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Postharvest Biology and Technology 78 (2013) 4854

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Postharvest Biology and Technology

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Effects of repeated 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) treatments on ripening and supercial scald of Cortland and Delicious apples
Xingang Lu a,b , Jacqueline F. Nock a , Yanping Ma a,c , Xinghua Liu b , Christopher B. Watkins a,
a b c

Department of Horticulture, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA College of Food Science and Engineering, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China College of Forestry, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China

a r t i c l e

i n f o

a b s t r a c t
Postharvest 1-MCP can maintain fruit quality and inhibit development of supercial scald, a physiological storage disorder found in apple fruit, but the extent of the inhibition can vary by cultivar. In this study, we investigated whether multiple applications of 1-MCP, which are now permitted by a label modication of the commercial 1-MCP product, SmartFreshTM , might improve scald control. Cortland and Delicious apples were untreated, treated on the day of harvest with the antioxidant inhibitor of scald, diphenylamine (DPA), or with 1 L L1 1-MCP at different intervals after harvest. Treatment times (days) were 1, 4, 7, 1 + 4, 4 + 7, 1 + 4 + 7, 7 + 14, 7 + 28, 7 + 42, and 7 + 84. Internal ethylene concentrations (IECs), esh rmness, and accumulations of -farnesene and conjugated trienols (CTols) were measured at harvest, at the time of treatment, and at intervals during air storage at 0.5 C for up to 36 weeks. Scald was completely inhibited by DPA and all 1-MCP treatments in Delicious. However, effective control of scald in Cortland was obtained with 1-MCP treatments within the rst 4 days of harvest, either alone or in combination. Scald control with delayed 1-MCP treatments resulted in poorer scald control that was comparable to that obtained with DPA. IECs and -farnesene accumulation were similar in untreated and DPA treated fruit, but inhibited by 1-MCP. However, differences among 1-MCP treatments became more evident with increasing storage periods. Inhibition of IECs and -farnesene accumulation was greater in fruit treated on days 1, 4, 1 + 4, 4 + 7, 1 + 4 + 7, than on day 7 alone. A second application of 1-MCP on day 14 to fruit treated on day 7 increased inhibition of IECs, -farnesene and CTol accumulations, but increasing delays before the second 1-MCP treatment resulted in progressively less inhibition of these factors. Similar effects of treatment on IECs, -farnesene and CTol accumulations were found for both cultivars, even though no scald was detected in treated Delicious apples. The results indicate that initial 1-MCP treatments should be applied to faster ripening cultivars such as Cortland within a few days of harvest. 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Article history: Received 20 October 2012 Accepted 15 December 2012 Keywords: Malusdomestica Borkh Ethylene Firmness Storage Physiological disorders

1. Introduction 1-Methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), an inhibitor of ethylene perception, is registered as SmartFreshTM for commercial use on fruit and vegetables. 1-MCP-based technology has had a major impact especially on apple industries because of its inuence on maintaining fruit rmness and other quality attributes during storage and shelf life (Watkins, 2006, 2008). Cultivar, harvest maturity and storage treatments affect the response of apples to 1-MCP, probably reecting ethylene production by the fruit at the time of treatment (Watkins, 2008; Watkins and Nock, 2012). Cultivars such as Delicious and Granny Smith maintain low ethylene production and high esh rmness over extended storage periods after 1-MCP

Corresponding author. E-mail address: (C.B. Watkins). 0925-5214/$ see front matter 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

treatment, whereas others such as Cortland and McIntosh tend to recover from 1-MCP induced inhibition of ripening during storage (Fan et al., 1999; Rupasinghe et al., 2000; Watkins et al., 2000; Zanella, 2003; Moran, 2006; Magazin et al., 2010). In addition to its effects on fruit ripening, 1-MCP can inhibit the development of the physiological storage disorder supercial scald (Fan et al., 1999; Rupasinghe et al., 2000; Watkins et al., 2000; Pechous et al., 2005), providing a possible replacement for the antioxidant diphenylamine (DPA). A key process in the development of scald is thought to be the oxidation of -farnesene to form toxic products that result in cell damage (Lurie and Watkins, 2012). Inhibition of ethylene production by 1-MCP suppresses the production of -farnesene, whereas DPA acts to prevent oxidation of -farnesene rather than its production (Arquiza et al., 2005; Isidoro and Almeida, 2006; Jung and Watkins, 2008; Moggia et al., 2010). However, the control of scald by 1-MCP can, like softening, be affected by cultivar (Fan et al., 1999; Rupasinghe et al., 2000;

