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Energy Com'ers. Mgmt Vol. 39. No. I/2, pp. 81 86.

1998

Pergamon
PIh

S0196-8904(96)00175-6

i ~ 1997 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved Printed in Great Britain 0196-8904,98 $19.00 + 000

M O D E L I N G A N D S I M U L A T I O N OF C O M B I N E D GAS T U R B I N E E N G I N E A N D H E A T PIPE SYSTEM F O R WASTE HEAT RECOVERY AND UTILIZATION


N. J. LAMFON, t Y. S. H. NAJJAR: and M. AKYURT2
~Saudi Aramco Jeddah Refinery, Jeddah, and -~Mechanical Engineering Department, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 9027, Jeddah 21413, Saudi Arabia
(Received 11 March 1996)

Abstract--The results of a modeling and simulation study are presented for a combined system consisting of a gas turbine engine, a heat pipe recovery system and an inlet-air cooling system. The presentation covers performance data related to the gas turbine engine with precooled air intake as coupled to the water-in-copper heat pipe recovery system. This is done by matching the two mathematical models. The net power output is improved by l 1% when the gas turbine engine is supplied with cold air produced by the heat-pipe recovery and utilization system. It is further concluded from the results produced by the combined mathematical model that the thermal efficiency of the gas turbine engine rises to 6% at 75% part load. It is to be anticipated that this rising trend in increases of thermal efficiencyof the gas turbine engine would continue for operations at other (lower) part load conditions. ~" 1997 Elsevier Science Ltd. Gas turbine engine Thermal efficiency Heat pipe Heat recovery Modeling and simulation Precooling

1. INTRODUCTION Gas turbine exhaust temperatures typically range from above 5 0 0 C at full load, d o w n to about 250"C at part load. This is a temperature range that is ideally suited to most industrial process requirements. On the other hand, the thermal efficiency o f the m o d e r n gas turbine m a y exceed 35% for high pressure engines. F o r the low pressure ratio engines under consideration, however, thermal efficiencies o f gas turbines are rarely above 25% at full load, and deteriorate down to about 12% at low part load. The rated capacity o f m a n y stationary gas turbines used for the generation of electricity is in the megawatt range. Typical capacities o f such turbines m a y range from 1 to 100 MW. Considering, as an example, a 50 M W engine running at 20% efficiency at part load, the rate o f production o f recoverable waste energy would be expected to be in the order o f a staggering 125 M W . It is important to mention that a b o u t 80% o f the electric power used in Saudi Arabia is currently generated by gas turbine engines. It is this vast source o f (recoverable) energy at which the present study is aimed; the recovery o f waste heat from the exhaust gases o f industrial gas turbine power plants and, thereby, boosting plant performance by the utilization o f the recovered energy to cool the inlet air to the engine. In efforts to boost the performance o f the gas turbine engine, Tsujikawa and Sawada [1] studied the case where the inlet air to the compressor is cooled by means of liquid nitrogen. O n d r y a s et al. [2] investigated various options for cooling the inlet air, including mechanical vapor compression and absorption refrigeration. They recommended the a d o p t i o n o f the a q u a - a m m o n i a absorption chilling system as the most suitable option economically. Malewski and Holldorff [3] analysed the performance o f the gas turbine engine when fitted with an a q u a - a m m o n i a absorption refrigeration system to cool the inlet air. In their system, the generator received the required heat from the exhaust gases by a direct contact heat exchanger. The gas turbine engine under consideration in the present study is an industrial, simple type gas turbine engine consisting o f an axial flow compressor, tubular combustion c h a m b e r and an axial 81

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al.:

MODELINGOF COMBINED GAS TURBINE ENGINE

flow turbine. The engine is designed to run on Diesel oil at 5100 rpm, operating at 60% relative humidity at sea level with an air-fuel ratio of about 51. IV, is about 23,700 kW, Wc around 37,500 kW and r/gt = 27.5% for rnc equal to 117 kg/s of air and mr = 2.1 kg/s of fuel at the design point. The two-phase thermosyphon loop was selected, due to its structural simplicity and proven outstanding thermal performance, for extracting waste heat from the gas turbine chimney and delivering this energy to the generator of an aqua-ammonia absorption chiller (Fig. 1). Chilled water from the commercial chiller is to be circulated through a cooling tunnel for the cooling of ambient air. The cooled air from the tunnel is to be fed to the intake of the compressor of the gas turbine. It is expected that cooling the compressor intake air by recovered heat will result in boosting of the power output of the gas turbine and also result in a noticeable improvement in efficiency. It may be deduced that the cooled cycle requires less work for air compression than the uncooled cycle for the same mass flow rate of air. The cooled cycle requires more heat input than the uncooled cycle, however, in order to produce more shaft work. Consequently, the net power output of the cooled cycle would be expected to be considerably boosted, when compared to that of the uncooled cycle, while its thermal efficiency is marginally improved. Referring to Fig. 1, the two ends of the water-charged thermosyphon heat pipe are attached to the stack and the generator of the chiller, respectively, the looped heat pipe serving as a heat transport medium between the two. Water evaporates in the evaporator of the heat-pipe loop, flows through the adiabatic vapor tube and releases its heat of condensation to the generator. The condensate then flows through the condensate tube back to the evaporator. Inside the generator, the solution of NH3-H20 is heated, and the refrigerant is generated. The almost pure NH3 refrigerant that emerges at the top of the generator completes the typical absorption cycle. At the other end of this particular commercial absorption machine, water is circulated through the evaporator of the machine making it a chiller. The chilled water is then piped to a fan-coil heat exchanger for the purpose of cooling the ambient air. The cold air is then fed to the inlet of the compressor of the gas turbine system. The two-phase, copper-water thermosyphon loop consists of a number of circumferential copper tubes brazed axially to a central mild steel pipe at both the chimney of the gas turbine and the generator of the chiller. Thus, there are 23 copper pipes of 0.875" OD and 0.75 m length brazed to the 6.625" OD generator shell and 16 copper pipes of 1.125" OD and 1.5 m length brazed to each of the two exhaust pipes of 10.75" OD and 1.5 m effective length. The vapor generated at the chimney end of the heat pipe is piped to the circumferential condenser pipes at the generator by a single 4.125" OD copper vapor tube of 2 m length. The condensate produced at the generator is led back to the circumferential pipes at the chimney by a condensate return pipe of 0.375" OD Heatpipe --'a evaporator Extendedexhaust"~"[-----'] /evapor __t pipe ---~--I -- [ / ~/ Fuel Efeectiveexhanst~[ I l[ P, ihaust pipe / heatexchanger Exhaustgases ----t ~a~ Heatpipe / condenser Chilled water Ambient Cooling L air tunnel ! ] ~ ~ Turbine Electric power Cooled
air

1 AquaIiammnia chiller

Combustor ~ - Air

, ~

Fig. I. Schematicarrangementof the waste heat recoveryand utilizationsystem.

LAMFON et al.:

MODELING OF COMBINED GAS TURBINE ENGINE

83

and 2.76 m length. The entire heat pipe system is insulated by 7.5 cm of glasswool insulation. Since the load on the chiller is assumed to remain constant, the outside skin temperature of the generator remains at a constant value. In what follows, we present the results of a modeling and simulation study that covers the entire heat recovery and utilization system consisting of the gas turbine engine, the heat pipe recovery system and the inlet-air cooling system, shown schematically in Fig. 1. The first part of the presentation covers the performance data related to the gas turbine engine with precooled air intake as coupled to the water-in-copper heat pipe heat recovery system. This is done by matching the two mathematical models.

2. S I M U L A T I O N

A combined simulation model was used for matching the two major systems, i.e. the model for the gas turbine engine [4-6] and the model for the heat pipe recovery and utilization system, inclusive of the cooling tunnel [7-9]. The engine model incorporates variations in ambient conditions, pressure drops, energy losses, efficiencies of system components, effect of ambient conditions on compression and expansion processes, effects of fuel types and fuel-air ratio, bleeding air for turbine blade cooling, extraction of compressed air and part load operation. Parameters affecting the simulation model for the heat recovery and utilization system include: (a) pipe material and geometry (diameter, length, inclination angle and quantity); (b) material of insulation and its thickness; (c) condition of working fluid; (d) condition of vaporization and condensation (laminar or turbulent); (e) condition of ambient air; (f) condition of exhaust gases; (g) condition of aqua-ammonia; and (h) condition of chilled water. The combined model is cast in essentially the same format as the two submodels. Using the engine model, recalculation is initiated at the compressor inlet for inlet air temperature and pressure. The latter are compared with the temperature and pressure of the cooled air delivered from the cooling tunnel at the compressor inlet. The model for the heat pipe system is utilized, on the other hand, for predicting the drops in temperature and pressure across the cooling tunnel. To accomplish this task, the heat pipe simulation model requires: (a) the ambient temperature and pressure; (b) air mass flow rate at compressor inlet; (c) temperature and pressure at turbine exhaust; (d) exhaust gas mass flow rate and (e) the fuel-air ratio from the gas turbine model. Precise matching of the two models can by achieved by iteration. The original simulation model for the heat pipe system was based on a commercial absorption chiller of limited capacity for the purposes of experimental verification. A larger chiller of similar characteristics was assumed in the combined model such that all of the exhaust flow from the turbine is utilized for heat recovery.

3. R E S U L T S

AND DISCUSSION

The combined simulation model was used to predict the performance of the gas turbine engine after being coupled with the heat-pipe recovery and utilization system. The performance of the entire system was evaluated at design point at ISO conditions as well as at 75% part load operation for ambient temperatures of 30, 35, 40 and 45C.

3. I. Design point performance


Figures 2 and 3 show comparisons of the design point performance of the gas turbine engine before and after coupling with the inlet air precooling unit through the heat pipe recovery system. The performance ratio represents the percentage of selected parameters to their design point values at 1SO conditions. Figure 2 shows that, upon coupling of the two subsystems, a reduction in compresor inlet temperature T~ occurs, by about 106%, i.e., 15C, and a rise in intake air pressure drop AP~ takes place across the inlet plenum, by about 20%, at the low ambient temperature of 30C. As the ambient temperature rises to 45C, it is noted that the drop in inlet temperature decreases by about 14%. The intake presure drop is higher at the lower ambient temperature by about 18% due to higher associated air mass flow.

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M O D E L I N G OF C O M B I N E D GAS T U R B I N E E N G I N E

_ o T(l),before T(I), after 270 * DLTP(I), after [] DLTP(I), before ~250 290 -~ 230

~ 210
~= 190
E
170 130 --

g. 15o I10 -9025


30 35 40 45 50

Ambienttemperature (C)
Fig. 2. Design point performance (Tt and APt) of gas turbine engine prior to and upon coupling with heat

pipe heat recovery system.

Figure 3 illustrates that, at the low ambient temperature of 30C, the net power output W, increases by about 11%, accompanied by a 2% rise in thermal efficiency//gt and a drop in specific fuel consumption SFC by 2%. At the higher ambient temperature of 45C, however, it is noticed that the rise of net power output tapers off to around 5%, with insignificant changes, about 0.02%, in both thermal efficiency and specific fuel consumption. The modesty in improvement of Wn can be ascribed to design restrictions in the evaporator and condenser of the water-in-copper heat pipe. The results from water-in-steel heat pipe are to be presented in a subsequent publication.
3.2. Part load

performance

Figures 4 and 5 present comparisons of part load performance of the gas turbine before and after coupling with the inlet air precooling unit through the heat pipe heat recovery system. The performance ratio represents the percentage of selected parameters to their design point values at ISO conditions. Figure 4 shows that, upon coupling of the two systems and for the case of an ambient temperature of 30C, a drop in compressor inlet temperature T~ of about 70%, i.e. about 10C, occurs and a rise of about 11% takes place in the intake air presure drop AP~ across the inlet plenum. As the ambient temperature rises to 45C, it is noted that the gap in the drop of compressor inlet temperature narrows by about 7%. The pressure drop of the intake air is higher at the lower ambient temperature by about 10.8%. Figure 5 illustrates a trend similar to that at the design point for net power output IV,, heralding hefty gains in power output. In a like manner, the thermal efficiency r/gt rises about 6% at the low ambient temperature of 30C, accompanied by a 6% drop in specific fuel consumption SFC. At the higher ambient temperature of 45C, however, it is noticed that the rise of thermal efficiency
115
[] W(n), before * W(n), after + SFC, before o ETA(gt), before t, ETA(gt), after 110 _O SFC, after

105
Q

'~ 100

~ 95
90

85 80 25 30 35 40 45 50

Ambienttemperature (C)
Fig. 3. Design point performance (IV,, SFC, ~,) of gas turbine engine prior to and upon coupling with

heat pipe heat recovery system.

LAMFON et al.: MODELING OF COMBINED GAS TURBINE ENGINE


310 290 _ o T(I ), before Y(l), after 270 * DLT(PI) after [] D L T ~'250 ,~ 230 210 g 19o ~170 ~150 130

85

/ ~

I10 90

25

30

35 40 45 Ambient temperature(C)

50

Fig. 4. 75% Part load performance (Tz and AP~)of gas turbine engine prior to and upon coupling with heat pipe heat recovery system.

tapers off to around 4%. Similarly, the reduction of the specific fuel consumption becomes about 4%.
3.3. Heat pipe performance Figure 6 depicts performance of the heat pipe heat recovery system upon coupling with the gas turbine engine when the engine is operated at both modes of operation, i.e. design point (base load) and part load. The ordinate represents system temperature and the abscissa the ambient temperature, both in C. The graph displays that there is a difference in exhaust temperatures Toxh of about 6 0 C between the design point base load and the part load performance. The change in heat pipe temperatures, however, is insignificant at the different modes of operation as well as different ambient temperatures. This is indicated by the temperature T~.,.e of the internal wall of the heat pipe evaporator. The outlet temperature T,~,c of the air cooler exhibits a drop at base load of about 5'C.

4.

CONCLUDING

REMARKS

The presentation above covers extensive analyses dealing with the effect of variation of ambient temperature on overall system performance for both modes of operation, i.e. design point operation at base load and part load operation. Perhaps the most significant find of the study is that the net power output is improved by 11% when the gas turbine engine is supplied with cold air produced by the heat-pipe recovery and utilization system.

W(n), before * W(n), after + SFC, before 110 _~ SFC, after o ETA(gt),before LxETA(gt),after ~105 100 ~ 95 ~ 9o 8si 80 25 30 35 40 45 Ambienttemperature(C) 50

115

Fig. 5. Part load performance (W,~,SFC, r/s0 of gas turbine engine prior to and upon coupling with heat pipe heat recovery'system.

86

L A M F O N et al.: M O D E L I N G OF C O M B I N E D GAS TURBINE ENGINE 60O o T(o,tc), base zx T(o,tc), part m T(w,i,e), base 550 -* T(w,i,e), part + T(exh), base o T(exh), part 500 --[ -I "1 I ,-- 4 5 0 o '~ 4 0 0 '~ 350h5 3OO-~ 250= ~ 200--

E ~ 1oo50o 25

K 15o-

30

35 40 45 Ambient temperature (C)

50

Fig. 6. Temperature distribution of the heat pipe heat recovery system upon coupling with the gas turbine engine.

It may be further concluded from the results produced by the combined mathematical model that the thermal efficiency of the gas turbine engine is enhanced by 2% at design point operation at base load. The increase in the thermal efficiency of the gas turbine engine rises to 6% at 75% part load. It is to be anticipated that this rising trend in increases of thermal efficiency of the gas turbine engine would continue for operations at other (lower) part load conditions. The results from the combined mathematical model also show that the cooling tunnel and chiller system is more efficient at the lower ambient temperatures. The operation of the heat pipe heat recovery system is not affected by the mode of operation of the gas turbine engine, when the load on the generator is fixed.
REFERENCES 1. Tsujikawa, Y. and Sawada, T., International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 1985, 10(10), 677-683. 2. Ondryas, I. S., Wilson, D. A., Kawamoto, M. and Haub, G. L., Options in gas-turbine power augmentation using inlet-air chilling. ASME Paper no 90-GT-250, 1990. 3. Malewski, W. F. and Holldorff, G. M., ASME Paper no 86-GT-67, International Gas Turbine Conference, Diisseldorf, 8-12 June, 1986. 4. Najjar, Y. S. H., Lamfon, N. J. and Akyurt, M., International Journal of Power and Energy Systems, 1995, 15(2), 61-67. 5. Najjar, Y. S. H., Lamfon, N. J. and Akyurt, M., International Journal of Power and Energy Systems, 1995, 15(3), 94-103. 6. Najjar, Y. S. H., Lamfon, N. J. and Akyurt, M., International Journal of Power and Energy Systems, 1996, 16(1), 29-35. 7. Lamfon, N. J., Akyurt, M., Najjar, Y. S. H. and AI-Rabghi, O. M., International Journal of Energy Research, 1994, 18, 633-642. 8. Lamfon, N. J., Akyurt, M., Najjar, Y. S. H. and AI-Rabghi, O. M., International Journal of Power and Energy Systems, 1996, 16(1), 40-47. 9. Lamfon, N. J., Al-Rabghi, O. M., Akyurt, M. and Najjar, Y. S. H., International Journal of Modeling and Simulation, 1996, 16(3), 120-129.