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FRANCESCO SFERRA

THE CONCEPT OF PURIFICATION IN SOME TEXTS OF LATE INDIAN BUDDHISM

It is well-known that in Vajrayna texts the spiritual path is often a described in terms of the progressive purication (visuddhi; Tib.: rnam dag) of the body and the psyche. This study is a contribution to the analysis of the concept of spiritual purication in the light of (A) printed and translated texts, such as the Hevajratantra and the Nrops a a  Paramarthasamgraha, and (B) some selected passages from works edited . but not translated or only partially translated. These works include the  Amrtakanika by Ravi rjnna, the Vimalaprabha by Pundarka, and the s ~a . .. .   Laghukalacakratantra. This study also considers (C) some unpublished  texts, such as the Abhayakarapaddhati by Abhaykaragupta and the a   by Ratnkara nti, which are preserved in manuscript form. Muktaval a sa Some passages, which focus mainly on the description of initiatory and liturgic ceremonies, insist on the elimination (or, if we prefer, on the transformation) of impurity, which is considered an obstacle. From this point of view, the concept of purication implies the disappearance of a maculation (mala) (the denition of which must be gone into more fully) and the attainment of an ontologically preexistent state of purity. This state is usually described in positive terms: Supreme  Pleasure, Adamantine Being, tathata, and so forth. Notwithstanding this, there are also denitions, at rst sight perplexing, which arouse the suspicion that speaking of purication in terms of elimination of something actually reects a partial and limited point of view, even if this is necessary to some extent. Some texts, for example, in referring to the ultimate reality in its pureness, speak of Great Hate, Great Aversion, Great Envy, and so on.1 As we shall see, this type of implosion, which negative energies undergo in order to reveal themselves in their true nature, is linked to the manifestation of a particular kind of knowledge ~  ~ (jnana), sometimes called Great Knowledge (mahajnana) or Buddhas ~ Knowledge (buddhajnana), which is not the product of particular rites
Journal of Indian Philosophy 27: 83103, 1999. c 1999 Kluwer Academic Publishers. Printed in the Netherlands.

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that the adept or the practitioner has to perform.2 This knowledge constitutes the purifying element par excellence and represents, in the nal analysis, the very nature of reality, transgured and shining. It is not by chance that, according to some texts, the last phase of yoga, in which the transformation of the physical and psychical elements of the yogin into pure elements actually occurs is, indeed, nothing but the ~ attainment of a body of gnosis (jnanadeha).3 Therefore, it is necessary to have a direct vision of reality without the conceptual projection of an I and a mine, and to permit the various realities to offer themselves to knowledge according to their true nature. The specic nature of this knowledge, which transcends sense ~ organs and which is said to pertain to the Omniscient One (sarvajna), also explains why sometimes, in connection with the subject matter, one nds philosophical considerations on the cause-effect relationship (this relationship, among other things, is required to justify the passage from impurity to purity) in which it is possible to recognize an echo of the debate between Buddhist logicians and the exponents of other traditions.

II

The theme of purication (visuddhi) is particularly signicant, as it reects the difculties and elusiveness that sometimes characterize the sapiential language. This theme has a particularly important role in the texts of Vajrayna, a which is evident not only from the fact that we nd visuddhipatalas . that is, chapters on purication in well-known tantras, for instance,  . .  the Hevajra (I.ix), the Candamaharosana (XV), and the Buddhakapala .. (XIII), but also from the frequent occurrence, in the examined texts, of  terms such as visuddhi, suddhi, sodhana, parisodhana, suci, vyavadana  and adhivasana. First of all, it can be noted that such words of which visuddhi and suddhi are certainly the most used appear in the Vajrayna literature a substantially in two different contexts: one ritual and one speculative.4 Furthermore, within these ambits, it is possible to single out various shades of meaning in the use of these words, which we shall now try to illustrate briey. In relation to rituals that have to be performed before the drawing of the mandala and during the initiation ceremony, the term purication .. is generally used in a very limited sense, as signifying elimination. In such cases it is necessary to remove the impurities present in the

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body and the psyche of the practitioner, in the initiation substances, and in the platform on which the rite is to be performed, so that it can be executed in the proper way. The purication can occur through concrete actions, such as cleaning the land, fasting or bathing, or through the  muttering of specic mantras5 or the imposition (nyasa) of particular syllables on parts of the body,6 which the Tantras describe in detail and usually with a certain clarity.7 Through mantras and by means of aspersions (seka), purication is also performed during initiation. Initiation itself is often explained as a process of purication,8 so that, sometimes, the word visuddha (lit. pure) is commented on simply with abhisikta, viz., initiated.9 . In the Klacakra cycle, for instance, the seven inferior initiations and a the four superior ones are progressively linked to the purication of specic aspects of reality.10 At other times as has been noted by D. Snellgrove - the term visuddhi, mostly used in the instrumental case, means that something makes itself known through one of its aspects or that it is represented by another thing. When in the Hevajratantra, for example, we read that the initiation of the master is puried through the smile, we should understand that this initiation is symbolized by the smile.11 Various symbolic relationships, which often connect seemingly incongruous levels of reality, are settled in the texts. Hence, specic aspects of the religious path, deities, colours, dispositions of character, emotive reactions, parts of the human body, etc. are mutually related. In fact, in the texts there is not complete agreement about these various symbolisms. For instance, the thirty-seven facets of awakening . (bodhipaksikadharma) are often considered to be manifested through the various parts of the mandala, even if the four doors of the latter ..  may correspond to the four smrtyupasthanas,12 to the four truths,13 or . 14 according to the different tradito further aspects of the spiritual path, . tions. However, in some texts, the bodhipaksikadharmas are connected with the female deities, Locan and so on. The latter are puried, viz., a  . symbolized, through the bodhipaksikadharmas.15 The second context in which visuddhi appears, and on which we shall dwell a little, is the one which deals with the crucial theme of the essential nature of things, not merely as aiming at theoretical denitions, but also as a starting point of the practice that leads to awakening. In this second context we see that the term purication is used in two different ways. On the one hand it indicates pureness, Buddhas nature itself, the ever shining and pure condition that is always present in all things. This pureness represents one of the foundations on which the

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practice and the doctrine of Buddhist Tantras is based16 and which can    be exemplied by the formulas visuddhis tathata17 and tathatatmika 18 On the other hand, the term indicates purication and suddhih. .     therefore a process or a means: yaya sarvabhava nirdosa bhavanti sa . visuddhih.19 . This ambivalence of terms denoting purication justies a question concerning its true meaning. In other words, we must try to answer the question posed by authors such as Krsncrya and Ratnkara nti: if a a sa .. .a a thing is pure by its own nature, why and in what sense is it puried?20 Or, in other words, if a thing is pure, why is its pureness not evident in itself? In effect, the statement that things possess a pure nature is contradicted by common experience. And we might agree with Abhaykaragupta, when he states that pureness is [certainly manifest a in] a pure reality, but it is not reality tout court, because, if it were, there would be the illogical consequence that, as there are realities everywhere and in every place, there should be pureness everywhere and in every place,21 but we can see that this is not the case, at least it does not seem to be. Concerning this doubt it is possible to note within the Buddhist schools a progressive development even though some elements remain constant of the concept of purity/purication, a kind of redenition of the concept over the time. Since this redenition appears to be strictly linked to a shifting of accent in the way of dening the relationship between mind (citta) and maculation (mala), we consider it useful to explore this last point further.
III

