of 1 mil results in a deflection of 1 meter. 1 mil = .0562 degrees. 1 degree = 17.79 mils. 10. Off cold The aircrafts Master Arm switch has already been placed to OFF; the aircraft is pulling off target and complete with its firing run. 11. Pitch Delivery Charts - Provide sight and pitch (attitude) settings for various release altitudes and airspeeds. 12. Unexpended Ordnance Ordnance not expended during the mission. Rockets which have been cycled through the LAU-68/61/10 and fail to fire are considered unexpended and do not require special handling when returning through controlled airspace. 8003. PREFLIGHT PLANNING. 1. A thorough knowledge of the references is required prior to beginning the air to ground flight phase. 2. Whenever possible, MSL perch altitudes, release altitudes, and mil settings should be determined prior to the brief. 3. Any questions regarding switchology should be resolved prior to strapping in. 4. Ensure a thorough knowledge of fragmentation patterns and critical in-flight ordnance emergencies are discussed prior to flight. Static fragmentation patterns can be found in the current UH-1N TACMAN. The UH-1N TACMAN contains fragmentation patterns which include release velocity and delivery angles. 5. Consideration should be given to the pre-mission selection of jettison switches. Criteria for jettison should include the ability to maintain controlled flight, volatility of ordnance, and proximity of population to jettison effects. 8004. ORDNANCE PREFLIGHT AND POSTFLIGHT. Items requiring preflight on ordnance flights can be found in the UH-1N NATOPS Pocket Checklist Section II, Armament Systems Preflight, NATOPS Flight Manual Part VIII, Chapter 7, and the UH-1N Tactical Manual, Chapter 5. 1. DAS COMPONENTS NOMENCLATURE AND FUNCTION. a. External Stores Support Assembly. The primary component about which DAS is configured is the external stores support assembly. It consists of a pintle mount adaptor block which universally accepts adapter assemblies (pintle posts) for the GAU-17, M-60D, M-240E, and GAU-16. It also acts as a mounting point for the BRU-20 (series) ejector rack which can accept either the LAU-61 or LAU-68 rocket pod. The external stores support assembly has a depression stop tube

143

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

designed to restrict the movement of the various crew served machine guns to safe fields of fire. Additionally, a receptacle has been built into the assembly to hold the rocket pod cannon plug when not in use. Stow brackets for the M-60D and GAU-16 as well as a mounting bracket for the M-60D ammo can have also been installed. b. BRU-20 (Series) Ejector Rack. Any two of the BRU-20 ejector racks (BRU-20 or 21) are acceptable for the use on the DAS. The ejector rack is mounted in a fixed position and has no elevation adjustment. This ultimately affects the ability to properly bore-sight the pods. However, minor azimuth or deflection adjustments can be made with the rocket pod sway braces. Each ejector rack has four sway braces (two front and two rear) which are tightened down onto the pod and stabilize it for flight. Changes in pod alignment can be made by adjusting these sway braces. Also found on the ejector rack are the electrically actuated jettison cartridge (CAD). Presently there is no manual release inside the cockpit. When the pod jettison safing handle is in the locked (up) position it prevents movement of the retaining hooks which secure the pod to the rack. With the jettison handle in the unlocked (down) position, the cartridge can be electrically fired which simultaneously opens the retaining hooks and blows the release plunger down vertically onto the pod thus separating the pod from the aircraft. c. GAU-17 Adapter Assembly. To mount the GAU-17 onto the external stores support assembly, an adapter assembly consisting of a yoke, saddle and pintle post must be attached to the gun. An electrically driven gun, the GAU-17 has two cables which must also be connected for operation. d. M-240 Adapter Assembly. Mounting of the M-240 is probably the easiest of the three guns. The gun is attached to the pintle post which fits directly into the external stores assembly. The expended brass bag mounts on the right side of the gun and the 500 round ammo box fits directly on the external stores support assembly. e. GAU-16. The GAU-16 has a carriage assembly which mounts a pintle post and fits directly into the external stores support assembly. The matched recoil adapters on the GAU-16 reduce the recoil forces by 75%. The 100 ammo box mounts on the left side of the carriage assembly. f. Optical Reflex Sight (CA-513E). The optical sight is non-compensating with a fixed reticle which is mounted to the aircraft above the pilots windshield. The sight incorporates a mils setting dial to adjust elevation or depression for 2.75 inch rocket delivery. The sight can also be used for aiming the GAU-17 in the fixed forward mode. When not in use, the sight can be stowed by depressing the lock mechanism and swinging it up to a horizontal position. Unless boresighted, the CA-513E has some parallax error. The sights mounted position is not

144

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

adjustable and pilots must compensate individually with seat position. This is important to avoid parallax error which will be discussed later. 2. Preflight Inspection. Preflight of the DAS is done by the UH-1N NATOPS Pocket Checklist every time. Proper pre-flight techniques and weapons system knowledge are critical to maximizing learning objectives on ordnance missions. Ordnance is expensive and in short supply. It is your duty to the tax payers and your fellow Marines to diligently plan for every ordnance mission. The following is an amplification of the pre-flight checklist items: a. Check ordnance load against planned load and note type and location on your kneeboard. If load is greater than planned, a new weight and balance computation shall be completed. b. GAU-17. To ensure a safe gun both in the chocks and on return from a mission, pilots must understand a few basic precautions. Prior to loading rounds into the ammo chute, a gun safety pin must be installed in the barrels to prevent rotation and firing of the gun. Additionally, the feeder gate solenoid must be disconnected and the SAFING SECTOR REMOVED. These latter two items combine to prevent rounds from actually entering the chamber. Upon termination of the sortie, these two steps must be again accomplished and the barrels rotated (with the weapon pointed in a safe direction) to dipense any remaining rounds. This is usually accomplished prior to departing the range area. c. M-240. A very simple gun to operate, pilots only need to ensure the loading checklist is followed. Additionally, the security of both the ammo can and the expended brass bag should be checked to prevent either from falling off the aircraft. d. GAU-16. Other than the checklist, pilots only need to check security of the ammo can. e. LAU-61/68 Rocket Pods. Following loading the pods, pilots should ensure the jettison cannon plug is attached and secure while the rocket pod cannon plug remains disconnected. The shorting pin must also be installed: this prevents stray voltage from the aircraft reaching the rockets. On the rear of the pods are two important switches. Ensure the "ripple/single" switch is set to "single" for obvious reasons. The second switch, called the intervalometer, also needs to be checked to ensure it is set on "A". This device is what cycles the electrical firing pulses to the appropriate tube. If it is not set properly, the firing cycle will not begin. Finally, the jettison safing handle should also be locked until reaching the arming area. f. Armament Control Panel. Located on the aircraft pedestal is the armament control panel. it contains an armament selector switch which allows the pilots to

145

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

select various weapons for employment: crew served guns, rockets, and forward firing guns (GAU-17 only). The "gunner" position connects power directly to the GAU-17 so the crew chief can fire. the "rockets" position arms the pods and allows the gunner to fire the GAU-17. The "forward fire" position gives control of the GAU-17 to the pilots. The panel also has pod select switches for both left and right stations, and a master arm switch which controls power to the whole system. There is a jettison switch for all stores as well as individual switches for each side. g. Circuit Breakers. Found in the left rear corner of the overhead console are four armament circuit breakers. All but the gunsight circuit breaker must be safe/off during arming sequence. One breaker controls power to the jettison switches and the other two control their respective stations. 3. Postflight. a. Check tail rotor and main 7.62 mm/ .50 cal casing/links, or 2.75" WAFFAR stabilization rod strikes. b. Check sync elevator and tailboom for 7.62 mm/.50 cal, or 2.75" WAFFAR debris/damage. 8005. ARMING AREA PROCEDURES. 1. Local regulations vary regarding loading and arming procedures. Consult these prior to the flight. General procedures fall into two categories as follow: a. Loading on the line. In certain cases, loading ordnance on the flight line is authorized. The aircraft will turn up and taxi as a flight to the arming area for arming. b. Loading in the arming area or designated loading area (i.e., Combat Arms Loading Area/CALA). If loading on the line is not authorized, the flight will taxi to the arming or loading area and shut down for loading. Once loading is complete, the aircraft will turn up and arm (repositioning for arming may be required). 2. Arming Procedures. a. Complete Start, Post Start Checklist. b. Complete Arming/Dearming Procedures Checklist found in the UH-1N PCL. c. The aircraft lighting configuration should be anti-collision light off.

146

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

d. Keep hands in view of arming crew while arming is in progress. e. Once arming is finished, complete After Arm Checklist. f. Complete Pre-Takeoff Checklist. g. Once the last aircraft in the flight is complete with the after arming checks, he/she will turn on the anti-collision light and the wingmen will ripple this action in sequence back up to the lead aircraft signifying that the flight is ready for taxi. 8006. RANGE PROCEDURES. 1. Do not enter the range until cleared. Positive control between aircraft and controlling agency is mandatory. 2. When cleared on the range, transmit your check-in report. This should include the, tactical callsign of the flight, number and type of aircraft, the range or area to be used, and type and amount of ordnance per aircraft. 3. Perform all armament in flight checklists for the appropriate ordnance as listed in the PCL. 4. The Master arm switch will remain in standby until "cleared hot" by the flight lead. 5. In the target area, after a range sweep is completed, the flight leader will open the range for "cold" or "hot" runs. Any member of the flight can "close" the range for safety reasons. 6. All aircrew shall understand abort criteria. a. When in doubt, do not shoot. b. Any aircraft can call abort. The proper radio call will be ABORT, ABORT, ABORT over the interflight or controlling agency frequency. c. All aircraft shall honor any ABORT call, and all pilots shall place their Master Arm switches in the STBY position until the flight lead clears the flight "hot" again. 7. Mandatory Radio Calls. a. "In hot/dry" - "ATLAS 06 (or callsign) in hot/dry." b. "Off cold - "ATLAS 06 (or callsign) off cold."

147

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

8. Do not transmit the "In Hot" call until the aircraft is pointed at the target. Do not move the Master Arm Switch to ARM until after the call has been made. 9. On pull off, place the Master Arm Switch to STBY. Do not call "Off Cold" until the Master Arm Switch is in STBY. 10. When all ordnance is expended or target runs are completed, perform the Armament Postfiring/Before Landing Check. 11. The flight leader shall transmit a "clear of range" voice report to range control prior to switching from the range frequency. 12. The Arm/Dearm checklist and After Dearm checklist shall be completed prior to leaving the arm/dearm area. Once again, your navigation lights should be steady bright once complete, and your anti-collision light will go on in order from the last aircraft to the first signifying all aircraft are ready to taxi to the ordnance download area. 8007. DELIVERY PATTERN 1. For AG-160 series flights, a racetrack or modified racetrack pattern is generally used. Flight leaders may elect to utilize one or more of the other standard attack patterns. Review the TACMAN, chapter 7 for further amplification of attack patterns. 2. The flight leader shall fully describe airspeeds and altitudes during the mission brief. Maintaining these parameters will help maintain proper interval between aircraft and prevent aborted runs. 3. Always keep the other aircraft in the pattern in sight. There is a real possibility of mid-air collisions on roll-ins and pull-off climbs if this is neglected. Good lookout doctrine and effective inter-plane communications will greatly reduce this potential danger. 4. On "raked" ranges, you may overfly the target on pull-off, range regulations permitting. Basic marksmanship, rather than tactical training is being conducted, and the emphasis is on procedures, pattern, safety, and accuracy. Target overflight is not desirable, however, and pilots should strive to develop their pattern so as to preclude target overflight. 8008. DIVING FIRE 1. Diving fire is the most accurate method of fire and most likely results in the smallest CEP for rocket and gun delivery.

148

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

2. Fly the downwind leg of the pattern at the prebriefed altitude and airspeed. These will vary with the type of pattern selected. If using the CA-513E optical reflex sight, mil settings should be set for rocket range for the required diving fire attack. 3. Turning perpendicular (base leg) to the target, set power and nose attitude to arrive at the roll-in point with the predetermined perch airspeed and altitude for the target selected. a. Typical Parameters for dive angles of 10 or 20 (2.75" WAFFAR): Roll-in airspeed: Roll-in altitude: Torque: Release airspeed: Release altitude: 45 KIAS 2000 feet AGL 30% 90 KIAS 1500 feet AGL

b. Use the roll-in technique described in the UH-1N TACMAN Chapter 6 for 10 and 20 degree dives. 4. Tracking should commence as the roll-in is completed. A good roll-in ends on the tracking line, with the desired dive angle. The pipper should be just below (short of) the target. a. If initial lineup is off to one side, quickly fly a correction, maintaining balanced flight, and recheck wings level. b. When pointed at the target, transmit "In hot" and move the Master Arm switch to ARM. c. Recheck power setting, trim, and wings level. A right rudder increase will be required as airspeed increases in order to maintain balanced flight. d. Hold the aiming point short of the target until 1/3 to 1/2 the distance down the dive path, then allow the aiming point to drift up toward the target. e. Recheck trim. f. Upon reaching the desired altitude or airspeed, whichever comes first, push the Fire button. At release, the pipper should be at the bottom of the target. Release when first parameter (airspeed or altitude) is reached. 5. Commence pull-off with aft cyclic and collective increase, and place the Master Arm switch to STBY while still pointed downrange towards the target. a. Do not descend below minimum altitude (1000 feet AGL for 2.75" WAFFAR, 500 feet AGL for 7.62 mm/.50 cal).

149

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

b. Call "Off cold." c. Bring the nose to the horizon before beginning a turn to downwind. You may notice increased "mushing" due to the higher gross weight of the aircraft with ordnance aboard. d. Look for the other aircraft in your flight. 6. A typical 20 rocket delivery run would go as follows: a. Roll in at 2000 feet AGL, call "In hot", place Master Arm switch to ARM. b. Track the target, checking power, trim and line up. c. At 80 to 90 KIAS, 1500 feet AGL, aiming point on the bottom of the target, depress the Fire button. d. After firing, move the Master Arm Switch to STBY, pull nose to horizon, add power, climb (and turn if necessary). Call "Off cold." 8009. RUNNING FIRE 1. Running fire is fire delivered in level forward flight. It is not as accurate as diving fire, but makes the aircraft less vulnerable to enemy air defenses. 2. Fly the downwind leg of the pattern at the prebriefed altitude and airspeed. These will vary with the type of pattern selected. Mils for Rockets should be set for pre-briefed firing points. Laser Range Finding should be used to the maximum extent possible in accordance with laser range regulations for the operating area. This is the most accurate form of range estimation. a. Fly so as to establish the aircraft on a straight heading towards the target, at 100-200 feet AGL (or above the target depending on the terrain), 60-90 KIAS, wings level, and ball centered. b. While flying inbound to the target continue to recheck VSI to maintain constant altitude (terrain dependent), ball centered, wings level, and aligned with the target. c. Assuring that other friendly aircraft are not in the target area, transmit "In hot" and move the Master Arm switch to ARM. As the pre-briefed release point is reached, depress the Fire button.

150

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

d. Observe the first impact and use offset correction (Kentucky windage) to adjust for range and wind corrections. e. Continue to fire rockets until the number of pre-briefed rounds on the run have been expended or until pull-off. Pull off by 500 meters for HE rockets. f. On the pull off, ensure the Master Arm Switch is in OFF before aircraft nose passes 90 of turn off target, and transmit Off cold. For building situational awareness in the flight, it is recommended that direction of pull-off be given in the Off cold call. 3. Running fire rocket delivery will normally be accompanied by crew-seved weapons delivery. 8010. POP-UP FIRE 1. A Pop-up attack is a combination of running and diving fire. It involves ingress to the target at TERF altitudes, followed by a Pop-up to gain approximately 100-300 feet of altitude with a shallow dive towards the target. With the shallow dive angle to the target, this method is more accurate than running fire while minimizing the time that the aircraft is exposed to the enemy fire due to increased altitude. a. Plan the ingress to be perpendicular to the target so as to allow a roll in maneuver using the technique described in the TACMAN Chapter 6 for 10 to 20 dives. b. Adjust power to obtain sufficient airspeed in order to initiate a cyclic climb. As aft cyclic is used to initiate the climb power should be reduced to 30% torque. Procedures from this point are the same as for diving fire. 8011. HOVER FIRE 1. Hover fire is the least accurate delivery method for rockets, but may need to be used in certain situations. Accurate range estimation as described in Chapter 6 of the UH-1N TACMAN can greatly increase hover fire accuracy. Prior to performing hover fire, the pilot should be very familiar with aircraft gross weight, power available, and power required. Usually, a UH-1N carrying ordnance is at a relatively high gross weight, and consequently, the power margin is very small if it exists at all. a. From a stable hover, the aircraft should conduct an unmasking maneuver in order to acquire the target and ensure enough terrain clearance to fire ordnance. The ordnance charts for hover fire are based on 25 feet AGL, and unless the tactical situation dictates otherwise, this should be adhered to because of rotorwash.

151

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

WARNING Care must be exercised to ensure obstacle clearance for the tail rotor in this situation.

b. Transmit "In hot" and move the Master Arm switch to ARM. Check the VSI/radalt to maintain constant altitude, wings level, and the aircraft aligned with the target. Wind will be corrected for with aircraft heading adjustments. c. With the aircraft stabilized and the aiming point on the target, depress the Fire button. d. Observe the first impact and use offset correction (Kentucky windage) to adjust for range and wind corrections. e. Continue to fire rockets until the number of pre-briefed rockets has been expended. When complete, ensure the Master Arm Switch is in STBY, and transmit Off cold. Re-mask behind terrain if able. 8012. CREW-SERVED GUN DELIVERY 1. Crew-served weapon delivery can be used in diving, running, pop-up and hover fire modes, as described in Chapter 6 and 7 of the UH-1N TACMAN. a. Procedures for Master ARM, In hot and Off cold calls are the same as with running and diving fire. A thorough pre-briefing and good aircrew coordination between pilot, co-pilot and crewchiefs are required for effective weapons delivery. b. Crew-served weapons off axis fire can be used on the pull off of the attack, but fire should be ceased prior to any range regulations being violated. 8013. RELEASE CONDITION ERRORS 1. For each type of ordnance and combination of release conditions, there is a reticule range setting, relayed in mils for the CA-513E Optical Reflex Sight, such that when the aiming point is placed on the target and the desired release conditions are met, the aircraft will be in position to hit the target.

152

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

NOTE Parallax is the apparent displacement of an object due to a change in viewpoint. It is caused by misalignment of the sight lens and can result in serious errors in weapon delivery. Unfortunately, the CA-513E has some parallax error. Complicating this situation is the sight's fixed position. To overcome this, pilot's must adjust their seat position to place themselves directly inline with the sight. If this is not done, parallax error will cause the pipper to be off line from the desired boresight axis. Pilots should always sight with both eyes when shooting rockets. This affords much better depth perception.

a. Deviation from the desired release conditions will reduce delivery accuracy. The RELEASE CONDITION ERRORS are as follow: (1) Dive Angle (2) Airspeed (3) Altitude (4) Torque Setting b. Other conditions that affect ordnance accuracy are as follow: (1) Coordinated Flight (2) Angle of Bank (3) Wind (4) Target Motion (5) G Loading (6) Changes in gross weight and center of gravity 8014. EFFECTS OF RELEASE CONDITION ERRORS. Release condition errors will usually compound each other. For example, a too shallow dive angle may often result in being slow at the release altitude. For simplicity's sake, each will be treated individually. 1. Dive Angle. This is the planned angle (10 or 20) and are calculated for mil settings and release parameters. Refer to Figure 8-1. a. If too shallow, hits will be short. b. If too steep, hits will be long.

153

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

Figure 8-1 Dive Angle Error (Not drawn to scale) 2. Release Airspeed. This is the predetermined release airspeed for accurate delivery. Refer to Figure 8-2. a. If too fast, hits will be long. b. If too slow, hits will be short.

Figure 8-2 Airspeed Error (Not drawn to scale) 3. Altitude. a. If low on release, hits will be long. b. If high on release, hits will be short.

154

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

Figure 8-3 Altitude Error (Not drawn to scale) 4. Torque Setting. 30% torque is used for 10 and 20 degree dives. a. If torque setting is high, hits will usually be long. b. If torque setting is low, hits will usually be short. 5. Coordinated Flight. Good ball control is essential to accurate ordnance delivery. Hits will tend to "follow the ball" (i.e., ball out to right, hits will be to the right of target). 6. Angle of Bank. If rockets are delivered in an other than wings level attitude, a deflection error will be introduced. a. Right wing down, hits will be short and to the right. b. Left wing down, hits will be short and to the left. 7. Wind. The effects of wind on the aircraft in a dive are as follows: a. Headwind - tends to shallow dive. b. Tailwind - tends to increase dive angle. c. Right crosswind - aircraft drifts left, requiring right wing down to compensate. d. Left crosswind - aircraft drifts right, requiring left wing down to compensate. e. Compensate for crosswinds, when known, by offsetting the pipper into the wind and allow it to drift to the target. This minimizes the required corrections, and allows delivery from a wings level attitude.

155

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

8. G Loading. Release with other than one "G" on the aircraft will have the following effects: a. Increased G load - equivalent to lower airspeed and will result in short hits. b. Decreased G load - equivalent to higher airspeed and will result in long hits. 8015. DIRECT FIRE ADJUSTMENTS/CORRECTIONS 1. Modifications to the predetermined perch and release points may be necessary to achieve constant and accurate hits on target. Corrections for premature release airspeed or release altitude are listed below: a. Airspeed. If the aircraft arrives at the release airspeed prior to meeting the other release parameters, the perch point should be moved closer to the target and a slightly lower altitude used. b. Altitude. If the aircraft arrives at the desired release altitude prior to meeting the other release parameters, the perch point should be moved away from the target and the perch altitude increased. Note The above error corrections are only valid when dive angle and torque remain constant.

156

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

CHAPTER 9 NIGHT VISION GOGGLE (NVG) TRAINING

PARAGRAPH 9000 9001 9002 9003 9004 9005 9006 9007 9008 9009 9009 9011 9012 9013 9014 9015 9016 9017

TOPIC GENERAL REFERENCES NVG PREFLIGHT AND ADJUSTMENT HOVERING VERTICAL TAKEOFF VERTICAL LANDING AIR TAXI TURNS ON THE SPOT NVG TAKEOFF NORMAL APPROACH STEEP APPROACH NO HOVER LANDING SLIDING LANDING QUICKSTOP SIMULATED SINGLE ENGINE FAILURE AUTOROTATIONS NVG NAVIGATION EMERGENCY PROCEDURES WHILE USING NVGs

157

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

9000. GENERAL. Competency on Night Vision Goggles (NVGs) in a tactical environment must begin with a firm foundation in the execution of basic helicopter piloting skills. Only when the pilot is comfortable in their abilities and those of the goggles, will he/she become confident in their use. This chapter presents a building block approach to the execution of basic familiarization and emergency procedures. 9001. REFERENCES. 1. UH-1N Tactical Manual, Chapters 8 & 9. 2. MAWTS-1 Helicopter Night Vision Device Manual. 3. NAVAIR 16-35AVS9-4 AN/AVS-9 Operators and Organizational Maintenance Manual (digital copy included on HMT-303 AGT CD issued upon check-in) 9002. NVG PREFLIGHT. As with any system, the key to achieving full the operational capability of the NVG system is through proper preflight and follow-on postflight care. Ensuring that the NVG is properly mounted and adjusted prior to each flight is essential to successful NVG aided operations. Improper adjustment of goggles can result not only in degraded system performance, but also converging or diverging vision and neuromuscular (accommodative) eye fatigue. Aircrew are exposed to components and procedures for inspection, adjustment, alignment, focus, NVG image assessment and the final infinity focus of the NVG during their initial Night Imaging and Threat Evaluation (NITE) Lab training and familiarization flights, the squadron Night Systems Instructors/Night System Familiarization Instructors (NSIs/NSFIs) and Aeromedical Safety Officers (AMSOs) should be used for refresher training or questions regarding preflight procedures. Through practice and NVG experience, aircrew will easily master the ability to get the most out of their NVGs. These procedures are found on references 2 and 3, and can be broken down into the following five steps: (1) inspection and initial adjustment procedures, (2) alignment procedures, (3) focus procedures, (4) NVG image assessment procedures and (5) aircraft adjustment 9003. HOVERING. 1. Overview. Hovering is a maneuver in which the helicopter is maintained in nearly motionless flight over a ground reference point at a constant altitude and heading. 2. Maneuver Description. a. Use pedals to maintain heading, collective to maintain altitude and cyclic to maintain a position over a reference point. b. Scan "out" for attitude and heading, and "around" for altitude and drift.

158

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

NOTE

THE SCANNING PATTERN USED HELPS REPLACE THE DEPTH PERCEPTION LOST WHEN WEARING NVGS. 3. Techniques/Common Errors. a. Control the hovering altitude with small, smooth, and slow corrections. Avoid overcontrolling. b. The pilot not flying should provide the pilot flying with performance information. c. It should be noted that drift will be harder to detect, and hovering altitude will appear to be different than the same altitude during the daytime. Use the crew chiefs for altitude and drift information. d. On NVG's the 40 field of view (FOV) minimizes your peripheral vision and the pilots ability to recognize drift. A two-point reference scanning pattern looking forward and laterally seems to be the most comfortable. Additionally, while the pilots head is stabilized, an active scan inside the FOV that focuses on specific reference points and triangulating them can detect drift. e. The limited field of view provided by NVGs can cause spatial disorientation. 9004. VERTICAL TAKE-OFF. 1. Overview. A vertical take-off is a transition maneuver in which the helicopter is raised vertically from the ground to a hover with a minimum of fore, aft and lateral movement. 2. Maneuver Description. a. Neutralize the controls. Establish the hover scan and increase the collective with a smooth, constant rate. Anticipate rudder pedal input requirements. Continue collective increase until desired hover altitude is approached. b. Maintain heading with pedals and eliminate drift with cyclic. 3. Techniques/Common Errors. a. During the take-off, emphasize the "out, around, and down" scan. b. Ensure the roll moment is eliminated as the aircraft becomes "light on the skids" to prevent dynamic rollover.

