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Q estimation from CMP records

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Q estimation from CMP records

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10.1190/1.1512799

Estimation of quality factors from CMP records

Changjun Zhang

ABSTRACT

Estimates of the quality, Q, factor are commonly ob-

tained fromvertical seismic data or stacked surface seis-

mic data. This paper describes a method that allows

Q-factor tobeestimateddirectlyfromcommonmidpoint

(CMP) gathers. Absorption of the waveeld is depen-

dent on three parameters: frequency, traveltime in the

medium, and medium Q-factor. Assuming that the am-

plitude spectrum of the seismic source signature may be

modeled by that of a Ricker wavelet, we derive an ana-

lytical relation between Q-factor and seismic data peak

frequency variation both along offset and vertical time

direction. The Q-factor is estimated from CMP gathers

using a layer-stripping approach.

INTRODUCTION

Seismic waves traveling through the earth experience

absorptionmeaning attenuation and dispersionbecause of

theanelasticityandheterogeneityof themedium(Ricker, 1953;

Futterman, 1962; White, 1983; Kneib and Shapiro, 1995). Un-

derstanding, estimating, and compensating for absorption of

seismic waves are important in the quest to improve the res-

olution of seismic images, better interpret the effects of AVO,

and invert for material properties.

To compensate for absorption, we require an estimate of the

quality (Q) factor. Methods for estimating Q-factor from sur-

face seismic data are not well developed (Dasgupta and Clark,

1998). However, some research has been published concerning

the estimation of Q-factor from vertical seismic prole (VSP)

and crosswell data (Tonn, 1991). Almost all of these methods

use the amplitude of received signals, but this information is

often inaccurate because of noise, geometrical spreading, scat-

tering, and other effects.

Quan and Harris (1997) present a method for estimating

seismic absorption based on the frequency shift observed in

VSP data space. Since the centroid of the signals spectrum

Manuscript received by the Editor December 7, 1999; revised manuscript received December 21, 2001.

Formerly Department of Earth and Ocean Sciences, University of British Columbia; presently Kelman Technologies Inc., 600, 540 Fifth Ave. SW,

Calgary, Alberta T2P 0M2, Canada. E-mail: albert.zhang@kelman.com.

Department of Earth and Ocean Sciences, University of British Columbia, 2219 Main Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z4, Canada.

E-mail: ulrych@eos.ubc.ca.

c 2002 Society of Exploration Geophysicists. All rights reserved.

experiences a shift to lower frequencies during propagation,

they develop a relationship between Q-factor and the centroid

of an amplitude spectrum which is represented by a Gaussian,

boxcar, or triangular shape.

We showhowto estimate the Q-factor fromprestack gathers

based on two observations. First, a common midpoint (CMP)

section represents multiple observations of an underground

structure. It provides information in the time and offset do-

mains, allowing for the extraction of information concerning

structure, lithology, and material properties such as velocity

and Q-factor. Second, reection arrival times are determined

by interval velocities and the geometric structure of the subsur-

face. Absorption of the received signals is only determined by

the interval Q-factors and traveltimes in each layer. If the am-

plitude spectrumof a seismic wavelet is assumed to be Ricker-

like, interval Q-factors can be computed solely fromthe varia-

tion of the peak frequency of a spectrum as a function of time.

We begin by developing an equation that relates absorption

tospectral peakfrequency variation. Fromthis relationship, we

estimate interval Q-factors using a layer-stripping approach.

Tests show that the relationship determines interval Q-factor

values with reasonable accuracy.

ABSORPTION AND PEAK FREQUENCY VARIATION

In seismic data processing, a recorded trace is commonly

modeled as the convolution of a seismic source signature with

a reectivity series. The seismic source signature is generally

unknown, although in some cases it can be measured or is as-

sumed to be minimum phase. The effects of anelasticity can

be incorporated into the model by convolving it with an earth

lter. This lter is causal, minimum phase, and depends on

the Q-factor (Aki and Richards, 1980). In routine seismic pro-

cessing, inverse Q-factor ltering is often used to remove this

absorption effect (Hargreaves and Calvert, 1991; Varela et al.,

1993). Instead of studying the details of the absorption lter

response, we consider only the relationship between Q-factor

and peak frequency translation.