It is well-known that Buddhist tradition conceives mind (citta) as being  naturally pure and shining (prabhasvara; Pli: pabhassara) but darkened a. 22 In answer to the above question, we could by adventitious maculations. say that the process of purication is necessary due to the existence of these adventitious maculations, which is precisely what prevents us from perceiving pureness. The fact that the citta is sometimes not mentioned, and we nd it  stated that it is the various realities (bhava) that are naturally pure and shining and that maculations veil the latter only temporarily,23 does not substantially contradict the preeminence of mind, because worldly realities are, in any event, perceived by the mind: it is the mind, in a certain sense, that brings them into existence, allows them to appear and to be the object of knowledge. There is an ancient expression that

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recurs in these texts, which leaves no doubt on the matter: visayas .  . cittavithapitah, objects are creations of mind.24 . The importance given to the mind as a foundation both of cognitive process and spiritual progression is stressed in the texts of ancient Buddhism and has constituted an element of continuity in the Buddhist tradition until the present day; this subject has been dealt with repeat edly in a little but very famous work, the Cittavisuddhiprakarana by .  Aryadeva, who must not be confused with the celebrated Mdhyamika a teacher. A clear Yogcra trend emerges in this little work, which a a was probably written at the end of the seventh century CE. It is no coincidence that in one of the rst verses the initial stanzas of the Dhammapada are summarized: The dharmas are preceded by mind, which is the most important and the most rapid of them. Indeed, it is because of mind that one speaks and acts.25 It is worth noting that purication depends on mind. To use a language acceptable to all Buddhist schools, it is in the mind that the  transition between vedana (sensation) and trsna (craving desire) .. .   occurs. These are the crucial factors of the prattyasamutpada, the  dependent origination (Pli: paticcasamuppada), the factors on which a. . it is necessary to act in order to interrupt the circle of transmigration and sorrow and to give birth to the transcendent dependent origination, the  lokottaraprat tyasamutpada, which begins with faith.26 In other words, attachment, aversion and ignorance become manifest in the mind after  vedana, sensation (pleasant, unpleasant, and neutral). They arise in a conditioned sequence that can however be interrupted. Mind is the very place in which this sequence can be broken. As Abhaykaragupta a  states in his unpublished commentary on the Buddhakapalatantra: the [various] maculations, that is, attachment and so on, are void in themselves [: : : ] their purication [is possible and] depends on the purication of the mind. The mind, in its turn, in shining by its own nature.27   In the Sekoddesa, the only chapter of the Mulakalacakratantra that has reached us and one of the most important works of the Klacakra, we a nd a statement of great import that, at rst sight, appears to contradict our initial premise: Maculation is not adventitious in mind.28 The explanation that the Sekoddesa itself and its commentaries29 offer concerning this is very interesting for our discourse: (1) If maculation were adventitious it would follow that it could characterize the mind of a person, even that of a saint; maculations could manifest or disappear at will. (2) If maculation preceded the mind, and had existed from time immemorial, it would be causeless. Instead, it is a creation of mind

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(cittavithapita). (3) If, on the other hand, maculation were causeless, . i.e., if it were born without the mind, it would lack causal efciency, and would be unable to achieve results, like a ower in the sky. (4) If maculation were connatural with the mind, it would follow that mind and maculations would have the same destiny: either maculations would be indestructible or mind would vanish with them. But these last two hypotheses are unacceptable. The conclusion is that impurity appears with the mind. Therefore, it does not precede the mind, does not follow the mind, and is not born independently of the mind.30 This concept, which seemingly breaks with the preceding tradition, is actually only the more systematic and audacious expression of an idea already found in previous or coeval texts of the Buddhist tradition. Let us consider, for instance, the  Acintyadvayakramopadesa where we read that mind is the support for defects and virtues,31 or the Amrtakanika, the Gunabharan, and the . .  . .  Vimalaprabha, which, in similar words, afrm that Mra, evil personied, a is nothing but our own mind when it is affected by maculations.32 In other terms, maculations or impurities, like everything else, do not possess an independent reality, they are void in themselves. They could not exist if there were no mind. The adventitious nature of attachment, and so forth, exists in relation to the mind. After all, it is the mind that becomes attached, hateful and darkened. And, in the same way that impurities do not exist in themselves, there are no objects or realities that are in themselves impure or pure. It is by purifying the mind that the objects with which it comes into contact also become pure.33 Reversing the initial assumption, we can say that the process of purication is necessary due to the existence of the mind. However, this is not completely true, and does not fully answer the question we posed. Far from being a radical break with ancient Buddhist doctrines, it is rather a change of perspective to which both the thought of Ngrjuna, a a _ and that of the school of Asanga and Vasubandhu must have contributed in many respects. First of all, it should be noted that both purity and impurity are conceived as non-subsistent from an absolute point of view. If samsara .  . a do not appear as separate realities but, in a certain sense, and nirvan depend on our own mind, it is precisely in the mind that the concepts of  purity and impurity also exist.34 Indrabhuti clearly states that the idea of pure and impure is only an idea and nothing more. This idea pertains to common usage. The mutual dependence of these two concepts like the opposite shores of a sea implies that if pureness did actually

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exist, there would be some form of impurity; if on the other hand there were no pureness, impurity would not exist either.35 We would like to point out that these reections are not aimed at providing a basis for theories on moral relativism, even if it is sometimes possible to interpret the texts in this light. What they seem to say which will become clearer later is that true pureness essentially depends on a factor that is within the mind, to such an extent that it transcends conceptual constructs (vikalpa) and also the minds capacity to create them. In this regard, we cannot gloss over what is precisely ~  stated in the Prajnopayaviniscayasiddhi, that is, that both maculation  and samsara are the mind endowed with conceptual constructs, whereas . . nirvana is the mind devoid of these.36 From this point of view, it might be said that true pureness of mind consists in transcending the sphere of conceptual constructs, beginning with the very concepts of pure and impure, and, above all, those connected with the idea of an I and a mine.37 In any event, texts do not fail to specify that transcending conceptual constructs does not mean attaining a state of insentience.38 On the contrary, the state reached by the mind is essentially knowledge. Just as the impurity of blister copper is destroyed by virtue of the union with the elixir, but its essential nature is not dissolved and remains pure, so the maculation of mind is destroyed by virtue of the union with voidness, but the true nature of [mind], that is, knowledge, is not destroyed and remains pure.39 Knowledge is not only the result of the process of purication. Sometimes it is described more or less implicitly as an active factor, a factor that determines this process.40 Buddhahood we read  in the Vasantatilaka cannot be obtained by men through the absence of conceptual constructs, nor through conceptual constructs. It can occur only through the knowledge of pure realities,41 that is, the knowledge of the actual nature of aggregates, etc.42 In this respect, ritual baths or practices of external purication are meaningless.43 Realities are not impure in themselves, but only to the extent that their true nature is not known. Concerning this, it is useful to specify that the object of criticism is not thought as a useful and indispensable faculty, but the tendency of thought to consider various realities as independent and substantial. Sometimes, it is simply stated that impurity derives from subject-object dichotomy. Every conception, indeed, every judgment or expectation is basically rooted in this dichotomy. O Blessed One asked Vajragarbha what are the impure things? Blessed One answered: Form, and

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so forth. Why? [replied Vajragarbha]. Due to the existence of the perceivable and the perceptive. What are the perceivable realities and the perceptives? asked Vajragarbha. Form is perceived by eyes, sound by ear, smell by nose, taste by tongue, objects by touch, and pleasure etc. by mind.44 In the light of these arguments, we believe that we can dene purity/purication essentially as a noetic experience: pureness is knowledge because, on the one hand, it permits direct penetration through veils of ignorance and the perception of things as they are, that is, pure or adamantine realities; and, on the other hand, because it is only with the manifestation of knowledge that maculation vanishes. As a passage of the Cittavisuddhiprakarana reminds us, it is knowledge that completely . uproots nescience and sins: Attachment, aversion, ignorance, envy and craving desire (trsna) are generally held to be at the root of [all] sins; .. .   these cannot be puried by means of a ritual bath (snana). Here [in this world], for a being [sins] derive from the erroneous idea (graha) of an  I and a mine. In its turn, this idea stems from nescience (avidya)  and nescience is known as error (bhranti). Just as the [erroneous] perception of a conch as silver vanishes when the conch is recognized,  so [nescience] is utterly uprooted (nirmulam avasdati) through the  realization of insubstantiality (nairatmya). Just as the perception of a rope as a snake vanishes as soon as the rope is recognized and can no longer be mistaken for a snake, so, through adamantine knowl~ edge (vajrajnana),45 here, in this life, the idea of a [substantial and independent] being (sattva) no longer arises.46 As we have seen, maculation has a paradoxical ontological status. It requires mind to exist and vanishes when knowledge appears in the mind; knowledge that could not appear if maculation did not exist. Maculation we could say is in the service of the mind, in the same way that to use the language of alchemy with which many Buddhist and non-Buddhist writers were acquainted the impurity of blister copper is the element on which the elixir acts to change it into gold. In ~ s the Amrtakanika it is clearly stated that [Manju r] is pure because all . .  aggregates, elements, bases and so forth, are no longer obstructed by obstacles by virtue of the re of Great Attachment,47 that is, attachment in its transgured aspect, in the service, as it were, of awakening.48 The paradox lies in the fact that maculation veils the mind and the essential nature of all things, but, at the same time, constitutes the basic element through which the shining nature of the latter manifests, to such an extent that one might say that impurity and pureness are substantially rooted in the same reality.49

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IV

To sum up, we have said that pureness is the original (or adamantine) nature of things, and that its manifestation corresponds to the more or less gradual revelation of knowledge and to the disappearance of the klesas, i.e., impurities, beginning with attachment. The gradualness with which all this occurs and the employment of several means, which range from the observance of specic rules of conduct to the celebration of liturgic ceremonies and the practice of yogic techniques, authorizes us to speak of a process of purication. Thus, visuddhi can signify both a state of purity and a gradual process of purication, which consists essentially in a progressively less self-centred way of knowing things. We have previously outlined some essential characteristics of knowledge that is able to purify: it can be considered a factor within the mind, to such an extent that it transcends conceptual constructs and the faculty of creating concepts. Far from being a state of insentience, it consists in the consciousness that all dharmas are devoid of their own self.50 Tantric scriptures do not systematically treat nor present univocal or unequivocal statements on this subject. In the last part of this paper we shall briey examine some other characteristics of this knowledge, in order to stimulate reection. One of the most interesting and original statements we nd in Buddhist tantric works concerns the more or less explicit denition of the Buddhas knowledge in terms of pleasure or happiness (sukha). The knowledge of all the Tathgatas [: : : ] is called Great Pleasure a  (mahasukha).51 In the texts there are many references to this cognitive experience, which we could compare to aesthetic rapture, to a kind of pleasure that precedes the subject-object dichotomy, which has nothing to do with attachment and which transcends ordinary pleasure. Regarding this, we nd another statement of considerable import: Great (or Supreme) Pleasure derives from the pure nature of objects: The Supreme Pleasure we read in the Hevajratantra , which is directly experienced within ourselves (svasamvedya), comes from the .  pure nature (suddhabhava) of sense-objects.52 Two things should be noted here: the reference to the pure nature of sense-objects and the use of the adjective svasamvedya. . Concerning the pure nature of objects, it sufces to say that it means the reality of objects devoid of conceptual superimpositions. To know an object in its pureness does not simply mean knowing its  insubstantiality (nairatmya), but grasping it immediately, without the

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mediation of mental constructs. In the light of this, the above-mentioned passage from the Hevajratantra can be considered a modern and succinct  version of the memorable words of the Udana (I, 10): May Blessed One teach me the Noble Doctrine! : : : so that I might receive benet and felicity for a long time!. Then, : : : you should train yourself [in the following way]: in what you see there must be only what [you] have seen, in what you hear only what [you] have heard : : : .53 The modality through which this kind of knowledge operates shows that it is, to some extent, linked to direct perception (pratyaksa). From . this viewpoint, the experience of purication, of non-dual knowledge that manifests before the subject-object dichotomy i.e., at every given moment in the perceptive process before the manifestation of conceptual constructs (which divide the subject from the object) can be dened as a return to the moment of direct perception. References to pratyaksa do . in fact abound in the texts of late Indian Buddhism, particularly in the  Klacakra. Direct perception we read in the Laghukalacakratantra a is like a star in the sky [: : : ], reasoning is like a corpse.54 Thus, to know the pure nature of objects does not only mean to know the pureness of their nature, but also to know their nature in a pure way. The term svasamvedya merits deeper examination. First of all, it has . a wide eld of application; in fact, it occurs in several contexts and circumstances in the examined texts.55 Svasamvedya is not merely pleasure (due to internal or external . causes).56 It is also Great Knowledge, which is sometimes referred to as Tathgatas (or Tathgatas) knowledge, and identied with Great a a 57 This knowledge we read in the Hevajratantra , which Pleasure. goes beyond the realm of words, is directly knowable inside us. It corresponds to the adhis.thanakrama and is identied with the Omniscient .  58 This knowledge, which is free from notions of Ones knowledge. Self and Other and is similar to the ether, immaculate and void, the very essence of existence and non-existence, supreme, and the fusion of wisdom and means, of passion and absence of passion, arises from direct personal experience.59 Lastly, purication itself logically enough is svasamvedya: only purication that is [a reality] directly perceivable . within us is able to set us free, and no other means.60 Sometimes, the term svasamvedya means simply veriable . through ones own experience and can be considered a synonym of  pratyatmavedya, viz., personally realizable. However, in the abovementioned stanzas and, often, in the texts examined here, this term is used with a more pregnant meaning. In reference to Great Pleasure

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and Great Knowledge (which, as we have seen, are like two sides of a coin), it is employed to stress that we are speaking of unconditioned realities, that is, realities that can be fully known and perceived only through a specic cognitive act, a direct and personal experience that as is clearly stated in some texts even transcends the mediation of the senses. ~ . ~ In several parts of the Jnanasiddhi and of the Paramaksarajnanasiddhi  a section of the Vimalaprabha , there is strong criticism of the idea that Great Pleasure and Great Knowledge may depend on certain conditions: on female and male organs, and on knowable realities (aggregates, and so forth) and sense organs, respectively. Tathgatas a knowledge, indeed, is completely independent of the activity of the senses61 and Great Pleasure has nothing to do with ordinary pleasure.62  ~ The Hevajratantra recognizes that Great Knowledge (mahajnana), since it pervades everything, also exists in the body (dehastha);63 notwithstanding this, the text states that this knowledge does not arise  from the body64 and as is clearly stated in the Satsahasrika does . .  65 not disappear when the body decays. Therefore, self-perceivable knowledge, viz., knowledge directly experienced within ourselves (svasamvedyam jnanam), can be termed a . . ~ priori knowledge, in the sense that it exists independently of knowable realities and transcends the activity of the senses, the means of knowledge. In any case, knowledge being independent of knowable realities and sense organs does not imply a state of insentience. Sometimes, the adjective svasamvedya is used precisely to underline the fact that . the knowledge of the Buddha is not absence of thought.66 However, this adjective is also used to emphasize that this kind of knowledge is the presupposition for ordinary communication and ordinary knowledge. Pundarka clearly states that if this shining (i.e., self-conscious) .. knowledge did not exist, it would be impossible to teach the doctrine according to the inclinations of beings, and to know all dharmas.67 We might say that, in the process of purication, this kind of knowledge assumes the leading role that in the teachings of Theravda Buda dhism is ascribed to sati, i.e., smrti, mindfulness or awareness, the one . sole way that leads to the purication of beings.68 Of course, also in the  texts of the Vajrayna we nd references to the four smrtyupasthanas, a . the standpoints of mindfulness, but as far as we know they are mostly occasional references in often extremely summarized listings of . the thirty-seven bodhipaksikadharmas;69 whereas we also nd works partially or entirely dedicated to describing the characteristics of this non-dual knowledge.

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In all the phases of Tantric practice, both in the generation process and the completion process, one tries to stimulate and strengthen in the practitioner an awareness of his adamantine nature, insubstantial ity (nairatmya) and pureness.70 Concerning this, let us consider the  ~   recitation of mantras, such as om sunyatajnanavajrasvabhavatmako .  71 or svabhavasuddhah sarvadharmah svabhavasuddho ham72  . .  ham and the practice of identifying with the chosen deity through techniques of visualization and according to the masters teachings. 73 Through the sixfold yoga, in particular, the adept attains the vision of every aspect of reality in its pure form. He acquires a new way of seeing and perceiving the entire reality. It is seen by the yogin as the pure manifestation of divine energies that, according to the Buddhist point of view, can be divided for didactic purposes into the six families of the Bodhisattvas. Each of the elements of which the world is composed is ruled by one of the Bodhisattvas or one of their partners: form  (rupa) is puried by Vairocana, notion (samjna) by Amitbha, and so a . ~ 74 In the following table we can see the correspondence between on. the thirty-six deities of the Buddhist pantheon and the various realities, according to the Klacakra teachings.75 a
1) Vajrasattva Heruka (Aksobhya) . Amoghasiddhi Ratnea (Ratnasambhava) s Kamaladhara (Amit bha) a Samayajina (Vairocana) 3) Samantabhadra Vajrap ni a. Khagarbha Ksitigarbha . Lokevara s Sarvanivaranaviskambhin . .
5) Sumbhar ja a Usnsacakravartin . . . Vighn ntaka a Padm ntaka a ~ Prajnantaka Yam ntaka a

skandha ~ vijnana samsk ra . a vedan a samjna . ~ r pa u indriya rotra s ghr na a. caksus . jihv a k ya a

2) Vivam t s aa Vajradh tvsvar a T rin (T r ) a . a a P ndar a. . a M mak a Locan a


4) Sabdavajr a Dharmadh tuvajr a a Sparavajr s a Rasavajr a R pavajr u a Gandhavajr a

dh tu a
k sa a a

v yu a tejas toya prthv . visaya . dharmadh tu a spara s rasa r pa u gandha kriy a


ukracyuti s

karmendriy 6) Raudr ks a a . upastha Atinl a v c a Ativry a p ni a. Jambh p da a M min a p yu a Stambhin

vitsr va . a gati d na a a l pa aa

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Thus, through the sixfold yoga the yogin directly perceives and becomes aware of the general interrelationship between all the planes of reality; an interrelationship that also extends through the microcosm and the different levels of the path of spiritual advancement. The development of such awareness is accompanied by pure  intention (subhasaya), viz., the intention to do good. As the Cittavisuddhiprakarana states, on the basis of Vinaya texts, an action . performed with a pure intention, even if wrong, entails positive rather than negative consequences.76 It is a condition for gaining spiritual merits and, in the nal analysis, for obtaining an increase in faith in the masters teachings, and in knowledge. It is a virtuous circle of which there are other examples in Buddhist doctrine. The manifestation of knowledge/awareness is not completely independent of the intention to do good, of the bodhicitta vow, of the  practice of the four brahmaviharas and of the yoga. Great Knowledge accompanies and, in a certain sense, presupposes all these things. Thus we can say that the development of wisdom goes hand in hand with the development of moral sensibility and concentration. They are interdependent factors that nourish each other.

ABBREVIATIONS AAKU AK AKU AP CIHTS CMT CVP Dhh . HT JS LKC  MA NAK NGMPP NS PAJS SN SS . SU VP YRM
 Acintyadvayakramopades a   Amrtakanika (Namasamgtitippan) . . . . . Amrtakanikoddyota . . Abhayapaddhati Central Institute of Higher Tibetan Studies  . . Candamaharosanatantra .. Cittavisuddhiprakaran a . Dhh. Journal of Rare Buddhist Texts . Hevajratantra ~ Jnanasiddhi  Laghukalacakratantra  ~  Muktaval (Hevajratantrapan jika) National Archives of Nepal, Kathmandu Nepal German Manuscript Preservation Project  Namasamgti .  . ~ Paramaksarajnanasiddhi  Samyutta Nikaya .  Satsahasrika (Hevajratantrapindarthatka) .. .  . .  Sekoddesa  Vimalaprabha  ~  Yogaratnamala (Hevajratantrapan jika)

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NOTES The author expresses his profound feeling of gratitude to the authorities of the K.P. Jayaswal Research Institute and the Bihar Research Society of Patna (India) for kindly having made available their valuable source materials through the good ofces of Dr. Gustav Roth and Prof. Raffaele Torella. For the same reason, he would also like to express his deep gratitude to the authorities of the National Archives of Nepal and the Kaiser Library of Kathmandu, of the Royal Asiatic Society (London) and of the Istituto Italiano per lAfrica e lOriente (Rome). 1 Cf. NS V, 3 and ff; SU, 161-169; CVP, 4a. 2 ~   ~   ~ . It is dened mandalacakrakarmajnanamudrakalpanarahitam prajnaparamitajnanam .. .  vikalpajalarahitam (SS, MS 3-693, fol. 13r2,3 ). . 3   Cf. Guhyasamajapradpoddyotana (comm. on Guhyasamajatantra XVIII, 154, ed., p. 119), LKC IV, 119. 4 However, it should be noted that it is not always possible to clearly differentiate these contexts. 5    For example, om sodhane sodhane sodhaya sarvapayan sarvasattvebhyo hum, om . . .  sarvavit sarvavaranani visodhaya hana hum phat, etc. (Sarvadurgatiparis odhanatantra, . . . . ed., pp. 126, 128). 6 See, for instance, VP, ed., vol. II, p. 32 and ff. For a general description, see Tucci 19693 : 99 ff. 7 This argument is not shrouded in mystery and is generally devoid of the complex  liturgy of the mantroddhara, which is particularly important in Hindu Tantras. Obviously, much information can be drawn from commentaries. In the LTT by . a. Vajrapni a commentary on the rst ten and a half stanzas of the Cakrasamvaratantra . we nd the description of the balisodhanamantra, which has to be used to purify . the substances that have to be offered to spirits (om vajrakrodhes vari sarvadravyani . . visodhaya hum phat, MS, fol. 37v. C. Cicuzza kindly gave me the opportunity . to study this text from his forthcoming edition and translation). We could also a quote the SUT, which describes the mantras that are employed in the Klacakra . . for the purication of pots (kalasa) and disciples (sisya) (ed., p. 10; Gnoli-Orono 1994: 15961; cf. also VP, ed., vol. II, pp. 367), and the VP (comm. on LKC III, 87; ed., vol. II, pp. 845), which explains the mantra (outlined in the verse) that a the master uses in the preliminaries of initiation in order to make the Krodharja enter into the disciple (previously cleansed and anointed with perfumed oils) and a eliminate the Mras (cf. LKC III, 88) from him. See also Hopkins 1985: 1067, 439 40. 8 J. Hopkins (1985: 69) writes: The rst seven initiations establish potencies in practitioners mental continuums for purifying impure appearances and impure conceptions. Impure appearances are appearances, to the mental consciousness, of ordinary phenomena such as a body made of esh, blood, and bone; impure conceptions are conceptions of oneself, based on ordinary appearance, to be ordinary. During the stage of generation, practitioners develop clear appearance of themselves a as the deity, or ideal being, Klacakra together with a consort and other deities. When such meditation is successful, all ordinary appearances of bodies made of esh, blood, and bone and houses made of wood and so forth vanish from the mental consciousness (not the sense consciousnesses) such that all that appears is divine [: : : ]. See also pp. 1322, 71, 1089, 12027. 9 Cf. VP, ed., vol. II, pp. 100, lines 245; Gunabharan (MS, fol. 8v1,2 ). For some . . traditional etymologies of the term abhiseka, see Hopkins 1985: 667, 484, note .    89. In the SUT (ed., pp. 23) we read: sicyate kayadikam nirmalam niravaranam . . . . . kriyate neneti sekah It is seka because through it the body etc. is sprinkled .  (sicyate), that is, it is made pure, without obstacles (niravarana). See also HT II.iii, . 12cd.

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10 During the seven initiations we have a gradual purication of families, elements, aggregates, etc. See SU, 1214, LKC III, 99 and VP (ed., vol. II, p. 95). On the basis of a wider subdivision, the initiations purify body, word, mind and knowledge. See SU, 1011, 1517. See also SUT (Gnoli-Orono 1994: 178182, 1856, 193); . Hopkins 1985: 724, 109118.  ~  a A similar concept can be found in the Ratnavalpanjika by Kumracandra a  commentary on the Kr. nayamaritantra where we read (ed., pp. 1002) that the . s.   kayavajra is puried through the initiation of the master, the vagvajra through the initiation of the secret parts, and the cittavajra through the initiation of the knowledge of wisdom. It is also worth mentioning that we occasionally nd a more specic use of the term purication in the texts. Sometimes the past-participle of the root sudh or visudh the primary meaning of which is pure, puried, and so forth is used to a mean furnished with, perfected by, as the glosses sometimes conrm. S dhuputra dharnanda, for instance, while explaining stanzas six and seven of the Sekoddesa Sr a (see below), comments on the word suddham precisely with samanvitam (SUTippan, . . ed., p. 120, line 12. See also Gnoli-Orono 1994: 142, note 1). evam satkotibhih suddham vajrayogais caturvidhaih catuhsambodhibhih . . . . . . . . .   ~   skandhadhatvayatanasatkulaih patalaih pancabhih suddham lokadhatvadikair . . . . . . .        mataih satyabhyam adibuddham syat kalacakrabhidhanakam (SU, 67). . . Thus, puried by the six points, by the four vajrayogas, by the perfect comprehensions, by the aggregates, elements, bases, and [respective] six families, and also puried by ve chapters, the rst concerning the structure of the world, and  a by the two truths, we have Adibuddha, known as Klacakra. See also SU, 170 172. 11 Cf. HT II.iii, 11a. As for clarication by a smile, a gaze etc., the Sanskrit term means literally purication (visuddhi), but in Buddhist tantric usage it comes to mean to represent or symbolize. The meanings come together when it is said for instance that the Five Buddhas purify the Five Evils, but it can equally well be said that they purify the Five Wisdoms, which they effectively symbolize (Snellgrove 1987, vol. I: 253). With an analogous meaning the term visuddhi is used, for example, ~ in the Jnanodayatantra (ed. p. 5) and in the SS (MS 128, fols. 54v55r). . 12  .    .  evam vedanasmrtyupasthanavisuddhya daksinadvaram evam dharmamanusmrtyupas. . . .    .    . thanavisuddhya pascimadvaram evam cittanusmrtyupasthanam uttaradvaram [: : : ] . . (Hevajratippana, MS, fol. 6v4,5 ). Cf. also Dhargyey 1985: 57. . . 13   atha bhagavaty aha [: : : ] purvoktamandalanam [cf. CMT, chap. II] tu visuddhim . .  . .    . me vada prabho atha bhagavan aha athatah sampravaksyami [ vaksami: MSS . .  . 4-342 and 1-220] visuddhim sarvasodhanam tatra [tatra: deest in MSS 3-661 and . .   . 1-220] caturasram caturbrahmavihar caturdvaram catuhsatyam catustoranam . . .    .  _  .   caturdhyanam as. astambha aryas.tango margah ekaputam cittaikagrata [: : : ] .t . . (CMT, chap. XV, MS 3-661, fol. 32v7,8 , [this MS has a lacuna after the compound sarvasodhanam]; MS 4-342, fols. 57r3 -57v2 ; MS 1-220, fol. 18r5,7 ). 14     . . . catuhsmrtyupasthanavisuddhya purvvadvaram catuhsamyakprahana [ pramana : . . .    .   MS]visuddhya daksinadvaram [daksine dvaram: MS] catuh. ddhipadavisuddhya . . . . .r  . ~   .   pascimadvaram pancendriyavisuddhya uttaradvaram dhyanacatus.tayavisuddhya .  ~ catustoranam (Hevajrasadhana, MS, fol. 66r3,4 ). See also the Abhisamayamanjar, . . . Dhh (13) 1301. 15  See VP, ed., vol. II, pp. 12930. See also Kalparajatantra (MS, fols. 43v9  .  44v1 ), Vasantatilaka, chap. VII, ed., pp. 51 ff, Yoginsamcaratantra, MS, fols. 2r6 2v4 . 16 See Snellgrove 1987: 125. 17  .  sarvesam khalu vastunam visuddhis tathata smrta (I.ix, 1ab). See also .  . .

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 .  Srmahasamvarodayatantraraja IV, 18d (ed. Tsuda, p. 81), AK (comm. on NS VIII, 22), ed., p. 69, and AKU, ed., p. 176 (where this verse of the HT is quoted). 18  YRM (ed., p. 130), MA (MS, fol. 67v1,2 ), comm. on HT I.ix, 3a. 19  YRM (ed., p. 130); cf. MA (MS, fol. 67r3 ). 20  Cf. YRM (ed., p. 130) and MA, comm. on HT I.ix, 2 (MS, fol. 67r5,6 ). 21  . visuddham tatvam visuddhih na tu tatvamatram visuddhih tatvasya sarva. . . .     _  tra sarvada ca bhavat sarvesam sarvada ca visuddhiprasangat (AP, MS, fol. . . 23v2,3 ). 22 .  Cf. Dharmak rtis Pramanavarttika I, 210. In the JS (chapter XV, ed., p. 140)    .  we read: [sarvatathagata ahuh ] prakrti pra bhasvaram idam kulaputra cittam . . .  ~  candramandalavat candramandalam prakrtiprabhasvaram tadvad jnanam yatha . .. .. . .   . .  kramac candramandalam sampurnam bhavati, tadvat prakrtiprabhasvaram cit. .. . .  . .    . taratnam api paripurnam bhavati yatha candramandalam agantukakalabhih ..     . . . suryamandalarasmyapagamat kramat purnam drsyate, tadvat prakrtiparisuddham . .. . _    . cittaratnam api sarvaklesamalakalankapagamakramat paripurnabuddhagun am drsyate . . . iti. 23 ~ ~   sadindriyam pancaskandham . adayatanam pancabhutam svabhavena visuddham . . . . s . . ~  . (HT I.ix, 2). Beings are already enlightened, their apy ajnanaklesair avrtam enlightenment is obscured by adventitious maculations (HT II.iv, 7071). Cf. also HT II.iv, 77. 24 Cf. AP (MS, fol. 10r3 ). On the term vithapita, which lit. means based on, see . Edgerton 1970, vol. II: 486. 25 _   .  manahpurvangama dharma manahsres. ha manojavah manasa hi prasannena .  . .t  .   bhasate va karoti va (st. 10). Cf. Dhammapada, I, 12. In the CMT (VII, 13cd 14ab) we read: manahpurvagamam sarvam papapunyam idam matam manasah .  . .  . . . .   .   kalpanakaram gatisthanadibheditam (trans. George 1974: 7980). See also JS IX, . 69; Dhargyey 1985: 53. 26 Cf. SN XII.iii, 23. 27        mala ragadayah sunyatasvabhava [: : : ] nairmalyam caisam cittanairmalyat .  . . . cittam ca prakrtinirmalam (AP, MS, fol. 10r3,4 ). . . . 28  nagantuko malas citte, st. 129a. 29 SU, 129b131, SUT (ed., p. 65; Gnoli-Orono 1994: 3412), SUTippan (ed., . . . ~  p. 139), SUPanjika (ed., pp. 2901). 30 Cf. SU, 132133 and SUT (ed., pp. 656, Gnoli-Orono 1994: 34243). . 31   dosanam ca gunanam ca cittam adharam ucyate (st. 33cd). . .  . .  . 32 In the AK (ed., p. 2) and in the Gunabharan (MS, fol. 17r5 ) Ravi r nna quotes s j~a . .  . a a stanza in which it is stated that Mra is the mind itself: marah svacittam na paro .  .   sti marah [: : : ]. In the VP (ed., vol. I, p. 23, lines 112) we read: maro nama  .   sattvanam samsaracittam vasanamalah, buddhatvam nama samsaravasanarahitam .  .  . .  .   . cittam. 33    In the AP (MS, fol. 10r4,5 ) we read: ragadir evantaram visam tad . . .   uktam bhagavata ragadvesas ca mohas ca ete loke trayo visa iti te ca . . .   . . cittasyaivagantusvabhavah tatas cittam eva mudharaktam dvis. am cantaram visam . .t .  . . . ~     punyajnanasambharajvitavighatat tac cittavasad visayasvarupam api visam . . .    .   yada tu cittam sunyatakarunabhinnasvabhavam nairmalyan nirvisam niscitam tada .  . . . .  visayasvarupam api malarahitam. . . 34  . ~ ~ In the CMT (VIII, 2930ab) we read: na papam vidyate kincid na punyam kincid . .  .   . asti hi lokanam cittaraksayai papapunyavyavasthitih cittamatram yatah sarvam . . . . .  ~ ksanamatran ca tatsthitih (trans. George 1974: 84). . . . 35 ~    sucitvam asti cet kincid asucitvam bhavisyati sucyabhavad asucitvam sarvatha . . .  .     nopalabhyate apeksikatvam anyonyam paraparakavad yatha laukik kalpanaivaisa . .   sucyasucyadikalpana (JS X, 910).

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      ragadidurvaramalavaliptam cittam hi samsaram uvaca vajr prabhasvaram . . .  .    kalpanaya vimuktam prahnaragadimalapralepam grahyam na ca grahakam .   . . .  agrasattvas [agrasattvam: ed.] tad eva nirvanavaram jagada Vajra-Holder said . . that transmigration is the mind stained by maculation, i.e., by attachment, and so on, which is difcult to eliminate. [Furthermore,] the Primeval Being said that this same mind, which is shining, devoid of conceptual constructs, free from those impurities and stains that are attachment and so forth, and without the perceivable . ~  and the perceptor, is nirvana (Prajnopayaviniscayasiddhi IV, 22cd23). See also the   . following verse: kalpanamalajalena cittaratnam malkrtam The jewel that is mind . is stained by the net of maculations that are conceptual constructs (AAKU, 10cd). Cf. also CVP, 25. 37 Cf. CVP, 66 (see below, note 46). 38 Cf. JS V, 7ab; PAJS (Gnoli 1997: 356). 39    tamrasya kalima yadvad rasayogena nasyati na tasya sattvata nasyen nir   ~  malatvena ya sthita tadvac cittamalah sunyatayogena pranasyati na tasya jnanata .    nasyen nirmalatvena ya sthita (SU, 132133). In the AAKU (st. 11) we read:   malapagamanad buddham [bauddham?] advayam jnanam ucyate. . . ~ 40  Cf., for instance, CVP, 51 and Dharmadhatustava, 1823 (quoted in SUT, ed., . p. 66, Gnoli-Orono 1994: 3423). 41    ~  nirvikalpan na buddhatvam savikalpac ca no tatha suvisuddhaparijnanad bhaved . eva mansinam (I, 12). . .  42  .  ~  In the commentary we read: skandhadeh svabhavaparijnanat tad bhavati (ed., p. 11). 43 Cf. SN VII.i, 9 (for an interesting analysis of this passage, see Bhattacharya 1973: 11618), CVP, 6064. 44  .      he bhagavan ke te visuddhah bhagavan aha rupadayah kasmat .          grahyagrahakabhavat vajragarbha aha ke te grahyagrahakas ceti bhagavan   .     . aha caksusa grhyate rupam sabdah karnena sruyate gandham nasikaya vetti . . . . .      jihvaya svadanam vidhuh kayena sprsyate vastu manah sukhadim apnute (HT . . . . I.ix, 58ab). 45 Cf. JS I, 37, 47. 46  .  .. .     .    . rago dvesas ca mohas ca rsya trsna ca sarvada papanam mulam akhyatam naisam . . .      snanena sodhanam atmatmyagrahad ete sambhavantha janminah avidyahetukah . .     so pi savidya bhrantir isyate raupyabuddhir yatha suktau suktidrs. au nivartate ..t .      nairatmyadarsanat sapi nirmulam avasdati sarpabuddhir yatha rajjau rajjudrs. au ..t    nivartate sarpabuddhih punas tatra naiva syad iha janmani sattvabuddhis tathatrapi . ~  vajrajnanan nivartate (stt. 6569ab). 47       .    maharaganalena sakalaskandhadhatvayatanadnam niravarankaranat suddhatma . . (comm. on NS VI, 5). 48 The same concept mutatis mutandis is common to Hinduism and can be found in classical texts of traditional Hindu darsanas. Let us consider just one example: the a. concept of purusartha in the Smkhya. On this subject, see interesting considerations . by C. Pensa in G. Gnoli (ed.) Mircea Eliade e le religioni asiatiche, Serie Orientale Roma (64), IsMEO, Roma 1989, pp. 133 ff. 49 Cf. Tucci 19693 : 23. 50   In the PAJS (VP, ed., vol. III, p. 77) we read: iha tathagatam jnanam . ~ . .  .      sarvadharmanam nihsvabhavatavabodhanam nama, na sarvabhavalaksanam . . . . . susuptacittam. . 51    sarvatathagatam jnanam [: : : ] mahasukham iti smrtam (JS VII, 3a, d). . . ~ . 52   visayasuddhabhavatvat svasamvedyam param sukham (HT I.ix, 3cd). . . . . 53  The full passage is: [: : : ] desetu me bhante bhagava dhammam desetu sugato .      dhammam yam mama assa dgharattam hitaya sukhaya ti tasmat iha te Bahiya . . .

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evam sikkhitabbam dit. he dit. hamattam bhavissati sute sutamattam bhavissati . . .t .t . . ~~  ~~  ~ mute mutamattam bhavissati vinnate vinnatamattam bhavissatti || evan hi te . .   sute Bahiya sikkhitabbam yato kho te Bahiya dit. he dit. hamattam bhavissati . .t .t . ~~  ~~  mute mutamattam bhavissati vinnate vinnatamattam sutamattam bhavissati . . .   bhavissati tato tvam Bahiya na tena, yato tvam Bahiya na tena tato tvam . . .    Bahiya na tattha yato tvam Bahiya nev attha tato tvam Bahiya nev idha na . .   es ev anto dukkhassa ti (Udana, Bodhivagga huram na ubhayamantarena .  I, 10; Cf. Udanam, ed. by P. Steinthal, Pali Text Society, London, 1885, p. 8). A very similar passage can be found in the SN (XXXV.xcv, 1213, ed., vol. IV, p. 73). 54  . pratyaksam [: : : ] udur iva gagane [: : : ] anumanam mrtakatanur iva (LKC IV, . . . . ~ 232 cd). Cf also JS IV, 30cd: sarvam pratyaksato vetti sarvajnas tena kathyate. . . 55 Cf., for instance, HT I.viii, 25, 4445, JS, I, 90. 56 Cf. Sahajasiddhi III, 8, PAJS (ed., VP, vol. III, p. 63, line 2). 57 JS VII, 3b. 58  svasamvedyam idam jnanam vakpathattagocaram adhis. hanakramo hy esah . . ~ .  .t  . . ~ ~ sarvajnajnanatanmayah (HT I.viii, 49). . 59  ~ . svasamvedyad bhaved jnanam svaparavittivarjitam khasamam virajam sunyam . . .  .     ~  .    bhavabhavatmakam param prajnopayavyatimisram ragaragavimisritam (HT I.x, . 7). 60     svasamvedyatmika suddhir nanyasuddhya vimucyate (HT I.ix, 3ab). Cf. also . Sahajasiddhi III, 3cd. 61   .  athendriyadvarikam svasamvedyam tada niskalam sarvagam sarvavyapi na bhavati, . . . . .      ~ .  ~ . sarvavaranat tasmat tathagatam jnanam svasamvedyam sarvadharmasvabhavajnam . . . . nirvikalpam anindriyam iti (PAJS, ed., VP, vol. III, p. 77, lines 302; see also Gnoli 1997: 37). Cf. also JS III, 10. 62 Cf. JS VII; PAJS, ed., VP, vol. III, pp. 789. 63 Cf. HT I.i, 12a. 64 Cf. HT I.i, 12b. 65    ~ . In the SS we read: yadi buddhajn anam dehajam bhavati adharadheyasambandhena . .  .   .     yatha puspajam gandham tadabhave vinasyati yatha puspabhave gandhabhavo, na . .       caivam ato dehe bahye ca vyapitvad bahyastham dehastham ity ucyate dehabhave . .       na tasyabhavo yasmat tasman na dehaja [HT I.i, 12] iti niyamah tatha aha .    _  _ ~   _ akasasya yatha bhango nasti kumbhasya bhangatah jnanasya ca tatha nasti bhango . _ dehasya bhangatah (MS 3-693, fol. 13v5,9 ). Cf. JS II, 3840. . 66 Cf. PAJS, ed., VP, vol. III, pp. 767. 67  prakrtiprabhasvaram nama yadi svasamvedyam tathagatam jnanam na bhavati, . .  . .   . ~ .        . tada sattvasayavasat tathagatasya dharmadesana na syat sarvadharma aprabodhah,  asamvedyatvat (PAJS, ed., VP, vol. III, p. 77, lines 2830). . 68 In the SN (XLVII.III.ii, 8 and v, 3) we read: Then, as the Exalted One meditated in solitude, there arose in his mind this train of thought: This is the one sole way that leads to the purication of beings, to the utter passing beyond sorrow and grief, to the destruction of woe and lamentation, to the winning of the Method, to the realizing of Nibbana, to wit: the four stations of mindfulness. (trans. Woodward 1930: 147; cf. also p. 162; ed., vol. V, pp. 167, 184). 69  The smrtyupasthanas (Pli: satipat. hana; foundations of awareness) are mena. . .t  tioned for instance in the LKC V, 238c (VP, ed., vol. III, p. 148). Concerning the  . .  thirty-seven bodhipaksikadharmas, see also the Yoginsamcaratantratka, MS, fols. .  16v32r. See also above, note 15. 70 J. Hopkins (1985: 70) writes: Through developing, in the stage of generation, clear appearance of pure body and pure mind, ordinary appearances are stopped for the mental consciousness. [: : : ] Thus, successful meditators have a conception of themselves as ideal beings, not inherently existent but merely designated in depen-

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dence upon pure mind and body. For deity yoga to succeed, two prime factors are needed: clear appearance of a divine body and pride in being that deity. With success in visualizing the deity, both mind and body appear to be pure; hence, the sense of self that the meditator has in dependence upon purely appearing mind and body is of a pure self, a divine self. 71 Cf. Hopkins 1985: 107. 72   Catuhpthamahatantraraja, Paraptha, III patala, MS, fols. 22r1 , 26v3 . The same . . . . ~ . mantra recurs in other texts, such as the Abhisamayamanjar (ed. in Dhh 13, p. 128) and the VP (comm. on LKC III, 35, ed., vol. II, p. 32). See also Dawa-Samdup 19872 : 87, 122. 73 See, for instance, CVP, 17, 29, 7678, 80cd81, 118, 129. 74 In Klacakra texts we have six families (see, for instance, SU, 161172; LKC V, a ~ 101107). Vajrasattva is the head of the sixth family, which puries the jnanaskandha, ~  the jnanadhatu, the manas, and so on. On this theme, see also NS III, 12 and AK  (with AKU); Guhyasamajapradpoddyotana (ed., p. 17); PAJS (VP, ed., vol. III, pp. 713); Tucci 19693 : 67. 75 See also Gnoli-Orono 1994: 79. The differences between this table and the ones a that we nd in other Klacakra texts has been analysed by Orono (1996: 138139). 76  Cf. CVP, 1116; Majjhima Nikaya (vol. I, p. 371); Vinayapit aka (vol. I, p. 83). .

REFERENCES TEXTS
 a Abhaykaragupta, Abhayapaddhati (Buddhakapalatantratka), NAK, MS 521, NGMPP, .  Mf. A 48/2.  Buddhakapalatantra (Dpal sangs rgyas thod pa), The Tibetan Tripitaka, Peking . Edition, Otani University, Kyoto, ed. by Daisetz T. Suzuki, 19551961, vol. III, # 63, pp. 5263.  . . Candamaharosanatantra, NAK, MS 3-661 NGMPP, Mf. A 138/8; NAK, MS 4-342, .. Mf. A 140/7; NAK, MS 1-220, NGMPP, Mf. A 141/7. For the rst eight chapters, see also George 1974.   Catuhpthamahatantraraja, NAK, MS 5-37, NGMPP, Mf. A 138/10, . .  Deuter-Aryadeva, Cittavisuddhiprakaran a, Sanskrit and Tibetan Text, ed. by P.B. . Patel, with a Foreward by V. Bhattacharya, in Visva-Bharati Research Studies (8), Santiniketan Press, Santiniketan 1949.  rti, Deutero-Candrak Guhyasamajatantrapradpoddyotanat kasatkotvyakhya, ed. by . . . .   C. Chakravarti, Kashi Prasad Jayaswal Research Institute, Patna 1984.  _ Guhyadi-As.tasiddhisangraha, Sanskrit and Tibetan text, Rare Buddhist Text Series . (1), ed. by S. Rinpoche and V.V. Dwivedi, CIHTS, Sarnath, Varanasi 1987.   Guhyasamajatantra, The Guhyasamaja Tantra. A New Critical Edition, by Y. Matsunaga, Toho Shuppan, inc., Osaka 1978.  Hevajrasadhana, MS preserved on negative at the K.P. Jayaswal Research Institute, Patna. Hevajratantra, see Snellgrove 1959. Hevajratippana, MS preserved on negative at the K.P. Jayaswal Research Institute, . . Patna. ~ Jnanodayatantram, ed. by S. Rinpoche and V. Dwivedi, Rare Buddhist Text Series (2), CIHTS, Sarnath, 1988.  Kalparajatantra, MS not catalogued, preserved at the IsIAO Library, Rome.  a. Knha (alias Krsncrya), Yogaratnamala, see Snellgrove 1959, vol. II: 10359, and .. .a a Farrow-Menon 1992.

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FRANCESCO SFERRA

  Krsncrya, Vasantatilaka of Caryavrat Srkrsnacarya with Commentary: .. .   .. . a a  Rahasyadpika by Vanaratna, ed. by S. Rinpoche and V. Dwivedi, Rare Buddhist Text Series (7), CIHTS, Sarnath 1990.   ~   Kr. nayamaritantram. With Ratnavalpanjika of Kumaracandra, ed. by S. Rinpoche . s. and V. Dwivedi, Rare Buddhist Text Series (9), CIHTS, Sarnath, 1992. .    a a Nrop, Sekoddesatka of Nadapada (Naropa), The Sanskrit Text edited for the rst .  time with an introduction in English by M. Carelli, Gaekwads Oriental Series (90), Baroda 1941. See also Gnoli-Orono 1994. .    Pundar Vimalaprabhatka of Kalkin Srpundarka on Srlaghukalacakratantraraja by . . ka, .. ~ Srmanjusryasas, vol. I, Critically Edited & Annotated with Notes by J. Upadhyaya, Bibliotheca Indo-Tibetica Series (11), CIHTS, Sarnath 1986; vols. IIIII, Critically Edited & Annotated with Notes by V.V. Dwivedi and S.S. Bahulkar, Rare Buddhist Text Series (1213), CIHTS, Sarnath 1994. See also Newman 1987.  a sa Ratnkara nti, Muktaval, NAK, MS 419, NGMPP, Mf. A 994/6.  ~  s j~a Ravi r nna, Aryamanjusrnamasamgti with Amrtakanika-tippan by Bhiksu . . . . . . ~  Ravisrjnana and Amrtakanikoddyota-nibandha of Vibhuticandra, ed. by B. Lal, . . Bibliotheca Indo-Tibetica (30), CIHTS, Sarnath 1994. s j~a Ravi r nna, Gunabharan, Royal Asiatic Society, London, Hodgson Sanskrit Col. . lection, MS 68. . a a s . a Sdhuputra Srdharnanda, Sekoddesatippan, La Sekodde atippan di Sdhuputra . . dharnanda. Il testo sanscrito, ed. by R. Gnoli, Rivista degli Studi Orientali Sr a (70) 11546. Sarvadurgatiparis odhanatantra, Sanskrit and Tibetan Texts with Introduction, English Translation and Notes by T. Skorupski, Delhi 1983. Sekoddesa, A Critical Edition of the Tibetan Translation, by G. Orono. With an Appendix by R. Gnoli, On the Sanskrit Text, Serie Orientale Roma (72), IsMEO, Roma 1994. ~  Sekoddesapanjika, The Results of a joint study on the Buddhist Tantric Texts, Taisho University, Annual of the Institute for Comprehensive Studies of Buddhism, 16 (1994) 289354.  Vajragarbha, Satsahasrika (Hevajratantrapindarthatka), NAK, MS 3-693, NGMPP, .. .  . .  Mf. A 1267/6; Kaiser Library, MS 128, NGMPP, Mf. C 14/6. a. Vajrapni, Laghutantratka, NAK, MS 3-715, NGMPP, Mf. A 47/20. .  .  Yoginsamcaratantra, NAK, MS 4-20, NGMPP, Mf. 48/5. .  Yoginsamcaratantratka, NAK, MS 3-683, NGMPP, Mf. A 1279/2. . 

STUDIES
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Rome Italy

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