X. Lu et al. / Postharvest Biology and Technology 78 (2013) 4854


Watkins et al., 2000), and factors such as exposure time to 1-MCP and treatment temperature (DeEll et al., 2002). As is the case for DPA, increasing time between harvest and treatment can result in reduced effectiveness of 1-MCP on scald control (Jung and Watkins, 2008; Amarante et al., 2010). Reduced control of scald development by 1-MCP in both apples and pears appears to be associated with ethylene production in the fruit at the time of treatment and a renewed ability of the fruit to produce ethylene (Ekman et al., 2004; Tsantili et al., 2007; Jung and Watkins, 2008). Apple storages are typically lled over several days or more depending on factors, such as storage room size, cooling capacity and daily fruit harvest volumes. The suppliers of SmartFreshTM provide recommendations to most apple cultivars for maximum delays of 7 d between harvest and treatment (AgroFresh, 2012). However, the effect of delays between harvest and application of 1-MCP is affected by cultivar, storage type and storage length (Watkins and Nock, 2005). DeEll et al. (2008) reported that the effective time period to inhibit softening of McIntosh apples can be as short as 3 d. Rapid treatment of fruit with 1-MCP after harvest can help maintain quality of fruit even when application of controlled atmosphere (CA) storage is delayed (Watkins and Nock, 2012). The SmartFreshTM label has been modied in the United States and some other countries to allow multiple 1-MCP treatments. Previous studies examined the effects of multiple 1-MCP treatments on quality of apples and pears. Firmness of Delicious apples was maintained by multiple treatments at temperatures of 5 C and above, but only small effects of treatment were detected at 0 C, because of slower softening overall (Mir et al., 2001; Jayanty et al., 2004). In Cortland or McIntosh apples, a second 1-MCP treatment mid-way (4.5 months) during storage did not affect quality of air and CA stored fruit (Delong et al., 2004). Pear fruit recovered more slowly from 1-MCP inhibition of softening if additional treatments were made before ripening had been initiated (Ekman et al., 2004). These studies were largely of academic interest until recently, but the change in the SmartFreshTM label opens up commercial opportunities to apply 1-MCP while storage rooms are being loaded, or during storage. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of multiple 1-MCP treatments on ripening and scald development in Cortland and Delicious apples during long-term cold storage. Our interest was two-fold: rst, to investigate if multiple 1-MCP treatments that might occur during storage room loading would improve inhibition of ripening and scald, especially for a fast ripening cultivar such as Cortland, and second, to investigate if repeated 1-MCP in storage during the time when IEC and -farnesene concentrations increase, would improve control of scald development during storage.

