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EGU 2011 3-8 April 2011, Viena, Austria

The Romanian littoral coastal geomorphologic changes during the last half of Century (1961-2011); its impact on the coastal development and solutions for protection and rehabilitation
Mihaela Laurenta Alexandrov (1), Razvan Doru Mateescu (1), and the Razvan Doru Mateescu Team (1) 1N.I.M.R.D. Grigore Antipa, Blvd. Mamaia, no.300, Constanta, code 900581, ROMANIA, (2) University of Bucharest, Faculty of Geography, Bd. Nicolae Balcescu no.1 Sector 1, code 010041, Bucharest

BLACK SEA BASIN


- Total area: 4.2 x 105 km2 - Total water volume: 547,015 km3

- Maximum depth: 2,212 m - Drainage basin: > 2 million km2 - Shoreline length: - Population: > 4,100 km

> 160 million people

- Riparian countries: 6 (Bulgaria, Georgia, Romania, Russian Federation, Turkey, Ukraine)

ROMANIAN COAST
OF THE BLACK SEA

Over 244 km length (between Musura Branch si Vama Veche). Represent 6% of total length of Black Sea shore Geographically is formed by:

Natural shore (beach and cliffs circa 84%)

Artificial shore (ports, coastal structures for protection - circa 16% ). The charactheristical zones of the shore are divided in two geomorphological units:

Northern unit (the Danube Delta and the Razim-Sinoe lagoon complex), stretching on 170 km, from Ucraina border to Midia and consist on shore with delats, lagoons and levees, been formed of marine-river accretions, recent shells sands, desposed under shapes of beach and litoral belts with relativelow cota, often less than 2m; Southern unit (Cap Midia - Vama Veche, at Bulgarian border), with a approximatelly length of 74 km, it is a relative high shore, with cliffs, mostlly active, of maximum high is ircca 35 m., and small beaches at basis

Length OF COASTALINE PER UNIT OF LAND AREA (KM/1000SKM)


JAPAN USA GERMANY ENGLAND FRANCE ITALY 91.3 2.2 6.8 51.4 6.2 17

CANADA
KOREA ROMANIA

10
24.1 0.97

MAIN THREATS
in the Romanian coastal zone
Coastal erosion / floods threatens most at: Northern sector: -Section between Sulina & St. George and south of St. George Southern sector: Mamaia Constanta Eforie Nord Eforie Sud Costinesti Olimp to Mangalia Pollution caused by: Non-point sources (agriculture) Point-sources (ind.+ mun. waste water) Potential water shortage in North of Constanta County Land use Potential land-use conflicts due to: increasing land demand due to urban growth. increasing land demand for tourism development

increasing land demand for industrialization close to urban centers


unplanned settlements

ANTHROPOGENIC PRESURES
on Romanian CZ
zone: Agriculture and food industry Marin Fishing Constructions/holiday houses Aerial transport/Airports Ports/Navigation Touristic Ports Shipyards Manufacture Industry Extractive Industry Nuclear Industry Petrochemical Industry /Oil-refineries Tourism and recreation Military and Defence Activities (inland/marine)

Rapid devlopment of different socio-economic activities within natural space of the c

Environmental problems induced by anthropogenic factor, identified in the Roma coastal zone, are the following:

Coastal Erosion/Unbalanced Sediment situation

Natural resources extraction/beach sand Water pollution /air (hydrocarbons, greenhouse effect gases, s.a.) Coastal floodings / Transport Over-Exploitation of fish stocks Habitats losing/Endangered species Population growth/ Urban expansion Uncontrolled development of touristic and recreation activities over th tourism carrying capacity (inefficient solid waste management)

COASTAL FLOODINGS

Main Causes of Coastal Erosion


The human interventions on ecological value under Romanian Shore: Natural sites with high the influence of of the hydrotehnical works on the - the development coastal erosion main river courses, having as effect the decreasing of solid discharge of Danube river with more than 5070% (Bondar et al, 1992) LEGEND Natural sites - the extension of the navigation jetties and port Area in hectares 5000 2000 500 breakwaters having as effect the deviation of coastal 0 sediments drift through distancing/separation of their discharging point in the sea; - the sequential, superposed, redundant development of the hard coastal protection construction
3000

Danube Sediment Discharge at Vadu Oii hydrographic station Km.247 (1961-1996)

Sediment Discharge Rs (Kg/s)