We begin by assuming that the amplitude spectrum of the

source wavelet can be well represented by that of a Ricker

1542

Quality Factor Estimation 1543

wavelet (Ricker, 1953). The frequency spectrum of a Ricker

wavelet is expressed by the equation

B( f ) =

2

f

2

f

2

m

e

f

2

f

2

m

, (1)

where f

m

is the dominant frequency of the main frequency. For

convenience, we refer to the frequency of maximumamplitude

as the peak frequency, denoted as f

p

. For a wavelet at its initial

state, the peak frequency is the dominant frequency.

Theevolutionof theamplitudespectrumthroughtimeis now

modeled as a Ricker wavelet traveling in a viscoelastic medium

(geometric spreading and other factors are not considered).

After traveling for a time t , the amplitude spectrum is

B( f, t ) =

_

2

__

f

2

f

2

m

_

e

f

2

f

2

m

H( f, t ). (2)

The value H( f, t ) is the absorption lter (Varela et al., 1993)

whose frequency response is

H( f ) = exp

_

_

ray

a( f, l) dl

_

, (3)

where the integral is evaluated along the raypath l, and

a( f, l) =

f

Q(l)v(l)

. (4)

Here, Q(l) and v(l) are the Q-factor and velocity, respec-

tively, dened along each point of the raypath. The value

Q(l) is assumed to be independent of frequency (Ricker, 1953;

Kjartansson, 1979; White, 1983).

One-layer case

By considering the propagationof a wave ina half-space with

a Q-factor for t seconds, we determine the amplitude spectrum

of the received signal as

B( f, t ) = B( f )e

f t

Q

. (5)

As time increases, absorption increases with frequency and re-

sults in the peak frequency translating toward lower frequency.

This phenomenon is clearly illustrated in Figure 1. Because

of absorption, the time width of the source wavelet increases

and the amplitude spectrum narrows.

If the traveltime is known, we can obtain the Q-factor from

the spectral variation. Acommon method to do this is the spec-

tral ratio method. Assume that a second wavelet is received

at time t

1

with a spectrum of

B( f, t

1

) = B( f )e

f t1

Q

. (6)

Comparing the two amplitude spectra, we obtain

B( f, t

1

)

B( f, t )

=

e

f t1

Q

e

f t

Q

. (7)

Taking logarithms, equation (7) becomes

ln

_

B( f, t

1

)

B( f, t )

_

=

f

Q

(t

1

t ). (8)

Denoting

A

r

= ln

_

B( f, t

1

)

B( f, t )

_

, (9)

plotting the logarithm of the spectral ratio A

r

as a function of

frequency f yields a linear trend whose slope p is a function

of Q, where

Q =

(t

1

t )

p

. (10)

The spectral ratio method is simple in principle, but in prac-

tice determining the Q-factor is complicated by overlapping

wavelets which lead to amplitude spectra that do not reect

the wavelet spectrum. The magnitude of the amplitude spec-

trum of seismic waves is affected by many factors, such as

underground structures, geometric spreading, and automatic

gain control (AGC), which is applied to balance the trace am-

plitude in seismic data processing. It is almost exclusively the

Q-factor, however, that affects the shape of the wavelet spec-

trum. Based on this idea, we have developed a method to esti-

mate the Q-factor from the spectral variation of reections

in a CMP gather. Because it contains both time and offset

information, a CMP gather is well suited to determine the

Q-factor.

Including all Q-factor unrelated functions into an amplitude

term, we write the amplitude spectrum as

B( f, t ) = A(t )B( f )e

f t

Q

, (11)

where A(t ) is an amplitude factor independent of frequency

and absorption. The peak frequency f

p

can be determined by

equating the derivative of the spectrum, with respect to fre-

quency, to zero:

FIG. 1. (a) An event in a CMPgather is generated by a reector

in an absorbing medium. Traces have been normalized based

on their maximum amplitudes. (b) Amplitude spectra of the

original source signature[0], trace 1[1], trace 11[11], and trace

21[21].