159

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

c. Establish NVG hover scan prior to becoming airborne. d. Don't rush the maneuver. 9005. VERTICAL LANDING. 1. Overview. A vertical landing is a transition maneuver from a hover to the ground with a minimum of forward, aft, and lateral movement. 2. Maneuver Description. a. Smoothly lower the collective to begin a slow rate of descent. b. Maintain heading with pedals and eliminate drift with cyclic. c. The rate of descent may slow or stop as the helicopter approaches the ground and ground effect increases. Continue the descent through this ground cushion with slight collective reduction. 3. Techniques/Common Errors. a. Emphasize the "out, around, and down" scan pattern. b. A slight forward drift at touchdown will tend to eliminate any lateral or rearward drift. c. Due to the degradation of depth perception while using the night vision goggles, ground contact may be sooner than anticipated. Descend slowly and listen to the crew chief for altitude and drift information. d. Don't rush the maneuver. e. Avoid overcontrolling. 9006. AIR TAXI. 1. Overview. An air-taxi is a slow, controlled movement of the helicopter at hovering altitude. 2. Maneuver Description. a. From a hover, displace the cyclic in the desired direction of flight.

160

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

b. Use pedals to maintain heading, collective to maintain altitude, and the cyclic to maintain a rate of movement over the desired ground track at a rate commensurate with the pilot's ability and the environment. 3. Techniques/Common Errors. a. Caution should be taken when stopping the aircraft to prevent a tail-low altitude. Large aft cyclic inputs could result in tail strikes. b. While in an air-taxi, an aggressive "out, around, and down" scanning technique should be used to maintain orientation. c. A common tendency is to descend when in sideward flight. d. Rearward taxiing should be done only when necessary. 9007. TURNS ON THE SPOT. 1. Overview. The turn on the spot is a maneuver performed at hovering altitude in which the helicopter is rotated about its vertical axis while maintaining its position over a reference point. 2. Maneuver Description. a. From a hover, commence a slow constant rate of turn with pedals, not to exceed 10 per second. b. As the helicopter starts to turn, adjust the cyclic to remain over a reference point. c. As the tail passes through the windline, the rate of turn will increase and the nose will tend to tuck. Use pedals as necessary to control the rate of turn and cyclic to maintain a position over the reference point. 3. Techniques/Common Errors. a. Left turns should always be attempted prior to a right turn to ensure sufficient left pedal is available to stop a right turn. b. The crew chief should assist in providing altitude and drift information. c. Avoid overcontrolling and excessive rates of turn.

161

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

9008. NVG TAKE-OFF. 1. Overview. The NVG take-off is a transition maneuver in which an increase in altitude and airspeed is safely and expeditiously accomplished from a hover. 2. Maneuver Description. a. From a stable hover, begin forward motion by displacing the cyclic. b. Increase collective pitch with smooth positive pressure, maintain heading with pedals, and apply forward cyclic to accelerate the aircraft into effective translational lift. c. As translational lift is reached the helicopter will tend to climb. Adjust the nose attitude to smoothly accelerate to 80 KIAS and climb to 300 feet AGL. 3. Techniques/Common Errors. a. Maintain runway alignment until reaching 50 feet and 70 KIAS, then center the ball. Use a ground reference point for alignment. b. An altitude over airspeed (similar to an ITO) take-off is recommended to ensure that an immediate climb is established as the helicopter begins to accelerate forward. Avoid excessive forward cyclic. c. The primary scan for the pilot at the controls should be outside. d. The pilot not flying should be scanning outside and inside to provide the pilot flying with the actual heading, altitude, airspeed, and torque readings. e. Anticipate the level off at pattern altitude and reduce power accordingly. f. If available, the ANVIS HUD can be used to verify airspeed, torque, heading and altitude. 9009. NVG APPROACH. 1. Overview. The NVG approach enables the pilot to transition from forward flight to a hover or other landing as desired. 2. Maneuver Description. a. Maintain 500 feet AGL and 80 KIAS downwind. Complete the landing checklist.

162

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

b. Abeam the intended point of landing, reduce airspeed and turn towards the course line to arrive at the 90 position with 60 KIAS and 300 feet AGL. c. From the 90 position, coordinate a descending, decelerating turn to intercept an 8-10 glideslope at 45 KIAS and approximately 125 feet AGL. d. When the approach angle of 8-10 is intercepted, adjust collective to establish a descent along the glideslope. e. Assume the landing attitude. Use the wing down, top rudder crosswind correction below 50 feet. f. As forward speed is dissipated, an increase in collective pitch will become necessary. g. Arrive at hover altitude, hover power, and zero airspeed simultaneously. h. Be prepared to wave off at any time during the approach. 3. Techniques/Common Errors. a. A consistent 180 position is important to ensure a successful approach. b. The descent from the 90 position should be very shallow, to offset the limited field of view and depth perception degradation. c. Shallow glideslopes are best maintained using minimal cyclic inputs and using the collective to control airspeed and rate of descent. d. As forward speed is dissipated, a slight increase in collective and a slight amount of forward cyclic will be required. e. The same pilot and copilot cockpit coordination and scan used in the NVG take-off should be used throughout the approach. f. If available, the ANVIS HUD can be use to verify airspeed, torque, heading, and altitude. 9010. STEEP APPROACH. 1. Overview. This approach is used to clear obstacles and accomplish confined area landings. A steep approach is also useful when closure rates are difficult to detect due to poor illumination, lack of contrast, and degraded depth perception.

163

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

2. Maneuver Description. a. Maintain 500 feet and 80 KIAS in the downwind. Complete the landing checklist. b. Extend the downwind past the abeam position to ensure at least 1500 feet of straight-away on final. c. Begin a level, decelerating turn to arrive at the 90 position with 60 KIAS and 300 feet. d. Continue the turn to the course line, maintain 300 feet and slow to 45 KIAS. e. At the steep approach angle point, reduce collective and adjust cyclic control to commence a descent along the desired glideslope. f. Use collective to maintain a slow, power on descent to arrive over the intended point of landing in a stable hover or terminate in a no-hover landing. 3. Techniques/Common Errors. a. Ensure the 90 position is deep enough to allow sufficient straight-away. b. Closure rate may be difficult to detect and airspeeds below 45 KIAS may be difficult to judge due to inherent pitot static system inaccuracies. In this case, slow to a speed slightly faster than translational lift prior to intercepting the steep approach glideslope. Once the glideslope is reached, a positive reduction in power is necessary to begin descent. c. Do not "chase" the glideslope with nose attitude. Use collective as much as possible to maintain proper descent. d. Avoid high rates of descent with low airspeed. 9011. NO HOVER LANDING. 1. Overview. This type landing is useful when landing in dusty or snow covered zones, or when a limited power margin exists. 2. Maneuver Description. a. A no hover landing may be used following either a normal or steep approach.

164

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

b. Once established on short final, adjust power as necessary to maintain a slow, controlled, power-on descent. c. If available, the ANVIS HUD can be use to verify airspeed, power, heading, and altitude d. As translational lift is lost, assume the landing attitude. e. Increase collective to prevent a hard landing. Do not exceed maximum power available or 5 knots ground speed on touch down. f. When firmly on the ground, lower the collective to the full down position. 3. Techniques/Common Errors. a. A slight forward slide on touchdown is recommended to eliminate aft and lateral drift. The slide should be no more than 5-15 feet. Lowering the nose too early causes a faster and longer slide. b. Anticipate a tendency for the aircraft to level off as it nears the ground. A slight power reduction may be necessary to counter this effect and continue to the deck. c. Use the RADALT information to back up outside scan. d. Do not "feel for the deck." 9012. SLIDING LANDING. 1. Overview. Sliding landings are practiced to simulate a landing situation which precludes the normal or no hover landing. Examples include marginal power margins, fixed pitch tail rotor malfunctions, or hydraulic system failures. 2. Maneuver Description. a. Check hover torque. Use 10% less than that figure for sliding landing. b. The pattern is flown identically to that of the normal NVG approach. c. Upon intersecting the course line, establish the "wing down, top rudder" crosswind correction as necessary. d. Assume a deceleration attitude and adjust power to control descent rate.

165

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

e. As the aircraft approaches the ground, maintain sufficient forward speed to retain translational lift, assume a skids level attitude, and apply collective to effect a soft, smooth landing with minimal groundspeed. f. When on the ground, use collective as necessary to bring the aircraft to a gradual stop. Do not lower the collective abruptly. Maintain heading with pedals. 3. Techniques/Common Errors. a. Do not steepen the approach. A shallow approach requires less power to arrest the rate of descent and more readily allows the aircraft to remain above translational lift. b. Power requirements must be anticipated below 50 feet. This is a powered approach and the object is to arrive at touchdown while still in effective translational lift. c. Avoid forward cyclic movement on touchdown. d. The landing is skids level; however, minimal descent rate at touchdown is crucial. e. An excessive nose-low attitude prior to touchdown may produce unnecessary groundspeed. 9013. QUICKSTOP. 1. Overview. The quickstop is used to safely reduce airspeed as rapidly as possible. Pilots use the quickstop to transition from forward flight to an immediate landing altitude. 2. Maneuver Description. a. Maintain 500 feet AGL and 80 KIAS downwind. Complete the landing checklist. b. At the abeam position, turn towards the course line and accelerate to arrive at the 90 position with 80-90 KIAS and 300 feet AGL. c. Continue the turn and descent to intersect the final approach course at 100 KIAS and 50 feet AGL. d. When stabilized at 100 KIAS and 50 feet AGL, smoothly reduce the collective and apply coordinated aft cyclic to slow airspeed. Maintain 50 feet and 97-100 % Nr.

166

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

e. As the aircraft slows below 45 knots, increase collective to prevent settling, adjust aircraft attitude, and smoothly transition to a steep approach glideslope. The approach may be terminated in a hover or no hover landing. 3. Techniques/Common Errors. a. The 180 position should be extended downwind to ensure a long enough straight-away on final approach. b. Sufficient power must be applied as the turn towards the course line is commenced to avoid excessive settling and ensure timely acceleration. Avoid excessive nose down attitudes. c. Use the RADALT as well as external visual cues to determine the 50 foot altitude. Once established at 50 feet, power must be maintained to prevent premature deceleration. d. Scan inside for airspeed and altitude, outside to determine closure rate and line-up. e. Maintain balanced flight. 9014. SIMULATED SINGLE ENGINE FAILURE. 1. Overview. This maneuver is designed to acquaint the pilot with the procedures required to cope with a loss of power from one engine while airborne. 2. Maneuver Description. a. Review the information contained in the Simulated Emergencies chapter of this manual pertaining to simulated single engine failures. Pay particular attention to the criteria that must be met prior to and during the maneuver. b. This maneuver will not be initiated below 200 feet AGL and 70 KIAS. c. The instructor will smoothly reduce the throttle of one engine to flight idle while announcing it as a simulated emergency. Control Nr with collective and maintain sufficient airspeed and altitude. d. The training pilot will then perform and/or announce the immediate action steps, simulating actions as appropriate. The remaining steps will be performed/simulated using the NATOPS PCL. e. The normal NVG approach profile should be flown until established on short final.

167

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

f. Assume a deceleration attitude and adjust collective to control the rate of descent. g. The approach shall terminate in a hover, no-hover, or sliding landing as appropriate. h. Single engine waveoffs shall not be executed. If a waveoff is necessary, both throttles will be full open. Verify both Nf needles at 100%. 3. Techniques/Common Errors. a. Do not steepen the approach. A shallow approach requires less power to arrest the rate of descent. b. Power requirements must be anticipated below 50 feet AGL. DO NOT EXCEED THE OPERATING PARAMETERS OF THE ONLINE ENGINE. The instructor may assist in monitoring the parameters of the online engine. c. If a no-hover landing is selected: (1) Avoid forward cyclic movement on touchdown. (2) The landing is skids level; however, minimal descent rate at touchdown is crucial. (3) An excessive nose-low attitude prior to touchdown may produce unnecessary groundspeed. (4) Above all, fly the aircraft while executing the emergency procedure steps. 9015. AUTOROTATIONS. 1. Overview. Autorotations are designed to acquaint the pilot with the aircraft's poweroff flight techniques. 2. Maneuver Description. Autorotations while wearing NVGs are conducted in the same fashion as those during daylight VFR conditions. The NVG design combined with sufficient cockpit lighting allows adequate instrument scanning, while the goggles provide external cues for aircraft performance and position. Crew coordination is essential in promoting comfort levels.

168

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

3. Techniques/Common Errors. a. Although procedurally identical to day autorotations, techniques exist which may simplify the maneuver. b. Cockpit lighting must be sufficient enough to see the instruments yet not too bright so as to create glare on the windscreen. c. The pilot not at the controls should provide performance information to back up the pilot's scan. The most important parameter to monitor is altitude. d. The flare altitude is best judged using the RADALT. A slightly higher initiation may be used to allow a gentler flare. Caution should be used that the RADALT is not being drowned out by the Rotor RPM alert and flare altitude missed. Use other visual cues for flare entry. e. If available, the ANVIS HUD can be use to verify airspeed, power, heading, and altitude. f. At the peak of the flare, establish the hover scan to eliminate lateral and yaw drift. DO NOT FIXATE. Collective pull and complete power recovery may be completed at higher than normal altitudes depending on comfort level. 9016. NVG NAVIGATION. 1. Overview. Navigation while using NVGs differs from day VFR navigation in a few areas. The key to successful NVG navigation is adequate planning. 2. References. a. UH-1N Tactical Manual, Chapter 10. b. MAWTS-1 Helicopter Night Vision Device Manual, Appendix C, Light Level Planning Calendar/Shadow Formula. 3. General Route Planning. Routes will usually be preassigned by an instructor. However, the following guidance is presented regarding the planning of a navigation route using NVGs. a. Route planning: The navigation route to and from the objective area must be tactically sound, but not so difficult as to deter successful navigation. Each mission will differ and will involve numerous variables. Listed below are general rules of NVG route selection:

169

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

(1) Avoid brightly lit areas, roads, and population centers. (2) Avoid planning the route near navigational aids or airports due to the hazards associated with other aviation operations and to avoid detection by radar oriented from these facilities. (3) Plan to negotiate large valleys on the lighted side, in reference to the moon's position, to avoid shadows cast by the moon and to permit silhouetting of terrain features for navigation. (4) Plan to negotiate narrow valleys and passes E-W/W-E so that the terrain will be lit and shadows avoided. (5) Never plan a route that heads directly into a low angle rising or descending moon. Alter the course as necessary to fly a zig-zag course when left with no other choice. (6) Avoid planning route segments requiring heading changes of more than 60. This is especially critical when in formation. (7) Always select intermediate reference points, in addition to check points, along each leg of the route for course confirmation and timing. The lower the ambient light, the more reference points should be used. (8) If possible, plan to cross major roads and railroads at large angles (e.g. 90) in order to reduce exposure time. (9) If it is impossible to avoid flight near population centers or flight near major roads, plan to maintain at least cruise airspeeds in order to reduce exposure time. (10) When computing times, distances, and headings for the route, always compute the same information from barriers and prominent map features; this will greatly aid in reestablishing the flight on course if a CP is missed or the flight becomes disoriented. (11) Plan the times at which you should cross prominent intersecting features (i.e. roads, rivers, RR's) to facilitate timing and navigation. (12) Always anticipate wires near all roads, towers, and buildings in open fields.

170

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

(13) Always plan alternate routes and bypasses in the event the primary route is blocked due to weather, enemy compromise, etc. b. Control/Checkpoint Planning: After a general route has been determined to the objective, select control points and checkpoints to control movement along the route. Study the CPs carefully using all available maps and photographs. Below are general rules for NVG checkpoint selection: (1) CPs should be unique natural or manmade features which are detectable at a distance; not visible only when flying directly overhead. (2) CPs should contrast with the surrounding terrain; for example, paved roads are poor features to use in terrain with heavy vegetation, but they provide excellent contrast in a desert environment; small bodies of water provide very little contrast in terrain with vegetation, but contrast well in desert. (3) Avoid selecting CPs near towns as the town invariably grows and may alter or make detection of the checkpoint difficult. (4) CPs should not be in the vicinity of bright lights. (5) CPs should always be confirmed by an adjacent prominent feature along the route to alert the pilot that the CP is approaching. (6) Always consider and determine the moon angle and % illuminated; the checkpoint must never fall within the shadow cast by a nearby terrain feature. (7) Where possible, checkpoints should be at least 5 nm apart and no more than 20 nm apart. (8) Always select prominent barriers near CPs, especially where a turn is planned. It is often better to discard a good checkpoint with no barrier in favor of a more difficult checkpoint with an excellent barrier. (9) The first and last checkpoint of the route are the most important. An easily identifiable feature must be used even it the flight route must be altered slightly. The first and last checkpoints should be approximately 5 nm from the airport and objective respectively to ensure absolute location and timing. Never have a final leg of more than 5-8 nm to preclude compromise of the mission and to ensure proper timing. (10) Make note of the MSL altitude of each checkpoint during planning to aid in CP confirmation.

171

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

(11) All intermediate landing areas or contingency LZs must have a CP associated with the final approach leg. 4. Maps and Map Preparation. a. Maps and visual aids: Assemble as many different maps of the area of operations as possible. As a minimum, three different maps should be used. (1) Joint Operations Graphic (JOG) 1:250,000. (2) VFR Sectional, 1:500,000. (3) Tactical, 1:50,000 or larger. b. The JOG is the primary map for planning and flying the enroute portion of the mission. The scale of the map permits a relatively small map uncluttered with extraneous information, has latitude/longitude and UTM features, and when properly prepared is very NVG compatible. Ensure that the CHUM (Chart Update Manual) is used to update the JOG (Air) maps. c. The VFR sectional is consulted as it is updated more frequently than the JOG and provides accurate information on major towers, airports, beacons, and power lines as well as current magnetic variation. It should not be used in flight as its 1:500,000 scale doesn't allow sufficient detail for accurate pilotage navigation with NVG. d. The tactical map is used to accurately locate and confirm unique map features and to transfer them to the JOG. It serves to display in more detail those areas which may be difficult to interpret on the JOG. Any enroute landing or holding areas can be accurately plotted and studied on this map. In addition, this map is used during the objective phase of the operation. It should be NVG prepared and at no less than 5 nm from the objective this map should be used for the remaining navigation. Remember that the aircraft is traveling much faster over this map and distance appears much less than the map indicates. e. Control Point. A control point is an easily identifiable point and provides positive control and coordination during an air movement. These points together define the intended flight route and may be marked with a circle around each feature. f. Course Lines. Course lines are lines drawn to denote the desired ground track. Course lines should be indicated as sharp, clear lines on the map.

172

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

g. Magnetic Headings. Magnetic headings are indicated along the course line for each leg. Grid-magnetic angle must be applied to the grid heading to obtain a magnetic heading. h. Mileage/Time Tic Marks. Mileage/Time tic marks are marks drawn to bisect the course line at appropriate intervals. These marks assist in dead reckoning navigation when identifiable terrain features are not available. i. Checkpoint. A checkpoint is a landmark that is selected along or adjacent to the flight route and used to fix an aircraft's position. A checkpoint must be a unique feature or group of features in a given area. j. Miscellaneous. Other items of information that may be placed on the face of the map are distances, barriers, and other obstacles. However, this information may clutter the map and serve only to confuse the pilot. 5. NVG Navigation Cards. NVG Navigation Cards are used to provide information about CPs and navigation legs. They are constructed from a 5 1/2" x 8 1/2" white card, and its format is intentionally kept simple (see Figure 10-1; 10-2). The HMT-303 standard PFPS route card (Figure 10-2) should be the default route card form on HMT303 PFPS computers. a. All lines and writing should be in black ink. b. All letters and numbers should be at least 1/4" high to facilitate reading at night. c. The time block is divided, to allow both leg time and total elapsed (actual time) for the route. d. All headings should be in degrees magnetic and distances in nautical miles. CP HDG / DIST LEG TIME / ACTUAL TIME REMARKS

FIGURE 9-1 NVG NAVIGATION CARD

173

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

Figure 9-2: SAMPLE HMT-303 STANDARD PFPS ROUTE CARD

174

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

7. In Flight Duties. a. Crew coordination. Throughout the navigation portion of the flight, the pilot, copilot, and crew chiefs must function as a team. The navigator must maintain an active, descriptive dialogue of what he interprets from the map and expects to see outside the cockpit. The pilot at the controls has the primary responsibility of keeping the aircraft clear of obstacles, and maintaining a constant airspeed and steady course. Preflight briefs should include detailed crew coordination information. b. Timing. Because of the relative lack of visual cues, dead reckoning navigation is used to a greater degree in NVG operations. Two stop watches or clocks should be used. One is used for leg timing and is reset at each checkpoint. The second is used for total time and is left running so as to allow adjustments in timing as necessary. 9017. EMERGENCY PROCEDURES WHILE USING NVGs. 1. Overview. Responding to an emergency when using NVGs may take longer because of reduced visual cures and an increased cockpit workload. To overcome this, a thorough preflight brief must be conducted, covering aircraft emergencies and NVG failure. Additionally pilot proficiency at the blindfold cockpit drill and good cockpit setup will enhance mission effectiveness during night emergencies.
CAUTION Improper stowage or placement of the map light while in flight may cause degradation or loss of directional control.

2. References. a. UH-1N Tactical Manual, Chapter 10. b. MAWTS-1 Helicopter Night Vision Device Manual, Chapter 9 3. Description. a. Aircraft emergencies. In a low-level environment, the pilot at the controls must initiate those immediate action steps necessary to maintain control and avoid obstacles. When terrain prohibits a landing, it is advisable to climb to cope. Whether to remain on the NVGs or remove them should be covered in the brief, though it is usually advisable to remain goggled. Use and positioning of the searchlight should be prebriefed, as should any consideration pertaining to specific emergencies.

175

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

b. Inadvertent IMC. The ability of the NVGs to see through a thin fog or cloud layer may result in the aircrew being unaware of deteriorating visibility. Warning signs of impending IMC are: (1) A halo surrounding a source of illumination. The effect tends to increase as the weather restriction develops. (2) A gradual reduction in light levels, visual acuity, or terrain contrast. (3) Partial obscuration of the moon and stars. (4) Shadows covering the moon's illumination on the ground. (5) An increase in NVG "video noise," especially if ambient light level in low. Verify this condition with the other pilot. (6) Upon recognizing flight into inadvertent IMC, execute the procedure. c. NVG Failures. NVG failures include battery failure, tube failure, power source disconnect, or a failure of the bracket assembly. If assets allow, a spare set of NVG's should be checked out, preflighted, and staged behind the pilot's seat. (1) Communicate the failure to the other pilot. (2) If on the controls, conduct a positive transfer of controls to the pilot with operable NVGs. (3) Switch to second battery, or remove old battery and replace. (4) Turn NVGs on and check operation. (5) If NVG's still do not operate switch to the spare set. d. Crew coordination. (1) Prebrief actions to be taken in the event of an emergency. (2) Communicate. If things don't seem right, speak up. (3) Don't assume the obvious is seen or that a seemingly obvious action will be performed by the other pilot.

176

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

CHAPTER 10 CAL, HIE, EXTERNAL AND HOIST OPERATIONS

PARAGRAPH 10000 10001 10002 10003 10004 10005 10006 10007 10008 10009 10010 10011 10012 10013 10014 10015

TOPIC GENERAL REFERENCES POWER CHECKS POWER AVAILABLE CHECK POWER REQUIRED CHECK (HOGE) POWER REQUIRED CHECK (10, 25, 50) PRECISION APPROACH FINAL CONFINED AREA TAKEOFF SLOPE LANDINGS SLOPE TAKEOFF NIGHT LANDING ZONE OPERATIONS TACTICAL APPROACHES TACTICAL DEPARTURES HIE APPROACHES EXTERNAL CARGO OPERATIONS HOIST OPERATIONS

177

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

10000. General. No other tactical maneuver so thoroughly displays the versatility and utility of the helicopter than the CALs and HIE and external operations. The ability of the helicopter to land and take-off in an area only slightly larger than itself and insert troops and equipment into areas where no landing is possible revolutionized modern warfare. The types of operating areas that a pilot will face will be amazingly diverse. Whether landing on a small ship, a fire support base, a VIP pad at the White House, or a highway for a medical evacuation, the techniques and principles practiced in the confined area approach will have direct application. 1. SELECTION OF A LANDING SITE A clearing pass shall be made prior to landing on all sites not manned by competent landing zone control personnel. The following landing site evaluation shall be completed on the initial pass over the zone and announced separately to the instructor: height of obstacles which determine approach angle, size and topography of the landing zone, possible loss of wind effect, power available versus power required, and departure route. A crew chief shall be utilized on all CAL operations. 2. APPROACH TO LANDING The approach shall be a precise maneuver conducted into the wind and should not be either so low that the pilot loses sight of the landing point, or so steep that a very low power setting with a high rate of descent is necessary. Approach speed will depend on weight, altitude, and wind conditions. Maintain translational lift as long as possible, avoiding excessive flares and large changes of power. Do not continue a poor approach. Wave off before a dangerous condition arises. When landing the helicopter on the ground, lower the collective smoothly, maintain skids level as the collective is lowered. As initial contact is made, continue descent until the aircraft is firmly and securely on the ground. Be ready to stop the decent and make an immediate take-off to a hover in the event the helicopter settles unevenly or encounters difficulty while landing. 3. CREW COORDINATION Responsibilities for each crew member must be thoroughly briefed prior to the hop. Wave off calls, clearances, comfort levels, and emergencies shall be discussed. Standardized terminology should be used to avoid confusion and reduce unnecessary talking over the ICS. The PNAC can build the flying pilots situational awareness by calling airspeed, altitude, and torque when requested. The crew chief will take over altitude calls at 50 feet.