2000

Iron Gates II
y = 0.0897x3 - 532.18x2 + 1E+06x - 7E+08 R2 = 0.7382

1500

1000 y = 54.285x - 105108 R2 = 0.1492 500

Iron Gates I

2500

y = -28.831x + 57755 R2 = 0.4908

y = -25.563x + 51386 R2 = 0.2977

SHORELINE CHANGES
The Northern Unit
AFP-very strong accretion AP-strong accretion AM-medium accretion AS- low accretion SR-dynamic stability ES-low erosion EM-medium erosion EP-strong erosion EFP-very strong erosion >+325m; +226+325; +126+225; +26+125; +25-25; -26-125; -126-225 -226-325; <-325.
A FP EFP 11% 2% AP 4% AM 9% AS 8%

Shoreline changes 1962-2007 Sulina-Vadu


Erosion/Accretion (m) -1000.00 -500.00 0.00 500.00
Sulina Radare

Canal So nda Lacul Ro su

1962-2003 EROSION = 78% DYNAMIC STABILITY= 6% ACCRETION = 22%

Casla Vadanei

No rd Sf Gheo rghe

Sf. Gheo rghe

Cio tica
SR 6%
Eroziune Acretiune

Zato nul M ic

EP 11% EM 32%

ES 17%
Plaje Faleze Activitti industriale si porturi Statiuni litorale Facilitti turistice si recreationale

Zato nul M are

AFP

AP

AM

AS

SR

ES

EM

EP

EFP

Rezervatia Biosferei Delta Dunrii Zone de pescuit litoral Sisteme de protectie a trmului

Sections (1km)

P eriso r P eriteasca

EVOLUTIA LINIEI TARMULUI ROMANESC AL MARII NEGRE

The Southern Unit


AFP-very strong accretion AP-strong accretion >+35m; +35+25.1;

Institutul National de Cercetare-Dezvoltare Marin Grigore Antipa Constanta

1981-2003
EROSION = 42% DYNAMIC STABILITY = 18% ACRETIUNE = 40%
EFP EP 10 % EM 7% 10 % AFP 3% AP 7% AM 7%

No rd Gura P o rtitei

EROSION

ACCRETION

AM-medium accretion
AS-low accretion SR-dynamic stability ES-low erosion EM-medium erosion EP-strong erosion EFP-very strong erosion

+25+15.1;
+15+5.1; +5-5; -5.1-15; -15.1-25 -25.1-35; <-35.

Sud Gura P o rtitei Far P o rtita

No rd P eribo ina P eribo ina

Edighio l

Gr Chituc
AS 19% ES 20 % SR 17%

Graniceri

A FP

AP

AM

AS

SR

ES

EM

EP

EFP
Gr. Chituc-Vadu Vadu

SHORELINE MAPPING
GPS measurements
Sand-belt closing Musura bay:
2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2002

SHORELINE MAPPING - cont


Shoreline changes 1962-2007 Sulina-Vadu
Erosion/Accretion (m) -1000.00 -500.00 0.00 500.00
Sulina Radare Canal So nda Lacul Ro su Casla Vadanei

No rd Sf Gheo rghe

Sf. Gheo rghe

Cio tica

Zato nul M ic

Zato nul M are

Sections (1km)

P eriso r P eriteasca

No rd Gura P o rtitei

Sud Gura P o rtitei Far P o rtita

No rd P eribo ina P eribo ina

Edighio l

Gr Chituc Graniceri

Gr. Chituc-Vadu Vadu

COASTAL DELINEATION STUDIES:


boundaries issues/setbaks

GIS Support for Experimental research on the wave run-up

ASSESSMENT OF COASTAL EROSION / VULNERABILITY Shoreline position


Beach width Distance from infrastructure

Beach Volume Temporal change


Accretion or erosion? How long until Beach width? Beach volume? Infrastructure/ecosystem compromised?

ACTUAL STATE OF SOUTHERN ROMANIAN LITTORAL


The shore of southern sector (Midia - Vama Veche) due to geological structure, and mostly to the hard substrate of platform calcareous, as well as local hydrometeorological conditions were suffered an intense modifications, thus: The southern sector of Mamaia resort was retreat with circa 50 m (1990-2003); The International Camp Beach (Eforie Sud) was retreat with 50 m (1981 - 1998); The area of Neptun Beach had registered more than 24 m loss(1981 - 1992); The Venus - Saturn Beach was retreat with 36 m (1983 - 1992); The northern area of Costinestis cliff ware retreat with more than 40m (19882002). Also, due to absence of maintenance actions, from the constructive point of view, the groins state emphasized 45 % good stage, 25 % medium stage of altering and 30 % accentuated stage of deterioration.

DAMAGING OF COASTAL PROTECTION WORKS

2011

Mamaia Eforie Jupiter

The implementation of soft solutions for coastal protection

Why ICZM in Romania?