The fruit of both cultivars were stored in air at 0.5 C for up to 36 weeks from harvest. Ten fruit per replicate were sampled at harvest, and after removal from storage every six weeks for evaluation of internal ethylene concentration (IEC), rmness, soluble solid concentration (SSC) and titratable acidity (TA) and peeled using a hand-held fruit peeler. Fruit replicates were sampled immediately after removal from storage to minimize warming. The peels were frozen immediately in liquid nitrogen and then stored at 80 C until used for analysis of -farnesene and conjugated trienols (CTols). Scald incidence was assessed on 4050 fruit per replicate after 36 weeks of storage plus 7 d at 20 C. 2.2. Internal ethylene concentration (IEC) The IEC of each fruit was measured by gas chromatography on a 1-mL sample of internal gas withdrawn into a syringe through a hypodermic needle inserted into the core cavity (Watkins and Nock, 2012). Ethylene was measured using a Hewlett-Packard 5890 series II gas chromatograph (Hewlett-Packard, Wilmington, DE) equipped with a ame ionization detector and tted with a stainless steel column packed with 60/80 mesh alumina F-1 (2 m 2 mm, i.d.). Analyses were run isothermally with an oven temperature of 160 C and injector and detector temperatures of 220 and 250 C, respectively. The ow rates for nitrogen, hydrogen and compressed air were 30, 30 and 230 mL min1 , respectively. Ethylene was quantied by peak area, and an external standard of 10 L L1 was used for calibration. 2.3. Firmness, soluble solids and titratable acidity Firmness was measured on opposite sides of each fruit with an EPT-1 pressure tester (Lake City Technical Products, Lake City, Canada) tted with an 11.1 mm diam. probe. SSC was measured on a fresh juice sample using a digital refractometer (PR-100; Atago Co. Ltd., Tokyo, Japan). TA was measured using an automatic titrator (Metter DL12, Hightstown, NJ). Wedges were cut from 10 apple samples and juiced. Aliquots of 10 mL were titrated to pH 8.1 with 0.1 N NaOH and the results expressed as % malic acid. 2.4. Extraction and quantication of -farnesene and CTols Frozen peel samples were pulverized in liquid N2 and 1 g of powder transferred to 15 mL tubes containing 5 mL hexane. The tubes were sealed and shaken continuously at 20 C for 10 min. After centrifugation, 0.4 mL of the supernatant was ltered through a orisil column and diluted to 4 mL, and then used for estimation of -farnesene at 232 nm with a Beckman diode array spectrophotometer (Model DU 7400, Beckman Instruments, Columbia, MD). Appropriate dilutions of hexane extracts with orisil treatment (Huelin and Coggiola, 1968) were measured at 281 and 290 nm for CTol concentrations. -Farnesene and CTol concentrations were calculated using molar extinction coefcients 232nm = 27,740 (Anet, 1969) for -farnesene and 281290nm = 25,000 for CTols (Anet, 1972) and expressed as mmol kg1 on a fresh weight basis. Although there is a tendency for spectrophotometric estimates of -farnesene to be higher than HPLC estimates when concentrations are low (Whitaker et al., 2000), a comparison of selected samples using HPLC showed close similarities for estimates using our method (Whitaker, pers. commum.). 2.5. Statistical analysis A completely randomized experimental design was used with four replications. Data were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA), with treatment and storage time as sources of variation. Mean comparisons at P = 0.05 were performed using the least

2. Materials and methods 2.1. Plant material, treatment and sampling Cortland and Delicious apples [Malussylvestris (L.) Mill. var. domestica (Borkh.) Mansf.] were harvested from commercial orchards in Western New York regions on 21 and 29 September, 2011, respectively. Fruit of each cultivar were sorted into 48 crates of 100 fruit on the day of harvest and stored at 0.5 C. Four replicate crates of fruit were untreated, or treated with 1 g L1 DPA (Shield brite 15%, Pace International, Seattle, WA) for 1 min. The remaining crates were treated with 1 L L1 1-MCP at the following treatment times (d): 1, 4, 7, 1 + 4, 4 + 7, 1 + 4 + 7, 7 + 14, 7 + 28, 7 + 42, and 7 + 84. 1-MCP treatments (SmartFreshTM tablets, 0.36% a.i., AgroFresh Inc., Spring House, PA) were applied for 24 h in a 4000 L plastic tent using a release and fan system supplied by the manufacturer.


X. Lu et al. / Postharvest Biology and Technology 78 (2013) 4854

Table 1 Fruit harvest indices, -farnesene and conjugated trienols (CTols) concentrations (means standard error) for Cortland and Delicious apples at harvest. Cortland IEC ( L L1 ) Firmness (N) SSC (%) TA (% malic acid) -Farnesene (mmol kg1 ) CTols (mmol kg1 ) 0.090 72.2 9.9 0.36 0.08 0.02 006 0.7 0.2 0.02 0.01 0.003 Delicious 6.43 75.9 10.3 0.21 0.13 0.04 1.32 0.6 0.06 0.005 0.02 0.006