1544 Zhang and Ulrych

B( f, t )

f

= A(t )

B( f )

f

e

f t

Q

+ A(t )B( f )e

f t

Q

_

t

Q

_

= 0. (12)

From equation (1), determining

B( f )

f

=

2

_

2 f

f

2

m

_

e

f

2

f

2

m

+

2

_

f

2

f

2

m

_

e

f

2

f

2

m

_

2 f

f

2

m

_

(13)

and inserting this expression into equation (12), we obtain the

peak frequency at time t :

f

p

= f

2

m

_

_

_

t

4Q

_

2

+

_

1

f

m

_

2

t

4Q

_

. (14)

The relationship between Q-factor and the shift of peak fre-

quency is now

Q =

t f

p

f

2

m

2

_

f

2

m

f

2

p

_. (15)

This shows that if the dominant frequency f

m

is known, the

Q-factor can be computed from the CMP gather using only

one offset.

In practice, of course, we do not know the initial f

m

. How-

ever, it can be estimated if we assume that the amplitude spec-

trum of the initial source wavelet is approximated by a Ricker

wavelet. Designating the peak frequencies at times t

1

and t

2

by

f

p1

and f

p2

, respectively,

Q =

t

1

f

p1

f

2

m

2

_

f

2

m

f

2

p1

_ =

t

2

f

p2

f

2

m

2

_

f

2

m

f

2

p2

_. (16)

Thus, we can derive the dominant frequency of the source

wavelet fromthe peak frequencies of a reection at two differ-

ent time points:

f

m

=

_

f

p1

f

p2

(t

2

f

p1

t

1

f

p2

)

t

2

f

p2

t

1

f

p1

. (17)

Equations (15) and (17) allow us to obtain an average

Q-factor by using the peakfrequency variationalong all offsets,

therebyallowingus toremovetheeffects of surfaceuctuations

and randomnoise, consequently improving the accuracy of the

Q-factor.

Although we assume a Ricker amplitude spectrum in our

computations, other models are also possible because of its

similarity with observed amplitude spectra. One example is

the Gaussian spectrum of standard deviation :

B( f ) = exp

_

( f f

m

)

2

2

_

. (18)

Following the above procedure, the relationship between the

Q-factor and the variation of peak frequencies is

Q =

t

2

f

m

f

p

. (19)

For real seismic data, the amplitude spectrum of a seismic

wavelet is not exactly that of a Ricker or a Gaussian wavelet.

In many situations, however, it can still be approximated by a

Ricker spectrum (Ricker, 1953).

Multilayer case

Consider rst the case of two layers with quality factors Q

1

and Q

2

and traveltimes t

1

and t

2

in each layer, respectively.

Applying equation (11), we get

B( f, t ) = A(t )B( f )e

f t1

Q1

e

f t2

Q2

, (20)

where t =t

1

+t

2

. Using the peak frequency f

p

associated with

B( f, t ), Q

2

can be estimated by knowing Q

1

and the dominant

frequency f

m

of the source wavelet:

Q

2

=

t

2

Q

1

Q

1

t

1

(21)

where

=

2 f

2

m

2 f

2

p

f

p

f

2

m

. (22)

Now use the concept of an equivalent Q. In other words, let

e

f t1

Q1

e

f t2

Q2

= e

f t

Q

, (23)

which allows an expression to be derived that relates the inter-

val Q

2

to the equivalent Q-factor by

Q

2

=

t

2

Q

1

Q

(t

1

+t

2

)Q

1

t

1

Q

. (24)

The equivalent Q-factor can be calculated from equation (15)

using the peak frequency at time t . Since the dominant fre-

quency f

m

of the initial wavelet and Q

1

have already been

determined fromupper-layer arrivals and since t

1

and t

2

can be

estimated, then Q

2

can be computed from equation (24).

Given the complexity of the subsurface, some approxima-

tions must be made to use all offset information. Assuming

a multilayer medium, write the amplitude attenuation equa-

tion (11) as

B( f, t ) = A(t )B( f ) exp

_

N

i =1

f t

i

Q

i

_

, (25)

where Q

i

and t

i

are the quality factor and the traveltime in

layer i , respectively. Taking an approach from velocity estima-

tion, assume straight raypaths andcompute the total traveltime

of a reection at a particular offset as

N

i =1

t

i

= t

N

. (26)

Now dene t

0(N)

as the zero-offset traveltime of reection N,

Q

N

as the Q-factor value for layer N, and t

0(i )

as the zero-offset

traveltime of a reectionabove layer N. Using similar triangles,

the traveltime in layer i is

t

i

=

t

N

t

0(N)

_

t

0(i )

t

0(i 1)

_

. (27)

Furthermore, we can split the amplitude attenuation operator

in equation (25) into two factors as follows:

Quality Factor Estimation 1545

B( f, t ) = A(t )B( f ) exp

_

N1

i =1

f t

i

Q

i

_

exp

_

f t

N

Q

N

_

.