178

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

10001. REFERENCES. 1. UH-1N NATOPs Chapter 8, 10, 14 & 18. 2. UH-1N Tactical Manual Chapter 13 & 15 10002. POWER CHECKS. These maneuvers are done to ensure that the power computations done in preflight planning were accurate, that the aircraft is performing to standards and also to confirm that sufficient power is available to land in the selected landing zone. To determine the power margin, two maneuvers must be conducted. A Power Available check will confirm the power available and a Power Required check will confirm power required. The differences between the two will determine the power margin. A power margin of 10% is mandatory for conducting CALs, TERF, Externals, and HIE operations. Most often, power available in the Camp Pendleton area is 100% however a power available check will confirm this. In high temperature/high altitude environments (29 Palms, Yuma, Iraq etc) power available is often lower. Again, a power available check will confirm what the aircraft is capable of producing in given conditions. Every effort should be made to conduct the power checks in the same conditions (altitude, temperature, etc.) that the aircraft will be operating in. There are two different maneuvers utilized for determining power required. They are the 630 foot or greater HOGE and the 10, 25, 50 hovers. The 630 HOGE is generally used for SAR scenarios or to determine power prior to a landing in a Confined Area. The 10, 25, 50 hovers are used for most tactical scenarios or when there is doubt if a sufficient power margin exists. HMT-303 students are responsible to know both maneuvers. 10003. POWER AVAILABLE CHECK 1. Overview. This maneuver is performed to determine what power the aircraft is capable of producing for the ambient conditions. 2. Maneuver Description a. Commence a 50-60 knot climb. b. Smoothly increase collective until a performance limit is reached (100% NG, ITT of 810, 100% transmission torque or droop of Nf/Nr below 97%). Note the torque available. 3. Techniques/Common Errors. a. Exceeding a performance limit and over temping, over torquing the aircraft. b. Failing to note the Max torque available.

179

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

10004. POWER REQUIRED CHECK (HOGE). 1. Overview. This maneuver is performed to determine what power is required to hover out of ground effect prior to landing in a Confined Area. 2. Maneuver Description a. Position the aircraft within safe autorotational parameters to a suitable landing zone b. Performing a HOGE into the wind at or above the elevation of the point of intended landing while maintaining at least 630 feet AGL. c. Stabilize for approximately 15-30 seconds by zeroing airspeed and vertical velocity. Note torque (power) required and compare to power available for determination of power margin. Excess power margin should be a minimum of 10% for practice confined area landings. Wind direction can be confirmed by noting the amount of wind coming in each side of the cabin. d. Recover from the HOGE by reducing the collective and allowing the nose to drop slightly below the horizon. Once the nose is below the horizon, increase collective and allow the aircraft to accelerate. e. The maneuver is complete once the aircraft has accelerated to desired airspeed. 3. Techniques/Common Errors a. Engine and transmission limitations should be monitored closely during this maneuver to insure they are not exceeded. b. Recovery from the HOGE can also be done by initiating an ITO type maneuver or a descending turn as the situation dictates. 10005. POWER REQUIRED CHECK (10, 25, 50 hover) 1. Overview. This procedure ensures that the aircraft will have sufficient power to hover out of ground effect in a downwind condition and have sufficient tailrotor authority available. It allows a verification of computed power required figures. 2. Maneuver Description. a. At a stabilized 10-foot hover into the wind over a safe area, check hover power. Initiate a 360 left pedal turn, stopping the turn every 90 of heading change, and note maximum transmission torque required to hover. Always ensure there is adequate tail rotor clearance prior to beginning turns. b. If power margin is adequate throughout the turn, vertically ascend to a stabilized 25-foot hover while adjusting cyclic and pedals to remain over the reference point and maintain heading. Check hover power and initiate a 360, left pedal turn, stopping the turn every 90 of heading change, and note maximum transmission torque required.

180

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

c. If power margin is adequate throughout the turn, vertically ascend to a stabilized 50 feet AGL hover. Check hover power and initiate a 360, left pedal turn, stopping the turn every 90 of heading change, and note maximum transmission torque required. d. Lower collective to initiate a smooth, constant rate of descent and return to a 10-foot AGL hover, and then proceed with the flight. 3. Techniques/Common Errors. a. Proper preflight planning will ensure an accurate estimate of the power requirements for the hop. Use the power charts found in the UH-1N NATOPS manual, Chapter 20. b. Common errors include: (1) Failure to maintain heading control. (2) Abrupt antitorque pedal movements causing erratic torque readings. (3) Failure to remain over the reference point. 10006. PRECISION APPROACH FINAL. 1. Overview. The precision approach final is used for landing in confined zones, to clear high obstacles during the approach, or when engine power limitations do not permit hover out-of-ground effect operation in confined areas. 2. Maneuver Description. a. When abeam the intended point of landing at pattern altitude and airspeed (300 feet and 80 KIAS), simultaneously commence a descending, decelerating turn to arrive at the 90 degree position with 200 feet and 60 KIAS. b. Continue the turn to arrive in the wind-line with 1000 feet of straight-away at 200 AGL feet or 100 feet above the highest obstacle. Airspeed should be smoothly reduced to 45 KIAS as the approach angle is reached. c. Visualize the most shallow glide slope that will allow the helicopter to clear the obstacles by at least 10 feet. The glide-slope should not be so steep that visual contact with the zone cannot be maintained through the front windshield. d. As the helicopter intercepts the glide slope, utilize the precision approach procedures (MDG, Chapter 2, para. 2009) to terminate in a hover or no hover landing.

181

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

3. Techniques/Common Errors. a. The precision approach final is essentially the same as the steep approach practiced in the familiarization stage. b. Maintain balanced flight until in ground effect and below translational lift, then utilize rudder pedals and cyclic as required to maintain obstacle clearance and desired ground track. c. Allow sufficient straight-away to visualize the best approach glide-slope and to intercept it at 200 feet AGL. d. In selecting a glide slope, establish an approach angle such that the tail rotor will clear the downwind obstacles by at least 10 feet and the touchdown area will be in the upwind one-third of the LZ. e. Rate of closure is critical. As rate of closure decreases, the rate of descent must also decrease. To stop a high rate of descent, more power than normal is required. f. As the helicopter crosses the obstacles, ensure the crew chief has cleared the tail rotor. If he indicates that the tail rotor is not clear, slow or stop the rate of descent and steepen the glide-path as necessary or wave off. g. Whenever the glide slope becomes too steep or the approach becomes uncomfortable, wave off. h. A loss of wind effect or turbulence may be encountered as the helicopter nears and descends below the tree tops. i. Failing to reduce collective a sufficient amount when intercepting the glide slope causes a steep glide angle. j. Maintain translation lift until in ground effect or committed to the landing. k. Avoid rates of descent greater than 800 fpm below 40 knots to avoid Vortex Ring State. 10007. CONFINED AREA TAKEOFF. 1. Overview. The confined area take-off is practiced to understand the difference between power available and power required, wind and obstacle combinations for the least takeoff angle, landing zone reconnaissance and the importance of a scan pattern that will keep the helicopter clear of obstacles while maneuvering in the zone in a hover as well as during take-off.

2. Maneuver Description a. The Confined Area Takeoff is essentially the same as the Max Power Take Off practiced in the familiarization stage.

182

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

b. Select the best take-off route by optimizing the wind/obstacle combination. Remember to include a ten foot buffer zone over the highest obstacle. Whenever possible, the take-off should be initiated from the most down wind portion of the LZ. c. Increase collective to 100% torque or maximum dual engine power available (whichever is less). Keep the scan moving and CONTINUALLY CLEAR THE HELICOPTER. d. When the skids are above obstacle height, lower the nose slightly to accelerate into translational lift, then proceed into normal climb. Do not reduce power until the aircraft has accelerated through single engine fly-away airspeed. 3. Techniques/Common Errors a. Always clear the tail rotor prior to maneuvering in the zone. b. Use caution when maneuvering sideways at low altitude in the zone to avoid dynamic rollover by catching a skid on vegetation or rocks. Do not maneuver the aircraft in the zone without the crew chief first clearing the aircraft of obstacles. Smooth control inputs are required throughout the take-off to maximize the aerodynamic efficiency of the main rotor. c. Because the helicopter is below the obstacles, the wind may not provide extra lift until clear of the obstacles. d. Yaw control is very important. The most vulnerable part of the single rotor helicopter is the tail rotor and it must be clear of any FOD hazard, no matter how small. Allowing the helicopter to yaw during climb may inadvertently force the tail rotor into an unseen obstacle and cause loss of tail rotor control. e. Do not rush attitude adjustment. Confined area take-offs are precision take-offs and require more time and concentration than normal take-offs. f. Rushing the maneuver may cause settling, poor yaw control, and loss of obstacle clearance. 10008. SLOPE LANDINGS. 1. Overview. Because of the versatility of the helicopter, many missions require landings on sloping terrain. This technique is used to safely land the helicopter on this type of terrain. Because of the hover characteristics of the UH-1N, it is preferable to land crossslope with the left skid down slope. The helicopter can land right skid, toes or heels down slope but the angle of slope possible is reduced. When landing skid toes down slope, clearance of the tail rotor is a major consideration. When landing skid heels down slope, clearance of the main rotor to the front and the potential of rocking up on the heels are major considerations. When landing cross-slope, the degree of slope can be estimated by performing a stable hover and comparing the height of each skid. Each inch is roughly equal to one degree of slope.

183

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

2. Maneuver Description a. Begin the landing from a hover and descend until the up-slope skid contacts the ground. b. Gradually lower collective and apply cyclic into the slope until the down-slope skid touches the ground. c. Continue lowering the collective until the helicopter rests firmly on the slope. d. If the slope angle appears too steep, or if cyclic displacement becomes excessive, stop the power reduction, smoothly return to a hover and select a landing site with less slope. e. After landing and determining that the aircraft will maintain its position on the slope, the maneuver is complete. 3. Techniques/Common Errors a. Trim is a key factor in effecting a smooth slope landing and preventing roll rates from building. b. Do not lower collective too rapidly when performing a slope landing as a roll rate could be established that cannot be arrested. c. The crew chief should be utilized to determine the degree of terrain slope prior to attempting the landing. 10009. SLOPE TAKEOFF. 1. Overview. Many missions will require helicopters to land on sloping terrain. Therefore, the pilot must know the procedures to execute a sloping terrain takeoff. 2. Maneuver Description a. Smoothly apply cyclic into the slope while increasing collective to raise the down-slope skid first. b. Continue to increase power and coordinate cyclic to level the aircraft then lift off vertically. c. Maintain directional control with tail rotor pedals throughout the maneuver. d. Once the aircraft is in a hover the maneuver is complete and a normal CAL departure can be executed. 3. Technique Notes a. When performing maneuvers with one skid on the ground, care must be taken to keep the aircraft trimmed, especially laterally.

184

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

b. If the aircraft rolls to the up-slope side (5-8 degrees), smoothly lower collective to correct the bank angle and return to wings level, then start the takeoff procedure again. Lowering the collective too fast may create a high rate of roll in the opposite direction. c. Collective is much more effective in controlling rolling motion than lateral cyclic because it controls main rotor thrust. d. The critical roll over angle is reduced by a right skid down condition, crosswinds, lateral center of gravity offset, and left rudder pedal inputs. 10010. NIGHT LANDING ZONE OPERATIONS. 1. Overview. A large portion of night helicopter operations are conducted in landing areas with limited or no lighting. This causes no insurmountable problems for the pilot but does require somewhat different techniques and a healthy respect for the differences in perspective and motion cues obtained from dimly lit or unlit landing zones. The only way a pilot can become comfortable flying in this environment is through practice. 2. Maneuver Description a. From pattern altitude and airspeed (300 feet AGL, 80 KIAS), execute a precision approach final to a hover or no hover landing. b. Use a combination BI and visual scan throughout the approach. The instrument scan is emphasized on downwind then gradually shifted to a visual emphasis as ground references become visible. Trust the instruments. Emphasize the BI scan at altitude and visual scan on final. c. When rolling out on final, use the landing/search light as necessary to locate the intended point of landing and obstacles. Landing/searchlights may not be usable until on short final. Crews should discuss affects of obscurants on external lighting. 3. Technique Notes a. Fly a standard pattern (i.e. equal angles of bank on crosswind and at 180) and use timing and reciprocal heading on downwind to simplify relocating the LZ. When approaching the spot, do not stare at a specific point. Scan the zone. At night, peripheral vision provides the most accurate motion cues. Through out the pattern, identify ground references that are visible and provide cues to the relationship to the landing site. b. All crew members must communicate effectively during the night approaches. Cross check each other. Never assume the other crew members are performing a task or see an obstacle. c. Vertigo and disorientation can easily occur at night, especially when no visible horizon is present. Wave off an approach which becomes uncomfortable.

185

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

d. Utilize an altitude over airspeed takeoff from a hover at night. Ensure that the helicopter does not settle at any time during the takeoff. e. Poor scan techniques and fixating on the spot may result in disorientation and dangerous sink rates at night. f. Inadvertent entry into IMC can occur without warning. Be alert to this possibility. 10011. TACTICAL APPROACHES. 1. Overview. Tactical approaches are categorized in terms of the level of the threat and two components; the initial approach and the approach final. Although other planning factors (especially METT-TSL, landing zone evaluation, and helicopter performance) are pertinent to the decision on what type of tactical approach to use, the primary considerations should be the level of the known or anticipated threat, and wind direction. In general, any type of approach final can be married to any type of initial approach. However, certain combinations are better suited for use together. 2. Maneuver Description a. Low Threat Environment Tactical Approaches. It has been estimated from combat statistics that during operations in a low threat environment without a defined forward edge of the battlefield area, approximately 98 percent of all hits on assault support helicopters occur while they are operating at 1,000 feet AGL and below. The tactics developed to counter this threat use high altitudes for flights above the threat while enroute to the landing zone and rapid descent through the area of highest vulnerability during the approach. The initial and final approaches described below should be used when the threat is greatest in the low and mid-altitude flight regimes. (1) High Altitude Spiral Initial Approach. The spiral approach is executed from a high altitude (1500 feet AGL for training purposes) over the landing zone by using a balanced flight turn, a high rate of descent, either high or low airspeed, and sufficient angle of bank to remain close aboard the landing zone. At high airspeeds, the approach will have a greater radius of turn and will overfly a larger area than one at low airspeed. No more than 360 degrees of turn is normally used. Autorotative flight techniques may be used. The spiral approach allows the helicopter pilot to identify the landing zone prior to starting the approach, to keep the zone in view during the approach, and to remain over a small area of the terrain. It is well suited for use in support of isolated landing zones which could receive direct fire from 360 degrees and should be conducted as far within the friendly perimeter as possible. The spiral approach is well adapted for use whenever it is difficult for the pilot to identify or maintain visual contact with the landing zone. In executing a spiral approach, the pilot at the controls of the helicopter should be on the inside of turn.

186

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

(2) High Altitude Straight-In Initial Approach. The straight-in approach is executed from a high altitude (1500 feet AGL for training purposes) prior to reaching the landing zone and uses a straight-in approach path, a high rate of descent, and either high or low airspeed. Autorotative flight techniques may be used. Low airspeed shortens the descent profile; high airspeeds lengthens it. If possible, the helicopter should overfly areas that are either secure or are free of enemy activity. When the landing zone cannot be seen, an easily identified initial point should be used to mark the start of the descent. When enemy fire is anticipated, the approach should be executed in a manner which allows maximum fire support coverage from the friendly supporting arms. (3) Normal Approach Final. This is a NATOPS-type normal approach final which results in a gradual and uniform reduction of the final 60-70 knots of airspeed and 200 feet of altitude during the last 1,000 feet of travel along the approach path. It is a power-on maneuver that does not use abrupt changes in attitude or high rates of descent. Since it places the helicopter in the area of greatest vulnerability at a relatively slow airspeed, its use should be limited to non-threat situations. It is suitable for use with both the high altitude spiral and straight-in initial approaches. (4) High Speed Approach Final. This is an extension of the high airspeed spiral and straight-in initial approaches. 200 feet of altitude and high airspeed is maintained as long as possible. A quick stop/high speed approach technique is used to dissipate airspeed for touch down or hover. The use of this approach reduces exposure time. (5) Precision Approach Final. This final employs a steep approach glide path and slow airspeed for the final 200 feet of descent during the last 1,000 feet of travel along the approach path. It is a power-on maneuver designed to afford precise aircraft control and maximum performance. It is used for landing in confined zones, to clear high obstacles during the approach, or when engine power limitations do not permit hover out-ofground effect operation in confined areas. The helicopter is placed in the zone of greatest vulnerability as in the normal approach final. When it is necessary to use a precision approach final because restrictive environmental factors or aircraft operating limitations outweigh tactical considerations, then the tactic should be modified to obtain the best balance countering the threat and providing the degree of precision and aircraft performance required for the mission. The precision approach final can be used with any type of initial approach in either low or high threat environments.

187

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

b. High Threat Environment Tactical Approaches. To survive in a high threat environment, a helicopter must operate in a manner that precludes enemy detection. It must avoid the small arms threat and use terrain flight to counter the sophisticated threat. Low level, contour, and NOE flight techniques are flown in the low and mid-altitude regimes. Airspeeds vary from the hover and air-taxi speeds used in NOE flight to the high airspeeds used in low-level and contour flight. High threat environment tactical approaches must make effective use of cover and of the terrain flight technique used. For training purposes in this squadron, minimum altitude for all high threat tactical approaches/departures is 200 feet AGL, unless in the landing or takeoff phase. NOTE: Unless the pilot can readily acquire or is already familiar with the intended landing zone, an over-flight and orbiting approach will be necessary with high threat environment initial approaches. (1) Low-Level Flight Initial Approach. This approach uses either a straight-in or orbiting approach path and either high or low airspeed, and should be executed in a manner which produces a uniform reduction in altitude and airspeed. It is essentially a normal approach which starts at low altitude. The low-level technique is used to fly beneath the enemy's detection envelope behind the forward edge of the battle area, for part of the transit to a landing zone near that area, or between secure landing zones behind that area. (2) Low-Level Flight Approach Final. To assist covering escort aircraft, facilitate coordination, and allow maximum deception concerning the intended landing zone, a standard language should be used between all members of the flight. To accomplish masking and deception, a 360degree overhead, 180-degree offset, or 90-degree turn-in approach final should be used. The pilot navigates during the initial approach to an exact point from where he will initiate the approach final. (3) 360-Degree Overhead Approach Final (see figure 9-1). This approach final uses the landing zone as the navigation key. It has the following advantages; Maximum airspeed until over the landing zone, minimum ground coverage, deception of landing zone location until approach final begins, familiarization of landing zone prior to landing and wind indication for approach final. The disadvantages are; Longer loiter/exposure time over one area, repeated use becomes a predictable pattern, and hinders tactical formation integrity. An angle of bank between 30-60 degrees is established initially for a small turn radius and to assist in dissipating the excess airspeed. Using the collective and aft

188

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

cyclic to maintain altitude, reduce airspeed as required to arrive at a final approach point from which a normal, steep or high speed low level final approach can be made. As airspeed bleeds off, less angle of bank will be required to arrive at the abeam position. Once inside the abeam the angle of bank should be adjusted as necessary to arrive on final into the windline.

LANDING ZONE

360 OVERHEAD
Figure 9-1 (2) 180-Degree Offset Approach Final (see figure 9-2). This approach final uses a natural terrain feature some distance away from the landing zone as the navigation key. It has the following advantages; Maximum deception, flight above "virgin" terrain and planned turn radius. The disadvantages are; Landing zone is not seen until the approach final, requires accurate navigation and flight performance, limits evasive fire maneuvers and requires optimum terrain recognition and precise navigation. The pilot keys upon a specific terrain feature to obtain the desired turn radius at the computed angle of bank. Airspeed is maintained through the turning point and dissipated at the 90-degree position through an increase in the load factor (G's) and power changes, so that the aircraft arrives on the proper approach final with a controlled airspeed and rate of descent.

189

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

LANDING ZONE

180 OFFSET

Figure 9-2 (3) 90 Degree Turn Approach Final (see figure 9-3). This approach final uses a terrain feature as in the 180-degree offset. It has the following advantages; Provides deception, timely transition to landing attitude, maximum tactical formation integrity and maximum escort coverage. The disadvantage is that it allows for little navigational error. The pilot keys upon a specific terrain feature to obtain the desired turn radius at the computed angle of bank. Airspeed is maintained through the turning point and dissipated at the 90-degree position through an increase in the load factor (G's) and power changes, so that aircraft arrives on the proper approach final with a controlled airspeed and rate of descent.

LANDING ZONE

KEY TERRAIN FEATURE

90 TURN IN

Figure 9-3

190

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

3. Technique Notes a. Use throttles/collective to control Nr during turns and to decelerate.


CAUTION

When reducing throttles to control Nr, the PAC shall announce doing so to the PNAC in order to enhance crew coordination. b. Keep the ball centered. c. Do not be too aggressive by setting up close to the zone. Setting up closer to the zone requires higher angles of bank, causes Nr to build quicker, and may result in high rates of descent. d. Use whatever approach is necessary to orient the aircraft into the wind. 10012. TACTICAL DEPARTURES. 1. Overview. Techniques used for departures from landing zones are essentially the reverse of approach techniques. Selection of the departure to employ shall be based on METT-TSL factors and the level of the threat. 2. Maneuver Description. a. Low Threat Environment Departures. Tactical departures used in the low threat environment are designed to achieve a rapid climb to high altitude (1500 feet AGL or above) and to minimize exposure to the small arms threat. (1). Spiral Climb. This departure is executed using maximum power available and best climb performance airspeed. Angle of bank is adjusted to keep the climb-out path within the confines of the secure area. Excessively steep angles of bank reduce the rate of climb and lengthen the exposure time. This technique should be used only for departures from secure areas. On take-off pull maximum power available and accelerate. Adjust nose attitude to maintain 55-60 knots while maintaining power setting. Reaching 1500' AGL, lower the nose to the horizon and accelerate to normal speed. (2). Zoom Climb. This departure employs high airspeed at climb entry and maximum power available throughout the maneuver to achieve a high rate of climb through the area of greatest vulnerability. After takeoff, contour flight is continued until the helicopter is rotated to climb attitude to allow airspeed in excess of that required for best climb performance to

191

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

be translated into vertical climb speed. Rotation must be done smoothly to avoid blade stall. This departure uses a straight-out flight path oriented away from the threat and terrain masking to reduce vulnerability. (3). Straight Climb. This departure employs military rated power to achieve and sustain best climb performance airspeed. It uses a straight-out flight path oriented away from the threat maneuvers to reduce vulnerability. This departure is more vulnerable than the zoom climb, in that the time required for transition between 100 and 1,500 feet is greater. Certain combinations of threat location and terrain factors mandate the use of the straight climb-out, rather than the preferred zoom climb. b. High Threat Environment Departures. Terrain flight techniques are used to execute tactical departures in a high threat environment. After takeoff, a rapid transition is made to either low-level, contour, or NOE flight for departure from the landing zone. Specific recommendations cannot be made due to the variables in the threat and terrain that can be encountered. As a general rule, both the approach and departure methods employed should be based on the same concept of avoiding the threat. If a contour flight approach was required to reduce vulnerability, then a contour flight departure should be employed. The overriding concern for selecting a departure method is making optimum use of the terrain for cover and concealment to avoid enemy detection. 3. Techniques/Common Errors a. The parameters for these type approaches/departures are by their nature, variable. Avoid the shaded area of the H-V diagram. b. Flexibility is the key to changing METT-TSL factors when performing tactical approaches/departures. c. Remember that rotor RPM tends to build faster in right turns and torque required is greater in left turns. d. If able, commence the 360 degree overhead approach final into the wind-line. This will result in the aircraft being into the wind-line on short final. 10013. HIE APPROACHES. 1.Overview. When a suitable landing zone is not available, Helicopter Insertion Extraction techniques are used to insert or extract personnel. These techniques include rappel, fastrope, and SPIE operations. These techniques are often referred to as Helicopter Rope Suspension (HRS) operations. Since HIE approaches often require the aircraft to hover out of ground effect, it is critical to carefully compute power requirements during preflight planning. A 10% power margin is mandatory for all HIE

192

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

operations at HMT 303. Due to unavailability of ground support in the training command, HIE operations will be simulated at HMT 303. In general, HIE approaches are conducted the same as other tactical approaches with the exception of terminating in a hover at the altitude appropriate for the HIE technique being used. It can be conducted from high threat profiles (low altitude) to a pop-up final or from low threat profiles (high altitude) with a normal descending, decelerating final approach. In training, we often practice HIE to zones where a landing could be safely made. Keep in mind that in a tactical application, if a landing can be made, it is much faster and safer than any of the HIE techniques. While the aircraft is in a hover, it is very vulnerable to enemy fire and often in the shaded portion of the H-V diagram. a. Fastrope. This method is utilized when obstacles allow for a low (10-35 ft) hover. Fastrope is the quickest way to insert troops but has limitations on how high a hover can be used. The Marines use only the friction of their hands and feet on the rope to control their rate of descent. Depending on the combat load they are carrying, 35ft is about as high as they can fastrope safely. Configuring the aircraft for fastrope operations requires fastrope gantries that secure in roughly the same manner as the aircraft hoist. It can be conducted out of one or both side of the aircraft. b. Rappel. This method is utilized when obstacles require a hover too high for safe fastroping or the Marines combat loads are too heavy. Generally conducted from 3575 feet. Marines have better control of their descent rates using rappel devices and can lock out if necessary. Rappel is slower than fastrope due to each Marine descending slower and having to unlock themselves from the rappel rope once on the deck. Configuring the aircraft for rappel involves anchoring a box pattern of ropes to the floor of the cabin. Each Marine then double secures his rappel rope to the box rope. Rappels are generally from both sides of the aircraft, obstacles permitting c. SPIE (Special Patrol Insertion Extraction). Although named for insertion and extraction, SPIE is primarily an extraction technique. It is utilized when the egressing personnel cannot make it to a location suitable for landing the Huey. It can be conducted from the water (wet SPIE) or land (dry SPIE). A SPIE rig consist of two multiple layer straps that wrap around the belly of the aircraft in through the cabin anchoring into the floor rings of the cabin and a SPIE rope which hooks into the straps beneath the aircraft. The SPIE rope is a large diameter rope from 75 to 125 feet long with D rings sewn into it. The Marines, when rigged will hook harnesses into the D rings so as to be suspended under the aircraft as it lifts from the ground. 2. Maneuver Description a. Reference: UH-1N Tactical Manual Chapter 13 Helicopter Insertion Extraction Techniques. b. Fastrope. Utilizing approach techniques appropriate for the simulated threat, terminate the approach in 25 foot hover over the intended point. Hold a stable hover

193

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

as the IP or crew chief simulates putting ropers away. When the crew chief calls ropes away, cleared for forward flight, increase power slightly and lower the nose slightly to accelerate to safe airspeed for departure. The departure profile should be the same profile as a take off from a hover. c. Rappel. Conducted the same as the Fastrope approach with the exception of terminating in a 50 foot hover or 10 feet above the highest obstacle which ever is higher. Recovery/departure is conducted the same as fastrope. d. SPIE. (1) EXTRACTION. To pick up Marines with the SPIE rig, fly the METT-TSL appropriate approach terminating in a hover 10 feet above the highest obstacle. Once in a stable hover, clear the crew chief to deploy rope. Maintain a stable hover until the crew chief advises clear to lift. Climb straight up using no greater than 300 FPM climb, noting altitude when crew chief calls last man off the deck. Continue vertical climb until crew chief calls cleared for forward flight signifying that the lowest man is clearing obstacles by 100ft (training restriction). While in flight with personnel on the SPIE rig ensure obstacle clearance by 100ft to the lowest man and restrict airspeed to no faster than 80 knots (60 knots if wet SPIE or cold weather). (2) INSERTION. Plan the approach to terminate in a stable hover with the lowest man 100 ft above the highest obstacle. When the crew chief calls clear to descend initiate a vertical descent with no greater than 300 fpm descent rate. Continue the 300 fpm descent until crew chief calls last man on deck. Stabilize in a hover until the crew chief calls rope clear, cleared for forward flight, then increase power slightly and lower the nose slightly to accelerate to safe airspeed for departure. The departure profile should be the same profile as a take off from a hover. 3. Techniques/Common Errors a. Smooth control inputs and early application of power will maximize aircraft efficiency and keep descent rates from building. Anticipate power application as aircraft slows below translational lift. b. Scan out, down and to the side to detect drift and climb/descent rates as early as possible. When ropers are being deployed, drift and climb/descent rates will cause injuries. If drift is noted, stop the drift then wait for the crew chief to call for corrections. Do not correct back to a spot without the crew chief clearing the aircraft and the ropers.

194

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

c. It is common for a SPIE approach to require a 300 ft HOGE. If the rope is 100ft, the obstacles are 100ft and you need 100 ft of clearance then the approach will terminate in 300 ft HOGE. The approach profile will be much like a level speed change but terminating in a HOGE. A smooth approach must be flown to keep from inducing oscillations. If large oscillations do develop, wave-off and roll smoothly into a turn to stabilize the SPIE rig. The techniques are very similar to external loads. 10014. EXTERNAL CARGO OPERATIONS. 1.Overview. The UH-1N has a cargo hook provided for external load operations. This feature gives the helicopter the ability to move large, bulky objects to and from prepared or unprepared landing zones rapidly. Moving prepacked supplies from one point to another without having to move the load into the helicopter significantly reduces the time for the normal resupply of ships and ground units. As a tactical mission commander, the helicopter pilot will be required to know not only the flight characteristics of his helicopter with an external load attached, but will also be required to analyze and plan his flight with regard to power available, power required, load flight characteristics, and other tactical considerations. Limited almost totally by the max gross weight of the UH-lN, external loads should not present any CG problems since the suspension hook is located almost directly under the centerline of the rotor mast. Flight characteristics vary with the sling type and bulkiness of the cargo. When installed, the external cargo suspension unit makes it possible to carry cargo by means of a short, single, full swiveling suspension unit secured to the primary structure and located close to the helicopter center of gravity. A cargo mechanical release pedal is located on the cabin floor between the pilots tail rotor control pedals, while an electrical release button is located on cyclic control stick. The cargo suspension unit is capable of sustaining a 5000-pound load.

WARNING External loads with aerodynamic characteristics may cause oscillations to the extent that the load may oscillate into the rotor blade and/or fuselage. When carrying external loads oscillation of the load can cause oscillation of the airframe. A pilot should keep control movements small to avoid aggravating the oscillation. IF UNCONTROLLABLE OSCILLATIONS DEVELOP THE PILOT SHOULD DROP THE LOAD.

Cargo may be attached to the hook with the cargo release switch positioned in either the off or arm position. Cargo can be released electrically only with the

195

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

switch in the arm position. There is no automatic touchdown release on this helicopter. The cargo load may also be released by actuating the foot pedal mechanical release, regardless of the switch position. Both the methods release the pendant along with the sling and the load. The crew chiefs release cord is the only method to release the sling and the load but retain the pendant on the aircraft cargo hook.

CAUTION Cargo slings will have a swivel or loop attachment to prevent damage to sling assembly and primary structure of the helicopter. In order to release the cargo load safely using the cargo hook release button, the button must be depressed continuously while at least 25 lbs. of tension is put on the cargo hook.

NOTE Under certain climatic conditions, a static charge may accumulate on the aircraft. To prevent inadvertent shock to hook up personnel, ground the aircraft prior to physical contact.

The following personnel and equipment will be utilized on external weight flights: one or more qualified crewman w/gunners belts inside the aircraft, at least one qualified director on the ground, one serviceable pendant, and a 1000 pound weight. 2. Maneuver Description a. Reference: UH-lN NATOPS Flight Manual Section 1, Part 2, Aircraft Systems. b. Amplification. (1) Ensure the aircraft has the power required to complete the mission. (2) Ensure the cargo hook is armed. The pilot shall be able to release the cargo hook both electrically and manually prior to any external cargo operations. (3) Enter the external load pattern. Maintain 80 knots and 300 feet AGL. (4) Abeam the pickup area, reduce power and commence a coordinated descending, decelerating turn to the course line.

196

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

(5) Plan the approach to be at approximately 150 feet and 65 knots at the 90-degree position. (6) Roll out on the course line with 75 feet of altitude, 1500 feet of straight-away, and 50 knots of ground speed. (7) When on final, adjust power to maintain a slow rate of descent and follow the signals of the director. (8) Approximately 30 feet prior to the zone, transition to an air taxi with 10 feet of altitude (25 feet if load is connected). (9) When directly over the zone, bring the helicopter to a hover. (10) Following the direction of the crew-member inside the aircraft, stabilize in a hover then lower aircraft in order to hook up/drop the load. (11) The crew chief shall notify the pilot when ground personnel come beneath the aircraft to hook up the load, when ground personnel depart from beneath the aircraft and when they are clear of the rotor arc. (12) Following the crew chiefs directions, the pilot shall slowly increase altitude until the load has cleared all obstacles by 10 feet. (13) When cleared for forward flight by the crew chief, the pilot shall smoothly transition to an altitude over airspeed climb-out. (14) Accelerate smoothly to 50 knots prior to turning downwind. 3. Techniques/Common Errors. a. When in a hover over the pickup zone, use small smooth control inputs to maintain a stable hover. Altitude control is very important, especially during the pickup; utilize the radar altimeter, crew chief, and co-pilot for altitude information. b. Because the aircraft gross weight is increased by the load, additional power will be required to hover. This means that for a given wind condition a substantially greater amount of left rudder will be required during a hover and during the normal takeoff from a hover. c. It is extremely important to maintain a stable hover directly over the load and to lift the load vertically. Scan out, down and to the side to detect drift early. Lift the load gently off the ground. Do not snatch the load off the ground. d. During takeoff from a hover with the load attached, DO NOT ALLOW THE AIRCRAFT TO SETTLE. Rushing the takeoff will require excessive power and may lead to settling and dragging the load. e. With the load attached, do not over fly areas where property would be damaged or personnel harmed if the load was inadvertently dropped. f. Procedures to be followed in the event of a complete or partial loss of power with an external load attached to the aircraft shall be thoroughly covered in the

197

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

NATOPS flight brief. Additionally, the ground personnel shall be briefed on what is expected of them should the aircraft lose power while they are hooking up the load. g. Excessive rates of descent at high gross weights can lead to settling with power. Failing to execute a proper deceleration when on final will require an excessive power application as the helicopter nears a hover. GET THE POWER ON EARLY. h. Standard voice procedures contained in the UH-1N NATOPS Flight Manual and pocket checklist shall be utilized. i. Aboard Camp Pendleton, external cargo operations are practiced at CAL site 2 in the MIKE TERF area and CAL site 9 in the Case Springs area. Multiple practice blocks are located at each zone. Ensure the use of the appropriate block (1000 lbs). Each block is labeled with its weight.

10015. HOIST OPERATIONS. 1. Overview a. The hoist adds an extra measure of flexibility to external load operations. In situations where a landing is not possible, loads may be inserted or extracted with the hoist. However, because of the hoist limited weight bearing capacity (600 pounds maximum for the UH-1N), the hoist is used primarily for search and rescue and personnel transfer operations. b. Hoist operations are practiced in order to become familiar with the hover flight techniques, voice procedures, and special mission considerations used in hoist operations. c. Because lateral moment arms are much shorter than longitudinal arms, the lateral loading is not normally as critical. However, if the helicopter is too heavy on one side, the pilot may run out of lateral cyclic. Conditions such as only one pilot and a crew chief doing hoist operations or heavy hoist loads may cause lateral CG problems. Remembering that angular displacement of the main rotor compensates for CG travel, marginal control situations may be recognized while hovering by the relationship between fuselage attitude, rotor path plane, and cyclic stick position. d. The complete hoist assembly can be installed in 4 different positions in the cabin. The pilot or the hoist operator can operate the hoist. The pilots controls have priority over the hoist operators controls. e. A 180-200 pound weight should be used for all training flights. f. The following personnel and equipment shall be utilized on hoist flights: a hoist capable of jettisoning an external load both electrically and manually and one qualified crewman with gunners belt and gloves.

198

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

2. Maneuver Description a. Reference: UH-lN NATOPS Flight Manual Section 1, Part 2, Internal Rescue Hoist; Section III, Part 12, Special Missions. b. Amplification (1) From normal pattern altitude and airspeed, execute a normal approach to a 50 foot hover over the pickup zone. (2) Maintain a 50-foot hover throughout the hoisting operation. (3) Utilize the normal takeoff from a hover technique when departing the pickup zone. 3. Technique Notes a. Pilots shall ensure the hoist winch, cable, hook, swivel, and pistol grip have been thoroughly checked during preflight. b. The hoist will be operated initially by the crewman as he directs the hover. The PUI shall operate the hoist on a minimum of one of the pickups. c. As in all external operations, small, smooth control inputs are required to maintain a steady hover. Scan out, down and to the side to detect drift early. d. As tension is applied to the weight, left lateral, slight aft cyclic, and additional left rudder will be required to eliminate right forward drift and right yaw. Additional power will be required to prevent settling. e. Do not fixate on one reference point while hovering. Keep the hover scan moving in order to get the maximum motion cues. Use Rad Alt, crew chief and copilot for altitude information. f. Procedures to be followed in the event of a complete or partial power loss during hoist operations shall be thoroughly briefed and shall include procedures to be followed by any ground personnel involved in the hoist operations. g. Should the crewmans hoist control become inoperative, the pilot shall take control and complete the hoisting cycle. Do not continue hoist operation with the crewmans control inoperative.

199

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

CHAPTER 11 NAVY TACTICS

PARAGRAPH 1100 1101 1102 1103 1104 1105

TOPIC INTRODUCTION REFERENCES CONFINED AREA LANDINGS / PRECISION APPROACH CONFINED AREA TAKEOFF ONE SKID PICKUPS SHORT HAUL EVOLUTIONS

200

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

1100. INTRODUCTION. Many helicopter missions require flight and landings in rough and mountainous terrain. Refined flying techniques, along with complete and precise knowledge of the individual problems to be encountered, are required. Landing site condition, wind direction and velocity, gross-weight limitations, and effects of obstacles are a few of the considerations for each landing or takeoff. The Helicopter Aircraft Commander must be able to make decisions concerning landing/hovering and takeoff from the area of intended operation. If a sufficient power margin is not available, the pilot should consider landing at a lower altitude and offloading personnel, equipment, or fuel. 1101. REFERENCES. 1. UH-1N NATOPS Flight Manual, Part III, Chapter 10; Part IV, Chapter13 and Part IX, Chapter 18. 2. Canadian Mountain Flying PowerPoint Presentation. 3. NWP 3-50.1 NAVAL SEARCH AND RESCUE MANUAL, Chapter 4, Page 2 1, Para 4.3.5.

1102. CONFINED AREA LANDINGS / PRECISION APPROACH. 1. Overview. Confined area landings enable an aircrew to execute a safe controlled landing in an area that has limited rotor clearance. 2. Reference. a. UH-1N NATOPS Flight Manual Part IX, Chapter 18.8, UH-1N STANDARD ICS TERMINOLOGY. b. UH-1N NATOPS Flight Manual Part III, Chapter 10. c. Canadian Mountain Flying PowerPoint Presentation, Slides 71-103. 3. Maneuver Description. a. Determine the Power Margin and perform a site evaluation (Ref. b. & c., Slide 92). Terrain, obstacles, and wind may allow for a shallow approach or levelspeed-change (Flat Approach Ref. c., Slides 93-95) to transition to a hover. Properly performed, this will reduce power required, and eliminate the need to arrest rate of descent with power b. Extend past abeam the intended point of landing at pattern altitude and airspeed (300 feet and 80 KIAS). Commence a descending, decelerating turn to

201

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

arrive at the 90-degree position with 200 feet and 60 KIAS. Ensure landing checklist is complete prior to your turn from the abeam position c. Continue the turn to arrive in the wind line with 1000 feet of straightaway at 100 feet AGL or 50 feet above the highest obstacle. Smoothly reduce airspeed to 35 KIAS as the approach angle is reached. On final the Crewchief reports, ready on the right. The second crewman reports ready on the left. The Crewchief then reports ready aft for a confined area landing. d. Reduce rate of descent as airspeed bleeds to arrive in a hover over the landing zone approximately 10 feet above the highest obstacle. At approximately 100 yards out from the intended point of landing the Crewchief will start reporting Clear right, tail rotor clear. The second crewman will report Clear left, tail rotor clear. e. Stabilize in a steady hover over the zone while the crew clears the aircraft below and gives a zone description. At this point, the pilot and copilot shall verbalize and confirm the torque reading versus computed power available, and left pedal position. f. The Crewchief will clear the aircraft from the 12 oclock to the 6 oclock position reporting the position and distance in feet of the nearest obstacle. The Crewchief is complete with his zone description when he reports Clear right tail rotor clear. The second crewman will clear the aircraft from the 6 oclock to the 12 oclock position, reporting the position and distance in feet of the nearest obstacle. The crewman is complete with his zone description when he reports Clear left tail rotor clear. g. Upon receiving the call Clear to descend from the Crewchief start a controlled descent. Passing through 10- 12 feet the Crewchief will call the approximate degree and direction of slope. When one skid reaches approximately 12 inches from the ground establish a stable hover. The Crewchief will report, Steady. The Crewchief and second crewman will report the height of the skid saddle from the ground and determine the slope and direction by the difference. Upon determining the slope the Crewchief will report the slope in degrees and the direction of slope. h. Proceed as in Paragraph 2012, Slope Landings

Note Do not move the aircraft in the CAL until the aircrew has cleared both sides and given the command to move.

202

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

4. Techniques/Common Errors. a. The approach should be no steeper than that required to clear obstacles; descent rates must be kept as low as feasible. Large power changes associated with arresting rapid descents can easily lead to loss of tail rotor effectiveness, settling with power, or vortex ring state. Maintain a powered approach. Utilize available up flowing air (Ref. c. Slide 44), ground effect, and especially translational lift to reduce power required and anti-torque pedal input. b. Maintain balanced flight until intercepting the course line, then utilize tail rotor pedals and cyclic as required to give the desired ground track. c. Allow sufficient straightaway to visualize the best approach glide slope. d. Smooth and coordinated cyclic and collective inputs are required to maintain the glide slope without requiring excessive power. e. Rate of closure is critical. As rate of closure decreases rate of descent must also decrease, more power is required than normal with a steeper approach angle. f. Whenever the glide slope becomes too steep, power inputs too large, impending loss of tail rotor effectiveness, or the approach becomes uncomfortable WAVEOFF. g. A loss of wind effect or turbulence may be encountered as the helicopter nears and descends below the treetops. 1103. CONFINED AREA TAKEOFF. 1. Overview. Since the helicopter pilot will be routinely landing in confined areas, it is important to be able to takeoff from the same confined area. The confined area takeoff is practiced to understand the difference between power available and power required, wind and obstacle combinations for the least takeoff angle, landing zone reconnaissance, and the importance of a scan pattern that will keep the helicopter clear of obstacles while both in a hover and on take-off. 2. Reference. UH-1N NATOPS Flight Manual Part IX, Chapter 18.8, UH-1N STANDARD ICS TERMINOLOGY

3. Maneuver Description. a. Select the best take-off route by optimizing the wind/obstacle combination. Remember to include a ten-foot buffer zone over the highest obstacle. Whenever possible, takeoff should be initiated from the most downwind portion of the LZ.

203

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

b. Prior to taking off, the crewmen will give another zone description using the clock position method. The Crewchief will then call out Easy Up. At this point, smoothly increase collective to lift straight up until the skids are 10 feet above the highest obstacle. The Crewchief will report, Clear of all obstacles on the right and the second crewman will report, Clear of all obstacles on the left. c. Once the aircraft is cleared the Crewchief reports Cleared for forward flight, accelerate through translational lift. Do not reduce collective until the aircraft has accelerated through single engine airspeed 4. Technique Notes. a. Smooth control inputs are required throughout the take-off. b. Note that takeoff parameters will vary according to the obstacles along the departure path. Your takeoff may resemble a normal takeoff if there are few or low obstacles to clear, or may resemble a max. power takeoff if you are in a tight zone with high obstacles ahead of you. The closer you can keep your departure parameters to those on the H-V diagram in Chapter 4 of NATOPS, the safer your takeoff will be. c. Because the helicopter is below the obstacles the wind may not provide extra lift until clear of the obstacles. d. Yaw control is very important. The most vulnerable part of the single rotor helicopter system is the tail rotor and it must be cleared of any FOD hazard no matter how small. Allowing the helicopter to yaw during climb may inadvertently force the tail rotor into an unseen obstacle and cause loss of tail rotor control. e. Do not rush attitude adjustments. Confined area take-offs are precision takeoffs and require more time and concentration than normal take-offs f. Rushing the maneuver may cause settling, poor yaw control, and loss of obstacle clearance. g. Never plan an approach to a confined area where there is no reasonable route of departure. h. Use caution when maneuvering sideways at low altitudes in the zone to avoid dynamic roll over by catching a skid on vegetation or rocks. Do not maneuver the aircraft in the zone without the Crewchief first clearing the aircraft of obstacles.

204

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

1104. ONE-SKID PICKUPS. 1. Overview. This maneuver is used when a landing is not possible and a hoist may not be necessary or desirable. 2. Reference. a. UH-1N NATOPS Flight Manual Part IX, Chapter 18.8, UH-1N STANDARD ICS TERMINOLOGY. b. UH-1N NATOPS Flight Manual Part III, Chapter 10. c. Canadian Mountain Flying PowerPoint Presentation, Slides 71-103 3. Maneuver Description. a. Determine the Power Margin and perform a site evaluation. The procedure may resemble a confined area landing approach. Terrain, obstacles, and wind may allow for a shallow approach or level-speed-change to transition to a hover. Properly performed, this will reduce power required, and eliminate the need to arrest rate of descent with power. Perform a crew-controlled approach to establish the aircraft in a steady hover with one skid five feet above and five feet away from the intended point of pickup. At this point, the pilot and copilot shall verbalize and confirm the torque reading versus computed power available, and left pedal position. b. The Crewchief will then clear the aircraft and call you into a one-foot up and one-foot over position. Once in this position the Crewchief will assist survivors to board the helicopter. The Crewchief will call Standby for weight when the survivor approaches the skid and mark when the survivor is on the skid. This will allow the pilot to anticipate the effect of the weight being applied to that particular side of the aircraft. At this point, the copilot shall read out the torque. c. To the maximum extent possible, maintain hover power and transition to forward flight, and drop off with terrain until attaining single engine airspeed. This may entail sliding left or right away from the terrain (Ref. c. Slide 99-103). If necessary, add power. Departure will then resemble a confined area takeoff.

4. Technique Notes. a. Keep situational awareness. Know where to go for the best wave off. In most instances to a one-skid, you should be able to drop off downhill and into the wind (Ref. c. Slides 101-102). b. Stay in the boundary layer (Ref. c. Slide 44).

205

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

5. Aircraft light signals for NORDO and/or emergency situations will be briefed and must be thoroughly understood by all crewmembers prior to flight. 1105. SHORT HAUL EVOLUTIONS. 1. Overview. The short haul evolution is a rescue method utilized for the extraction of a survivor on vertical or near vertical terrain. Short haul evolutions shall be practiced in order to become familiar with the hover flight techniques, voice procedures, and special mission considerations used in short hauls. During the pickup, in-flight and drop phase of the evolution, the survivor will be attached to the rappeller via rappellers harness. The rappeller and survivor shall be attached to the aircraft via the internal rescue hoist and Rappel rope including a self-equalizing deck setup belay station. 2. Reference. a. NWP 3-50.1 NAVAL SEARCH AND RESCUE MANUAL, Chapter 4, Page 2 1, Para 4.3.5. b. UH-1N NATOPS Flight Manual Part IX, Chapter 18.8, UH-1N STANDARD ICS TERMINOLOGY. 3. Maneuver Description. a. Prior to commencing the evolution, the pilot shall ensure the aircraft has the power required to complete the mission, and an internal rescue hoist is installed. b. Following the direction of the Crewchief, the pilot will execute a normal approach to a 40-foot hover over the intended pickup zone. At this point, the pilot and copilot shall verbalize and confirm the torque reading versus computed power available, and left pedal position. c. Once stabilized deploy rappeller utilizing procedures outlined in the NWP 3-50. As the rappeller connects to the survivor, the Crewchief shall keep the pilot informed of rappellers progress. d. After the Crewchief receives thumbs up from rappeller and instructor on the ground, the pilot shall slowly increase power until the rappeller and survivor are just off the deck. Once stabilized, both pilot and copilot shall verbalize and confirm the torque and left pedal position again as above. If sufficient power margin and yaw controllability are available, then the pilot may slowly increase

206

UH-1N MANEUVER DESCRIPTION GUIDE

altitude until the rappeller and survivor have cleared all obstacles. Aircraft shall not descend below marked altitude e. When clear of obstacles and cleared for forward flight by the Crewchief, the pilot shall smoothly transition to forward flight, maintaining a minimum of 200 AGL. f. Accelerate to 40 knots maximum prior to turning downwind.

CAUTION During short-haul evolutions the aircraft should not exceed 40 knots

g. Extend past abeam the drop zone to set up for a shallow descent rate to the high hover point. Maintain power while turning inbound from the 180, then roll out on course line and begin a descending, decelerating approach taking care not to allow rappeller and survivor to descend below marked altitude. h. Maintain power throughout the approach, and bring the helicopter into a hover directly over the zone. i. Following the direction of the Crewchief, stabilize and slowly lower aircraft returning rappeller and survivor safely to the ground. 4. Technique Notes. a. When in a hover over pickup zone, use small smooth control inputs to maintain a stable hover. Altitude control is very important during entire evolution to avoid dragging rappeller and survivor. b. When lifting or lowering personnel use smooth collective inputs. Avoid large power inputs that could result in injury to rappeller and or survivor. c. As tension is applied to the rope, additional power will be required to prevent settling. Note radar altimeter altitude as weight comes on aircraft. d. Do not fixate on one reference point while hovering. Keep the hover scan moving in order to get the maximum motion cues. Pay attention to Crewchief s directions. e. A minimum of single engine airspeed, but no slower than 25 knots, is required during in-flight phase in order to maintain single engine wave off capability and to help rappeller control the possible onset of spinning.

207