signicant difference (LSD) method. IEC and percentage storage disorder data were subjected to logarithm and arcsine transformations, respectively, before analysis. Pearson correlations were used to quantify the relationships between IEC, -farnesene, CTols and scald incidence. 3. Results 3.1. Harvest quality Cortland fruit had preclimacteric IECs at harvest (Table 1). Delicious fruit had higher IECs overall, but were variable; the percentage of fruit with IECs greater than 1 L L1 in replicates (n=4) ranged from 20 to 50%, respectively. -Farnesene and CTol concentrations were low in fruit at harvest (Table 1). 3.2. IEC For clarity of presentation, the results for IECs of the fruit have been separated into three groups for each cultivar; Untreated and DPA (Fig. 1A and D), 1, 4, 1 + 4, 4 + 7, and 1 + 4 + 7d (Fig. 1B and E) and 7, 7 + 14, 7 + 28, 7 + 42 and 7 + 84 d (Fig. 1C and F). The IECs of untreated and DPA treated fruit were high with little effect of treatment for either cultivar (Fig. 1A and D). Overall, the IECs for untreated and DPA treated fruit were 75 and 74 L L1 , respectively, for Cortland, and 37 and 38 L L1 , respectively, for Delicious. All 1-MCP treatments resulted in lower IECs in both cultivars (Fig. 1B, C, E, F), and were always lower than untreated and DPA treated fruit. Delaying 1-MCP treatment until days 4 and 7 resulted in progressively increasing IECs over storage compared with the day 1 treatment. Overall, the IECs in Cortland apples when treated with 1-MCP on days 1, 4 and 7 were 8, 10 and 33 L L1 , respectively, and for Delicious were 3, 4 and 7 L L1 , respectively. Multiple 1-MCP treatments over the rst 7 d of storage, resulted in similar overall IECs of 8, 9 and 7 L L1 for 1 + 4 d, 4 + 7 d and 1 + 4 + 7 d treatments, respectively, for Cortland. However, for Delicious, overall IECs were 2 L L1 for the 1 + 4 + 7 d, compared with 4 and 7 L L1 for 1 + 4 d, and 4 + 7 d, respectively. The effect of additional 1-MCP treatments during storage to the 7 d alone treatment was also investigated (Fig. 1C and F). Treatment of fruit at 7 + 14 d resulted in lower IECs than day 7 alone for Cortland and Delicious, being 10 and 3 L L1 , respectively. Increasing delays before the second 1-MCP treatment resulted in progressively higher IECs during storage for Cortland, but to a lesser extent for Delicious. 3.3. -Farnesene and CTols

Delaying 1-MCP treatment until days 4 and 7 resulted in progressively increasing -farnesene concentrations over storage compared with the day 1 treatment in both Cortland (Fig. 2B and C) and Delicious (Fig. 3B and C). Overall, -farnesene concentrations in Cortland apples when treated with 1-MCP on days 1, 4 and 7 were 0.35, 0.42 and 0.56 mmol kg1 , respectively, and for Delicious were 0.36, 0.46 and 0.62 mmol kg1 , respectively. A repeated 1-MCP treatment after 7 d of storage decreased the rate of -farnesene accumulation compared with day 7 alone in both cultivars, except for the 7 + 84 d treatment in Cortland (Figs. 2C and 3C). The lowest -farnesene concentrations occurred in the 7 + 14 d treatment. Progressively less inhibition of -farnesene accumulation was detected with longer delays before the second treatment for Cortland. Overall, CTol concentrations were 24% and 36% lower in DPA treated fruit than in untreated fruit of Cortland and Delicious, respectively (Figs. 2D and 3D). CTol concentrations increased during storage, and to a greater extent as treatment time was delayed from 1 to 7 d (Figs. 2E, F and 3E, F). There were few differences between the multiple 1-MCP treatments on CTol concentrations when applied within the rst 7 d. When 1-MCP was applied after the initial 7 day treatment, the lowest CTol concentrations occurred in the 7 + 14 d treatment. There was little difference in CTol accumulation among the 7 + 28 d, 7 + 42 d and 7 + 84 d treatments. 3.4. Firmness, SCC and TA 3.4.1. Cortland The esh rmness of Cortland apples decreased from week 18 to week 36 of storage (Table 2). Firmness of the untreated fruit was lowest, and that of DPA treated fruit higher than untreated at both storage removals. All 1-MCP treated fruit were rmer than untreated or DPA treated fruit. Within each storage period, the most rm fruit were those treated with 1-MCP on days 1, 1 + 4, and 1 + 4 + 7. Delays in 1-MCP treatment from 1 to 7 d resulted in progressively softer fruit. The 4 + 7 d treatment was similar to 4 d alone. The rmness of fruit treated at day 7 and day 7 plus additional treatments on days 14, 28, 42 and 84 was similar after 18 weeks of storage, but after 36 weeks the double treated fruit were rmer than day 7 alone. The SSC of the fruit was not affected by storage time, but it was lowest in the untreated fruit (Table 2). However, SSC was not affected consistently by the 1-MCP treatments (Table 2). The TA decreased during storage, but within each storage period TAs were higher in all 1-MCP treatments than in the untreated and DPA treated fruit. Few consistent differences were detected within the 1-MCP treatments. 3.4.2. Delicious The esh rmness of Delicious apples decreased from week 18 to week 36 of storage, with the exception of the 1 + 4 + 7 d treatment (Table 2). Fruit from all 1-MCP treatments were rmer than untreated and DPA treated fruit, but treatment effects were variable within each storage period. SSCs were not affected by storage period, and while signicant treatment effects were detected, they were also inconsistent. TAs in fruit from all 1-MCP treatments were usually higher at 18 weeks, and always higher at 36 weeks, than untreated and the DPA treatment. 3.5. Supercial scald

-Farnesene concentrations reached a maximum in untreated and DPA treated fruit on weeks 12 and 18 in Cortland and on weeks 6 and 12 in Delicious apples, thereafter declining over storage (Figs. 2A and 3A). Overall concentrations were slightly higher in untreated Cortland fruit (0.57 mmol kg1 ) than in untreated Delicious (0.53 mmol kg1 ).

For Cortland, the lowest scald incidence was found in fruit treated with 1-MCP 1 d, 4 d, 1 + 4 d, and 1 + 4 + 7 d after harvest (Table 3). Treatment with 1-MCP at 4 + 7d and 7 + 14 d, resulted in slightly higher scald. Scald control was relatively poor in fruit treated with 1-MCP on day 7, and 7 d with second applications on

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Fig. 1. Log internal ethylene concentrations (IECs) in Cortland (AC) and Delicious (DF) apples untreated, treated with 1 g L1 DPA at harvest or with 1 L L1 1-MCP on day(s) 1, 4, 1 + 4, 4 + 7, 1 + 4 + 7, 7, 7 + 14, 7 + 28, 7 + 42 and 7 + 84 after harvest. Fruit were stored at 0.5 C up to 36 weeks. Vertical bars represent LSD value at P = 0.05. Note different scale for y axes for 1-MCP treatments compared with untreated and DPA treated fruit.

28, 42 and 84 d, though better than with DPA. For Delicious, scald was detected only in untreated apples (Table 3). 3.6. Correlations -Farnesene concentrations were correlated with IECs in both Cortland (r = 0.820, P < 0.001) and Delicious (r = 0.567, P < 0.001). The relationships between scald incidence after storage and CTol concentrations during storage was investigated for Cortland

(Table 4). Overall, the correlations were highly signicant, but the r value declined markedly at week 36. The 1-MCP treatments were analyzed separately; a low r value was found at week 6, but these were then relatively uniform over time. 4. Discussion The effectiveness of either DPA or 1-MCP on inhibition of softening, loss of TA, and scald development was much greater for

Fig. 2. -Farnesene (AC) and conjugated trienol (CTol) (DF) concentrations in Cortland apples untreated, treated with 1 g L1 DPA at harvest or with 1 L L1 1-MCP on day(s) 1, 4, 1 + 4, 4 + 7, 1 + 4 + 7, 7, 7 + 14, 7 + 28, 7 + 42 and 7 + 84 after harvest. Fruit were stored at 0.5 C up to 36 weeks. Vertical bars represent LSD value at P = 0.05. Note different scale for y axes for 1-MCP treatments compared with untreated and DPA treated fruit.


X. Lu et al. / Postharvest Biology and Technology 78 (2013) 4854

Fig. 3. -Farnesene (AC) and conjugated trienol (CTol) (DF) concentrations in Delicious apples untreated, treated with 1 g L1 DPA at harvest or with 1 L L1 1-MCP on day(s) 1, 4, 1 + 4, 4 + 7, 1 + 4 + 7, 7, 7 + 14, 7 + 28, 7 + 42 and 7 + 84 after harvest. Fruit were stored at 0.5 C up to 36 weeks. Vertical bars represent LSD value at P = 0.05. Note different scale for y axes for 1-MCP treatments compared with untreated and DPA treated fruit.

Delicious than for Cortland (Tables 2 and 3). A major effect of cultivar on the persistence of DPA and 1-MCP control of scald has been well described, especially under the rigorous conditions of long term air storage (Piretti et al., 1994; Watkins et al., 1995; Fan et al., 1999; Little and Holmes, 2000; Watkins et al., 2000; Jung and Watkins, 2008). In the case of 1-MCP, the effectiveness of treatment appears to be related to whether or not inhibition of ethylene production is maintained during storage. Cultivars such as Delicious, Granny Smith and Law Rome show long term inhibition of ethylene production, ripening and scald development (Fan et al., 1999; Rupasinghe et al., 2000; Watkins et al., 2000; Zanella, 2003; Tsantili et al., 2007; Magazin et al., 2010), while others such as McIntosh and Cortland show escape from this inhibition (Fan et al., 1999; Watkins et al., 2000; Watkins and Nock, 2005; Tsantili et al., 2007; Jung and Watkins, 2008). The effect of delayed 1-MCP treatment was also inuenced by cultivar. Control of scald development on Delicious was complete, even if the rst application was delayed 7 d after harvest, whereas control of scald in Cortland was essentially lost with the same

delay (Table 3). An additional treatment of 1-MCP to Cortland on day 14 partly reduced scald incidence compared with 7 d alone. However, additional treatments to the day 7 treatment beyond 14 d had no effect on scald control compared with day 7 alone. Fruit quality as assessed by rmness, was best in fruit treated with 1MCP on days 1, 4, 1 + 4, 4 + 7 and 1 + 4 + 7 (Table 3). The effects of 1-MCP on scald and rmness mostly corresponded, the exceptions being days 7 + 14 and 7 + 28. In those cases, rmness was uniformly lower with both treatments whereas scald incidence was lower with the additional treatment on day 14 but not on day 28 (Table 3). For Delicious, all 1-MCP treatments resulted in rmer fruit than untreated or DPA-treated fruit (Table 2). The effects of 1-MCP on maintaining fruit quality and inhibiting scald development can be less persistent, depending on cultivar, fruit maturity and handling effects such as delays between harvest and 1-MCP treatment (Watkins and Nock, 2005; Jung and Watkins, 2008; Amarante et al., 2010). It is assumed that reduced effects are due to the presence of ethylene that competes for existing binding sites in the cell and the development of new ethylene receptors

Table 2 Flesh rmness, soluble solids concentration (SSC) and titratable acidity (TA) of Cortland and Delicious apples after 18 and 36 weeks storage at 0.5 C. Fruit were untreated, treated with 1 g L1 DPA diphenylamine (DPA) or with 1 L L1 1-MCP at various times (days) after harvest. Treatment (d) Untreated DPA 1-MCP 0 1 4 1+4 4+7 1+4+7 7 7 + 14 7 + 28 7 + 42 7 + 84 Firmness (N) 18 36 43.6 46.1 64.9 60.3 64.1 60.5 65.4 56.5 57.1 57.0 55.3 55.5 2.4 34.8 39.7 57.8 54.9 57.3 55.1 57.6 46.9 50.4 51.9 49.7 48.7 Cortland SSC (%) 18 36 9.5 10.0 10.3 10.0 10.4 10.0 10.2 10.0 10.2 10.1 10.7 10.3 0.5 9.1 9.9 9.9 10.3 10.2 10.5 10.4 10.4 10.5 9.8 10.0 9.9 Delicious SSC (%) 18 36 13.5 14.4 14.1 14.2 14.3 15.0 14.0 14.8 13.6 14.8 14.3 14.3 0.4 13.6 14.2 14.3 13.7 13.9 14.9 14.5 14.8 13.5 15.2 13.9 14.4

TA (% malic acid) 18 36 0.204 0.202 0.252 0.277 0.272 0.270 0.281 0.252 0.265 0.278 0.262 0.269 0.016 0.130 0.156 0.217 0.218 0.226 0.236 0.231 0.201 0.215 0.237 0.210 0.191

Firmness (N) 18 36 61.6 61.1 74.0 73.5 71.1 74.5 68.8 72.9 70.3 69.5 72.6 71.9 2.6 54.5 51.2 69.2 66.5 67.5 69.6 67.8 66.8 65.6 66.7 66.8 66.5


TA (% malic acid) 36 0.077 0.076 0.102 0.096 0.101 0.100 0.094 0.087 0.104 0.086 0.098 0.095 0.011

0.131 0.121 0.142 0.136 0.141 0.156 0.138 0.147 0.145 0.143 0.147 0.145


X. Lu et al. / Postharvest Biology and Technology 78 (2013) 4854 Table 3 Scald incidence in Cortland and Delicious apples after 36 weeks storage at 0.5 C plus 7 days at 20 C. Fruit were untreated, treated with 1 g L1 DPA diphenylamine (DPA) or with 1 L L1 1-MCP at various times (days) after harvest. Transformed data for Cortland are presented for comparison of means by LSD at P = 0.05; backtransformed means are shown in parentheses. Treatment Untreated DPA 1-MCP (d) 0 1 4 7 1+4 4+7 1+4+7 7 + 14 7 + 28 7 + 42 7 + 84 Cortland 90 (100) 42 (46) 0 (0) 4 (1) 34 (32) 6 (2) 14 (6) 2 (0.6) 17 (9) 36 (35) 37 (36) 38 (38) 3.9 Delicious 51 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0


1-MCP application to faster ripening cultivars within a few days of harvest. The revised label for SmartFreshTM that permits multiple applications is most benecial while the rooms are being loaded and during the early part of the storage period. Acknowledgments This research was partly supported by Federal Formula Funds NE1036, the New York Apple Research and Development Program, and AgroFresh, Inc. We thank Dr. Bruce Whitaker, USDA-ARS, Beltsville, for HPLC analyses of -farnesene and CTols. Xingang Lu and Yanping Ma thank the Chinese Scholarship Council for nancial support. References
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Table 4 Pearson correlation coefcient for supercial scald incidence of Cortland apples after 36 weeks air storage plus 7 d at 20 C and conjugated trienols (CTols) concentrations at successive sampling times during storage. Separate analyses were carried out for all data and for 1-MCP treatments alone. All relationships were signicant at P < 0.001. Sampling time (weeks) Correlation coefcient All data 6 12 18 24 30 36 0.906 0.845 0.857 0.848 0.823 0.641 1-MCP treatments only 0.430 0.730 0.798 0.800 0.778 0.700

(Blankenship and Dole, 2003; Sisler and Serek, 2003; Zhang et al., 2009, 2011). The ethylene data are broadly consistent with this view, the IECs of fruit treated with 1-MCP on day 7 with or without additional treatments being higher by week 6 of storage (Fig. 1). Interestingly, even though IECs of Delicious were lower than those of Cortland during storage, treatment effects could be detected. Patterns for -farnesene and CTols were affected in a similar fashion (Figs. 2 and 3) to IEC (Fig. 1). While the large effect of 1MCP on production of the substrate -farnesene and its oxidation products, CTols, was obvious compared with untreated and DPAtreated fruit, the effects of 1-MCP were generally less so during the earlier part of storage. CTols concentrations are often correlated with scald incidence (Huelin and Coggiola, 1968; Anet, 1972; Watkins et al., 1995; Whitaker et al., 1997). In our experiment, the correlations were initially poor for the 1-MCP treatments (Table 4). Unexpectedly, the correlations were lower at the last sampling time of 36 weeks than for most earlier time points. CTol accumulations also increased in 1-MCP treated Delicious apples (Fig. 3), and in a fashion consistent with the effects of 1-MCP on ethylene production. However, scald was not detected in any 1-MCP treated fruit (Table 3). It is possible that scald was present or developing, but not detectable to the naked eye, or that the low CTol concentrations reected low levels of free radical activity and/or oxidation products that were not damaging to the cell. In conclusion, repeated 1-MCP treatments appear to have greatest impact on fruit quality and scald control of the faster ripening cultivar, Cortland, when applied within 4 days of harvest. Delays as short as 7 days compromised control of scald and maintenance of quality, though a repeated application 14 days after harvest was partially effective. Although CA storage, instead of air storage as in this experiment, could increase the benets obtained by later applications, the present results strongly support the value of rapid


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