(28)

This allows us to obtain the following equation for Q

N

:

Q

N

=

t

N

, (29)

where is the same as that in equation (22) and

=

N1

i =1

t

i

Q

i

. (30)

The Q-factor values can now be calculated layer by layer

throughlayer stripping. Since a straight raypathapproximation

is used, the computed Q

N

is not the actual interval Q-factor.

Analogous to rms velocities, we refer to such Q-factor values

as rms Q-factor values. In a manner similar to interval velocity

analysis, we can determine the apparent interval Q-factor of

the i th layer, Q

i nt

i

, from the rms values using a relation similar

to the Dix formula:

Q

int

i

=

_

Q

2

i

t

0(i )

Q

2

i 1

t

0(i 1)

t

0(i )

t

0(i 1)

. (31)

We emphasize that Q

i

is the average of the calculated

Q-factor values at different offsets for layer i and t

0(i )

is the

zero-offset arrival time of reection i when the raypath is as-

sumed to be straight across interfaces. Since values of Q

i nt

are

derived from rms Q-factor values, they are apparent, rather

than real, interval Q-factors.

EXAMPLES AND DISCUSSION

To estimate the Q-factor fromCMP gathers, we assume that

the arrival times for the main reection events are known.

Fourier transforms are computed in the windowcontaining the

reection at each offset, each amplitude spectrumis tted with

a Ricker spectrum, and the peak frequency of the spectrum is

estimated. Using equations (17), (15), and (29), we can extract

the Q-factors layer by layer from peak frequency variation.

Figure 2 shows a simple test on a synthetic CMP gather with

two events. The original Ricker wavelet has a dominant fre-

quency of 60 Hz. Absorption is modeled by using low Q-factor

values to emphasize the effect; the values in the two layers

are 10 and 20, respectively. The actual and estimated Q-factor

curves are shown in Figures 2b and 2c, respectively. The cor-

responding dominant frequency is estimated as 60.67 Hz. The

agreement between the corresponding values shows that the

method works well for ideal synthetic data.

The variation of peak frequencies with offset is shown in

Figure 3. The remarkable decrease is, of course, from absorp-

tion. This example demonstrates clearly why absorption must

be compensated for if resolution of prestack data is an is-

sue. Theoretically, for large Q-factors or weak attenuation,

this method will work. But in practice, the errors in the mea-

sured variation of peak frequencies are relatively large and will

decrease the accuracy of estimated Q-factor values.

Once we determine the Q-factor, we are faced with the task

of inverse Q-ltering. The details of the inverse Q-lters are

not discussed in this paper. An example showing the effect of

inverse Q-ltering on a prestack CMP gather using obtained

Q-factor values is illustrated in Figure 4. A synthetic CMP

gather comprised of three reections is modeled in Figure 4a,

where signal amplitudes remain unbalanced. The rst two re-

ections merge at far offsets; we consider them as one to esti-

mate the peak frequency variation. The extracted Q-factors

are shown in Figure 4b at relative magnitude. Using these

values, inverse Q-ltering is performed. The compensated re-

sult is shown in Figure 4c, demonstrating that the reections

associated with the two upper layers are separated.

These two examples show the validity of our method for

Q-factor estimation and the resolution improvement of

prestack seismic records using accurate Q-factor values. Al-

though our method is illustrated using CMP geometry, it can

FIG. 2. (a) A synthetic CMP gather of two reections with ab-

sorptionand10%randomnoise. Traces have alsobeennormal-

ized based on their maximumamplitudes. (b) Real Q-factor in

layers 1 and 2. It is unknown in layer 3. (c) Computed Q-factor

values.

FIG. 3. Variation of peak frequencies of the two reection

events in Figure 2. Solid line is for the rst layer. Dashed line

is for the second layer.

1546 Zhang and Ulrych

FIG. 4. The effect of inverse Q-ltering. (a) A synthetic CMP

gather with three reections. (b) Extracted Q-factor values.

Two layers have been separated. (c) Result of absorption com-

pensation.

FIG. 5. A real data example. (a) The original common shot

gather. (b) The common shot gather after inverse Q-ltering.

The Q curve is not shown here.

also work on common source gathers (CSGs) if the geometry

difference can be neglected by considering the substructure as

a horizontally layered medium.

The next step is to test our extracted Q-factors in real data

processing. A CSG gather obtained from a shallow seismic

survey is shown in Figure 5a. Absorption phenomena can be

observed from the broadened wave shape along the time axis.

The inverse Q-ltering result, showninFigure 5b, was obtained

using the Q-compensationlter basedonthe methodproposed

by Varela et al. (1993). Generally, aninverse Q-lter is unstable

for high-frequency noise. To stabilize the process, before atten-

uation compensation was performed, the data were processed

by low-pass frequency ltering to attenuate the frequency

content above 40 Hz.

CONCLUSION

Absorption effects as a function of offset may be mistakenly

interpreted as AVO phenomena. Without prestack Q-factor

compensation, the reection amplitudes may appear to de-

crease with offset. Compensating for absorption in prestack

data can improve the resolution of seismic data and be impor-

tant for AVO analysis.

Figure 4 clearly shows that signals attenuate as a function of

bothtraveltimeandoffset. Absorptioncompensation, basedon

theunderlyingphysics of theabsorbingprocess, lets us compute

a section with increased resolution. Subsequently, a stationary

source wavelet can be used to improve the resolution by means

of deconvolution. It is superior to conventional deconvolution

techniques which rely on an adaptive formulation of wavelet

estimation.

Prestack inverse Q-ltering is well suited to compensate

for attenuation. It is superior to poststack compensation since

stacking distorts the frequency information of the original seis-

mic data. It is advisable to extract Q-factors fromprestack seis-

mic data that have not been processed by frequency ltering

methods that violate the assumptions of our method.

Prestack processing provides another dimensionoffset

that increases the information available for signal and noise

separation. Inverse Q-factor compensation performed in the

prestack domain can provide a balanced signal spectrum over

offset and over time as well, improving the vertical and lateral

resolution of the nal image.

Underground lithology is characterized by its velocity, den-

sity, and Q-factor. While the Q-factor does not affect the ar-

rival times of reections, it does affect amplitude and the sig-

nals frequency content. Extracting velocity information from

CMP gathers is a common practice. We have devised an anal-

ogous approach to estimate the absorption character from the

variation of spectrum with both time and offset. We derived

a relationship that computes Q-factors from observed peak

frequency variation, based on the reasonable assumption of a

Ricker-like amplitude spectrum of the source signature.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

This research was carried out with grants from the compa-

nies who support CDSST, a consortium for the development

of specialized seismic technology at the University of British

Columbia, Canada. Our gratitude goes to the three review-

ers for their constructive comments and suggestions. C. Z.

also extends his thanks to the R&D department of Kelman

Technologies Inc.

REFERENCES

Aki, K., and Richards, P. G., 1980, Quantitative seismologyTheory

and methods: W. H. Freeman & Co., 167185.

Dasgupta, R., and Clark, R. A., 1998, Estimation of Q from surface

seismic reection data: Geophysics, 63, 21202128.

Quality Factor Estimation 1547

Futterman, W. I., 1962, Dispersive body waves: J. Geophys. Res., 67,

52795291.

Hargreaves, N. D., and Calvert, A. J., 1991, Inverse Q-ltering by

Fourier transform: Geophysics, 56, 519527.

Kjartansson, E., 1979, Constant Q-wave propagation and attenuation:

J. Geophys. Res., 84, 47374748.

Kneib, G., and Shapiro, S. A., 1995, Viscoacoustic wave propagation

in 2-D random media and separation of absorption and scattering

attenuation: Geophysics, 60, 459467.

Quan, Y., and Harris, J. M., 1997, Seismic attenuation tomography

using the frequency shift method: Geophysics, 62, 895905.

Ricker, N., 1953, The formand laws of propagation of seismic wavelets:

Geophysics, 18, 1040.

Tonn, R., 1991, The determination of the seismic quality factor Q

from VSP data: A comparison of different computational method:

Geophys. Prosp., 39, 127.

Varela, C. L., Rosa, A. L., and Ulrych, T. J., 1993, Modeling of attenu-

ation and dispersion: Geophysics, 58, 11671173.

White, J. E., 1983, Underground sound application of seismic waves:

Elsevier Science Publ. Co., Inc., 83137.

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