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MachineComponentDesignI

(INME4011)
by

PabloG.CaceresValencia (B.Sc.,Ph.D.U.K.)

GENERALINFORMATION
CourseNumber CourseTitle CreditHours Instructor Office OfficeHours email Website INME4011 MachineComponentDesignI 3 Dr.PabloG.CaceresValencia Luccetti L212PhoneExt.2358 TuTh from7:30to10:45am pcaceres@me.uprm.edu http://academic.uprm.edu/pcaceres

Assessment
Thecoursewillbeassessedinthefollowingmanner: 1st PartialExam 22% 2nd PartialExam 24% Project 22% Quizzes 24%(*) ClassParticipationandAttendance 8%(**)
(*)DatedueMoodle QuizzesandPopQuizzes(max8).Missedquizzeswill begradedwithzero.LackofaccesstoInternet(Moodle)isnotanexcusefor notsubmittingyouranswers. (**)ClassparticipationandAttendance.Afterthethirdmissedclass,one pointwillbedeductedinthefinalgradeforeachmissedclass(upto8 points).

Grades

FinalGradeRange 100 90 89 80 79 70 69 60 59 0

FinalLetterGrade A B C D F

Attendance
Attendanceandparticipationinthelecturearecompulsory andwill beconsideredinthegrading.Studentsshouldbringcalculators, rulers,penandpencilstobeusedduringthelectures.Studentsare expectedtokeepupwiththeassignedreadingandbepreparedto solveproblemsinclassandforthepopquizzes.Pleaserefertothe BulletinofInformationforUndergraduateStudiesforthe DepartmentandCampusPolicies.

Exams
Allexamswillbeconductedoutsidelectureperiodsonthespecified dates.Thefinalprojectduedateisthedatefortheendofclasses. Therewillbenofinalexam. Neatnessandorderwillbetakingintoconsiderationinthegradingof theexams.Uptotenpointscanbedeductedforthelackofneatness andorder.Youmustbringcalculators,classnotesandblankpagesto theexams.

Texbooks
Mylecturenotesareavailableinthewebat

http://academic.uprm.edu/pcaceres
FundamentalsofMachineElements B.J.Hamrock,S.R.Schmid,B.Jacobson MachineDesign:AnIntegratedApproach RobertNorton,3erEd.PrenticeHall MechanicalEngineeringDesign J.E.Shigley,C.R.Mischke,R.G.Budynas.

TENTATIVESDATES
Week 09/13 09/27 10/11 10/25 11/08 11/22 12/06 12/20 01/10 IntroductiontoDesign,ReviewLoad, Stress,Strain. BasicElasticity 3DStressesandStrains StaticFailureTheories Exam1 MaterialsandManufacturing Q4 FractureToughness Q5 FailurePredictionCyclic&Impact Q6 FinalProjectPresentation ClassesEnd Week 09/20 10/04 10/18 11/01 11/15 11/29 12/13 12/27 ReviewLoad,Stress,Strain. Q1 BasicElasticity. Q2 StressConcentration. Q3 MidTermProjectPresentation MaterialsSelection/Fracture Toughness FailurePredictionCyclic&Impact FailurePredictionCyclic&Impact Q7Exam2 FinalProjectPresentation ClassesEnd GRADES

Outcomes
Uponthecompletionofthecoursethestudentshouldbeableto: Calculatetheprincipalstressesandstrainsinaloaded component Identifythelocationofthecriticalpointonamachine componentandcalculatethestressesatthatpoint. Applythebasicstatictheoriesoffailureinthedesigningof machinessubjectedtostaticloading. Applythebasicfatiguefailuretheoriesinthedesigningof machinesubjectedtodynamicloading

Evolution of Engineering Research & Education


Engineering disciplines 1910 Quantum Mechanics Sputnik 1960 Information Technology Engineering Nano-Bio-Info 2010 ? Science We are entering an era of integrated science & engineering, during which the boundaries of the disciplines will grow increasingly indistinct Tables, formulae, etc. If it moves, its Mechanical, if it doesnt move, its Civil, and If you cant see it, its Electrical

Engineering disciplines Sciences

The era of science-based engineering

Taken from Tim Sands, Prof. UC. Berkeley

Product Realization in Mechanical Engineering


This approach is driven by the understanding that ME is founded in and perpetuated through the innovation and creation of products and therefore ME students should be able to apply learned concepts and make real-world connections.
The key to 21st century competitive advantage will be the development of products with increasing levels of functionality. Smart Materials will play a critical role in this development, where we define these as materials that form part of a smart structural system that has the capability to sense its environment and the effects thereof and, if truly smart, to respond to that external stimulus via an active control mechanism.
Smart Materials for the 21st century a publication of the Institute of Materials, Minerals and Mining (IOM3) http://www.iom3.org/foresight/Smart%20materials%20web.pdf

Design
Transformation of concepts and ideas into useful machinery.

Machine
Combination of mechanisms and other components that transforms, transmit or uses energy, load or motion for a specific purpose

Design of Machine Component


Fundamental practice in engineering.

Code of Ethics for Engineers (ASME 1997)


Engineers shall hold paramount the safety, health and welfare of the public in the performance of their professional duties

Product Scope and Characteristics

http://www.prz.tu-berlin.de/~www-kt/lehre/hs/ed/dokumente_ed_vl/2005,WS,ED,VL-01.Termin,Vortrag.pdf

Design
A design must be:
Functional- fill a need or customer expectation Safe- not hazardous to users or bystanders Reliable- conditional probability that product will perform its intended function without failure to a certain age. Competitive- contender in the market Usable- accommodates human size and strength Manufacturable- minimal number of parts and suitable for production Marketable- product can be sold and serviced

Effects of Manufacturing and Assembly

Design of a Reciprocating Power Saw: Effects on Manufacturing and Assembly (1) Original Design: 41 parts, assembly time: 6:37min. (2) Modified Design: 29 parts, assembly time: 2:58min. (Boothroyd 1992)

Approaches to Product Development


(a) Over-The-Wall Engineering Approach (from Kalpakjian [1997]). (b) Concurrent Engineering Approach (adapted from Pugh [1996]).

Over-the-Wall (OTW)
One designer applies his/her particular skill and send it OTW to the next step in development. If a problem is discovered, for example in manufacturing, the product is send back to be redesigned.

In manufacturing: an Engineer must first design something. Design Manufacture


The design phase For every design there The design is sent to is eventually a the manufacturer manufacturing phase

In practice, the design may well be impossible to manufacture.

Concurrent Engineering Approach


Philosophy of involving many disciplines from the beginning of a design effort and keeping them involved throughout product development.

Design is a multidisciplinary endeavor


Examples of manufacturing Boeing 747 being manufactured in Seattle

One of the first examples of Concurrent Engineering

Boeing 777

Design Methodology: what engineers do


from Ashby and Jones; Engineering Materials 2

Define the function component to carry a load Material Selection Tentative choice of material Assemble Materials Data
iterate

Example: A Cantilever Component Design

Tentative component design Approximate stress analysis

Analysis of Materials Performance Detailed Specifications and Design

iterate

Choice of Production This Cantilever Stand is intended for Methods to heavy-duty use moderate iterate either the Frontier III or Glas-Hide Boards in certain lengths on iterate with Prototype Testing residential pools. There are no unusual climatic restrictions for this stand's use. Establish Production Further Development

Look at the Engineering Science of this design scheme:


Define the function component to carry a load Material Selection Tentative choice of material Assemble Materials Data Component Design Tentative component design Approximate stress analysis

Choose materials for components from metals, ceramics, plastics, composites? End Load Assemble Materials Data? Cost, density, elastic properties, yield stress, hardness, tensile stress, strength Uniform Distribution Triangular Distribution to weight ratio, ductility, fracture toughness, fatigue stress, thermal expansion coefficient, thermal conditioning, specific heat, thermal End Moment Intermediate Load shock resistance, creep, oxidation/corrosion rates

Product Liability
Strict liability concept prevails in the U.S. Manufacturers are liable for any damage or harm that results from a defect.

Codes and Standards


Code- a set of specifications for the analysis, design, manufacture, and construction of something Standard- a set of specifications for parts, materials, or processes intended to achieve uniformity, efficiency, and a specified quality

Organizations
Aluminum Association (AA) American Gear Manufacturers Association (AGMA) American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC) American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) American National Standards Institute (ANSI) American Society for Metals (ASM) American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) American Society of Testing Materials (ASTM) American Welding Society (AWS) American Bearing Manufacturers Association (ABMA) British Standards Institute (BSI) Industrial Fasteners Institute (IFI) Institution of Mechanical Engineers (I. Mech. E.) International Bureau of Weights and Measures (BIPM) International Standards Organization (ISO) National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers (ASABE)

Design Philosophy
Design
If the load is known and the geometry is specified, determine the material and the safety factor. If the load is known and the material is specified, determine the safety factor and the geometry (dimensions).

Analysis
If the load is known and the material and geometry are specified, determine the safety factor Is it safe??

Also check deflection!!

Critical Section
The critical section is the location in the design where the largest internal stress is developed and failure is most likely. In general, the critical section will often occur at locations of geometric non-uniformity, such as where a shaft changes its diameter along a fillet.

Safety Factors
FOR DUCTILE MATERIALS:
N = 1.25 to 2.0 N = 2.0 to 2.5 N = 2.5 to 4.0 N = 4.0 or higher Static loading, high level of confidence in all design data Dynamic loading, average confidence in all design data Static or dynamic with uncertainty about loads, material properties, complex stress state, etc Above + desire to provide extra safety

Uncertainty
Stochastic Design Factor Method- uncertainty in stress and strength is quantified for linearly proportional loads

Average Strength nd = = Average Stress s


Measures of Strength

S Strength Ss Shear Strength Sy Yield Strength Su Ultimate Strength S - Mean Strength

Measures of Stress Shear Stress Normal Stress 1 Principal Stress y Stress in y-direction r Radial Stress t Tangential Stress Stress Allowable (AISC) Tension: 0.45 Sy all 0.60 Sy Shear: all = 0.40 Sy Bending: 0.60 Sy all 0.75 Sy Bearing: all = 0.90 Sy

SUGGESTED SAFETY (DESIGN) FACTORS FOR ELEMENTARY WORK based on yield strength - according to Juvinall & Marshek op cit.

1.25 - 1.5 for exceptionally reliable materials used under controllable conditions and subjected to loads and stresses that can be determined with certainty - used almost invariably where low weight is a particularly important consideration 1.5 - 2 for well-known materials under reasonably constant environmental conditions, subjected to loads and stresses that can be determined readily.

2 - 2.5 for average materials operated in ordinary environments and subjected to loads and stresses that can be determined. 2.5 - 3 for less tried materials or for brittle materials under average conditions of environment, load and stress. 3 - 4 for untried materials used under average conditions of environment, load and stress. It should also be used with betterknown materials that are to be used in uncertain environments or subject to uncertain stresses. Repeated Cyclic loads : the factors established above are acceptable but must be applied to the endurance limit (ie. a fatigue strength ) rather than to the yield strength of the material. Impact forces : the factors given above are acceptable, but an impact factor (the above dynamic magnification factor ) should be included.

Brittle materials : the ultimate strength is used as the theoretical maximum, the factors presented above should be doubled. Where higher factors might appear desirable, a more thorough analysis of the problem should be undertaken before deciding on their use. Need to take into account the statistical nature of materials properties