1.Intensive use of resources: over- fishing, pollution, coastal erosion; 2. Population pressure & urbanization: relative high population growth in coastal areas and towns; 3.Envisaged long term impacts of global Climate Change: - Accelerated Sea Level Rise (+/- 60cm/century), - Increase of weather turbulence, - Increase of salt water intrusion.
Marine Strategy Framework Directive: establishes a framework within which: Member States shall take the necessary measures to achieve or maintain good environmental status in the marine environment by the year 2020 at the latest.

Sulina Channel

Sulina area
Black Sea

INTERNATIONAL DOCUMENTS
Rio de Janeiro Declaration on Environment and Development with its Agenda 21(1992) The Bucharest Convention (1992 -on the protection of the Black Sea against pollution The Odessa Ministerial Declaration (1993) - to introduce the ICZM process in the Black Sea coastal zones Black Sea Strategic Action Plan (BS SAP) (1996) The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Seas, UNCLOS Ramsar Convention European Landscape Convention Convention on access to information, public participation and access to justice in environmental matters (Aarhus Convention). EIA Convention MARPOL Convention Kyoto Protocol of United Nation Framework Convention on Climate Change Recommendation of the Implementation of the Integrate Coastal Zone Management European Union and Council Parliament Water Framework Directives and European Daughters Directives

CONVENTION / PROTOCOLS

LEGAL FRAMEWORK for ICZM in ROMANIA


Law on Law

Environmental Protection 137/1995 modified by law

of Water 107/1996

Ministry Order
Law Law Law

for the Methodologies on EIA 184/1997

on Spatial Protected Areas 5/2000 of Fishery 192/2001

on territorial planning and urbanism 488/2001 Law on Juridical Administration of the Maritime Waters 17/1993 and 36/2002 Government decision for approving the norms for discharging condition of the waste waters into the aquatic environment 188/2002 Emergency Ordinance of Government (UOG) on Integrated Coastal Zone Management 202/2002 Law for approval the UOG 202/2002 on ICZM 280/2003

MAIN BODIES INVOLVED


their roles and instruments
National Committee: - Facilitates, co-ordinates, guides and oversees the process of strategy development and strategy implementation (assisted by the Techncial Secretariat) - Approves any adjustment, update or new strategy for the coastal zone - Approves the creation of Working or Expert Groups - Supervises the work done by the (strengthened) Technical Secretariat Technical Secretariat: Carries out preparatory work and supports the NC in all relevant matters Monitors the state of the coastal zone Advises the National Committee Regional and Local Government Agencies: Transpose the strategy into regional / local sector policies and plans Implement the integrated sector policies and plans by using the instruments available through existing laws and regulations

Institutional and legislative measures


underlined in Coastal Law
Specific legislation in course of updating - coastal zone law or development - ICZM Strategy& Action Plan Institutional structure: National Committee, Working Groups &Technical Secretariat
Technical Secretariat

National Committee

National ICZM Strategy

National Level

Working Group Working Group Working Group

Strategic Monitoring & Control

Local & Regional Level

Territorial and Urban planning

Integrated Water Resources Management

Environmental Management & Nature Protection

Local sector agencies

Health, Education, etc

Trade & Commerce

Agriculture

Fisheries

Tourism

Industry

of the Romanian ICZM law


The

WEAKNESSES

methodology to set the geographical boundaries of the coastal public domain is not yet identified;
Some

important procedures are not clearly defined (e.g. expropriation, concessions, licenses);
Vertical

integration is not completely developed;

The

involvement of coastal stakeholders is weak;

National stocktaking process is not established; is centralized

Planning

Conclusions

Romanian coastal area is confronting with a significant issues toward European WFD/ICZM/MSPDs Implementation and also: Implementation of the national coastal law/ICZM rules and regulations
In the near future, the adoption and the optimisation of the conservationrehabilitation measures (including complementary soft protection methods) for the southern sector will have to include a better regional management of sediments transported by the Danube river into the coastal zone of the Danube Delta, recovery of beach surfaces with sedimentary deficit Developed monitoring-modeling-management systems/tools for flood control Changing the vision: redesign the polders/retention basins/levees

Erosion control

Floods control

Conclusion cont.
Implementation of CZ/ICZM policies has great socioeconomic importance for coastal stakeholders and contributes to the CZ protection and management. EU integrated MARITIME Spatial Planning/ICZM policy to supports the coastal delimitation/delineation policy and also contributes to the sustainable development of the CZ The new setbaks limits&resettlement have an important role in CZ protection and management but it may create a further population/investment pressure in the Romanian BSCZ The CZs ecological&physical condition: not optimal for the ecological integration, and it is crucial to consider the ecosystem based practices for Romanian BSCZ

THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION !