Anda di halaman 1dari 110

UNIVERSITY ERASMUS HOGESCHOOL BRUSSEL DEPARTEMENTE HOTEL AND TOURISME

Functional structure of the tourism infrastructure in Turkish Riviera, Antalya

TEACHER COORDINATOR: Lector-Martine Louckx

STUDENT: Ionescu Maria-Alexandra

-2011-

CONTENT

INTRODUCTION.....4 Chapter I.General Aspects of Antalya-Turkish Riviera6 1 General Presentation............................................................................................6 1.1 Potential Tourism of Antalya.........7 1.1.1Natural Potential................8 1.1.2Antrophic Potential..................17 1.2 Antalya the historic city...23 1.3 Ancient cities and arount it-historical places.. ...26 1.3.1 East of Antalya..............26 1.3.2 West of Antalya.35 Chaper II.Turkish Riviera Antalya Mediterranean Paradise.40 2. Turkish Riviera Littoral Tourism40 2.1 Concept of Blue Flag in Turkey......41 2.2 Antalya Resort.44 2.2.1 Resorts in the Eastern Turkih Riviera...47 2.2.2 Resorts in the Western Turkish Riviera.52 2.3 Montain Tourism in Turkish Riviera ..55 2.4 Sportiv Tourism in Turkish Riviera-Golg...57 Chapter III.Tourism Infrastructure in Turkish Riviera....62 3. Tourism development in Turkish Riviera-Antalya62 3.1 Touristic function/Touistic Circulation in Turkish Riviera.65 3.1.1 Evolution of indicator number of tourists. ...67 3.1.2 Evolution the indicator number of nights spend...70 3.1.3 Evolution the indicator average leght of stay73 3.2 Cultural Function of Turkish Riviera..74 3.3 Comercial Function of Turkish Riviera...83
2

3.4 S.W.O.T Analysis of Turkish Riviera91 Chapter IV.Transport Infrastructure...95 4.1 Acces to Antalya..95 By Airplane.96 By Car..97 By Ferry...99 By Taxi..100 Transport Public101 By Tram.101 Rent a car...101 Bycycle..101 Conclusion.102 Bibliography..103 Anexes..105

List of tabele Table 1- Number of Blue Flags in Turkey trough years 2004-2009...43 Table 2-Number of Blue Flags in 2009 in Euroanean Uniune.43 Table 3- Number of tourists in Golf-Clubs in Belek 2011..43 Table 4-Top 10 Contry most visited tourist arrivals..62 Table 5-Top 10 Contrys most visited cities, estimated number of international Visitors by years.65 Table 6-Number of foreign visitors in Turkey and in Antalya.67 Table 7-Number of foreigh visitors in Antalya 2006-200967 Table 8-Number of foreign in 2008-Antalya..68 Table9-Number of foreign in 2009-Antalya68 Table10-Number of foreign in 2010- Antalya69 Table11- Number of foreign in 2011- Antalya-January-May..69
3

Table 12- Number of nights spend in Turkish Riviera 2010.70 Table 13-Most desirable type of accommodation, number of arrivals in Turkish Riviera71 Table 14-Number of arrivals in Turkish Rivera in hotels 201072 Table 15- Main trips purpose..72 Table 16- Reason to travel..73 Table 17Most visited historic sites 2009-2011.75 Table 18- Visit numbers in art gallery/museums ( January-April) 2009-201177 Table 19-Antalya Airport Imcoming Passengers statistic in 2009-2010..96 Table 20- Antalya Airport Imcoming Passengers in 2010.97

INTRODUCTION

Tourism can be defined today as a social phenomenon - the economic relationship that includes taking place in society, in the use of leisure time, both within each country, and the circuit material and spiritual values among countries. The tourism industry includes, in conclusion, business hotel and catering enterprises, providing business services for population, business offices, agencies, associations and other economic units that deal with training, promoting and realizing the benefits of travel. Development of tourism sector requires the existence of a heritage tourism, which, by its attractiveness, is meant to ensure the integration of areas, touristic regions or countries of interest in domestic and international tourist circuit. Among the components of heritage tourism should be mentioned first, natural resources with the beauty of mountains and landscapes, sunny beaches, seaside resorts, factors of cure, historical places, cultural traditions, art, folklore and climate. The resulted is that, the natural values are based on the tourist potential of that region. The natural resources are designed to enrich and facilitate the rational use of natural tourism heritage, creating a potential offer in an effective touristic offer. It necessary the development and diversification benefits of tourism services, reaching a level of quality, able to meet high expectations and preferences were the tourists are constantly changing, because the notion of heritage tourism is closely linked to the content of interest benefits. The touristic offer of a resort or touristic areas has an important role in ensuring a more diverse range of tourist services, which contribute significantly to increasing the force of attraction in regions. Tourism by its vocation, it aspires to increase welfare by organizing tourist trips, vacations, recreation, entertainment, etc. Modern tourism1 is not just the desire for relaxation or recreation, also represent pleasure of variation and increasingly, the desire to know other peoples, traditions, customs, culture, historical sites, monument-art, etc ,also, tour organizers have the task of aligning the offer for this enjoyments. Although tourism was once thought of as a smokeless industry
1

Bran F., Marin D., T. Simon, The Economics of tourism and environment Ed.Economica-1999, p.209

with few, if any, environmental impacts, recognition of its potential for adverse impacts is growing. Tourism consists of the activities undertaken during travel from home or work for the pleasure and enjoyment of certain destinations, and the facilities that cater to the needs of the tourist.2 Infrastructure is defined as system facility, equipment and services necessary creation an organization. This word comes from the French "infrastructure", which means the technical and material elements of (the system of communications and telecommunications, railways, roads). In terms of tourism, remark refers primarily infrastructure the communication path: the road network, railways, airlines, maritime, river and communication routes, and secondly, technical tourist facilities referring tourist circulation from a space tourist, specific tourism activities remark to: the ways of access to basic sightseeing material (hotels, villas, cottages, pensions, etc.) complexes and tourist resorts In this project I will treat the tourism on the Mediterranean coast of Turkey, respective Antalya, know the pearl of the Turkish Riviera an exciting major city, and at the same time a paradise for swimmers. I will also present the tourist services provided by luxury hotels and resorts from Turkish Riviera, respective Antalya. Travel services provided are structured in specific areas, tourist activities, hotel services, catering service, leisure services completed with other related activities. In conclusion I will present the paradise of Antalya with the modern and the ancient settlements, sites and ruins which containing history, myth and legend and also the most important tourist resorts located along the Turkish Riviera.

Mathison W.Wall, 1982, pag 1/Power, 1996, pag 214.

CHAPTER I
I.GENERAL ASPECTS OF ANTALYA TURKISH RIVIERA 1. General presentation.
Antalya which is located on the south of Turkey is a tourism destination with its centre on the Mediterranean Sea coast in south-west. With an area of 20.723 km it is the main province of Turkey, especially because the 657 km long coastline, 290 km of the coast represents natural beach. About 60 % of the region is covered within pine forest and Mediterranean plant life. Antalya is divided into 15 districts: the capital-Antalya, Akseki, Alanya Demre, Elmal, Finike, Gazipasa, Gundomu, brad, Ka, Kemer, Korkuteli, Kumluca, Manavgat, Serik. Stunningly situated on an arching bay, flanked to the west by the towering peaks of the Beydalar Mountains, Antalya is rapidly expanding and predominantly modern city. With a total population of about 1,719,751 and an urban population of 714,000, its a centre for light industry as well as the administrative and commercial hub of a province which contains many of Turkeys tourist resorts. Antalya and its environs have been used as settlements by many civilizations throughout history, with its pristine nature and unique beauty, the city hosts millions of travelers from the entire globe during all four seasons. Its beaches stretch for miles, and the clean and calm Mediterranean takes on a different shade of blue by the hour. Forests descend from the Taurus Mountains to the crystal blue sea and ancient settlements are hidden in the costal and mountainous areas. Antalya presents travelers with unforgettable flavors and colours. The land is a virtual refuge for travelers, who desire the preservation of its pristine beauty, that all living things can have a refuge in future centuries as well. Mountains- Antalya is surrounded with high mountains from east to west, on Taurus Mountains at Saklikent Ski-Center skiing and on Beydaglari Jeep Safari-Trekking-Mountaineering is possible. In some seasons, hunting is also allowed. The Tahtali Aerial Cableway uniquely combines two classic holiday destinations the sea and the mountains. Mount Tahtali, at 2,365m above sea level, is situated in an attractive and rapidly growing tourist area and provides the region with a new dimension.

The majors rivers- in the area are:Esen, Demre, Aksu, Kpr, Manavgat, Alara, Sedi,and the steams are:Akcay,Alakir,Acisu,Varsak,Bogacay,Arapsuyu,Duden,Karpuz,Colakli,Delice Dim,etc The majors plains-the vast pains of the area are ideal for cultivation of citrus fruits and greenhouse produce. Along the coast are the plains of: Kumluca, Finike, Tekirova, Manavgat, Alanya, Gazipasa,Inland, Tekeli ve Taseli Plateaux, Elmali, Mgren, Kizilcadag, Korkuteli.

Psychical map of Antalya source:www.geomaps.com

1.1Potential tourism of Antalya


The tourism potential represent a touristic offer at territory which together with tehnic-based material and general infrastructure and touristim constitute the real offer touritic ( actual) or heritage tourism. More broadly, the tourism potential of a territory, represent all the natural elements,economice i cultural istorice,which presents some options for capitalization in tourism,give a specific functionality for tourism, so are prerequisites for the development of tourism activity. The most important strengths of the region Antalya which made her become the most wanted by the entire season are: beaches, climate, weather, hydrography, vegetation, and wildlife, old citys material and technical basis.3

Tourism and marketing touristic Cristian Stoian, Mdlina Spnu, Ed. Fundaiei Romnia de Mine, Bucharest, 2003

1.1.1. Natural Potential


BEACH Antalya most important tourist center of Turkey has a very long coastline of around 657 km. The beaches of Antalya where he can enjoy the best way to join the entire trio Mediterranean: sun-fine sand and beautiful natural landscapes, also the best establishments of accommodations and entertainment world. The different services that they offer all inclusive hotels and holiday-village complex in Various Stages of completion, all this attract, every year millions of tourists. Furthermore, it is possible to practice all sorts of sporting activities such as surfing and skiing. Etc Antalya is famous for its long stretches of beach, most of them awarded with the Blue Flag.

CLIMATE Antalya is influenced by a typical Mediterranean climate where summers are

sunny and winters are mild. The area is shielded from the cold northerly winds by the Taurus Mountain range; there are northeasterly winds and sea breezes which have a cooling affect. Antalya has three seasons of spring and summer season, this means long, hot dry summers, mild winters with some rain, and short, warm sprigs and autumns. Average daytime temperatures are, April 21 C, May 22 C, June 24 C, July C, August 28-32 C, September 29 C, Octomber 25 C.

Months Water Temperature C January 17C February 17C March 18C April 21C May 22C June 24C July 27C August 28-32C September 29C October 25C November 22C December 19C
Source: Ministry of Culture and Tourism

Source: Turkish State Meteorological Service, Genelia Mdrl Isler;

From the tables we can deduce that summer temperatures can rise up to at least 30C 40C is not a value unheard of .Whereas sea temperatures tend to go up to and to stabilize around 28C in summer months and minimal 17C in January February . These are perfect conditions for sunbathing, and they last from June to September. The average temperatures in winter starts from December to February, mainly described as a rainy season, maintain around 15 or 16C, which rules out the chance of spending time at the beach, but offers a good reason for developing other activities in Antalya, such as clubbing, partying and enjoying the sparkling nightlife of Antalya. Snow is highly unlikely to occur during this time of year, given that air temperatures maintain much above 0C even at night. Transitional months from October to December and March to June, feature a slow passage from higher to lower temperature, or the other way around, combining occasionally warm days with the likelihood of rain falls. Antalya has over 3000 hours of sunlight per year; this kind of climate makes it possible for the resort to be frequented by tourists all the year round. Natural cure factors are the climate of marine salt aerosols, solar radiation and sea water which is chlorinated, sodium, magnesium, hypotonic.

HYDROGRAPHY

Antalya has many natural sites including the four waterfalls that it owns, which represents an important points for tourism in Antalya, they are: Upper Duden Waterfalls, Lower Duden Waterfalls, Kurunlu Waterfalls, Manavgat Waterfalls.

10

Upper Dden Waterfalls are a group of waterfalls in the province of Antalya, Turkey. The waterfall, formed by the Dden River , one of the major rivers in southern Anatolia, is located 12 km north-east of Antalya and rise from Kirkgoz and ends where the limpid waters of the Lower Dden Falls drop off a rocky cliff directly into the Mediterranean. The river Duden is leaving a higher plateau of the Taurus Mountains by falling about 15 m deep and 20 m wide onto a lower plateau next to Antalya. Because of the raw ingredients in the water, huge amounts of Tuff stone volcanic materials have formed the river bed as well as a cave below the waterfalls. Upper Dden Waterfall is also called Iskender Waterfall locally, because it is believed that horses of Byk Iskender (Alexander the Great) drink water here. There are beautiful caustic structures formed by corrosion of water in Dden. Just under the waterfall there is a cave called Dilek Cave, meaning Cave of Wishes. Path inside the cave goes behind the waterfall and it can be watched from another perspective. Intensity of water flow can be felt well as you come close to waterfall inside the cave.There exists many picnic areas and restaurants magnificent specialized in fishing foods.

Upper Dden Waterfalls -source:www.luciedebelkova.com

Lower Duden Waterfalls, is the second largest waterfall with a height of 40 m and flows into

the Mediterranean Sea, also the water gushes down onto the massive rocks with great force. The waterfall is known as Karpuzkaldiran,, name. This waterfall is located in Antalya, near
Lara and can be reached with the old coast street, as well.
11

Right next, Genclik Park (called the Youth Park) is a wonderful place to admire the waterfall, also the best view of Lower Duden Waterfalls is from the view from sea. Kurunlu Waterfalls, located at a distance of 24 km east of the city centre, the waterfalls and their environs cover an area of 33 hectares, and represent a unique place in the world because connects the cascades falling from 18 km in height with small waterfalls and 7 small ponds. Dispose such a wealth of fauna and flora that the surroundings are very suitable for making of eco-tourism activities including hiking, observation platforms and animals, also the green space and beneficial birds in its environs make it a new conservation area. On the way to Kursunlu there is nice smelling pine forest, and the parking is surrounded by huge trees offering shadow and cool air. The way to the waterfall on well kept the amazing view onto the river bed and natural walk ways and makes everyone forget the little longer way to the waterfall.In addition, besides the waterfall, have arranged several small restaurants and places to relax

Manavgat Waterfalls, the Manavgat waterfall is one of the best known waterfalls in Turkey. It is located 3 km from the village of Manavgat. The small cascade on Manavgat Creek is 2 m high and 40 m wide, which was formed as a result of the Manavgat River delta being filled with alluvia, are strikingly beautiful. The name Manavgat is known to mean Temple of Manauwa/Mother Goddess in the Luwian/Etruscan language. It is thought that during various epochs it was used as the common sacred site of the ancient cities of Seleukeia and Side. Of the Turkoman yrk4 descending in masses from the Taurus Mountains down to the Mediterranean littoral after the Malazgirt Battle in 1071, Tugayoullar settled in the west and Senir Beyleri in the east. Located around it are a fish restaurant, a cafeteria, recreational sites and souvenir shops. The great waterfalls are found in the Oymapnar Dam direction of the small cascade. The delta where the creek joins the sea has a unique beauty of its own. Here, daily river boat excursions are organized during the summer season and sea products from the area are offered to tourists during these excursion.
4

Yrk, also Yrk or Yuruk , are a Turkish people ultimately of Oghuz descent, some of whom are still nomadic, primarily inhabiting the mountains of Anatolia and partly Balkan peninsula.Vakalopoulos, Apostolos Euangelou. " Origins of the Greek Nation: The Byzantine Period, 1204-1461". Their name derives from the Turkish verb yr(yrmek in infinitive), which means "to walk", with the word Yrk or Yrk designating "those who walk, walkers".

12

FAUNA

Antalya is also riche in terms of fauna and flora, depending on the climate and topographical variation 54% of total surface is covered by forests and there are many national parks and protected areas. Fauna in Antalya boasts a great diversity, in the mountains and in region live, bears, wolves, wild cats and deer, also we can find the fallow deer, and this species comes from the foothills of the Taurus Mountains between Antalya and Adana. In forest areas we can meet species of bats like (Bls Buldogyarasas), in rocky areas, are species of reptiles, like (Blanus) specie, also many kinds of snakes. The Fauna area is a good place for hunting safari. One of these places is the 100km (10,000 hackers) Dzleram area. Also in this place we meet birds that are allowed to be hunted like: partridges, quails, pigeons, thrush,

woodcock and wild duck. During walks in nature and in rural areas there are herds of sheep, goats, and camels sometimes. Locals grow cows, donkeys and horses, which they used for farm work. Among birds of prey can often be seen eagles, hawks, their presence is a sign that you are in a corner of Europe still untouched by the influence of modern civilization. Antalya beauty is not limited to dry areas, on the beach we can see other creatures that live near the sandy shore, sometimes thrown by the waves on the shore, most are mussels, which filter the role of marine water, fed to fish, and by crushing shells and deposits beach, contribute to the formation sand. On the edge of the lake they find shelter and food, all kinds of birds: kingfishers, geese and ducks. Water is abundant in fish: Crab, Mediterranean jellyfish (Cotylorhiza tubers), Gobi fish and fish bubble thorn, sea horses (Nipocamp), etc. Fauna of Antalya dispose many species of animals endangered, where Mediterranean Sea provide a refuge for monk seals and loggerhead turtles, Dalmatian pelican, pygmy

cormorant and the slender billed curlew, as well as flamingoes, wild ducks and geese. Other endangered species include turtles which lay their eggs in the long sandy beaches of the Mediterranean. Two species breed in Turkey, where efforts to protect them have been extremely successful. A tourism development project at Kycegiz has been scrapped to preserve the breeding grounds of Caretta5 and the lake and marshes of Kycegiz declared a Specially Protected Area.
5

The loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta), or loggerhead, is an oceanic turtle distributed throughout the world. It is a marine reptile, belonging to the family Cheloniidae. The loggerhead measures up to 213 centimetres (84 in) long when fully grown.

13

Studies of the turtles along all Turkey's shores have been launched, and seventeen sand beaches of foremost importance as breeding grounds for turtles are kept under constant observation by the Turtle Preservation Committee. The Ministry of the Environment's Authority of Specially Protected Areas is in charge of protecting the Belek area.

FLORA

Because of varied climate, vegetation in Turkey is of great richness and diversity. In Antalya the most often grow palm trees, olive trees, hibiscus, myrtle, laurel and maple, crowd bananas, figs and chestnut. The beaches are shaded by hundreds of orange trees and palms. In some areas of this region may be the most common plantation, maples and chestnut trees. Agriculture is well developed, growing potatoes, leguminous plants, sugar beets, sunflowers, grapes and citrus. There are also increasing the areas planted with pistachio, hazelnuts and figs, which are exported in large quantities. The plant life of Antalya is extremely varied. Every kind of tropical plant can be found along the coast. In Antalya exists many types of giant cactus that reaching attention immediately for tourists. By the foothills of the Taurus coast, is the sovereignty of the typical Mediterranean Sea ( maquis)6 vegetation . Any kind of healthy and lush forests of oak and pine trees, shrubs monitors. The most important products of area are cotton and cereals, together with sesame and citrus fruits, while in recent years there have been also significant increase in the trade of cut flower. Greenhouses allow a specialization in the early development of fruit and vegetables. The extraordinary fertility resulting from the combination of rich soil, a plentiful water supply and the Mediterranean sun, has been a source of attraction for many people throughout the centuries, leading to the foundation of rich and imposing cities. Plantation regions, a cotton, sesame, citrus and banana grove creates a distinctive beauty. From Antalya to Thermossos we can meet : Lilium candidum , hyacinthus orientalis subspaces orientalis , muscari muscarini , muscari macro carpum , stenbergia Candida muscari anatolicum , stenbergia fischeriana , muscari sandra sicum , muscari mirum , urginea
6 maquis, plural maquis, Italian macchia, plural macchie, a scrubland vegetation of the Mediterranean region, composed primarily of leathery, broad-leaved evergreen shrubs or small trees. Garigue, or garrigue, a poorer version of this vegetation, is found in areas with a thin, rocky soil. Maquis occurs primarily on the lower slopes of mountains bordering the Mediterranean Sea. Many of the shrubs are aromatic, such as mints, laurels, and myrtles. Olives, figs, and other small trees are scattered throughout the area and often form open forests if undisturbed by humans;

14

maritima , orchis , atropa belladona , cunuperus sabina , ruta , mustard , camphor , lemon balm , asparagus , wild jasmine,maize tassels,wild myrtle,centaury.

PROTECTED NATURE

Based in the foothills of the Taurus Mountains, the city of Antalya is very rich in terms of caves. In this province indentifies around 500 caves, among the closest to the center we can see Karain, Kocain, Kucuk Dipsiz, Beldibi and Buyuk Dipsiz,etc.

Karaalioglu Park Located on the coastal cliffs of the city center of Antalya, the park Karaalioglu is the oldest park green from the region, possesses the advantages of a balcony or you can cool off and escape the suffocating heat of summer the city and relax al shade of pines and palms and all while admiring the vastness of the blue Mediterranean Sea. The park is built on an area of about 7000 square meters, has access from three directions. Karaalioglu Park has a warm climate, rare flowers and trees, concrete road, casinos with the most charming place in Antalya. The park also has toilets, children's playground, and childrens education area, tea gardens; also in the park exist more than 120 species varieties of plant. Atatrk7 Park Atatrk Park, is one of Turkey's most beautiful parks from Antalya, the park was opened in 1937 ,with a total of 186 acres and was formed like a park in 1952 ,also in 1964 was named Atatrk. In 2006 the Atatrk park was modernized and reorganized with 3.5 acres , with artificial lake, at the edge of the lake with a tea garden terrace, garden kiosks located in rural areas ,navigation areas, waterfalls, walking trails, a modern children's gardens, bicycle facilities, all this with an modern look. Sometimes in the park is organized many little commercial markets.

Mustafa Kemal Atatrk (188110 November 1938) was an Ottoman and Turkish army officer, revolutionary statesman, writer, and the first President of Turkey. He is credited with being the founder of the modern Turkish [1] state. Atatrk was a military officer during World War I. Following the defeat of the Ottoman Empire in World War I, he led the Turkish national movement in the Turkish War of Independence. Having established a provisional government in Ankara, he defeated the forces sent by the Allies. His military campaigns gained Turkey independence. Atatrk then embarked upon a program of political, economic, and cultural reforms, seeking to transform the former Ottoman Empire into a modern, westernized and secular nation-state. The principles of Atatrk's reforms, upon which modern Turkey was established, are referred to as Kemalism.

15

Yavuz zcan Park Is an important historic city located opposite the port, it offers unique views of the Mediterranean Sea.The park features several water games, design elements that provide a show during the summer nights with games of light. The park is equipped with many recreational areas, places to drink tea, terraces and also offers an atmosphere of palm trees. There are also organizes events, festivals and outdoor performances.

Recep Bilgin Park Recep Bilgin Park is located west of Republic Square in Antalya. This park is used as passive green space and is situated on a cliff. Equipped with many kinds of flowers, one restaurant and many recreational places, also the Recep Bilgin Park is popular due to its architectural design.

Kprl Kanyon Milli Park ((Kprl Canyon National Park) The National Park Kprl Kanyon Milli is located at a distance of 95 km from Antalya and 65 km on the hillsides of the Taurus Mountains. The National Park covers an area of 37 thousand hectares. Kprl Canyon National Park covers 36,000 hectares, including part of Kprcay and the ancient city of Selge, as well as is largest forest from Turkey Within the Park flows the River Kpr, 120 km long, between the valleys and canyons. The river valley within the Park is 14 km long and, at places, 400 m high and in the form of a canyon with steep walls.The most important morphological characteristic at the site is this steep cleft valley. Emerging from the Toros (Taurus) Mountains and running through a number of amazing canyons, Kprcay flows into the Mediterranean Sea to the south of Serik, Antalya. Exist underground springs in gorges that cut through steep, impassable canyons, the Kprcay constitutes one of Turkey's most beautiful natural recreation areas. There are as well the numerous archaeological sites in the area, especially the ancient city of Selge (Zerk), the fortresses on the banks of the river, arched Roman bridges and historic roads add to the significance of the Kprl Canyon. The flora of the National Park mainly consist of red pine, black fir, cedar, fir, cypress, ash, holly oak and oak trees, along with sessile glandules, wild olive, sandalwood, strawberry, gum mastic, locust, bay, myrtle, sloe tree, oleander, pitch-pine, wild rose, heather, spurge,
16

tamarisk, thyme, fern and chinaberry. The chinaberry tree, which is also known under the name Kara Gnlk (Storax) was engraved on coinage as a symbol of the city during the ancient epoch of Selge. This long and thin species of tree with a long life span has been processed since ancient times because of its superior quality. National Park-Altinbeik Cave The park is located 7 km from the Neslon village and 5 km from the Urunlu village, in Antalya province, this area is poor but the most important objectiv is Altinbesik Cave .Is the one of the most interesting and well known caves in Turkey. It is located on the western slopes of the Manavgat River Valley the area around the cave is famous for beautiful lakes, interesting rock formations, travertine, and streams. The cave is named after Altinbesik Hill where it is located inside and it was discovered by the geologist Dr. Temucin Aygen.Altinbesik cave has three levels; the lowest is still active with an underground river, rim stone pools and waterfalls. The upper level completely lost, where formation of stalagmites exists and stalactites, the middle level have large blocks of stones, sand and gravel have travertine formations. In the first 200 meters from the entrance of the cave it creates a lower level of the cave that is under water continuously. Lower level has an exit end of the 40 m vertically, this output and the adjacent walls are covered with white thick travertine, this is the most beautiful part of the cave. In addition, the tourists can see around the Altinbesik Cave the karts topography and the values of the wild beauty of the landscape of national park.

The Karain Cave Karain cave is located in north-west of Antalya, about 30 km, of Yagca village limits, which is located at 5-6 km on old road between Antalya-Bourdur. Karain Cave is internationally renowned and are a major point for lovers of nature tourism in Antalya It is a prehistoric cave, located at a height of about 370 meters from the sea and about 80 meters up the slope, where the Western Taurus calcareous zone borders on the travertine plain. Cave have not only the natural qualities, but it seem to be one of the oldest cave in the Anatolia , as well, in the cave has been found very old digs during the stone age, copper and even bronze. According to findings revealed, it was understood that Karain Cave was continuously inhabited in the Middle Paleolithic (Stone) ages. It is possible to understand from the inscriptions and monograms on the outer walls that this inhabitation also continued during the classical ages and that the cave was used as a sacred votive and worshipping place. The only pass in the area
17

located to the North of the Inn going through the Taurus Mountains and connecting Central Anatolia with the Mediterranean is ubuk Pass at an altitude of 924 meters. Cultural findings in Karain Cave include hand axes, various scrapers, jeweler and arrowheads made of Flintstone, in addition to bones of animals such as hippopotamuses, rhinoceroses and elephants; pieces of fossilized bones belonging to Homo sapiens, humans of the middle Paleolithic era. Most of the findings unearthed at Karain Cave are displayed in the small museum located where the slope borders on the plain and some of them at the Prehistory Hall of the Antalya Mus.

1.1.2 Atrophic Potential


Antalya is one of the towns from turkey which have the rich cultural background and is one town full of history. Antalya has united his natural beauties with its cultural riches and therefore made great improvements in the tourism field. Remains and works like ancient cultures other than Turkish background that are preserved with great importance for this art works there are thousands of art works and ancient remains that could be called as a wonder in Turkey. All these historical and cultural treasures of Antalya have been well preserved and till now is a great interest for tourists. The atrophic potential of Antalya is very diverse; we can meet many of the mosque, museums, archaeological sites, monuments, memorial houses, etc.

Hadrian's Gate Hadrian's Gate is called Hadrian Kapisi (Uc kapilar) and is located in the east of Antalya. Hadrian's Gate is one of the best preserved monuments of Antalya. He was built in honor of Hadrian emperor, during his visit in 130 after Christ. The door is in superb condition because the fact that over the time she was incorporated into an exterior walls of the city. This gate has three original etched windows, making an exception to her columns, they are built of white marble, and are remarkably decorated with floral and heads of lions having two clocks at every corner. The north tower in the right was rebuilt by the Seljuk Sultan Alaeddin Keykubat in Turkish times I (1219-1238), as attested by a plaque set into it. The inscription is in old Turkish, written in the Arabic script. Hadrian's Gate is located between the old town and modern city of Antalya and the two towers represent a window open for the past Antalya and the gate is also a vestige of civilization successive element.

18

Tower Hdrlk Tower Hdrlk or Red Tower is located on the Mediterranean seafront in Antalya region; the tower was built two centuries ago and has a height of 14 meters. The tower was roman origin, having two floors, the first floor has cylindrical shape and the base is square. The building served as a beacon or military stronghold. The interior consisted of a simple room. Today it is used as a historical tourism attraction; this round roman tower is the best place in town to watch the frequently spectacular sunsets over the snow-capped mountains across the gulf of Antalya.

Clock Tower- Saat Kules Clock Tower is located in Antalya city center, has a baroque building, is made of hard limestone and carved. The Tower has a height of 14 m at its end is installed a clock, where the name is coming.In the beginning, instead of the clock tower was a bell that was engraved on, the cross Jesus and biblical texts. Over time it suffering many changes, and in 1942 was covered with a dome. The tower is surrounded by beautiful park with a view to Karaalioglu Mediterranean sea cliffs.

Kesik Minare- Broken Minare Kesik Minare is located in the historical center of Antalya, and began existence in 2nd century AD as a Roman temple. In the year 600s was turned into a byzantine church dedicated to Saint Mary, but in the 700s was damaged by the Arab invasions and was turned into a mosque, when the empire was conquered Antalya. The upper part was destroyed by fire in 1964, leaving only the base, from here he comes the name of Broken Minare. Currently the monument works as a mosque Kesik Minare and draws the attention of many visitors because architectural features of ancient times, ottoman, byzantine and roman meet all in the same building

19

Source: Card book of Antalya (collection of farmable prints);

The complex religious Yivli Minare Minare Yivli religious complex includes numerous historical architectural ensemble consisting of a religion called kulliye built around a mosque. This complex includes: Yivli Minare, Mosque Yivli Minare, the Giyaseddin Medersa, tomb of Zincirkiran Mehmet Bey, Mevlevis Monastery, Medersa Karatay,Mosque of Murat Pasa, Mosque of Iskele, Mosque of Tekeli Mehmet Pacha.

The Yivli Minare Yivli contamination or fluted minaret is one of the first Islamic buildings in Antalya, is a monument which dates from the 13th century, was built by Mehmet Beyin the foundation of an old church. It is located east of the mosque Yivli mining, has a height of 38 meters, has 90 steps to the top and has 8 sections grooving. Are built with turquoise mosaic decorations and cobalt blue tiles, this Minaret were a notch and became a symbol of Antalya.

The Mosque of Yivli Minare It is located west of Yivli Minare, and relaxes by the six semi-spherical domes. It is an old example of ancient buildings in terms of Anatolia. The mosque domes has elongated roughly rectangular plan on the east-west axis. It Measures about fourteen meters by eight
20

meters on the exterior and arched portals is Entered from Two Facing east and north. Inside, the prayer hall is Composed by Three Bays and Have Seven Domed windows of Various sixes - six of Them on the quibble wall - illuminated the interior. The walls of the mosque are on the White-Washed outer domes and STIs is Covered with red brick tiles Mosque was built by architect Tavi Balaban in 1372.

The Mosque of Mevlevis Located west of Mehmet Bey Tomb is believed to have been built in 1255 under the orders of a Kaykobat Alaadin. This building has undergone renovations the time to get to this day. It was used as a famous monastery dating from the 18th century, today is used as an office by the Gallery of Fine Arts in Antalya and attracts curiosity of art lovers.

Medersa of Giyaseddin Keyhusrev Represents a technological college of Giyaseddin Keyhusrev sultan, was built in 1239 by Governor Armagan in front of the college found another similar building that dates from the 13th century. The Merdesa was originally part of a much larger building complex of which remains very less. In plan, proportion, and decoration it is the most developed of all Seljuk madrasas. The plan follows a traditional four iwan courtyard madrasa, although the iwan opposite the entrance no longer exists.

The mosque of Tekeli Mehmet Pasa Located behind the clock tower, Tekeli Mehmet Pasha Mosque was built under the Ottoman Empire at the end of 16th century(1593-1607) and was restored in 1940.This building have a rectangular plane, the walls is made from stone and rubble, the doors have a arched plan and have a very big dome. Also the mosque was built in the name of Mehmet Pasa, and today is a place of worship space.

Merdersa of Karatay Located on the modern marina of yachts in the street Karadayi, the Madrasa was built in 1250 by the Seljuk Vizier Karatay Celaleddin and is one of those types with two booths opening on the court. This building which has characteristics of the mosque has a mihrab decorated with rich geometric patterns of the Seljuk Jewelry.

21

The tomb of Mehmet Bey In north of fluted minaret, the upper garden complex, this tomb was build in memory of Mehmet Bey, who was also called Zincirkiran, which resulted in Antalya large companies, during his whole life. The building of tomb has construction in Seljuk style, made of rock cut tomb, covered with a dome, and it has a round door stone. The simplicity of exterior, the window and three levels of the tomb is a feature of Ottoman style. The mosque of Murat Paa Murat Pasa Mosque was built on the orders of grand vizier Murat Pasa. Mosque has a high dome, supported by a framework of 10 corners, is constructed T-shaped, with two arching and a high tower. It has thick walls constructed of concrete, stone coupler, brick, and inside has the white marble walls which are inscribed with calligraphic writings. All this art was done manually with blue fountain pen inscriptions. With the inner walls running all through the internal facade in the ribbon while presenting the most beautiful example of the Turkish-Seljuk art of calligraphy. Mosque has undergone changes in 1960 had repairs and currently represents a remarkable landmark in Antalya.

Ataturk's House Museum Ataturk8, who went three times in Antalya was the first time on 06 March 1930 and was on the way to admire the Erenku-Lara sublime spectacle of the sea, beaches and Bey Monts (Beydaglari) covered with snow, could not exclaimed to prevent that ,,Antalya is undoubtedly the most beautiful place in the world,,. Today, visitors who go and visit the memorial house of Ataturk in Antalyas can relive his feelings and accept the fact that this city, because of its natural and cultural values is truly a wonderful place. Ataturk's House has been transformed into a museum, in order to support his memories. Hall has two floors, with a rectangular serving as a museum since 1986; first floor has an exhibition of photographs taken during Atatrk's visits to various events in Antalya, also still find documentation about city projects, and his office tables. A floor above the room has Ataturk's personal items, room work, his bedroom and another section which is exposed his tickets silver.

Mustafa Kemal Atatrk-Idem page 14

22

The Archeological Museum Archeological Museum is situated on the western edge of town at the far end of Kenan Evren bulvari; in 1972 the Antalya archeological museum was transferred to this new building situated by the side of several 5 stars hotels at the top of the road leading down to Konyaalti beach. The Exhibits were rearranged in 1985. At the museum entrance, is a small childrens section, primarily used for school groups, provides the opportunity for play with old tools and pots, and past this the well lead galleries are arranged both chronologically and thematically were are preserved the most interesting of the findings discovered in the region, beautifully arranged in the thirteen sections, with a large number of statues and Excavations exhibited in the garden. All the well-preserved findings unearthed during the excavations carried out in the ancient cities around the region are brought here for exhibition the museum contains an extraordinarily rich collection of objects ranging from prehistoric stone implements to statues of the gods, from roman imperial sculpture to roman and Greek coins and from ancient floor mosaics to ethnographic artifacts of the Ottoman period. In the museum exist galleries which contain many second century AD statues from Perge, this section are The Perge Hall that contains smaller objects including perfume flasks, bronze statuary and lamps, and underwater case showing miscellaneous finds from wrecks as well as yet more Perge statuary honoring the various demigods and priestesses of the roman imperial cult. There are approximately 5000 artifacts exhibited in the open air gallery of Antalya museum and was awarded with the special Prize of the Council of Europe in 1988. Large scaled exhibits which cannot be displayed in the halls such as sarcophagi, statues and gravestones are the main items on display in the open air gallery. In the interior part of the museum there are 13 exhibition halls incorporating many historical monuments. The natural historic and Prehistoric Hall exhibits fossils and minerals from the geological period. The gallery of the gods includes Zeus the father of the gods. The mother Goddess Artemis,
23

Aphrodite, Demeter, Isis and Hermes. The hall of imperial statues displays large statues of emperors such as Traian, Hadrianos and Augustus. The sarcophagus hall exhibits sarcophagi and relief. Finally, regional artifacts, clothing, and manuscripts of the Seljuk , ottoman and the republic periods can be seen in the Ethnography hall. Beside all this collection at the end of the museum exists, book shop, coffee shops and a pleasant shady garden scattered with some fine overspill sculptures and tombs.

1.2. Antalya- The historic city.


The city of Antalya is situated on cliffs at the extreme end golf, the city centre is located in the region contained within the old defense walls surrounding the yacht harbour9, but, since 1970s and 1980s, the city has expanded very rapidly towards the west and north. In the last twenty years, immigrations from central and eastern Anatolia have raised the urban population by some 400%. Antalya was founded in the 2nd century A.D by Attalus, king of Pergamon, the name Attalia meant,, City of the Divine,, King Attala in the Etruscan/Luvian language, but afterwards this name was changed to Adalia in Ancient Pamphylia, finally coming to be known as Antalya. Despite being comparative late-comer in this region of very ancient cities, Attaleia became the main Pamphylian port under Pergamene and later Roman rule. The city continued to prosper during Byzantine times with its harbour acting as a staging post from where the Christian Crusaders embarked on ships for the voyage east to the Holy land. Antalya was captured by the Selcuk Turks in 1207, briefly falling into the hands of King Peter of Cyprus and then the Turkomen Hamidoglu clan, before Murat I took the city in 1387 for the Ottomans. Antalya became a provincial backwater under the Ottomans, renowned primarily for the fruit produced in its carefully tended walls gardens. In 1918 Italian forces took over the city along with a large chunk of south-west Anatolia, only to be dislodged in 1922 by Ataturks nationalist forces. A year later the citys substantial Turkish-speaking Greek population was obliged to leave for Greece as part of the post-treaty of Lausanne population exchanges.

harbour also spelled harbor, any part of a body of water and the manmade structures surrounding it that sufficiently shelters a vessel from wind, waves, and currents, enabling safe anchorage or the discharge and loading of cargo and passengers;

24

The ancient city, whose main source of income were the trade in salt, olive oil, fish, cereals, cedar wood and saddle beasts, was incorporated under the Roman Empire in 133 B.C in accordance with the bequest of the last Pergamene king. The harbour area is undoubtedly the most interesting part of the city, although construction was begun at the time of the foundation of the city the surviving remains generally date back to the 3rd century A.D with traces work in the upper parts of the walls. Since the 1970s, many old stone or wooden Ottoman houses that line the narrow streets contained within the old defense walls have been restored and converted into pensions, hotels and restaurants. Now, the city centre is composed of the old town and its environs.

Kaleici Today, the area with the most historical artifacts is the centre of Antalya, and is called Kaleici, which is a fortified region and is now a protected area in order to preserve the works of the Byzantine and Seljuk eras. Kaleici also serves tourism as an accommodation and entertainment centre. There are churches, basilicas, temples, houses and monuments of the Ottomans and Seljuks, which date back thousands of years. Ancient walls of the historic center that dates back over two thousand years, they remained part today, representing a collective work of all civilizations. There are many 19th century houses in the district and they are noteworthy examples of civil architecture. These houses are original structures, climate compatible both structurally and spatially, with their high garden walls separating the houses from the streets and with their living spaces surrounded by cages, stone structures and extensions. These houses have two or three floors, including a facade facing the street and other open into to the garden, the colors of houses are painted in terracotta-blue, green and jostle for prominence over the confusion network streets that are almost impossible to navigat perfectly reflects the atmosphere of the eve of Antalya. Kaleici is the tourist heart center of Antalya, Kaleici old center both inside and outside, which is surrounded by two rows of walls. Today, the old port Kaleici new port is used as a modernized, along with the ancient town offers magnificent views of the city. Many artists, writers and poets were inspired by the landscape that it offers the port.

25

Inevitably, the authentic atmosphere of the old harbour has been sacrificed to the redevelopment, the harbour is now mainly home to day-trip boats, some charter glets10 and a very few fishing boats, but on balance, the venture seems to have been a success and the area is popular with tourists and local alike.

View from the old port of Antalya-(Yat Liman/ Yacht Harbour) source: CARDBOOK of Antalya

The most important landmarks are in this side of Antalya Kaleici, like Hadrianus Gate, in the front and in the back of the gate, there are eight Corinthian columns resting on pedestals and the guard towers on both sides if the door are square plan .This is the best preserved of three gates in the region. Also there are the Hidirlik Tower, Yivli Minaret, Karatay Madrasa, Yivli Minaret Mosque, all of which are prime examples of Seljuk architecture. Minister of Culture and Tourism of Turkey was awarded Golden Apples by the International Federation of Journalists and Travel Writers in 1984 for the restoration project of Kaleici, which became an urban classroom.

10

plural of gullet/brigatine is a vessel with two masts, only the forward of which is square rigged.

26

1.3 Ancient cities and around it-historical places


1.3.1 EAST OF ANTALYA
East of Antalya holds special beauty kept from history which is reflected in cities from this part, Perge, Sillyon, Aspendos, Selge, Side, Manavgat, Alanya and Anamur.

PERGE The ancient settlement of Perge is sited within the borders of Aksu district, 18 km east of Antalya, in ancient times Perge was port city and also was called Parga, meaning high, changing to Perge in the Ancient Pamphylia. Apollonios was from Perge and he was widely known in ancient times for calculating the properties of the ellipse in geometry. The Persians, Alexander the Great and the Romans in turn occupied this city, which grew and developed with the survivors and refugees from the Trojan War. The temples build in the Romans period in the names of the chief goddess Artemis and her brother Apollo were converted into in the Christian period. The most important remains in the city belong to the 15.000 capacity theatre, which was used as an arena in the Late Roman Period. The faade towards the road was converted at a later period into a Nymphaeum or monumental fountain .The cave is divided by a board diazoma11 with 19 tiers of seats below and 23 above, giving the theatre a total capacity of 12,000.The stage building, which collapsed as a result of earthquakes, is adorned with a frieze of Bacchus, god of wine and theatre. Directly opposite the theatre, on the right hand side of the road, lies the stadium, one of the best preserved buildings o this type in Anatolia.(edifice long of 234 m and 24 m wide , it had 12 rows of seats, with space for 12.000 spectators. Other attractions of the ancient Perge, is the first gate encountered at the entrance to the city, is the relatively new south gate erected in the 4th century A.D. The Hellennistic gate have 90 m behind this, strengthened with cylindrical tower 13 m in diameter , dates ,like the city defence walls, from the 3rd century B.C.
11

The wide horizontal walkway between the lower and upper tiers of seats in a Greek theater;

27

Between the Roman and Hellenistic gates stand the largest Roman bath in the province of Pamphylia, with a palaestra12, used for physical exercises, in front. The black and with geometrical decoration on the floor and in the heading tunnels of the bath, have survived in a good state of preservation .In the front of the bath stood o monumental fountain. In the Roman gate at the entrance to the city is connected to the acropolis 300 m away by a street 20 m wide flanked by a portico with columns, mosaic, pavements and shops. There was water channel down the centre and the ruts made by the wheels of the carts or carriages are still clearly visible. The surplus water from the fountain at the end of the street flowed over stones placed every 8 m perpendicular to the flow of the water, giving the shoppers a certain feeling of refreshing coolness. Perge, remains the city with a beautiful relief for, his eloquent architecture, for historical sculptures which many statues found here are now at the Museum of Antalya and also all the archaeologist amateurs will want to see all this antiques.

SILLYON Situated about 7 km of Perge ruins and was founded, for reason of defence, on a higt flat-topped hill. Like Perge and anothers neighboring cities, Sillyon is said to have been found by tribes arriving in the region after the Trojan War. Sillyon in BC period started printing their own money on coins bearing the name of the third century. The name of the city was changed during the Roman period fom Silyon in Silviys. Sillyon remained an important centre of habitation from Hellenistic to Seljuk times. The absence of archaeological excavations, is the distance from the main road and comparatively is a small dimensions account for its failure to attract more than a very few visitors. Visible remains in Sillyon include the terrace houses, a temple and city, together with a few littles temples, a stadium, a palaestra, an odeon and number of cisterns, towers from roman times. The largest is a late Helenistic structure with several arched windows in its upper storey that later served the Seljuk as a fortress. Anothers interesting sights are the stadiums which is located near the palace building and main gate. The western section of the sitting desks leans against a gallery with an extended archway and the eastern section of these leans against the hill. The gymnasium which was used as a bishops palace in Byzantine times and now home only the to sheep, the theatre which was built right on the south western slope of the hill and large part of the theatre building was

12

In ancient Greece or Rome-a public place devoted to the training of athletes;

28

ruined as a result of a landslide in the year 1969. The cavea and the lower section of the stage building collapsed completely and only the last 15 rows have survived, Seljuk mosque. The most interesting part of the acropolis is the arena around the ruined theatre, which offers graphic visual evidence of natures erosion of the man-made past. Following the 199 earthquake, only the top few sets remain, the rest of structure now lying scattered across the plain below. Sillyon is without doubt one of the best preserved ancient cities and his anthropogenic landscape, that has plenty of examples of architectural Phamphylie, make this city populous.

ASPENDOS At the end of a road branching off left just before the Kprpazariayi Bridge, about the 35 km along the Antalya, highway there is a yellow sign pointing to the ancient city of Aspendos. In ancient times, the city which possesses the best preserved roman theatre , in Anatolia ,was a port connected to the sea by the river Eurymedon, now known as the Kpr pazariayi. The name of the city was Asiawanda in the Etruscan/Luwian language, which meant Horse Country. The name changed to Aspendos in ancient Phamphylia. The city was founded on the acropolis hill, after Tojan War by the Mospus, very little excavation has been conducted in the city so far, with the result that there are very remains of the Hellenistic period. In the 5th century the city had symbolized his independence by minting a silver coinage but until it is liberation by Alexander the Great in 133 B.C.it remained under Persian rule. In the 1 st century it came under Seljuk

hegemony, and it was during this period that a bridge was erected over the river and a caravanserai built inside of the theatre. In the 2nd and 3rd centuries the main source of livelihood of the population was trade in the oil and the salt obtained from the nearby Lake Capria. The first object of interest one encounters after leaving the Antalya

29

is the stone bridge, build by the Seljuk in the 13th century. In order to save money and time, the bridge was constructed on the foundations of an older bridge dating from the roman period. From there the road continues towards small restaurants and some ruins of little general interest, to arrive at the 2nd century Roman theatre. This was built during the reign of the emperor Marcus Aurelius by two wealthy citizens, the brothers Curtius, and designed by Xenon, one of the most famous architects of the time. Built of sandstone, limestone and marble the theatre possesses marvelous acoustics, in the 3 rd century, the semicircular orchestra, which is 24 m in diameter was surrounded by high walls, making it suitable for wild beast shows. The cave or auditorium is divided into two by a central passage known as the diazoma. With 20 tiers of seats above the diazoma and 21 below, the theatre can seat a total of 20,000 spectators. The colonnade of 59 arches surrounding the upper part of the theatre which was added at later date in order to improve the acoustics. The stage building is a 10 m high and 62.5 m wide with two storeyss each containing eighteen niches in which statues were placed. In theatre are five entrances in the outer faade with four rows of windows above this. Used in roman times for large public gatherings and in ottoman times for sporting activities such as camel wrestling, the Aspendos theatre was restored in 1930 on the orders of Mustafa Ataturk, the founder of Turkish Republic, and given classified status. The theatre continues at the present day in its service to culture as a venue for festivals of music and the arts. The most interesting building in the Aspendos after the theatre itself is the aqueduct, dating from the 2nd century A.D presented to the city by a wealthy citizen, named Tiberius Claudius. The aqueduct is 15 km long, with a central section 925 m in length rising in the place to a height of 15 m. Before the construction of the aqueduct the city was supplied with water from wells and the Eurymedone. At the north and south ends of the aqueduct there are water pressure towers 30 m in height. Apart from the well-preserved theatre and aqueduct there are also a stadium at 215 m in length, a basilica at 105 m in length, a two-storey nymphaeum13, three necropolises14, two domed bath buildings and an agora in the upper city. No scientific excavation has so far been carried out on the site. ,, You may have seen yet the amphitheatres from Italy, France, in the Dalmatian and Africa, the temples from Egypt and the Greek, palaces in Crete. You may not satisfied or you like
13

ancient Greek and Roman sanctuary consecrated to water nymphs; -an architecturally treated outlet of a reservoir or aqueduct; 14 plural Necropolises, from Greek nekropolis, city of the dead), in archaeology, an extensive and elaborate burial place of an ancient city;

30

ancient ruins.But perhaps you do not love them all. But perhaps you have not yet visited the Aspendos Theatre,,15

SELGE The city valley formed by Kopru River between Bolosan village and Bekonak, Selge now known as Zerk, is located on the slopes of the valley formed by the Koprucayi in the middle of the Toros Mountains, which surround Antalya region along the cypress and pine threes edges, with simple village houses right next to or even on top of the ancient ruins. Selge a city which minted it is the first coin in the 5th century B.C, was an important Pisiadin centre for the trade in olives, olive oil, forest product, fruits and medicinal herbs. In 333B.C the Selgians judiciously surrender to Alexander the Great as he approached, however, up until its first century incorporation into the Roman Empire the city remained wholly independent, protected from would-be aggressors by its remoteness and isolation. Considering the present communities problematic water supply it seems amazing that city with a population that reached 20,000 at its peak could have been supported in these dry mountains, but Selge survived in one form or another well into the Byzantine period. The best preserved of the ruins is the Greco-Roman theatre, which is situated very close to the village, with a seating capacity of 10,000. As well, the theatre is 30 seating rows in the lower section and 15 in the upper section and total it has 45 seating rows. There are four arched gates which provide entry to the section for the spectators. The stage building has Roman style and it is adjacent to the section for the spectators. The theatre survived remarkably intact until a bold of lightning during a storm in 1948 reduced the stage building to the heap of rubble The early Selge, hold and ancient stadium, which is another landmark of this city, is situated to the south west of the theatre and one of the longer sides of it leans against the same hill and the other longer side leans against an arched gallery. Stadium has a capacity of 5000 persons and has the dimensions of about 180x28m. The unearthed inscriptions show that the traditional contests were held one in every four years and that the statues of the winners were erected. Which is a crowned by a jumble of stone that archaeologists have identified as a Temples of Zeus, another city richs, which is dedicated to Zeus, the tutelary deity of Selge ,
15

David George Hogarth (was a British archaeologist and scholar associated with T. E. Lawrence and Arthur Evans.) text from ,,The Ancient East,, Nabu Press-0ctomber 2010

31

lies o a hill above the village. Considering Selges location, surrounded by snow-covered peaks and exposed to violent rain-storms and frequent thunder and lightning in spring, the Selgeians choice of Zeus as their protector is very understandable. As well in Selge, holds a large cistern, its dept is 7,5m and its diameter is 21m. It was built for the purpose of collecting and distributing water to the city. Cistern was collecting and distributing the rain water and the water conveyed by a canal coming from the north. A Byzantine church, which her foundation sit up on a hill to the southeast, with enjoy panoramic views down the valley and up to the snow-streaked peck of Bozburum.

SIDE The name Side used to mean Pomegranate16 in ancient Anatolia dialect and was founded in the 7th century B.C is a colonists attracted by the defensive potential of the rocky cape. It grew into a rich port with estimated 60,000 inhabitants during its peak in the second century A.D. Initially a significant proportion of Sides wealth rested on the slave trade, with the city authorities allowing pirates to run an illegal slave market inside the city walls, in which thousands of human beings were bought and sold every day. Side survived only until the Arab invasion. Despite later attempts by the Turkish government and various archeological agencies to evict them, these villagers stayed, and by the 1980 s their descendants were starting to reap the rewards of Sides tourist boom. The first settlement has been dated to the 1st millennium B.C. according to Strabo; it was colonized by emigrants from Cyme in the Aegean province. Now began the gold age of the city, with the construction of new defenses walls to provide for the protection of a population which had now spread out beyond the old walls of the Hellenistic period. Both lines of walls are clearly visible at the present. By the side of the road leading to Side lie de ruins of the aqueduct which was used to bring water to the great monumental
16

Fruit of Punica granatum, a bush or small tree of Asia, which with a little-known species from the island of Socotra constitutes the family Punicaceae.

32

fountain in the city from a distance of 35 km. The present day road follows the course of the ancient street and the entrances to the shops are clearly visible on the eastern side. The building now used as a museum situated on the left of the road leading to the theatre and the monumental fountain was the agora bath. This building was very probably used in the roman period as a government house, although some believe it to have been a library. The shell reliefs over the niches in this building testify to the great influence exerted by the sea in Sidetan culture. A small gate on the road leading from the government house to the theatre give access to the village by the eastern road, and a short walk along this road will very clearly reveal the extent to which the touristic village has encroached on the ancient site. Immediately after this, is the Side sanctuary area containing temples of Athena and Apollo dating from the 2nd century A.D. The twin temples are on a peripheral plan with 6x11 Corinthian columns. These temples also served as lighthouses with fire burning on their walls. Several of the columns are capitals of the temple of Apollo have been unearthed in recent excavations and re-erected. Next to the temple is the harbour, were the ancient breakwaters surrounding it are still clearly visible, and then turn to the north to enter the ancient colonnaded street. Also here is the theatre, the most imposing of all the monuments in Side. A latrine is to be seen immediately under the stage building in the side towards the monumental fountain. The theatre itself is entered through a gate dating from the Byzantine period. Unfortunately, an examination of the materials used in the construction, which included meticulously carved Roman columns, column capitals and other architectural elements, provides sad evidence of how Christian belief led to the destruction of a number of very fine pagan temples and other monuments. The Side theatre was build over a small theatre of the Hellenistic period, as the city of Side is situated on a level plain with no hills against which the cave could be built the necessary height for this enormous theatre was obtained by the construction of the great arches typical of roman architecture. This colossal theatre, displaying amazing skill in static and a most impressive architectural technique, is one of the finest and most successful of all the edifices in the ancient world. Although several cracks and flaws caused by earthquakes can be seen in the upper tiers, the building still preserves much of its original beauty and integrity. Others ruins in Side city are, the Byzantine church thats gradually disappearing under the dunes. It is located at the part of this street close to the theater and to the west of the harbor street. Partially it is undamaged. This Byzantine building dates back to the 5th century AD. Having three sections and an abscissa the monument has a plan resembling a square.
33

Also in Side exist olds houses which are understood to be used also in the later Roman periods but built in the 2nd century BC. It is thought that in front of the house on the street the three rooms were shops and that they belonged probably to the owner of the house. Both the rooms and atrium host colored marble coverings. Clay water pipes in the coverings reveal the fact that there were water and bathroom in both houses. Commercial agora has the sizes of 90X95m and was built 2nd century AD. Only the foundations of this building which is made of a courtyard with the sizes 60X65m, the shops behind these and the stoats around this courtyard have survived through the present day. The building has a propylon (monumental gate in ancient architecture, located at the entrance of a building or a group of buildings. There are columns on its sides facing both the interior and the exterior) facing the street. Shops doors overlooking the streets open to street and those of the shops overlooking the courtyard open to the courtyard. The buildings roof had the shape of a pyramid with 12 sides. On its dome shaped ceiling there were the symbols of the Zodiac signssymbols of the star groups.

MANAVGAT

Manavgat is 76 km east of Antalya, the small city was established on the banks of the Manavgat River , and its name was Manauwa in the Etruscan/ Luwian language. This was later changed to Melas in ancient Pamphylia. The attraction in this city is the Manavgat Waterfalls and Duden, ruins, Ahmetler canyon and the Alara River. Just 30 km east of Manavgat, exist a road spears off north to Alarahan, with its quirky thirteenth century Seljuk kervansaray17 built for the benefit of trades operating in the Seljuk city of Konya, it was the creation of Sultan Alaeddin Keykubad. In the same direction, there are the spectacular ruins of an ancient castle, scarcely discernible against the stony back drop but accessible by way of steep stairs in a tunnel.

ALANYA Crossing the Manavgat River is the ancient province of Cicilia, in the ancient times; the most important town of the region was Coracesium, now known as Alanya. Although the date of the first settlement here is uncertain the city is known to have been founded in the 2nd century B.C. by the sailors of Tryphon, a famous pirate who held the whole trade of the Eastern
17

English ,,caravansary-a public building used for sheltering caravans and other travelers. The caravansary is usually constructed outside the walls of a town or village;

34

Mediterranean in his power. Alanya is one of the most beautiful tourist centers on the south coast of Turkey and a district containing a number of sites of quite exceptional historical signification. The plan created by the alluvium brought down by the Dim and Ova streams from the Geyik Mts that form part of the Taurus range, is the most important banana growing area in Turkey. The capture of the city by the Seljuk Sultan A.K. in 1221 was followed by extensive building operations, including the construction of the castle, which has survived in an excellent state of preservation. Alanya Castile, with its over 7 km of walls and over one hundred towers, is the most famous castle on Turkeys Mediterranean coastline. The most important of the old monuments to be seen as one enters the gate through the outer defense walls are the Suleymaniye Mosque, a very fine specimen of ottoman architecture. The Akcebe Sultan Tekkesi built a good road and numbers of caravanserais 18, the most famous of these being the Alara Han built by the Seljuk Sultan A.K. in the first half of the 13 th century, a building of particular importance on account of its very interesting architecture and the quite extraordinary beauty of its monumental entrance door. Immediately beside the Seljuk Palace stands the famous 11th century church of St George. Its careful preservation and its survival in such excellent condition immediately adjacent to a Sultans palace constitute a remarkable testimonial to the religious tolerance displayed by the Anatolian Turks. The five wells to be seen by the side of the church were constructed to ensure an adequate supply of water to the palace. The roof of the store-rooms of the inner keep offer magnificent panoramic view over the whole of Alanya and Cleopatra beaches. The most interesting monument in the harbour and landing-stage area is the old,, Red Tower ,, so called because of the color of the bricks of which it is constructed. This tower has 33m high and building as a defense for the habour and dockyard which can be seen the eastern side of the peninsula. Over the entrance can be seen a five line inscription with the date 1227. The dockyard is of great historical importance insofar as it lay at the origin of the Turkish fleet which later ventured out into the Mediterranean.

ANAMUR Trough very beautiful road through a region where are the Taurus Mountains, came very close to the see are the city Anmur located in a fertile plain formed and watered by the Anamur River that flows down to the coast from the Taurus Mountains, with a latitude of 36, the city and the cape of Anamur are the most southern point on the Turkish coast. The ancient city of
18

Gr.(karvansr, -ri)- historical an inn with a central courtyard for travellers in the desert regions of Asia or North Africa;

35

Anemurion is situated immediately to the right of the point where the road from the mountains joins the Anamur plain. The first settlement on the site occupied by this ancient is now surrounded by banana plantations and greenhouses for vegetables, goes back as far the 1st millennium B.C. The city, liberated from the Persian yoke with the arrival of Alexander the Great, came under Seleucian hegemony in 322.B.C. The site is divided into two sections: the lower and upper city. The upper city, which consists of the acropolis, has interesting remains of a theatre, odeon19, bath, basilica and colonnaded street. The lower city has a very interesting necropolis, the third largest and most important necropolis in Anatolia, with two-storied tombs over vaulted structures. There are also interesting remains of a church dating from the Late Byzantine period. Continuing for 3 kmto the east of Anamur is the,, Mamure castle,, built in the 3rd century, in the roman period, it continued to be used in byzantine times.

1.3.2 WEST OF ANTALYA


Most of western cities of Antalya, which have a huge footprint of the historic raids, are Termessos, Lycia, Phaselis, Tekirova, Olympos, Aricanada, Kale-Myra.

TERMESSOS The ancient city of Termessos is located in Gulluk, Termessos National Park, which are declared as a protected zone, 30 north-west of Antalya. Also located on wild and rugged slopes amid the peaks of the Taurus Mountains and surrounded by a vast necropolis of tombs broken and scattered by a series of the devastating earthquakes, Termessos continues, in the sound of the winds howling around the peaks of the mountains, to repeat to tourists arriving from all four corners of the world the wild, warlike and heroic legends of the past. Termessos enjoyed its first period of peace and prosperity during the Hellenistic era, and its second under the Romans, when the citizen were given the right of drafting their own laws. The city was founded at an altitude of 1050 m on a piece of level ground between two mountains. The steep, winding road leading up to the site ends in a car-end, and the visitor would be well-advised to rest here a little before attempting the rather difficult and arduous climb up to the ruins. From the steep road leading up to the site the remains of an aqueduct can
19

In ancient Greece or Rome a building used for musical performances.Known also like odeon;

36

be seen lying amidst these walls and various other ruins. To the left at the beginning of the ancient track known as Kings Way, lies the lower section of the second largest necropolis in Anatolia, while on the right there is a propylon20, dating from the reign of the Empeor Hadrian. As well, here are the walls of the inner fortifications, immediately, behind them, are the remains of gymnasium, the theatre with unique and extraordinary beauty of the building. This little Hellenistic theatre, set like an eagles nest in a hollow between two precipitous slopes overlooking the Mediterranean from an altitude of many hundreds meters. Immediately beside the theatre there is a bouleuterion21 in the form of a small odeon22 used for meetings of the city council. This section, with the ruins of a temple scattered around it, possesses a certain divine magnificence. Returning to the agora, we will find surrounded by a dazzling wealth of historical remains, the whole area being covered with hundreds of sarcophagi, temple-type tombs and funerary monuments off all varies.

LYCIA The region in the south-west corner of Anatolia known in ancient times as the province of Lycia contains some of loveliest and most interesting historical sites in Turkey, together with a whole line o beaches and beauty sports, each more attractive that the other, to which every visitors is eager to return. Lycia consisted of the region jutting out into Mediterranean between Antalya and Fethiye, in which the mountains of the Taurus range rise to a height of 2,500m. Egyptian and Hittite sources refer to the inhabitants of the region as ,,Lukka,, who are mentioned as having fought with the Hittites against the Egyptians at the Battle of Kadesh in 1295 B.C. Other source give the names, Lubi,, and ,,Leleg, celebrated for their warlike character and passionate love of freedom, the Lycians offered fierce resistance to all attempts at invasion. This is confirmed by Homers reference to the Lycians in the Iliand, where he described how the heroes Sarpedon and Galucus joined Hector in defending Troy against Achilleus and Agamemnon.

PHASELIS-TEKIROVA Town Phaselis Terikova is the city which has a great combination between forest and history, the conversion of area into a National Park has freed Phaseelis from the blight of
20 21

Propylaeum or propylon-an entrance or vestibule to a temple or group of buildings. Also called propylon; A bouleuterion was a building which housed the council of citizens (boule) in Ancient Greece. There are several extant remains of Bouleuterions around Greece and former Greek territories of ancient times. 22 Idem ,page 35;

37

touristic exploitation and transformed the whole area into an earthly paradise. Located in a particularly beautiful setting, Phaselis was founded in the 7th century B.C, by Rhodian colonists arriving in the area under the leadership of a commander by the name of Lakios. The foundation of the city was immediately followed by a period of Persian rule, and, regained its independence as the result of a naval expedition led by the Athenian commander Cimon in 449 B.C .Phaselis was soon forced once again to recognize Persian hegemony, it was one of the cites that offered an exceptionally warm welcome to Alexander the Great when he arrived here from the siege of Termessos. . After remaining for some times as a pirate stronghold rule by the famous Mediterranean pirate chief Zenicetes, the city later passed into the hands of the ,, Pax Romana,,23 that the city was enjoy the most brilliant period in its history. The beauty of the city are the aqueduct beside the eastern harbour and in the opposite side are the smallest of the three, one can still see the ancient breakwater and embankment of cut stone. Another site are the ruins of the former theatre and ruins of the Hadriatic gate, marble blocks ,with reliefs displaying cornucopias, clusters of grapes and a wealth of detailed decoration, which can be seen scattered over the ground.

OLYMPOS It is located 75 km west of Antalya, on the slopes of Mount Mouses (Musa Dagi), where a river with the same name flows into to the sea in the Olympus Beydaglari National Park. The name of the region used to be Aluamapa, in the Etruscan/ Luwian language and meant,, Holy water source of the sky mother. The ancient city was founded on both banks of the stream in the deep valley behind the bay. Olympus is a word describing high mountains and acropolises. Today the area including the remains of the shore is called Korykos. In addition to the remains of a theatre on the slope of the hills which is in a very ruined state. On the vest of site are the necropolises of Olympus, which are now broadens out and is covered at the present day with citrus plantations. As well, here are the Byzantine church and baths; there are over 200 engraved tombs at the main necropolis.

ARYCANADA The ruins of the ancient city of Arycanada are located at the meeting point of the Lycian coastal cities of the inland region.

23

Latin for "Roman peace-was the long period of relative peace and minimal expansion by military force experienced by the Roman Empire in the 1st and 2nd centuries AD.

38

From evidence provided by the extant coins it would appear that the city was founded in the 5th century B.C. and that it joined the Lycian language in the 2nd century B.C. After the establishment of Christianity the city remained until the 11th century the seat of a bishopric. The acropolis is situated on a small hill to the south of the city on which fragments of the defense walls are still visible. To the east of this lie the remains of a bath and a gymnasium, the temple tomb with podium, while another tomb with podium, with relief carving can be seen 30 m t the south. A flight of the steps leads from the theatre terrace to a stadium some 80 m in length, immediately adjacent to the remains of a nymphaeum 24, a second bath, a stoa25 and bouleuterion26.

KALE-MYRA From Finike the road winds its way along past a series of bays, each more beautiful than the other and each with beautifully clear, limpid blue water to reach the ancient city of Myra, in the present day Kale. Myra was one of the six most important cities in the Lycian League, like other cities in the region, showed considerable growth in size and wealth during the roman period and by the reign of the Byzantine Emperor Theodosius II it had become the capital of the province and the most important city in the region because here St Nicholas lived in the 4th century, became a legendary figure on account of the generous assistance and the destitute and as Santa Claus, became a celebrated figure throughout the whole world. The most important of the buildings in the ancient of Myra is undoubtedly the theatre. This imposing edifice, dating from the roman period and with a seating capacity of 10.000 is remarkable for the extremely solid technique employed in its construction and the harmony of its proportions. The orchestra is surrounded by a high wall, which suggests that is was also used for gladiatorial combats and wild beast shows. There are also interesting figures of dolphins carved on the edges of the seats. Church of St Nicholas (Santa Claus), one the most important touristic sights in kale myra is this church, popularly for as the name,, House of Santa Claus,,. St Nicholas, Bishop of Myra, was born in Patara, one of the most interesting ancient sites in Lycia, around 300 A.D.Well known for his philanthropy and benevolence, he became a legendary figure on account of he help and assistance he offered to orphans and the destitute, and after his death was generally recognized as a saint,, St. Nicholas won the love and affection of children by the surprise visits he paid
24 25

Plural ( nymphaea -origin via latin from greek)- a grotto or shrine dedicated to a nymph or nymphs; a classical portico or roofed colonnade; 26 Idem page 32;

39

them and small gifts he brought. It was in this church that he lived and worked for many years, investing it within a more unusually sacred character. This church suffered extensive damage in the Arab raids on the 7th an 8th centuries and in the 11th century; some Italian merchants arrived here, broke open the sarcophagus of the saint and carried his remains off the Bari. This first church, built here in the 4th century, was destroyed by an earthquake shortly after Nicholas death, but, as Myra had now became an important Christian centre, work as immediately begun on the construction of a new basilica.

Rock-cut, Myra/Source: www.anatoliaholiday.com

CHAPTER II
II. Turkish Riviera- Antalya Mediterranean Paradise.

2. Turkish Riviera-Littoral Tourism.


The Turkish Riviera also known popularly as the Turquoise Coast is situated in south part of the Mediterranean coast between the regions Mugla town in the west of Antalya, till
40

Alanya city in the east of Antalya, where Antalya is in centre and represent the heart of Turkish Riviera, with one lovely beach long to 220 km coastline. Indescribable natural beauties of the Turkish Riviera make from this coast an incomparable land. On the whole of the year, the flanks of the Taurus Mountains are converted to green forests and plunge into the waves of the magnificent Gulf of Antalya, creating an irregular strip armrests beaches and mountains.

Source:www.visit-antalya.com

Its countless bays of crystalline turquoise are caught between the cliffs of the mountains with a beauty that goes beyond words. In spring, the mild climate produces flowers with extraordinary flavors. This coastal strip is favored by a lush vegetation of palms, pines, orange, lemon, avocado and trees of banana. The Mediterranean coast is also spoiled by the 300 days of sunshine per year. With its beaches and islands, this coast is a true paradise for boating exploitation, such as sailing, swimming, surfing, nauting ski, diving and spear fishing. The region also is suitable for mountaineering and caving. Turkish Riviera gained through a good combination that offer the relief because, in March or April, the Joys of skiing on mountain and those from the beach. That is why it is one of the few regions in the world has to offer activities for all seasons. All these natural beauties are in addition full of abundant historical memories. Lives since the Paleolithic period, this littoral saw many civilizations flourish, and today the remains of theaters, temples, churches, fortresses and mosques to trace the delight of visitors and prestigious this long history. Turkish Riviera is very populated and known because of the services which offer for tourists, with hospitality that receive the tourists, many hotels are also popular because servicing all

41

inclusive system, spa, fantastic scenery and attractions, all are a result of tourism at full expansion of the Turkish Riviera. Whatever the case, the region is brilliant for vacation purposes, with wonderful strips of beach and a plethora of sites to balance out the rest and relaxation that waits. In fact, inhabitants of Turkish Riviera towns love to boast that the area has more Greek and Roman relics, ruins and monuments than Greece and Italy. The region is anchored by three major mega,, resorts, each with a different character, Antalya, the capital of the region is a city with a life outside tourism and a cosmopolitan atmosphere, while Side is a pure resort town with a very mixed continental clientele. Alanya, the most easterly of the three, has two great beaches and a magnificent citadel. Outside these are the first purpose-built resorts- Belek and Kemer being the most popular- set in the finest locations and a great range of up-to-date sports facilities. From all these and as well, from all the resorts from Turkish Riviera can see the quality of services that will satisfy the most demanding desires of tourists. Resorts of Turkish Riviera are more concentrated mainly at the western end Turquoise Coast around Fethiye and the region between Antalya to Alanya. The resorts of Turkish Riviera in the eastern side are, Belek, Side and Alanya, the ,,capital,, of Turkish Riviera is Antalya resort, in the western side are more complexes.

2.1. Concept of Blue Flag in Turkey


Blue Flag is an exclusive eco-label given to beaches and marinas having reached to a standard stated in the criteria. It is an international programs currently being implemented in 48 countries around the world including Europe, South Africa, Morocco, Tunisia, New Zealand, Canada and Caribbean and now in Turkey. First time, Turkey has started studies for the Blue Flag Campaign in 1993 under the leadership of the Ministry of Turkey Environment Education Foundation (TREV) was established. The Blue Flag works towards sustainable development at beaches/marinas through strict criteria dealing with water quality, environmental education and information, environmental management, and safety and other services. Having reached more than 20 years of experience, Blue Flag introduces new criteria according to new developments.

42

Blue Flag, with the quality standards required of an international environmental award given to beaches and marinas, which are clean well maintained, equipped, safe, civilized, and therefore, the symbol of a sustainable environment. How the beach is among the most important aspects of the tourist needs to spend a good holiday during the summer period, this should happen in the best conditions. This was implemented by providing as Blue Flag and Blue Flag beach is considered to be of superior quality, it must meet some criteria laid: To receive a Blue Flag beach must meet several criteria:27 sea water is clean, clear and free of toxic algae, be quality sand, beach will always be clean, sea water is not polluted, to be suitable for bathing in the sea, have an adequate number of lifeguards, algae or other vegetation should not be on the beach unless you are part of the natural ecosystem, have first-aid, have points where tourists can buy their drinking water, points have toilets, including disabled people, make access to safe places and activities carried out by the beach to happen in conditions of safety for tourists, the sea should not be affected by sewage leaks or spills of substances, marine ecosystems need to benefit from rehabilitation and preservation programs, to host at least five environmental activities, All the beaches of Antalya and from Turkish Riviera region include the Blue Flag, which gives the tourists the certainty that the water is always clean and unpolluted checked at high standards, which offers for tourists an absolute trust.

27

mayibayrak. Turkish word- is means Blue Flag. www.mavibayrak.org.tr

43

Number of Blue Flags in Turkey trough years 2004-2009


Beaches Marinas 235 258 286

Table 1. Number of Blue Falgs in Turkey/Source

www.antalya-gov.tr/

151 12 2004

174

192

As can be seen in Figure


14 2006 14 2007 14 2008 14 2009

12 2005

1, the number of beaches and ports in Turkey that have obtained the Blue

Flag has grow considerably from 2004 until 2009, because each year assesses water beaches and ports. This certifies that the beaches and ports in Turkey have announced an assessment and increasingly get more Blue Flag beaches.

Table.2 Numbers of Blue

Numbers of Blue Flags in 2009 in E.U


Beaches
486 425 288 286 227 226 218 115 75 71 53 41 118 2696

Flags www.antalya.gov.

As can be seen in Figure 2, Turkey ranks the 4th in terms of water quality in the area beaches. Spain ranks number 1 in Europe, which also holds the record with the most Blue Flag beaches have earned a total of 486, followed by beaches of Greece, about 425 Blue Flag. beaches, after that follow France on 3rd place, which has about 288 certified Blue Flag beaches, Turkey is having 4th place in Europe has 286 certified Blue Flag beaches, most of which are located in the Mediterranean.

44

2.2 RESORTS

ANTALYA RESORT Antalya, is the principal holiday resort in the Mediterranean region,as well is he heart off Turkish Riviera, is an attractive city with shady palm-lined boulevards, a prize-winning marina on the Mediterranean. A lovely navy makes its presence felt in making the Mediterranean Antalya resorts to be different from the rest. Antalya is a beautiful area of Turkey as the more beautiful by putting more emphasis here is on natural beauty than on the artificial. Alanya is one of the most visited and popular tourist resorts of the Mediterranean Sea, which is visited each year by millions of tourists from around the world. The resort can accommodate over 150,000 visitors at a time, with a well developed tourism infrastructure also the tourism is the most important industry in this region and the resort is located in the famous tourist area, Antalya.Antalya is also one of those unique places in the world where it is possible in the same day, to Ski on Snow in the Morning and Sunbath on the Beach in the afternoon. Offers of accommodation in Antalya are very diverse, resort hotels and hostels accommodating both small and large hotels, which have hundreds of rooms. The offer is varied and in terms of quality hotels and services, is the most popular five star hotels and offers a choice of an all-inclusive stay. Hotel rooms are generally well equipped and maintained, and some hotels offer tours and other opportunities for fun and relaxation,

including, indoor or outdoor pool, jacuzzi, sauna, sports, fitness, playground for

children and many other. Antalya resort has three beaches are always assailed by local and foreign visitors

45

frequently, Konyaalti beach, located at 3km west of town, Lara beach which is located at 12 km east of Antalya and near Lara beach is the Duden beach which stream meets the Mediterranean at the Duden Fall. Konyaalti beach is a long wide bay stretching out west of the city centre along the shoreline of Gulf of Antalya. The length of the beach is 1.5 km and it has mixture of sand and small rocks,with a 7 km long sand and shingle shore public beach. The whole section is actually split into 12 differently named pebble beach areas, each with its own access, cafs and activities, which range from water sports to beach volleyball and soccer, as well as several very glamorous hotels. It is the most crowded place of Antalya which accomodates some multiples of its own population during daytime in summer. This is where locals come for their evening stroll, the main tourist hotel strip on the far side of the town.About 11km of the beach in west are Byk Calticak and Kuuk Calticak, while places such as Phaselis, with its magical mix of pine forests, ancient city and golden sand, or Belek's beach white sand beaches are within easy day-trip distance, the area including the barn owl, a hundred species of bird can be seen in the region, also its one of te rare places on the Mediterranean where turtles lay ther eggs. Lara Beach located in the city of Antalya, Turkey, Lara is receiving more hotels from five to seven stars, many of which are placed in the Kundu. Lara/Kundu is a tourist area in Turkey on the Mediterranean Sea, consisting of Lara district and suburb Kundu. Lara has become popular for its crystal clear water just 10 years ago and developed very fast with tourism. In this area many hotels were built in 10 years. Today, Lara region is one of the most popular touristic areas in Turkey with fascinating sandy beach and crystal clear water Tourists from this resort have a connection to lovely landscape in the west of the beach they can visit the Lower Duden Waterfall, a stripe of land which pulls out to the Gulf of Antalya. All through the past years, tourists have learned that vacationing in Lara Beach always means keeping promises of trendy beaches, natural splendors and classy accommodation, and so, it wouldn't be wrong of you to expect the superlative of Turkey's Riviera. Lara Beach, has 11 units beach units, four food and beverage unit, four tea house, a disco, two football fields, an amusement park, outdoor exhibition areas; many-many children's playground, a bar & club and beach volley fields, beach soccer, activity areas, pergola, and reaction areas; water sports, skating, jogging and bicycle-parking is free areas of change. The resort is recommended that tourists love claims and social life. In all tourist and hotel infrastructure, younger customers are not forgotten them, on the contrary, they can enjoy the many worlds in miniature, where have all the necessary to play and
46

feel better. Water slides, mini-pools, playground, animation and mini-disco in the resort of Antalya which makes it one of the most famous. Many hotels have a piece of private beach and are equipped with pool, gardens and entertainment areas, offering a unique taste and atmosphere, as well as the resort is harmful are the Turkish Riviera resort of Lara is currently in the system all inclusive holidays . Much of the hotels here, copies of some well known places around the world, brings name and fame of Lara 'Turkish Vegas' most famous being, Lara Beach is one of the longest golden brown beaches of Turkey. All hotels in Antalya resort are renowned for their services with high quality and also the numbers are few hotels which are under 3 stars, all starts start from 4 stars, the most present are those of 5 stars, in present are more 209 hotel in this resort.The most famous resort hotels in Antalya are: Hotel Royal Wings5* -Lara, Hotel Hillside Su5*-Lara,Hotel Lara Beach5*-Lara ,Hotel Sakip Sabanci Bulvari 5*, Hotel Crowne Plaza5*- Konyaalt, Hotel Larespark Deluxe5* -Lara, Hotel Grand Adonis5* -Lara,Hotel Kervansaray Lara Convention-Lara, Delphin Palace Deluxe Collection 5*, Hotel Resort Dedeman - Lara 5*, Hotel Melas Lara-Lara 5* , Hotel Falez - Konyaalti , Hotel Ozkaymak Falez- 5*, Hotel Barut Lara Resort-Lara 5*, Club Sera Hotel5* - Lara, Titanic De Luxe Beach Resort 5*- Lara, Hotel Rose Resort 4*.

Hotel Titanic Deluxe Beach-Lara Beach/Source:antalyabeachresort.com

47

Hotel Ozkaymak Falez-Antalya Resort 2010/Source: antalyabeachresort.com

2.2.1 RESORTS IN THE EASTERN TURKISH RIVIERA


BELEK RESORT It is one of the best loved resorts on the Turkish Riviera, located 40 km east of Antalya, is near the ancient ruins of Aspendos Theater. Belek is a purpose of increasing its search for its sandy beaches, luxury hotels as 5 stars and golf clubs, as well. With over 300 days of sunshine each year and temperatures that rarely drop below 10 C, this sheltered corner of Mediterranean coast was chose in the mid 1980 as the site of a new, purpose planned resort. Recently it was chosen by the Ministry Of Culture and Tourism to be a tourism model not just for today's tourist, but also for the tourist of the next thousand years. It has been a huge success, and Belek has quickly gained a reputation in the marketplace as great all-year-active resort. This as new concept of Turkish Tourism, huge 4 and 5 star hotel complexes offering full board or all-inclusive packages, with a high level of service and a whole range of activities. All of the facilities that have been designated first-class provide an ideal atmosphere for families and meticulously offer many opportunities and services aimed at pleasing their guests. All the facilities offer floodlit tennis courts, indoor and outdoor swimming pools, completely equipped health and fitness centers, play areas and many more possibilities. Belek hoteliers are proud that Belek is the new face of Turkish tourism.

48

The beach in Belek is sundy ,en specially suitable for families and for swimming, ranks of sundbeds and umbrellas streach as far as the eye can see, and there are watersports operators in the front of each of the big hotels in Beleks seafront. Belek also serves professional and amateur sport teams with its 50 football grounds and more than 200 tennis courts. Belek hotels have a righteous reputation in congress tourism with a lot of halls providing simultaneous translation service and hosted international meetings, healthcare and beauty tourism are given cognizance in Belek Hotels, as well. There are many Thallasso28 centers, healthcare facilities, and beauty centers in Belek. The sporting facilities attract the main Turkish football teams, Galatasaray and Fenerbahce, for pre-season training, along with an increasing number of European teams including Sparta Moscow. As well ,Belek is an important space sheltering natural life characteristics of Mediterranean Region, botanical researches have shown that there are 574 plant species in Belek and 29 of them are endemic species existing in Turkey only, 1 relic endemic Serik Pear29 (Pyrus serikensis), this one is the regional endemic unique to Belek. Researches show that Belek hosts more than 38 mammalian30 species, more than 109 birds, this figure is of the bird species of Turkey, more than 30 reptilians, and 51 invertebrates, what makes Belek important in respect of natural characteristic is that it is "the Breeding Ground of Sea Turtle Beaches in the region are important nesting areas for the sea tortoises (Caretta caretta). Betuyab has received counseling service from Hacettepe University in 1999 and a protection-usage project has been started with the aim of being an international model with the name of "Belek Sea Tortoises 1999, 2000 and 2001" in the coastal line of about 30 km. As of year 2000, Turkish Republic Ministry of Environment official research project tender has been awarded to Betuyab. Belek resort has a total of approximately 71 luxury hotels, among the most famous

remember:Hotel Barcelo Tat Beach Golf Resort 5*, Hotel Vera Club Mare 5*, Hotel Alva
Donna Exclusive 5*, Hotel Limak Arcadia Golf & Sport Resort 5*, Hotel Iberostar Bellis 5*,
28

Thalassotherapy (from the Greek word thalassa, meaning "sea),is a treatment center in a medically supervised aiming to get in shape especially after health problems. The spa uses different resources from the sea for this purpose: bath and massage of seaweed, sea water pool, water aerobics, water spray of the sea. 29 Serik Pear( Pyrus serikensis) is a species of plant in the Rosaceae family, it is endemic to Turkey. Gner, A. & Zielinski, J. 1998. Pyrus serikensis. Red List of Threatened Species. 23 August 2007. Mammals (formally Mammalia /mmeli./) are members of a class of air-breathing vertebrate animals characterized by the possession of hair, three middle ear bones, and mammary glands functional in mothers with young.. The mammalian brain, with its characteristic neocortex, regulates endothermic and circulatory systems, including a four-chambered heart. Mammals range in size from the 3040 millimetre (1- to 1.5-inch) Bumblebee Bat to the 33-metre (108-foot) Blue Whale.
30

49

Hotel Limak Atlantis Resort 5*,Hotel Altis Resort 5*,Hotel Gloria Serenity Resort 5*,Hotel Sensimar Belek Resort & Spa 5*,Hotel Adora Golf Resort 5*.

Adam and Eva Hotel, -Belek Resort/Source:antalyaresortbeach.com

SIDE RESORT
Sitting on a peninsular, 65 km east of Antalya, surrounded by blue waters of the Mediterranean, Side is a popular family beach resort that has grown up beside the atmosphere remains of an ancient Roman city. Side is the meeting place of authenticity with modernity, for the most luxurious hotels in Side standeth at ease with archaeological sites. As well, Side has aptly prospered as one of the most popular resorts for holiday visitors from across the globe. Here, concealed behind the various touristic establishments, stands the harbour baths, which played such a very important role in the life of the ancient Sidetans. Side combines evertyhing that is good about holiday in Turkey, with some great ancient history that is not too overwhelming, good beaches and cheeky banter from the shopkeepers, who sell the whole range of Turkish souvenirs. Modern Sides reason dtre are its excellent beaches which stretch away to the east and west of town. The resort of Side is flanked by two beaches - to the west, between Sidi and Colak, beaches totaling 30 km in length also there was also the principal of the resort hotel complex, and the eastern beach is quiet and continues until the island Manavgat River. There are also small beaches in town on the south side of the peninsula known as KK PLAJ
31

which is ideal for families with small children, though inevitably it gets pretty packed

31

KK PLAJ tr.-in English its mean the children beach.

50

in season. Some 3 km to the east at Sorgun there is a stretch of public beach which its served by dolmu from Manvgat. In the other direction is Kumkoy has larger hotel developments, restaurants and beach clubs. In west of the town is a long, slender beach reaching for several kilometers around the bay, and in this is where he hotels and apartments were built in the 1970 and 1980. The eastern beaches are wider and until the 1990 were totally unspoilt. Several larger hotel complexes offering generally more up market accommodation have recently been built. Despite the effects of package tourism, which have pushed up of the prices of accommodation and food , Side remains a very attractive resort, especially in months of July and August. Side Resort hold over 70 hotels from 3 to 5 stars, which combines the modern with the past, where are surrounded by ruins, restaurants and bars, and the beach is never more than a few minutes walk. Some of the hotels that can be found here: Hotel Golden Beach Club 4*, Hotel Seamelia Beach Resort & Spa 5*, Hotel Club Voyage Sorgun Select 5*, Hotel Sunstar 4*,Alba Resort Hotel,5*.

ALANYA RESORT Alanya is a resort in southern Turkey and is one of the Mediterranean coasts major resort in Antalya region ,also is famous throughout Europe for its blue waters, warm and sunny weather and beautiful beaches, a few kilometers long with fine sand. Some of the beaches in Alanya are obtained over time and the Blue Flag, which certifies their quality. Increasingly more tourists choose a holiday in Alanya. Currently the resort receives nearly 10% of foreign tourists who visit Turkey, Alanya with 160 000 beds. Infrastructure and services offered to tourists is in continuous improvement.Increasingly more tourists from around the world choose a holiday in Alanya, attracted by good weather, blue sea, fine sand beaches and services, as well as reasonable prices in this region. Alanyas beaches are impressive and very populars , the west beaches, the east beaches and Cleopatra. Cleopatra beach,situated on the westen side of town, sits in the shodow of the citadel and is the smallest of the town beaches. Extending to the peninsula and the beach of large stones is called Cleopatra little dark. According to legend, during her expedition out from Egypt the Queen Cleopatra went to Alanya on the Mediterranean Sea, and have suffered and entered into in the bay and dead and from then the beach is named. Now arrived to be the most popular beach in Alanya, were welcomes thousands of people in the summer month.

51

Keykubat beach is situated in the east of the peninsula, about 3 kilometers long, starting in front of city hall,and her water have the Blue Flag which mean is very clean, the beach have golden sand, and somethere are some parts of the sand rock. The area also has the green areas of parks and tourism facilities along the coastal beach also known as Bengonvil. Here are all kinds of water sports can be made on the shore businesse,the entry are free, beach services are fee-paying. As well here can be find the deck chairs, beach umbrella of services such as kiosks located about 50 meters can be installed. Tourist facilities are open to guests from outside the restaurants ,cafeterias, bars. Orange beach or Oba, situated 1 km on the east coast of the city center, near the Oba River estuary which have continuation of Keykubat Beach. The beach has some portion where have 100 meters wide sandy. This beach has many facilities for tourists, beach hotels, various water sports; cool sweet tea into the water entered the estuary areas, etc. Ula Beach Road is situated at the edge of the road five miles west of Alanya.The beach is well positioned with sand, placed in a rocky area and behind the image they see the old castle. As well, the beach is visited by many tourists for the floral decorations that this beach have. The transportation for between beaches is provided with regular bus service to the city center. Incekum Beach, which is situated 25 km west of Alanya , with golden yellow color of the extraordinary fineness of sand, which sticking to the body. For this reason, the area was called Incekum. The seawater has a very large depth, here there is more an ideal place for families with children, the beach also has many shops, cafes and restaurants along the beach and hotels are also close to the beach. Near the beach is a small forest which is called Incekum Forest, but find very admired by tourists which is visiting them day by day, where here are organizing the picnics. Mahmutlar Beach, about 20 miles east of Alanya, which have five kilometers of the coast is a part of the natural beach. Mahmutlar beach is full of nice shopping centers, services of the deck chairs and umbrella, service which is provided from buffets restaurants and cafes located on the coast in the tourist hotels. Its famous sandy beach, which give waters sports activities, bar actions and beach comfort services. Mahmutlar was well-planned and has a European standard on the infrastructure.

52

2.2.2 RESORTS IN THE WESTERN TURKISH RIVIERA.

KEMER RESORT Kemer is on the Gulf of Antalya, 53 km of sea coast with the skirts of the western Taurus mountains behind also is one of the earliest government-approved, and therefore carefully planned, tourist developments to have sprung up along the Turkish coast since late 1890.This narrow corridor of the land southwest of Antalya had never a large natural population, but was ripe for tourist development. A great beach, pristine waters and a magnificent backdrop of pine clad rocky peaks were the idyllic natural stage on which to build a resort. The resort itself, however, is not one of the most picturesque places, lots of functional white painted concrete, but what Kemer lacks in charm it makes up for facilities, including an up-market marina that attract a wealthy international clientele. Gulf beaches and lush Kemer make one of the most popular resorts on the Turkish Riviera. Symphony of colors that form in water Kemer area welcomes the bright blue Mediterranean Sea and together with green tones of pine forest and with the traditional white of the houses, everything creates an indescribable paradise resort. The main attraction is the natural beauty of the area where the sea and sunny beaches, forests and mountains blend harmoniously. Everthing for a fun beach holydays is here, plus classy shopping although the night live is a little more laid back tan further east along the coast. Over time, development has expanded along the coast with other small resorts. Kemer is composed of nine ministration arranged along the coast over a distance of 52 km. There are Beldibi, Goynuk, Kiris, Camyuva, Tekirova, Arslanbucak, Kuzdere, Beycik and Cirali. Starting from the neighborhood Beldibi to Tekirova is completely natural with all the coastal beach. Indented coast has many bays and small natural harbors also the port provides facilities for water sports. Kemer marina is one of the first modern marinas along the Turkish coast, with berth for 300 yacht and others. There are some fantastic and extremely expensive craft here its the perfect place for enjoy the maritime atmosphere and watch the activities of the crews and clients. Kemer's setting, however, is incredibly fascinating and beautiful, and it supposedly had its origins as a Lycian settlement. Many hotels in Kemer offer their own activities and entertainments for guests, and several have private beach access.The principals hotels there are Hotel Rixos Sungate 5*, Hotel Rixos Sungate 5*, Avantgarde Vogue Hotel 5*, Limak
53

Limra - 5*, Kemer Reach Hotel - 4*, Alatimya Village 5*, Asdem park 4*, Greenwood Resort 5*,etc.

OLYMPUS
Olympus resort have a beautiful 3.5 km secluded beach named Cirali, as well as being a protected area by the WWF32 for the nesting of Caretta, also known as loggerhead sea turtles. The beach is surrounded by rocks, river beds flowing from the cool sea and the fine-grained sand covered with a slight pebbly beach.To arrive to the beach, nide to pass through the tomb of King Zeus, the ancient theater and Roman baths tobrings to the ruins. Antalya Kemer IRALI connected to the town, "sun, sea and natural beauty of the" historical richness as well as to attract people. South end of the ancient city of Olympos, in north-west Yanarta (Chimera) are available. Cirali is a village near to Olimpus an recently the village was served by a very poor road, with the result that so far there has been very little touristic developemnt and Cirali remains a very charming villlage with almost all of its original , authentic character intact. In present in the and around of Cirali beach are only restaurants and cafes on the beach. Regarding the accommodation system is composed of hotel 1-3 star hotels, situated in a rural area and and all are built in traditional style,where

combines beach with village life: Porto Ceneviz Hotel 1*, Hotel Melisa 1*, Akdeniz Bahcesi Hotel 1 *, Anatolia Hotel 2*, Hotel Villa Monte 3*, Kibala Hotel 3*, Blue Paradis Hotel 3*, etc.

FINIKE RESORT Finike is a district on the Mediterranean coast of Antalya Province of Turkey, 90 minutes west of the city of Antalya and Finike is a wonderful destination of the Turkish Riviera, with sandy beaches and cliffs that rise from the water seaworthy turquoise sea. Oranges are very symbol of Finike, because is lined with the world famous orange trees that guide the way to this charming little fishing port.Finike is one of the best equipped ports for yachts and a small fleet of boats for fishing. The coast is famous for its abundance of sea-life from swordfish to sea bass, sea turtles and even the odd Mediterranean monk seal. Finike has a long pebble beach close to the town, but great sandy expanses of beach are reachable quickly up and down the coast from Finike by
32

The World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) is an international non-governmental organization working on issues regarding the conservation, research and restoration of the environment, formerly named the World Wildlife Fund, which remains its official name in Canada and the United States.

54

local transport. Accommodation in Finike system is developed as in Cirali, where there are luxury hotels up to 4 stars: Presa di Finica Hotel & Suites 4*, , Hotel: Carols makadi Resort 4*, Hotel: Arikandos 4*, Hotel: L'Orangeraie 3*, Hotel: Simsek 2*, etc

KEKOVA Kekova, also named Caravola and is a small Turkish island near Ka (ancient Antiphellos) district of Antalya province which faces the villages of Kalekoy. Kekova has one most beautiful and most attractive beach named Kaputas Beach and is located between the towns of Kas and Kalkan. 20 km from Kas., 7 km from Kalkan.The beach which is a mixture of sand and gravel with a sandy beach is a beach that offers all the colors of the Mediterranean. This beautiful beach is a narrow valley between the forest and private vehicles or by bus and transportation are provided.Unspoiled natural beauty of the scenery with a beautiful beach with many visitors attracted to him. Acces to beach is throught down stairs at the beach separated from the main road bridge there is an interesting and noteworthy
Kaputas Beach in Kekova/Source:antalyareservasyon.com

PHASELIS BEACH
As seen the coast, Phaselis beach is not very large has fine sand identified with the Blue Flag water and surrounded by forest, there are still deasemea indicated areas for picnics. The historical site which is very close to the beach. Geographical position indicates that the city has three major ports. One is north of the peninsula, and one in the northeast, and the third in south-west coast and bays very deep.

55

2.3 Mountain Tourism in Turkish Riviera

With the development of tourism in recent decades and its transformation into a mass movement, the mountain has become more cautions investors and promoters of this tourism, just because of the many conditions they offer to do business with beneficial results. The effects of mountain tourism development in economic and social, although sometimes hard to quantify, are rated as very important. Development of mountain tourism supply conditioning also increased demand. This was done basically in two ways: by expanding around the initial site and building a large number of other mountain resorts, as models similare.33 Turkish Riviera is one of the few places in the world were can sky and also in the same time to make beach into Mediterene Sea. The Mediterranean coast of Turkey, where the Taurus mountain range sweeps down to meet the sea, broadly divides into three parts. The stretch from Antalya to Alanya is most accessible, wih the looming presence of Taurus range separated from the sea by a fairly broad costal strip. Once beautiful, intensive agriculture, particularly cotton growing and package tourism have taken an enormous toll on the environment here. Est of Alanya, the mountains meet the sea head-on, making for some of Turkeys most rugged stretches of coastline, where hairpin bends and mountain roads can make travel an agonizingly slow process. Further east the mountains finally recede, giving way to the flat, monotonous landscape of the Ceyhan river delta, made even drearier by relentless urban and industrial sprawl. A special beauty is represents the Bey Mountain, which is part of the western extension of the Taurus Mountains in the north and extending south west of Antalya Gulf. These mountains with geographical and geological interesting formations, and which are formed in layers of limestone, offers a magnificent landscape with their peaks reaching from 2000-3000 m altitude and with a good physical structure for practicing extreme sports.The beauty of mountains is restored by their clothing with forests of hornbeam, ash, oak, fir, cedar (Sedrus libani), juniper (Juniperus oxycedrus),and are continuing their cooperation, in one region of conifers (caniferos), all the vegetation that protects the trees,reflects the typical structure of this

region.Kizlar Sivrice is another important peak in the region of Antalya, with an altitude of over, 3000 meters, to have access to these mountains, is necessary to reach the plateau
33

D. Debarbieux, Tourisme et montagne, Publishing Economica, Paris, 1995, pag. 47.

56

Camcukuru first time, the landscape is fascinating in this area, which offers for visitors unforgettable scenery of Antalya and the Mediterranean from these mountains.Other major peaks of the Taurus Mountains are Tahtali, Bakir and Teke, an important aspect found in this area of the Turkish Riviera, near these peaks is the mountain resort Saklikent that is very important tourist region. Sakliken is a modern montan resort, which boasts a very short distance from Antalya, about 50 km north-west of the center, that the Mediterranean Sea. Being situated at the foot of Taurus Mountains ski this resort offers guests the opportunity to practice a variety Mountain of winter resort sports. season Sakliken begins in

November and ends in April, with around 120 days of skiing for tourists, they also can enjoy an average thickness of the snow, between 100 and 230 cm, and

the average temperature rarely falls below -5 degrees Celsius. Between 2005,

Saklikent Antalya: Source:http://www.kayakmerkezleri.info.tr

and 2006 has opened in Saklikent 240 beds for tourists, reaching up to 500 mountain vacation homes. All types of accommodation houses are all in the turkish style, and offer all kind of facilities such as turkish bath, sauna, swimming pool, rooms with all modern utilities. Also the resort is equipped with all sports equipment, skis, snowboards, montain bike, and also to teach ski lessons at Ski Resort School. Due to the natural landscape can practice hiking, horseback riding, hunting, sports such as football and is an ideal refuge from the heat of the Turkish Riviera.

57

2.4 SPORTIV TOURISM IN TURKISH RIVIERA-GOLF

With the creation of a large number of golf courses, meet the highest international standards and have emerged successively during the last years, Turkey has become a global center for the sport, while combining hospitality , quality and prestige. Becoming the most famous golfers in the world, owing ,in particular the field course which was built near Belek, it allows the organization of tournaments in the world, Turkey was voted as the best European golf destination in 2008 by IAGTO.34 The first tour in 2010 called Challenge Tour, males golf professional circuit took place in Turkey, with over 22 countries, also in 2012, will be held in Belek by the World Golf Championship, Olympic sports. The presence of large space, the temperate climate of Mediterranean end Aegean coasts, enabling the practice of golf throughout the year, is a great potential for tourism which regarding this sport.
Belek region, located twenty miles east of Antalya, is somewhat heart of golf in Turkey, with many units course. Possessing a large number of parks, golf courses, which respond with very severe

international standards further, Belek, is presented with an exceptional natural setting, which is the symbiosis between forest and sea and the serenity of this sport

Source: www.belektourismcenter.org

34

IAGTO-( International Association of Golf Tour Operators) is the global trade organisation for the golf tourism industry. Established in 1997, IAGTO's membership comprises 1594 accredited golf tour operators, golf resorts, hotels, golf courses, receptive operators, airlines, tourist boards, approved media and business partners in 85 countries including, at its core, 374 specialist golf tour operators in 52 countries. It is estimated that IAGTOs operators control over 80% of golf holiday packages sold worldwide outside of Asia and turnover more than 1 billion per year./Source: http://www.iagto.com/

58

Golf is a precision club-and-ball sport, in which competing players (golfers), using many types of clubs, attempt to hit balls into each hole on a golf course while
Source: www.belektourismcenter.org

employing the fewest number of strokes. Golf is one of the few ball games that does not require a standardized playing area. Instead, the game is played on golf "courses", each of which features a unique design, although courses typically consist of either nine or 18 holes. Golf is defined, in the rules of golf, as "playing a ball with a club from the teeing ground into the hole by a stroke or successive strokes in accordance with the Rules." Golf competition is generally played for the lowest number of strokes by an individual, known simply as stroke play, or the lowest score on the most individual holes during a complete round by an individual or team, known as match play. In planing the course, the architecs took into special account the wishes and expectations of Europen golfers. The perfect sight of the golf courses present the wonderful panorama and landscape of the neighborhood while providing the golf players with terrifie golf pleasure and struggle.Some annex fields are being planned for the development of the golf facilities. There are daily, even hourly tours from all resorts and holiday villages at the neighborhood to the golf field and bookings are available via these tours and clubs. Besides the beauty of buildings and history that makes his presence in Belek, were are constructed many gofl courses, being famous and visited by many international tourists, where they can meet in an environment at quality and prestige. Most golf courses are located in this resort and have all the necessary means of accommodation, in terms of entertainment and accommodation. These lands offer the tourists a dream natural environment, they are: Antalya Golf Club - PGA Sultan Golf Course designed by the architects of the European Golf Design, which is undoubtedly one of the best global company to providing an impeccable design. The Sultan Golf Course is located in Belek resort, opened in September 2003 , quickly became very famous, having a length of 6477 meters and 775 000 m area and is one of the favorite places for golfers. David Jones and entrepreneurs have not brought any restrictions on land development and have managed to obtain a complete harmony with the surrounding forest land. Pasha Golf Course, located in Belek with72 shots, an area of 550,000 meters and 5731 meters in length and various combinations of courses, with course Pasha is capable to test the
59

skills of high and low handicappers alike with a combination of different challenges. Tricky dog legs, cleverly placed bunkers and undulating greens will ensure that the more experienced golfer must think over each shot carefully. The shorter length coupled with generous fairways will not unfairly punish the higher handicapper for any wayward shots. Towering umbrella pines, crystal clear lakes and the snow capped Taurus Mountains provide a spectacular backdrop to the course as it winds it's way through the forests of Belek. Golf Academy, offers courses consisting of a team of experienced teachers who offer lessons and educational programs tailored for each individual, teaching all levels of golfers, whether beginners or advanced. The land is fully equipped practice, assisted by the permanent information system. Cary Golf Club, first and only golf course in Turkey which was arranged in a fairy of shrubs and brambles, Cary Golf Club is located in the Turkish Riviera, Belek tourist area. Built in a sandy area, surrounded by pine and eucalyptus, this area is equipped with 18 holes and is very famous among international golfers. Golf Course was designed by architect Peter Thomson, who was nominated with many trophies. The land is held on a length of 7 km, and 72 acres are landscaped with shrubs, where golf enthusiasts can apply new strategies. Possessing a classical structure and traditional land was inaugurated in March 2008, with a type of grass with obstacles, Tifway 419 Bermuda 35 and tees. Cornelia Golf Club, designed by Nick Faldo, a famous global player, Cornelia Golf Club is located near the city Iskele near Belek, at 45 km from downtown Antalya and 35 km from the airport. With a total of 27 holes, the field consists of three passes with nine holes each containing links between them as required by International standards. Being in the middle of a pine forest in a landscape with a lake basin area of 90,000, the land has a Club House, which can deliver a high quality work and comfort. With a different style and impeccable quality Cornelia Golf Club gathers a community of professionals golfers, this club has become a favorite destination especially for British amateur. Gloria Golf Club, have four separate golf courses, which were constructed with obstacles and difficulties for the sport, also the terrain that has three horses running, which have the signature by architect Michael Gayon. The land was arranged and incorporates with 4 large

35

Tifway 419 Bermuda is a very dense and fine textured hybrid bermuda grass. It is low growing and spreads rapidly. Its density, fine texture and soft blades provide a soft cushion in which to walk and play. Although not required, for those willing to devote extra time in maintenance, Tifway 419 will provide an extremely high quality turfgrass. Easton Sod Farms now has Certified Tifway 419 available. Recommended for residential and commercial landscapes, golf courses, parks and athletic fields.

60

lakes and 67 bunkers36 to create a better way for the players. The starting tees were built on two axes of progression, for which the player must perform two runs with nine holes completely different from one another. This site started in December 2004 with an area of 700.000m. Lykia Links Golf Antalya,possessing the characteristic of being one of the 300 golf courses in the world that have been build at the sea level, golf Likya Links Club, was built by famous architect Perry Dye which is a true legend in golf terms . Built in a sandy area just by the sea, the land has 18 holes, and covers an area of 80 hectares alongside the sea it allows players to taste the pleasure of golf in a pleasant way. This site also has a large hotel that is the true center of relaxation. The Montgomerie Papillon Golf Club, is located at 40 km away from downtown Antalya and 35 km from the airport area, in Belek region,

possesses a field with 18 holes and covers an area of forest with steep and having 104 ha ,the main feature consists developed in that into it has

natural

framework, surroundings
NationalGol Club/ Source:www.kaliteliresimler.com

land stretches over a length of 6420 m. This Golf Club was officially opened in September 2008 and is equipped with all the International requirements. National Golf Club, Belek region is located in, under The Mediterranean cost, at 25 km east from the airport and 40 km from Antalya and is the oldest club from this region. The club is built in english style, which gives a sense of calm, is ranked among the best 39 championships europeenan granted by Golf Digest, which has awarded the best golf course in the Mediterranean region. Union to respect national Golf Club has received an award in 1996 and 1997 Senior PGA tournament in the European Female Tournament.

36

Bunker-at strategic places along the preferred line to the hole and guarding the putting green are obstacles called bunkers, depressions filled with sand (sand traps). Some holes require the player to cross streams or ponds. Both bunkers and bodies of water are termed hazards.

61

Sueno Hotels Golf Belek, located 25 minutes from Antalya airport, the land covers an area of 1472 ha. Holds two 18-hole championship runs and was built by PGA DC37. Golf Club offers his guests a natural view of the frame. It was inaugurated on April 2007 and has places for disabled people; the land is cultivated with the highest quality lawn and tourists and also offers golf lessons.

Number of tourists in Golf Clubs -Belek 2011


45,000 40,000 35,000 30,000 25,000 20,000 15,000 10,000 5,000 0

Table 3.Source of statistic date : www.belektourismcentre.org /statistic

JANUARY FEBR. MARCH APRIL TOTAL

Because

of

good

quality of golf courses and famous, internationally they have

become increasingly in demand by tourists who practice this sport in the

Turkish Riviera, Belek area in particular, which saw many tourists during this year ( 2011). Belek gathered to date from January until April 2011 is around 483,536 as thousands of tourists can be seen in Figure 3. Gloria Club, in March gathered 15 811 thousand visitors and raised a total of 44 278 thousand visitors made it the most sought after club in Belek region. Another, Antalya Golf Club is renowned club, where in March registered, about 12,549 thousands of tourists and a total of 35 047 thousand tourists, suggests that this club is very popular in the Turkish Riviera. The third place has Sueno Golf Club, where he recorded a total of 34 390 thousand tourists until April, which is to be one of the most famous clubs. This type of tourism is concentrated in the area, Turkish Riviera is an interest for many tourists because all services, are provided at a quality level.

37

PGADC is a professional golf course architect design company with over 350 golf related projects in 40 countries across the world. PGADC has unparalleled experience in golf course design with many PGADC golf course arhitect designs becoming tournament golf venues.

62

CHAPTER III III. TOURISM INFRASTRUCTURE IN THE TURKISH RIVIERA


3. Tourism development in Turkish Rivera-Antalya.
Tourism, a social phenomenon in the economic ample specific modern civilization, strongly rooted in society's life is influenced by its evolution as such. Characterized by a high dynamism and duties because it is a state in economic development, tourism must be regarded as a complex phenomenon involving a direct employment to meet temporary visitors travel motivations.For some time now, tourism has played a major role in Turkeys social and economic development. The history of tourism development dates back to the 1930s, just after the Republic of Turkey was established in 1923. Tourism was incorporated into government bodies with a certain status before becoming a separate ministry in 1963. In 1934, a small tourism office was officially founded as part of the Ministry of Economy. Due to the great significance of tourism in the country, the Ministry of Tourism (MT) was established in 1963. Tourism development in Turkey can be assessed in three stages: awareness (1955-1970), advocacy (1970-1982) and action (1980 to present).
TABLE.4 Top 10 Contrys most visited tourist arrivals-Source: WTO (Worl Turism Organisation)38

Country

Regional Market

International tourist arrivals (2009)

International tourist arrivals (2008) 79.2 million 57.9 million 57.2 million 53.0 million 42.7 million 30.1 million 25.0 million 24.9 million 22.1 million 22.6 million

International tourist arrivals (2007) 80.9 million 56.0 million 58.7 million 54.7 million 43.7 million 30.9 million 22.2 million 24.4 million 21.0 million 21.4 million

International tourist arrivals (2006) 77.9 million 51.0 million 58.0 million 49.9 million 41.1 million 30.7 million 18.9 million 23.6 million 17.5 million 21.4 million

1.France 2.United State 3.Spain 4.China 5.Italy 6 Englend 7.Turkey 8.Germany 9.Malaysia 10.Mexico

Europe N.America Europe Asia Europe Europe Europe Europe Asia N.America

74.2 million 54.9 million 52.2 million 50.9 million 43.2 million 28.0 million 25.5 million 24.2 million 23.6 million 21.5 million

38

WTO is one of the most important tourim organizations, with its headquartes in Madrid, Spain. The WTO represents all national and official tourist interests and is recognized as the objective is consultative body on tourism to the United Nations.The WTOs basic objective is the promotion and development of tourism with a view to contributing to economic development, international understanding, peace, prosperity,etc. Michael M.Coltamn.Introduction to Travel & Tourism, page76.

63

Turkeys transformation to a liberalized economy and its strong commitment to that policy suggest that the contry hs beeb adjusting well to the globalization of the world market with well to the globalization of the world market with well developed destinations and qualified personnel to provide tourism services. The number of foreign arrivals in Turkey remained stable at about one million until the beginning of the 1980s. Since Turkey adopted an open door policy in the early 1980s, its economic ties with the rest of the world have developed rapidly. As a result, international tourist arrivals in Turkey have grown substantially during the last two decades. Statistics indicate Turkey was the 19th most popular destination in 1997 in terms of tourist arrivals, up from its positions 52nd in 1980. In 2005, Turkey became one of top ten tourism earners hosting over 20 million foreign tourists in 2006. It is assumed that tourism will be the leading industry in the countrys economic structure and occupy a leading place among top tourist-receiving countries in the 21st century. As we can see from Table 4 Turkey has kept her position in Top 10 worlds, and from 2006 until 2009 it began to represent a growing interest for more tourists. In 2008, the United States displaced Spain from the second place. Most of the top visited countries continue to be on the European continent, followed by a growing number of Asian countries. In 2009, Malaysia made it into the top 10 most visited countries' list. Malaysia secured the ninth position, just below Turkey and Germany. As are other countries, Turkey is benefiting greatly from tourism industry. Industry provides economic contributions to the balance of payments and aids 38 subsectors with direct and indirect employment. As a developing country, Turkey gives high attention to tourism industry. Today tourism is the second most important source of foreign currency earnings. Antalya is the leading tourism province of Turkey in terms of the increase in the values of night spending, bed capacity and the number of tourism companies.Tourism affects positively the economic development of Antalya, not only by attracting foreign tourists, but also by creating new tourism enterprises and institutions in the city. Between the periods of 1983-1997, hotel and restaurant services have been the highest growth sector with 6.6 percent average growth rate per year. After 1980, mostly due to the tourism support policies supply, which was less than the demand, has grown rapidly and exceeded the demand. At the end of the 199O's as a result of the increasing competition; hotel enterprises in Antalya started to apply all inclusive system to increase their occupancy rates (Uner, Sokmen and Birkan 2006). They were partially successful; however, because the increase in demand was less than the increase in supply the success of that strategy was a short term success.
64

For faster development in tourism have been implemented projects to improve the service in the most concerned sectors from Turkish Riviera region which are Antalya- Lara, Belek, Kemer and Side have had and still have the important contributions to the development of tourism in Antalya-Turkish Riviera. The Belek tourism center, located in the Eastern part of the Antalya Center covering 14 km of coastal area between Aksu stream and Acsu, helped very much in support of tourism in Turkish Riviera, constitutes more than 45 accommodation establishments and 5 golf areas in the scope of the Belek Tourism. The existing bed capacity is more than 30,000. Belek, which is one of the most important tourism centers of the country, has a total bed capacity of 25,347. In 2006, approximately 18.7 percent of all the foreign tourists attracted to the country have visited Antalya-Belek. Kemer is the leading tourism settlement with 77 land allocations for tourism establishments. The second important tourism settlement is Side with 45 tourism establishments on allocated land. The third important settlement is Belek with 41 tourism establishments that have made use of land allocations, the remaining are; Central Antalya with 16 tourism establishments, eight tourism establishments in Alanya and six tourism establishments in Kale (Demre) which have used land allocation for tourism development in Antalya.39 . Mass tourism development and the increase in big sized hotel investments, such as the increase in 4 and 5 star hotels, makes it dependent on tour operators.Increasing competitive strategies based on a weak all-inclusive concept, even in small sized hotels, has created a situations where tourists do not (need to) enter the city centre to fulfil their travel needs. Therefore, tourists prefer to spend all the time inside the hotel Lara-Kundu and the Belek tourism center are also examples that show the market segmentation.The type of tourism development in these areas is solely meant for tourists who have higher incomes; in fact, this structure of development is implicitly decided by the central state in the tourism development plans of this area. This development is planned to promote mass tourism but also to develop a competitive place for tourism by supporting thematic projects (establishment of thematic hotels) with the help of the Ministry of Culture and Tourism. However, in conclusion, from the planning point of view, it can be claimed that tourism development in general in Antalya is triggered by the integrated efforts of some players; the

39

(T.C.Turizm Bakanl 2000)/ Anatolia: An International Journal of Tourism and Hospitality Research.

65

tourism plan and the interventions of non-governmental tourism associations. These, on the other hand, act under the guidance of private tourism investors in collaboration with the central state. In this respect, it is seen that the demands of rich tourism entrepreneurs and their associations have been over-represented compared to the representation of municipalities and local citizens. This in turn favours the creation of socio-spatial segregation in the city and we can say that Antalya represent in present a pole of attraction increasingly large for foreign.

3.1.Touristic function/Touristic Circulation in Turkish Riviera.


Tourism as an object of invisible transactions as a direct participant in national and international circuit of values is the result of the activities in all three sectors of economie. The principal indicators at the main activity not only measure, but also provide required information policies through which the working units on tourist market may influence by their offering the demand. The essential role of the system of characteristics indicator of hospitality industry is to compare the potential value of tourism and flow of visitors analysis according to which the companies providing such services that can respond by answering their value causing demand indicators that are analyzed. The main indicators of tourist traffic such as: the number of tourists visiting Antalya, the number of overnight stays, reason to come in Antalya, night spends or the average length of stay, they will show us the absolute changes and rates of decline or growth of the tourism phenomenon. In what follows, I want to show the tourist traffic in Antalya-Turkish Riviera, and which are the most wanted targets and the power of attraction in the area.
City Country International visitors (millions) 15.1 14.6 9.7 9.2 8.9 8.6 8.4 7.2 6.9 6.8 95.4 Year

Table

5.

Top

10

most

visited

cities

/estimated number of international visitors by selected year Source: WTO

Paris London New York City Antalya Kuala Lumpur Singapore Hong Kong Bangkok Istanbul Dubay Total

France England America Turkey Malaysia Singapore China Thailand Turkey Arbe Emirate

2010 2010 2010 2010 2010 2010 2010 2010 2010 2009

66

Tourism affects positively the economic development of Antalya, not only by atracting foreign tourists, but also by creating new tourism enterprises and institutions in the city. Between the periods of 1983-1997, hotel and restaurant services have been the highest growth sector with 6.6 percent average growth rate per year. The development of the city can be seen from Table 5, where important Antalya occupies a position among the world's most visited it in 2010, occupying a 4th place after France, London and New York. With a total of 9, 2 million visitors this proves that the city has a very high degree of attraction of tourists. Many tourists choose Turkish Riviera because they have many reasons to spend a holiday in this area and the tourist market has grown greatly. Tourists choose to come to Antalya in particular for:
Strengths of the Turkish Riviera

Historical sites

Entertainment

Turkish Riviera
Services Quality
Relaxation

Sea, Beach and Sand

All Inclusiv
Hospitality

Antalya is the leading tourism city in Turkey in terms of foreign (8,260,399 tourists in 2009) and local tourist numbers (962,226 tourists in 2009). It is also the leading destination in terms of foreign tourism investments consisting of 567 foreign hotels, tourism transport and service companies this involving a very rapid development process over the years. The politic has played, as well one role in the period of fast development, by planning policies of the central government,development projects and land allocations were very influential and gave a mass tourism character to the pattern of tourism development in Antalya, the mass tourism development has had several effects on the city.

67

Years 1990 2000 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009

Antalya 808.379 3.145.598 6.882.246 6.011.183 7.291.356 8.564.510 8.260.399

Turkey 5.389.308 10.428.153 21.124.886 19.819.833 23.340.911 26.336.677 27.077.114

Table 6. Number of foreign visitors in Turkey and in Antalya Source dates: Ministry of Culture and Tourists

As is can see the number of tourists has increased significantly in Turkey, because of the strategies adopted, which in turn brought a large number of tourists also and in Antalya. Antalya is the tourism pole of Turkey, which is known in worldwide. In table 6 is can seen that from 2000 until 2005 the number of tourists was weighted with 10,428,153 milions of tourists maximum value where just 3.145.598 in

Antalya.Almost a third of Turkey''s tourists come to Antalya, where in Turkey repectiv in Antalya from 2005 until 2009 the numbers of tourists has incrased considerable till 27,077,114 milion of tourists of which 8,260,399 milion in Antalya.The number of visits who choose to travel to a particular ourist destination is a function of teir desire to travel and comparative factors that tend to reduce that desire.The desire to travel is influenced by that persons psychographic and socioeconomic profiles.40

3.1.1 Evolution of the indicator "number of tourists

Table 7.Number of foreign visitors in Antalya 2006-2009

40

Michael M.Coltman- Introduction to travel & tourism, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, page 98.

68

Number of foreign visitors in Antalya 2006-2009


9000000 8000000 7000000 6000000 5000000 4000000 3000000 2000000 1000000 0 2006 2007 2008 2009

With these data is posible to see that the Turkish Riviera tourist infrastructure is very active, in a period of four years from 2006 till 2009 the months which registred more tourists are summer months from June until the winter months, where this periode was very populated. From Table 7, present that most tourists which reached maximum in this destination have been in October and November months of 2008 and also year 2009 in November and December when then had with a total 8.260399 milion tourists the reason is because Antalya can enjoy a mild climate and have a long season.
Switzerland Kazakistan Danemarck Poland U.S.A Norway Spain Austruia France Ukraina U.K Holland Russia Romania Belarus Iran Finland. Slovakia Czechosl. Belgium Israel Germany

Moldova Itlay

2008

Table8:Number of foreigns in 2008-Antalya

69

Czechosl. Romania Switzerland Belarus Kazakistan Norway Danemarck Poland Belgium Spain U.S.A Austruia France Ukraina U.K

Finland. Iran Slovakia Israel

Moldova Itlay

2009

Germany

Holland Russia

Table9 :Number of foreigns in 2009-Antalya

Table10 :Number of foreigns in 2010-Antalya

70

Iran Israel Moldova Switzerland Czechosl. Romania 1% 2% 4% 2% 0% 0% Belgium Slovakia Belarus Finland. Itlay Kazakistan 1% 0% 3% 0% Danemarck 0% Norway 0% 2% Spain 2% U.S.A Poland 0% 1% Austruia 0% 4% France 6% Holland 6% U.K 6%

2010

Germany 47%

Ukraina 2%

Russia 9%

Itlay BelarusIran Finland. Israel Switzerland 0% 1% 0% 3% 2% 2% Belgium Slovakia Moldova Czechosl. Romania 3% Norway Kazakistan 1% 0% 0% 0% Danemarck 0% 3% 2% Spain U.S.A Poland 0% 0% 1% Austruia 4% France 8% Ukraina 2% U.K 5%

2011

Germany 40%

Holland 7%

Russia 14%

Table11 :Number of foreigns in 2011-Antalya.(January-May)

As is apparent from the tables and analyzes the phenomenon of tourism can be seen that in years was weaker in 2008 than at present (2011). Compared to all the years it can say that most tourists are from Germany with 47% in 2008 and 2011, followed by the Russians with 10% in 2008 and by 14% this year. A slight decrease is recorded among Dutch tourists who in 2008 represented 8% and this year (2011) just 7%. This is most interested is recording by European countries, especially those from the East of Europe, but it can be said that increased interest and Arab countries, just this year came to Antalya 45,832 thousands of Iranians and 9734 of thousands of Israelis.This process of growth of tourist flows culminated in 2011 when
71

the values of "number of tourists" reached the highest odds of the interval from 1990 to 2011 where he studied shows that most tourists compared to 2009 (8,260,399 foreign tourists) and (9,759,044 tourists in 2010) most are currently with 1,502,315 million tourists.

3.1.2 Evolution the indicator ,,number of night spend,,


Antalya is the leading tourism province of Turkey in terms of the increase in the values of night spending, bed capacity and the number of tourism companies.Antalya has certified with 1885 total number of facilities by Ministry and the Municipality and has a total of 160.973 rooms and 346.256 beds. Dynamics of phenomen tourism namely the ,,tourism traffic,, registered in the Turkish Riviera and can be seen through the indicator "number of nights spent" or as it is called, "the number of visitor-days. Generally hotels are located in Kemer, Belek, Lara , Alanya and Side. District of Belek has more luxurious hotels compared to other towns in Antalya. District of Lara has many new 5 star hotels and also this region is very close to Antalya Airport.Especially 4 and 5 star hotels in Antalya are really very capacious and in this type of hotels there are all kind of facilities and activities such as shopping centers, discos, restaurants, beauty centers, etc

Number of nights spend in Turkish Riviera -2010


20000000 15000000 10000000 5000000 0 hotel 1* 12 hotel 2* hotel 3* hotel 4* hotel 5 * Table

Foreigner

Tr Citizen

Numbers of night spend/Source: Ministry of Culture and Tourists;

72

Facility Number Number Number of of Beds rooms


Tourism Facilities Management Certificate Turizm Yatrm Belgeli Tesisler Total 673 118 791 137.754 23.183 160.973 294.870. 51.386 346.256 13.Most desirable type of

Most desirable type of accomodation/ number of arrivals -Turkish Riviera 2010


100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0%

Foreigner accomodation/Source:www.antalyaturizm.gov.tr/istatistikleri

Citizen

Accommodation at Turkish Riviera is very varied from 5 star hotels until motels, as shown in Table 13, the most accommodation appreciated by foreign tourists are hotels with 90%, Holiday villages 80%, tourism complexes 70% and 65% boutique hotels.

5000000 4000000 3000000 2000000 1000000 0

Number of arrivals in Turkish Riviera 2010 in hotels

Total, 4768538 Foreigner, 3672472

Turkish citizen , 1096066

hotel 1*

hotel 2*

hotel 3*

hotel 4*

hotel 5*

Table14 Numbers of arivals, Source: www.antalyaturizm.gov.tr/istatistikleri

73

Foreigner Tr Citizen

hotel 1* hotel 2* hotel 3* hotel 4* hotel 5 * 205325 414170 2903986 9410427 19007300 50580 172900 526966 813890 3103805

Regarding among hotels, those that have a large coverage are the 5 star hotels with 90% by foreigners and 45% by Turkish citizens, those 4 stars hotels are occupied about 60% of foreign tourists, and 30% of Tukish tourists and the less appreciated are the 3 stars hotels with 40% of foreign and 10% of Turkish tourists. Another indicator is
Visit familly 4% Looking for relocate 2%

Main trip's purpose

the

reason

for

tourists to travel to this area, it tells us

Entertainment 33% Business 21% Health 2%

Holliday 38%

why is the popular Turkish Riviera.

Table 15 shows that a large majority of tourists 38% came in Antalya for and which

relaxation holliday

represents that Turkish Riviera, implicit Antalya is a good touristic destination favorable for weather, climate and her potential. Another reason why tourists visit the Turkish Riviera is the fun; with (33%) this is due to discos aroud the Mediterannian coast, for diverse restaurants and festivals that take place throughout the year. Business, another motive for travel, many tourists come for business, this form of tourism has become increasingly common, and is the strongest branch of the tourism industry because there are many hotels in this area and people have more business customers in this area
Holliday Business Health Entertainment Visit familly Looking for relocate 82,6 46,3 3,8 72,1 8,6 3,8

Table 15.Main Trip Purpose/Source: Source: www.antalyaturizm.gov.tr/istatistikleri

74

Reason to travel
Others Culural and architectural Luxurious services Natural Heritage

Organisaid trip Independent No respons

69,2 28,3 2,5

Frends Chepness Recommadatio n Table 16.Reason to travel/Source: www.antalyaturizm.gov.tr/istatistikleri

Of course, the indicator, reason to travel, is also very good because we know the intentions of the travel and what attracted him most during the trip.As seen from the table 16 is the most important cultural relics and archaeological, many tourists come to these sites archeological from many years old, tourists are also attracted a great service and quality in Turkish resort of Riviera as we see 40, 2% of tourists are attracted to luxury hotels and the services available to them. Natural heritage was also a reason , 10.9% chose the region because of its cheapness, and 8.8% answered they chose Antalya because of friends recommendation.

3.1.3 Evolution the indicator,, average leght of stay,,


The "average length of stay ', like the previous indicators, can not miss the tourist traffic analysis, he gives us very important information relating to the period of stationary in Antalya as well as tourists both in units of receipt of the travel companies and information about the power of attraction of the Turkish Riviera, in general. The "average length of stay", recorded similar values throughout the study, only in the case of foreign tourists has increased considerably.
Foreigner Tr.citizen Total hotel1* hotel2* hotel 3* hotel 4* hotel 5* 7,7 5 5,6 5,7 5,2 2,8 2,8 3 1,7 4,6 6,8 3,2 4,9 5,3 4,6

75

Average Length of StayTurkish Riviera 2009


8 6 4 2 0 hotel1* hotel2* hotel 3* Foreigner hotel 4* Tr.citizen hotel 5*

Table 15 Average Lenght of Stay/ Source: www.antalyaturizm.gov.tr/istatistikleri

Regarding this indicator, the ,,average leght of your stay,, the longest period of stationary are 1* hotels to 6.8% and then followed by 4 * hotels by 5.3% and then at the hotels 5 stars by 4.6%, the lowest length of stay had a 3,2% 2 * hotels, after the data from 2010.

3.2 Cultural Function of Turkish Riviera


Modern tourism, from its inception was a cultural phenomenon in itself, cultural tourism can be defined as a form of tourist mobility whose primary goal is broadening the horizon of knowledge discovery and artistic heritage of the territories in which it endows.41 This form of tourism sent out at the notion of heritage, museums or art set, monumental art assemblies architect or cities, and prehistoric archaeological sites. Intangible heritage includes cultural events and celebrations, traditions and skills creative.Imbogatirea permanent cultural attractions is stimulated by two factors-public demand and pressure the local administration. The worlds cultural heritage is like a puzzle, each monument; each object is irreplaceable part of the overall picture which gives for tourits insight in our origins our development and lives today. Antalya Turkish Riviera centre was transformed into a cultural and tourist center due to architectural remains Byzantine and otoman style.

41

CI.Origent du Clezeau ,, Le tourisme cultural,, PUF , Paris -2008.

76

Most visited historic sites from Turkish Riviera


200000 150000 100000 50000 0

2009

2010

2011

Table 17 Most visited historic sites/Source dates: www.kulturturizm.gov.tr/istatistiklerl

Antalya Cultural live is very diverse, many tourists are attracted to art that has this potential to encounter cultural tourists from the memorial houses, ancient cities, mosques, archaeological sites, natural parks, up to a number of festivals and Turkish customs that enriches the cultural life of every tourist.

. Natural attraction in Turkish Riviera.

High Plateaus Waterfalls

Montain Natural Parks Hunting Areas

Winter sports Water sports

Natural caves

Beach

Historic cities fromTurkish Riviera are famous for their structure and that it keeps a long history. As shown in the table 17, the phenomenon of tourism is present from the early months of the year from January to April, compare the years 2009-2011, the historical city was visited by 95% Aspendos, followed by 60% Perge, Myra and the old part of Antalya Kaleci. In the current year 2011, the most visited Perge was 70%, followed by Aspendos, Myra and

77

Kaleci.

These

four

historical

cities

represent

of

particular

interest

to

tourists

because continuously since 4 years they were the most visited historical cities.

Historical attraction in Turkish Riviera.

Museums

Hisoricals castles

City Ruins

Mosques

Churches

The basic dilemma of tourisms cultural impact is that people at home do not want their local culture influenced by tourists, but when they themselves become tourists they often feel it is their right, because they have paid of a trip, to impose themselves on other cultures.42

ARTS Art holds a crucial place in the social life of Antalya, it is distinguished by other tourist destinations because of the many artistic activities which are reflection through cinema, theater, ballet, and numerous paintings or art gallery.Most important is the beauty of art National Art Gallery, Mevlevis monastery which is situated at the entrance of the complex Yivli Minare other such centers, Art Gallery, which holds a large exhibition of art with its large rooms is a true center for tourists welcome the beauty of art in painting and sculpture. Other institurti art turstic are organized for the public, are the Art Gallery and Museum in Antalya, Art Gallery, Cultural Center of Antalya and Tomer Art Gallery. EBRU ART, is the art of drawing the water, are drawing this sense made being translated on paper, is a traditional Turkish art.Chaining penetration and color, without them interfering with each other, that can easily distinguish all colors, shapes and models, obtained by
42

McIntosh and Goeldner (1984, page 113)

78

water.Predominant feature that characterizes this, that art is part of traditional Ottoman hand. Ebru is also known as the,,Turkish leaf,,.

Visitor numbers in art gallery/museums


antalya 72453 51578 24866 7638 9063 0 2010 4046 8009 2011 46721 alanya side

2009

Table 18: Source dates: www.kulturturizm.gov.tr/istatistikleri, period january-april

Starting from the indicators give, the more tourists, compared with last 3 years of calculation, were present in cultural institutions in Antalya in 2010 about 72.453 thousand tourists, another interest presented Side Art Gallery where he gathered around of 24 866 thousand tourists in 2010, and around Alanya has raised 9.06 thousand tourists. This year(2011), most tourists have always been interested in art have been in Antalya with 46,721 thousand tourists known but a decrease from last year with 40% in Side-8.009 million tourists and 4040 thousand tourists in Alanya.

FESTIVALS AND EVENTS Turkeys festivals and events rflect its fascinating and unique society, a secular republic, it is very proud of its fight for independence, markeing the major events with great solemnity. However, over 90 per cent of its population are Muslim, they ar also celebrate the main Islamic festivals, especially in the countryside.On top of this, Turkey holds host of sporting competitions and folk festivals. There are well over hundred festivals organized, during all the year,in town or citys across from Turkish Riviera. Festivals in this tourist pole are formed by transposing the events that tourist activities, many of these festivals are visited by tourists from around the world. Among the most prestigious international festivals are to arena from Aspendos where organized
79

International Opera and also concerts ballet events.Another important festival and also is famous the Golden Orange Film Festival in Antalya. International Opera and Balet Festival, conducted in an atmosphere arhieological mystical, this festival allows you to gather a large number of visitors made up largely of foreign tourists.This festival is an international avengura in 1998, is named as part of the most famous festivals in the world.Therefore artists participating in this event are equally renowned personalities where they gather all sorts of people who approach the universal language of art that bears a great importance and effective, it is also an important element of this festival. Aspendos International Opera and Ballet Festival every year, with the growing audience of history, music, and many nations of people come together has become a visual feast, has collected an audience of approximately 10,000 spectators. Aspendos Theater is an important part of Turkey country's cultural diversity and awareness of the theater during the festival will not harm the historic fabric of the technical equipment and the security measures implemented carefully. Festival presentation of the institutions with the support of co-operation is carried out to reach the widest audience. Theatre starts running many internationally renowned shows such as Carmen, Written by Meilhac Halevy Librettosu, Vienna Philharmonic orchestra, "Abduction from the Seraglio", "Swan Lake", which will be this year for the entire public. Another famous festival is Antalya Golden Orange Film Festival, The festival runs continuously in the year in which he made his debut in 1964, and is a great movie oraganisation of short reel and long length, film projects, piano recital and poetry reading. Concerts and theatres performed in historical Aspendos Theatre in the mid 1950s form the basis of Antalya Golden Orange Film Festival. Performances which the public pays huge attention and occurs in summer time becomes traditional and lasts in a mood of fiesta till the beginning of 60s. Festival turns into Antalya Golden Orange Film Festival taking film under its constitution. The festival which has initiated another film competition for international films under the name of Euroasia International Film Festival is organized by Antalya Culture and Art Foundation. Institutor committee of the foundation is composed of 109 people including celebrities of business, politics, media and culture-art of Antalya. Also,this feast is a paramount importance for the world of cinema, this art festival bringing together a large audience consisting of both domestic and foreign tourists Lara Sand City International Sand Sculpture Festival, every year, here is the largest sand castle competition on Lara Beach in Antalya and each time brings together in the sand sculptors from around the world. The art of sand sculpture appeared in the world in recent years, and is a type of art. Alternatively, the sand sculpture in the scope of arts activities is used
80

only water and sand.Two years ago in 2009, five sculptors have opened the festival, trying to build a Chinese dragon in 25 days, using 1,000 tons of sand and trying to get a world record and also were other characters in Egyptian mythology, Greek, Japanese, Aztec. This festival contribute to the promotion of Turkey is extremely important corporate social responsibility is a project example. Their support of Institutions of Culture and Art activities, not only consists of the use of the logo but is consist also a corporate sponsor to support of this kind activities, referred to as socially responsible organizations. This festival gathers a great number of tourists from around the world.

Lara Sand Festival 2009,Source:www.larasandland.tr

Other Festivals & Tournaments in Turkish Riviera: Lara Lara Carnaval and Summer Festival, Antalya, Gagbeli Festival, Progranamte Festival, Lara Sand Festival Fenike Phoenician Festival-June, Fenike Festival, Kemer Kemer Carnivale September Ms. Kemer, Altinnar BeautFestival, International St.Nicholas Syphosium in Demre. Alanya. Alanya Atatutk Run and Marathon Race, Alanya Tourisme and Art FestivalScream, Alanya Beach Handball Campionship, Alanya international Triathlon Games Kas Offshore Boat Race-june, Paninting Sumposium Festival, Lycian Brow Culture and Art Manvgat Manavgat Tourism Festival ,

81

Events: In addition to New Years Day there are four public holiday observed in Turkey, inclusiv in Antalya, and represent importante landmarks in the history of Turkish Republic, and all banks, schools, universities and many private business are closed.National holiday ar an opportunity for Turks to display their patriotism and Turkish Flags are dreaped everywhere.As well are parades by local schools children, officials and the military typically take place in towns and cities, and ubiquitous Ataturk statues become the focus wreath-laying and speechmaking by local dignitaries,there is even the occasional folk-dance or musical recital, such holidays also give people the change of scene and resorts are filed with domestic tourists. 23 April- National Sovreignty and Children Day celebrate the establishment of the first Grand National Assembly in 1920, which saw the end of the Ottomane Empire. 19 May- Ataturk Day and Sport Day mark the beginning of the Turkish War of Independence in 1919, when Ataturk railed the contry to fight forces who had divided Turkish territory forces over the Greek army in 1922. 30 August Victory Day celebrates the success of Turkish forces over the Greek army in 1922. 29 October- Republic Day marks the date when the present Turkish republic was declared in 1923. 10 November- Ataturks Death: although not a holyday, Turks mark the day of Ataturks death in a very poignant way.At 09.05 on 10 November, the exact time of his death, the whole contry comes to a standstill for a minute of silent remembrance. Major Muslim Celebration, the Muslim calendar runs on a lunar cycle different to our solar Gregorian calendar, these celebrations change date each year. Ramazan(Ramadan)- meaning the month of fasting when faithful Muslims abstain from eating , drinking and smoking during daylight hours. Even in the cities and resorts of the west, where Ramazan is less strictly observed. This marks the time when Mohammed wantered in the desert an Allah revealed the verses of the Koran to him The obligation requirement is clearly expressed in the Koran (Sura II Cow, 184) and the traditions of Prophet Muhammad talking about fasting as one of the five pillars of Islam "Every deed of the sons of Adam except it is their job and that's mine I will reward you " 43.At sunset,

43

Sura II Cow, 184, Hadith-confirmed by Muslim, Abu Dawud, Nasa'i, Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah.

82

when mulsulmani have the right to interrupt the channel, called,,iftar44,, meal takes place, it adds together the night prayer ritual. Ramadan impact on tourism: In nontouristic areas the cooking food shops are closed Water and other small food is still found in mini-markets, super-markets and small grocery at the corner. They, along with markets will be open until around 16.30-17.00 hours when they close for Iftar will be reopened later In tourist areas, many restaurants and cafes are open during the day, which is still different working hours and very low food consumption, the menu could be worse. Around Iftar's no more home delivery because all restaurants prepare Iftar meals-many of which are dinners. After serving Iftar's, restaurants stay open till morning, and preparing Suhur45 table. Clothing should be conservative and it during Ramadan. Means of transport: buses, trains, planes, according to the normal circulation. However on the train no food or drinks available Stores that sell alcoholic beverages are closed throughout the Ramadan. Top-class hotels will still serve alcohol to their own bars. End of Ramadan involves a 3-day holiday (Eid al Fitr) the period in which all public institutions are closed. eker Bayrami- (Sugar Holiday) represent the end of Ramazan is market by the threeday long, when family,frends and neighbours get together to celebrate.Children show respect to their elders by kissing their hands and are rewarded with gifts and sweets.Government offices, museums and some shops are closed, however, restaurants and hotels are generally open. Kurban Bayrami- (Sacrifice Holiday) an important holiday universally observed by Muslims which involves the ritual sacrifice of a sheep , or less commonly these days, a cow or camel. Several million sheep ar dispatched each year across Turkey by having their throats cut. This is a re-enactment of the Old Testament and Koranic story of Abraham who was ordered by God to sacrifice his son, Isaac, on Mount Moriah. However, at the last moment, convinced of his faith, God allows Abraham to spare his son, instead directing him to kill a ram caught in a nearby thicket. Traditionally only the
44

Iftar refers to the evening meal when Muslims break their fast during the Islamic month of Ramadan. Iftar is one of the religious observances of Ramadan and is often done as a community, with people gathering to break their fast together. Iftar is done right after Maghrib (sunset) time. Traditionally, a date is the first thing to be consumed when the fast is broken. 45 Suhur is meal (breakfast) before dawn, Islamic prayers before the first dawn.

83

wealthiest households could afford o make a sacrifice and this meat was eaten by the family and also distributed. Other major and minor events are not necessarily holidays but are the time for special prayers and family get-together, including: Aure Gunu,( as-shoo-re gen-new), the tenth day of the Islamic lunar month of Muharrem commemorate Adam repenting his sin, the birth of the Prophet Abraham, Jonahs deliverance from the whale and the martyrdom of Islamic hero Huseyin. Also, Turks celebrate Noahs ark coming to rest on dry land. Mevlid-I Nebi,( mehv-leed ee neh- bee), the Prophet Mohammeds birthday is celebrated with mosque illuminations and special foods. The other days of celebrations where mosques are decorated and lit up are: Regaib Kandili, represent the Beginning of the Three Moons, Berat Kandili (day of Forgiveness) and Mirac Kandili, celebrating the Prophet Mohammeds ascent into heaven. Circumcision ceremonies, circumcision represent an important milestone in the life of a young Turkish boy and take place at any time between birth and the age of seven.The child is dressed in new clothes often a bright satinsuit and light blue headdress, and then parade around the town visiting family and frends. This was traditionally on horseback but today could be in a parade of cars that travels the streets with horns blaring. After the ceremony there is a big family party.

84

3.3 Comercial function of Turkish Riviera


Commercial operation consists in the main factor which reveals important purchasing power of the Turkish Riviera. In many cities function appears dominant the commercial position in principle which can not exist without the existence of a city commercial activity, so this function into the definition is required in the city. W. Christaller46 believes that urban activities are based on trade, administration, and less industry artisans. Many cities have business born of necessity, and fairs for the exchange of products and goods to ports on behalf of outsiders.Regarding the Turkish Riviera, it has many modern retail outlets and many establishments that sell a wide range of products and services to meet the desires any tourists, and it also has an important role in towns development. Turkish Riviera offers customers a vast commercial network, along the beaches and tourist resorts exist within a comprehensive range of commercial chains. Turkish merchants are very good psychologists and know how to assess on a purchasing power of tourists that come in the store. Although there are fixedprice shops (especially supermarkets and drugstores), at base at the trade remain the negotiating practice. It is considered a lack of courtesy that once an agreed price, the buyer to leave without buying stuff. Almost every town of any size has its bazaar area, even if there is no covered bedesten 47 set aside for the purpose the same time honoured,, folklore,, applies. The Antalya main bazaar has wide verity of products, such originality handworks, different kinds of Turkish foods, all kind of jewelry, Turkish delight such as halva, baklava, apple tea, locum48, pines honey, spices and many shops of footwear and couture, as well as Turkish leather goods more. Almost all major resorts from Turkish Riviera sell their leather, carpets and jewellery in high street shops or special shops like Calvin Klein, Lacoste,etc selling sea equipment shops, shoes, souvenir and cafe shops and restaurants.Antalya region could well be the most deserving choice for shopping in Turkey, because Antalya is one of the biggest and developed

46

Walter Christaller (April 21, 1893 March 9, 1969), was a German geographer whose principal contribution to the discipline is Central Place Theory, first published in 1933. This groundbreaking theory was the foundation of the study of cities as systems of cities, rather than simple hierarchies or single entities. Applied geography and area research in Nazi society: central place theory and planning, 1933-1945. Environment and Planning D: Society and Space 7, 419-431 47 Persian and the fact that the "antiques", this word is precious, precious fabrics, jewelry, and other similar selling off the goods covered, reserved the name given to the whole of the bazaars. 48 Turkish delight or lokum is a family of confections based on a gel of starch and sugar. Premium varieties consist largely of chopped dates, pistachios and hazelnuts or walnuts bound by the gel; the cheapest are mostly gel, generally flavored with rosewater, mastic, or lemon.- Oxford English Dictionary;

85

cities. Among the objects found in traditional bazaars in Antalya and its surroundings, and always close interests of tourists are: Carpets and Kilims, used as floor or wall- coverings, Tukish carpets are justly

renowened for their brilliant patterns and workmainship. Carpet is famous not just in Antalya it is well known also all around Turkey. Their hand produce carpets using vegetable dyes and wool from their own sheep. The patterns and design used in the carpets reflect their nomadic culture which is expressed in the harmonious use of blues, reds and dark greens. This traditional style of carpet and kilim making is concentrated in the villages around Antalya.The peoples which are looking for an old Turkish carpet or kilim, need to know few things, who buy the carpets or antiques, know that by the Turkish law, it is forbidden to export them out of the country. The same goes for any historical items more than 100 years old. Ceramics, traditional from Cappadocia are very popular in Turkey can be find modern style besides the traditional ware, with briliantly coloured tiles like those that used to decorate the sultanss palaces and mosques. Decorative blue onyx: vases, ashtrays, chess sets, various colors - cream, pink, gray, green. It is also one of the traditional occupations, the largest reserves of onyx can be found in the area of Anatolia.Cappadocian onyx is used both for ornaments and jewellery, but the cheapest and most popular jewel is the ceramic or glass blue beat to ward off the Evil Eve49. Gold and silver jewellery is sold by weight, leaving the quality and design of workmanship. Gold jewelry, antique or modern style, the official price of a gramme of gold is displayed on the sign at the entrance of the Grand Bazaar Street Jewelers. Gold traded in Turkey is 90% of 14k gold. Jewels are weighed, but weight is added to the stones and workmanship. Fashion, Turkeys modern fashion designers have burst on the international scene with subtle combinations scene of western and traditional Turkish style, in Antalya regions are his kind of boutiques.Among peasant clothes, light cotton blouses and headscarves are populare and the brightly coloured heavy woollen socks which are great for winter periode. Another important aspect is the Antalya is the Turkish cuisine, every visitor, every time remains surprised by the variety of foods combined with traditional.

49

Nazar Boncugu or Eveil-Eye is traditional blue and white charm/talisman can be found in various sizes, from

that of the coins to a plate (the Turks believe that the little eye has magical powers to keep away evil and bring the wearer good luck), it may be in the form of jewelry, trinkets or incorporated into decorative objects.

86

The Ottoman Empire spread its cusine throughout the Mediteranean, the food from Greece, Egipt, Lebanon and further afield in North Africa is of Turkish origins. Turkish cuisisne is considered to be one of the greatest and richest in the world. Yoruks alimentation style dominates over Antalya alimentation culture. The basis of Yoruk alimentation style is formed by animal husbandry and wheat. Although fresh vegetables grow on the shoreline in the hinterland there is more wheat and corn. One can find all the cuisines of the world in Antalya hotels and restaurants. But some of the special foods of the region: sac kavurma (meat), Tandr kebab (meat), Kolle (cookeb by mixing different types of corn and fruit sprinkles sugar added), Tomato cive (cooked with tomato and wheat), Hibes (halvah). But the Turkish enjoy their food as much for its colour, texture and aroma as for its sheer nourishment. Turkish Breakfast consists of: cheese, honey, jam, (Antalya is also famous for its jams), black and green olive, salami, egg, butter, tomato and cucumber, bread,fresh orange juice, season fruits, yoghurt, bakery, corn flakes from the hotels.The indispensable beverage of the Turkish breakfast is well-steeped tea. Lunch-Kebab is mostly preferred. Kebab is cooked in a way that steak slices aresticked on a skewer and cut into thin slices when it is ready to be served. Kebab can be eaten as fast food as well as in bread or on a plate with rice. Dinner,Turkish dinner begins with snacks: dolma, ezme, haydari, cacik, hibes, humus, imambayild and like appetizers are salad and pickle, main meals are steak, chop liver, fire bar, tandoor, kagit kebab. An important feature of Turkish meals is that foods is served in small quantities and eat too much bread. Even the other basic types such as rice and bulgur are eaten with bread. The main dish in Turkey represent by Pilaf is the bastion of Turkish cuisine. It is usually prepared from rice, but can also be made from bulgur (crushed wheat), and sometimes sehriye (vermicelli - thin rice noodles). Traditionally, pilaf served as a main dish, usually with meat, chicken or fish. Today, it serves as seal pilaf dishes of meat or chicken. Pilaf can be prepared more easily, less filling replacing meat with peas, beans, eggplant and chickpeas.Variations of pilaf are innumerable, but one feature in common: the rice should be sticky, unlike Italian rice should be separated into individual grains.

87

Drinks-Turkis coffe (kahve) is now more popular with discerning foreigners than with the Turks them selves. A Turkish proverb describes as coffee: Coffee should be black as hell, strong as death and sweet as love. Cafes have been very popular in Turkey for almost 200 years(two centuries before Starbucks) The cafe is a traditional place where people (mostly students) spend time and discuss politics & soccer.Modern cafes offer a variety of beverages as well as traditional soft drinks. Turkish coffee is made by grinding the coffee grains coming from Yemen and Brazil and it is served by cooking with water and sugar with its bubbles. Cay or tea is served weak without milk in tulip-shaped glasses, tea is also consumed in Anltalya where is very hot in summer in order to relief, another delicious non-alcoholic drink is ayran, a refreshing natural-yoghurt drink. Another important aspect of Antalya, where many tourists come, they are beauty centers very famous, also Turkish baths and natural treatments methods which all the luxury hotels offer this service to tourists. The natural methods applied at Turkish specialists are: Main balneotherapy methods50 are as follow; 1. Baths: Thermo mineral water peloid and gas baths and regional applications of these agents. 2. Drinking cures: drinking cures made with mineral waters or applied to living areas. 3. Inhalation applications: inhaling applications performed with thermo mineral water props. 4. Peloidotherapy: applications in method of bathing in healing mud and clay, packaging and padding. 5. Applications of hydrotherapy: taking shower, bathing, washing and these types of applications performed with thermo mineral waters. Spa Treatment, Spa Cure Supplementary and alternative treatments in spa treatment on the other hand, more accurately in spa cure since it is administered with application of certain treatment methods, for certain period of time in a series in form of a cure are also used in many countries. Especially exercise and massage mainly; acupuncture, herbal treatments and aroma therapies are found among these methods. Finally series of supporting methods are also allowed in spa cure programs in some countries again.
50

Balneotherapy is simulation-adaptation treatment applied in form of cure at certain periods of time with repeated and regular use in series in manner of bathing, packaging, drinking and inhaling thermal and/or mineral waters, healing clay and gasses at specific dosages and in specific methods;

88

Turkish bath (Hammam), the first to set up common ancient baths were Romans and Greeks, these being later taken over by the Ottoman Turks, they adapted their traditions. Hamam's typically in the form of Turkish is rooted in the Islamic traditions related to cleaning and purifying the body. Hammam is a large room, beautifully decorated with glass mosaic in oriental color combinations. The edges are covered with mosaic and heated benches, the floor is heated, and in the middle room there is a mass of ceramic or glass mosaic, heated massage with soap is made after the body was prepared in advance by a hot bath. Hamam site consists of three main rooms sicaklik (hot room), tepidarium (middle room) and sogukluk (cold room). Sicaklik is dome-shaped ceiling, with several small windows and round the sun rays that penetrate to illuminate the room. Hammamist massage is accomplished by two stages: the first is a loofah and then peeling massage with a natural soap foam extract olive oil.Conditions are very different: a Turkish bath temperature is moderately large with big moisture content, compared to the sauna where heat is dry. Benefits after a Turkish bath are numerous and have great success because to the beneficial effects on the body. Helps eliminate toxins through controlled heating and cooling blood. Give a good feeling, relaxing the entire body, and psyche. It also dilates the pores, and finally the skin is lighter and more elastic. This bath can help heal certain respiratory diseases and can be tested at any age.

ENTERTAINMENT Night live in resorts from Turkis Riviera are very colorful night life, especially, during the summer months ( june july - august ), the award-winner marinas and its surrounding host a rich variety of discos, bars and pubs all of which are very popular among both the locals and tourists. Likewise in Titreyengol and Kemer there are plenty of very appealing rock bars, pubs and traditional Turkish taverns. Antalya's night life becomes even more and more exciting during the International Golden Orange Film Festiva In Antalya is posible to choose to have a quiet drink in a traditional bar, or huge outdoor clubs. There is a wide variety of nightclubs, discos and bars, which will give the opportunity to try
89

something different every night of the week. The numerous activities one can indulge in at night are enabled by the plethora of bars, discos, clubs and pubs scattered throughout the resort, including on the beaches. In Kas is ranked second among resorts in this region of Turkey, with an abundance of tourist activities and a lively nightlife. Night is when the streets in the resort of Kas is filled with light, laughter and music but often romantic atmosphere attracts especially young couples than noisy. Of all the resorts in the Riviera, Antalya has the best record for tulmuluous and active night life. Among the most popular and famous bars and discotheques are: Ally's, has become the most favorite night club in Antalya, during the hot summer nights, in especially at Friday and Saturday nights, it is really very crowded. Girls and boys do wear their fancy clothes and it is a good quality night club. The club is located in the historical center Antalya, namely, Kaleici. Inferno, quite trendy place mostly for trendy people. After midnight the place is very crowded. Club 29 also referred to as Club Arma, should not be overlooked, since it offers great dancing conditions and, as compared to Allys, at daytime is noteworthy, since the club overlooks the Antalya Marina. As a plus, it is the biggest club in Antalya. However, if in the mood for a rather cannier night activity, places like ONeils Irish Pub and the North Shield Pub enable good drinking and conversation moments. All in all, what is characteristic of all these venues is that they do not enforce a certain dressing code. The only rule that applies is doing whatever is takes to feel good. And if casual dressing is what it takes, than it is unlikely to become a problem. A complementary mainstream tendency is for fancy clothing: even if casual, one has to show off, even if discretely. Inferno is the kind of club which promotes this kind of trendier wearing. Eventually, the overall picture of nightlife in Antalya exceeds all differences between the numerous dancing and drinking venues, and comes down to an extremely dynamic environment which is at least worth getting acquainted with. The flourishing belly dancing in Antalya is, on top of all, what decisively rounds up the nightlife picture of the resort. Almost all luxury hotels from Turkish Riviera have in their program the evening Turkish traditional dances which could not miss and the famous Turkish belly dancing, "ORYANTAL Dance "(dance oriental, Turkey). Belly dance is the oldest form of dance, the oldest dance of the entire civilization, is a major way of expressing femininity of thousands of years now. Its origins are lost in the mysteries of ancient cultures of fertility.

The proofs of his existence removed from the Middle East, North Africa and the ancient

90

temples of India, since the Pre Christian period, with strong religious connotations and are also an important part of social life of those times. Aquatic amusement parks have become in the last perode, undoubtedly at the forefront of tourists preferences without which no holiday is not possible to spend the holidays in this kind of parks. Antalya possesses numerous water parks that allow such activity, some more diverse than others.These amusement parks have many slides, artificial waterfalls, pools for children and adults, also for excitement are slides for surfing. All these parks are made so as to satisfy all tourist customer wishes, and spend a wonderful vacation, as some of parks own animations with dolphins restaurants, cafe-bars and all kinds of sophs. In conclusion, the amusement parks from Antalya are an ideal place to satisfy the tourists and also represent a refuge from the torrid heat to Mediterranean coast. The three amusement parks in Antalya are: Dolphinland is located in Dumlupinar Bulvari, Konyaalti Korulugu Yani, and also Dolphinland has made its way through in the world of amusement parks by the several dolphins, the couple of white whales and sea lions performing their regular shows for the thrill and satisfaction of visitors of all ages. The Dolphiland give the oportunite to visitors have the opportunity to swim with the dolphins, an activity which is proven to have an extremely benefic impact on the learning skills of those who choose to enjoy in this more dynamic manner the company of the lovely sea mammals. The Aqualand water park is located in Dumlupinar Bulvari, Konyaalti Korulugu Yani, belongs to the same complex as Dolphinland, everything in this park actually revolves around the splendid and inviting water amenities in view of enriching the many water related activities. Swimming can be a transitory leisure activity which turns the thrill of a ride on a slide into a soothing water massage at the Jacuzzi Bar in Aqualand. The numerous safe boxes and changing the and seals and also parks have inside of parks,

91

rooms in this water park are meant to bring a touch of comfort and a feeling of security to all clients choosing to spend a day in Aqualand. Antalya Aquapark situated in Rixos Premium Hotel is the biggest water park in the

Mediterranean region and represent a choice of 23 spiraling waterslides, quite a few artificial wild rivers that are molding the abrupt cliffs, extremely large water pools covering as many as 65000m. Every year in Turkish Riviera are numerous sporting activities which are true

international competitiveness such as, water sports, volleyball, football.etc. Alanya, Antalya, Kas and Olundenz all have superb facilities for sailling, water-skiing and paragliding. Scuba diving among the underwater archeological sites off Kekova Island needs official autorization. Antalya is another hot spot for scuba divers and Side is going to be one of the best places to go scuba diving in the future. The dives are supervised in principle by a diving teacher or a diving-guide and there is a depth limit of 30 meters. Moray eels, calamari and octopi are regulars around many of the local sites and you wont have to look too hard to find some of the many amphora that make intriguing subjects for photographers. Rafting trip are very popular in Antalya and exciting day out which gives the opportunity to race the rapids whilst viewing the breathtaking cedar forests of especially the Koprulu Canyon national Park. There are many agencies that can be arrange rafIting, the trips can last from one till six hours and also include a three course seafood lunch, also , the trips include visiting the spectacular Duden Waterfalls or the Gulf of Antalya islands. Cilmbing, there are excelent

climbing opportunities to be found in the Taurus Mountains and the very western Lycian peaks to the nord and west of Antalya . Within the Turkish Riviera area there are several other rock climbing areas, and these are as follows: Further inland from Geyikbayiri and high up in the mountains (2000m high) at a place called Feslekan Yayla is a fantastic limestone
92

bouldering area. Further south is another excellent sports climbing area at Olympos, with several crags. Here there are over 160 routes on perfect limestone rock across all grades. Akyarlar another place for climbing is a small limestone crag but it has the advantage that the climbing is straight off the beach, this is a great advantage for this Antalya area, and so she became very famous. Jeep safari-what can be practice in Antalya region is to spend the day driving around the Taurus Mountains in a jeep convey stopping for panoramic views and visiting traditional villages. Jeep Safari is one of the marvelous adrenalin voyages towards Taurus Mountain to discover real beauty of Turkey and takes 10 hours starts in the morning 8am. Hiking and Skiing, for hiking is possible in the national parks, near to Termessos, west of Antalya, offers this potential, or the Koprulu Valley park north of Aspendos.In the interior lake distrinct, the Kova Golu park is conveniently close to Egirdir.51 Also, at Saklikent, the slopes of Mount Bakirli provide opportunitry skiing in March and April. Antalya offers a wide range of activities and sports in particular this is due largely to the geographical position and climate which makes the city a splendid place for sports. Antalya region, in conclusion, is very famous because the tourists can enjoy winter sports in midsummer, or feel the extreme sensations skiind or floating in the beautiful canyons.

3.4 S.W.O.T -Analysis of Turkish Riviera


SWOT analysis is a summary of the marketing audit summarizes the strengths and weaknesses of the organization, of a territory or firms, and external environmental opportunities and threats. It is done as a list of positive and negative characteristics of the analyzed, which distinguishes it from competing organizations. Also SWOT analysis is an efficient method, used in strategic planning, to identify potential, priorities and creating a common vision of achieving the development strategy. SWOT comes from English and represents the initials of words Strengths, Weaknesses Opportunities and Threats. In conducting a SWOT, Turkish Riviera tourist destination should be regarded as a unit that has many positive points, strengths acting on a moving market, it has weak points, hitting and threats inherent but also, benefit of many opportunities.

51

Egirdir (Turkish: Eirdir Gl, formerly Eridir) is the name of a lake and of the town situated on the shore of that lake in Turkey, and is situeted 186 kilometers north of Antalya, in Turkish Riviera region. Source:EirdirTurkey.com.

93

Strengths: The region benefits from the numerous historical monuments of national importance and international (UNESCO); Tourism potential natural attractive; Tourism potential anthropogenic attractive; Offer cultural diverse: festivals, theater performances, concerts, exhibitions, sporting events, customs and traditions. A large number of protected areas (National parks and Natural reserves) included in the European network, caled Natura 2000; Traditional cuisine and regional specialties; Large capacity of accommodation hotels from 1*- 5* is provided by the resorts hotel chains; Luxury hotels with all inclusive system: three meals included, snacks and drinks throughout the day, various services: sauna, Turkish bath, tennis, volleyball, water polo, animation, belly dance, etc; Tourism service quality, the best quality price; Long season: so much coastline and mountain, from April until October the season coastal Mediterranean, and from November until April at the mountain season; Various possibilities for recreation: leisure destination for children's clubs for children, entertainment, animation, slides, and for adults sports games, raftin, swimming, riding,etc Blue Flag beaches identified; Golf courses, spread across endless green acres, Considerable revenue growth from tourism activities; The large variety of clubs with different styles of music with renowned DJ. Well developed tourism infrastructure: road network renovated, modern and comfortable transportation, accessibility between resorts; Visas can be obtained very simply: on arrival at the airport the visa fee is paid, depends on the amount according to nationality; Weaknesses: Inefficiency greening of areas of interest;
94

Overcrowding beach; Poor public transport infrastructure, and rail; Turkey is not a member of the European Union, Impose certain restrictions for tourists, due to issues of tradition, custom and religion, as a mulsulman country;

Opportunities: Restoration / renovation / rehabilitation objectives related to cultural and historical heritage and tourist valorisation their; Involvement of major tour operators in the incoming international market seaside; Increasing the number of tourists / visitors who have motivated various forms of cultural tourism; Expanding the geographical area, with direct impact on tourist traffic, particularly business; Tend to diversify its byproducts; Very good opportunities to exploit the mountain throughout the year by hiking, riding, climbing, extreme sports skiing; Increasing number of tourists which have motivation different forms of cultural tourism; Threats: Strong competition at the destination, foreign destinations and conditions related to higher prices; The Islamic world also has some implications in the political and economic affairs, it follows that there is some risk of terrorist acts occur either internally or in neighboring areas; Overtraining in hotels in summer; Unfavorable weather conditions, natural disasters (floods, landslides);

95

CHAPTER IV 4. TRANSPORT INFRASTRUCURE


Between transport and tourism, there is an essential connection; pogress leading travel means automatically the changing forms of tourism. Opening large shipping lines, aviation networkings have contributed to the internationalization of tourism, and expansion of car use imposed by mass tourism. The fact that currently 91% from the worldwide network of highways, 80% of the fleet and 70% in international air traffic is concentrated in Europe and North America and that, consequently, very large regions they hold large tourist flows world it is the most obvious effect of this correlation. Transportation is important for tourism in two component parts: accessibility

and the weight which deal the tourist budget. Accessibility is one of the important factors for capitalization touristic at a region, in most cases, the decision of planning a communications network is in direct correlation, to the extent that it has taken or may take tourism. The simple presence of channels communication infrastructure not training by itself the tourism development.The share which came from transportation costs is the budget of tourists is in direct correlation to the distance at which they move. The mode of transport adopted at national level depends on the type and scale of tourism flows. Developed European countries are characterized by using the car as the primary means of transport; it has the advantage that ensures certain independence. At the international level depends on the type of transport chosen for physical-geographical, the degree of development of road network, air transport lacking competitor for distant destinations from across the oceans, even if sometimes it is more practical to lick croazirele way. Postwar mass tourism due to enormous considerable development of the technique of transportation.Until the beginning of our century, travel touristic was limited both social reasons, but also because of insufficient means of transport, inadaptable with the demands of an organized tourist. Since its origins, however, the tourist transport has hijacked the initial purpose of tourism which was seen as seize at activities with comercial caracter.52 Demands of modern tourism in terms of transport are: Mobility and accessibility, for travel anywhere in space regardless of the obstacle; High capacity, to move hundreds of million tourists;

52

Albert G. Wackerman- ,, Tourisme et Transport, SEDES, Paris, 1993, pp 35.

96

Rapidity, necessary to comply with agreements rental and reservation of seats in clubs or hotels, etc.

Rapidity is not always an essential factor, but depends on the distance; this sense plane is preferred for large distances or short break. In conclusion, the relationship between space and time became the capital in tourist travel, and current techniques allowing completion shame distances in a short time.

4.1 ACCES TO ANTALYA


Quick access to Antalya airport is due or which is located at 13 km from Antalya city center. Antalya is one of the major airports in south-west Turkey, the others being Bodrum and Dalaman.The airport is big and modern, built to accommodate the millions of passengers who come to Turkey's Mediterranean beaches in summer. Antalya Airport is approximately 15 million passengers in 2006, the most important tourist gateway for the Turkish Riviera is the nature of being. Antalya, the tourism sector continues to grow, ICF Airports, an airport experience of international standards and is committed to providing world class facilities of this experience. Based on the projection from data from peak months (eg August 2009), it currently has an estimated capacity of accommodating up to 35 million passengers/year, theoretically. IATA code of the airport is AYT and the airport has two terminals. Antalya Airport is used by low cost airlines for domestic flights, international and transcontinental. The most important is the low cost airline SunExpress, which has a hub on the airport. Other airlines flying to AYT are Air Berlin, ArkeFly, Cimber Air, Condor, Condor, easyJet, Germanwings, Thomac Cook airline and others, in total there are 19 low cost airlines flying to AYT. Antalya airport is open from 24 to 24 hours in a context very secure and comfortable, have tourist information offices, (comptoirs de)TO53 stores, voyage agencies, banks, health services and, are also places to eat, restaurants. Today people have a choise of trasportation to get to many destinations, in general, the decision of which to use probably on a combination of three factors: lenght of trip, number of people in the group, and disposable income avaible for travel. Other considerations affecting this decision may found among the followings:
53

Availability, frequency and flexibility of each mode;

Comptoirs de France Bakery is a foreign company dedicated to the production and distribution of high quality varieties of breads, pastries, chocolates and ice-creams. Comptoirs de France as a "Maison de Qualit" offers the best of the French bakery and pastry products; source:www.comptoirsdefrance.com

97

Time it takes to travel to a destination using various travel modes; Relative comfort or luxury of one travel mode over another. Ground services or terminal facilities avaible for each travel mode. Status or prestige involved. Airplane The fastest way to transport and most used by tourists toTurkish Riviera is by plane, and

is the most accessible of all transport routes.

Antalya Airport Incoming Passengers Statistics in 2007-2010


2008 7893,388 2009 8679,519 2010 9552,694
Table 19. Antalya Airport Imcoming Passengesr Statistics in 2007-2010. Source: antalyaturizm.gov.tr 1 2 3 7893.388 8679.519 9552.694

2008

2009

2010

The following table shows that tourists who visited the fastest method are very numerous, their number increasing from year of 2008 where 7893.388 thousands of tourists, came in 2009 around 8679.519 thousands, last year from 2010 - 9552.694 thousand. This year 2010 the table shows the tourists who used this means of transport grow from month to month, in January come 126, 272 tourists in February around 201,141 in March, 297,898 thousands of tourists from in April this number has begune to grow significantly, reaching 1,306,508 thousand tourists.

98

Antalya Airport Imcoming Panssengers in 2010


2011 January February March April May total 126,272 201.141 297.898 755.352 1.306.580 2.561.097
January February March April May

51%

0% 8% 12% 29%

Table 20 Antalya Airport Imcoming Passengesr Statistics in 2007-2010. Source: antalyaturizm.gov.tr

Airline mode travel in 2009


Table 21 Antalya mode travel in 2009 Source: Source: Provincial Directorate of Security Incoming Passenger 49% Departures 50%

Outbound Flight 0%

Incoming Flight 1%

Domestic

After the 2009 data, among tourists from Turkey were 1,569,621 incoming passengers, and among
2009 Incoming Flight Outbound Flight Incoming Passenger Departures 14.313 14.163 1.569.621 1.593.551

International Flights 49.323 49.479 7.467.737 7.751.508

international tourists were 60% more than 7,467,737 thousands of tourists, among the departures from Antalya,Turkish domestic tourists have left the territory around 1,593,551 thousand touristsand among the

international were 7,751,508 thousands of tourists.Another way the access to Antalya is by car which is a convenient way for tourists unite. Automobile offer travelers many advantages over other forms of transportation, buses, rail and ships have fixed starting and ending points and

99

inflexible schedules.The indroduction of automobile thus offered an alternative way to travel and allowed many new destination to be opened. Nevertheless, many other destinations created initially by ships and rains are still popular today as automobile destination. In addition, the automobile is avaible on arrival at a destination and allows people to plan distant trips on their vacantions.

Number of Registred Vehicles coming to Antalya ,January 2009-2010


300,000 250,000 200,000 150,000 100,000 50,000 0 -50,000 Car Minibus Bus Special Purpose Vehicles
January 2010 275.689 11.962 Bus Special Purpose Vehicles 7.999 7.828 934 984 5,35 -2,14 (%) 4,46 -0,85

Table 22.Number of registred vehcle come to Antalya Source: Provincial Directorate of Security

Regarding the mode of transport by car comparing 2009 with 2010, in January 2009 were 263 909 thousand cars in 2010 were 275,689 and the year 2010 brought an increase of 4.46% compared to 2009. With minibus in 2009 were 12,065 thousand and in 2010 were 11,962 fewer registered, -0.85%.
Mode de transport

January, 2009 263.909 12.065

Car Minibus

Again in 2010 saw a decrease of -2.14% among bus where in January 7999 and in 2010 to 7828. In conclusion, the most used means of transportation after the table 22 was the car, which is widely used by air transport. Antalya is easily accessed from most parts of the country. Because of the competition among the private bus companies, the quality of services is quite high as well. And many tourists are choosing to use bus in Antalya because Turkey has of good quality at highways. There are numerous bus company offices on Cumhuriyet and Atatutk Caddesi and they usually povide a free service bus to the otogar for,, Yeni Otogar,,. Several bus companies offer services from Austria, France, Germany, Iran, Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Switzerland and Syria to Turkey, using luxury buses that ensure comfort on the long

100

drive. These buses arrive at Istanbul, where passengers can connect to Antalya by bus, car, flight or train, bus services run every 30 minutes to Antalya. Another way to arrives in Anatalya is by Ferry. The cruise ship buisiness is one of the fastest-growing branches of touism, with the number of people taking cruises in the millions annualy.The fly-cruise concept makes it cost effective for people to vacantion this way,as it allows ticketed cruise passengers to fly to and from to the ships ports of call at substantially reduced rates. The fly-cruise concept allows passengers to reach the ship embarkation point rapidly and beach home again quickly at the end of the cruise. Cruise ships are basically selfcontained destination,, resorts where guests are roomed, fed, entertainment and transported. Todays cruise ships offer live shows, gambling, slot machines, movies, a variety of bars, discos, other dancing sports, exercise areas, shopping arcades and sightseeing at the various ports of calls.Apart from private yachts sailing in from all over the world, and numerous cruises in the Mediterranean, several foreign shipping companies have regular services to the port of Antalya. Travelling by ferry is very comfortable, but depending on the destination port, journeys can be quite long.

Water transport-Antalya 2011 January


3598

yacht 279 7 16 0 303

ship

turists 1 0 4 18 0 65

antalya

alanya

kemer

finike

Table 23 Water transport Antalya in January 2011/ Source: antalyaturizm.gov.tr

2011 yacht ship antalya 279 alanya 16 kemer 1 finike 18

7 0 0 0

turists 3598 303 4 65

101

Travel Organisation
No respons Independent

Organisaid trip

Organisaid trip Independent No respons

69,2 28,3 2,5

Table24 tip of Travel Organisation/Source: tourism sesone Antalya

Table (23) show that in January this year (2011) most yachts have arrived in the port of Antalya about 279 and only seven yachts, Port of Finike is the second after receiving fewer Antalya than this about 18 yachts, only 16 Alanya and Kemer than 1.This type of trip is not flooded with tourists. Another form is taxis are easily available in all Turkish cities and towns, and are recognisable by their chequered black and yellow bands. Although most taxis are metered, it is advisable to negotiate a price for longer journeys. Travellers can pre-book taxis by telephone or hail themas and when needed. There are taxi stands all over the city where the drivers have their base and tea pot. Each taxi is metered and there are two different rates, after midnight (24:00) till morning (06:00) it will cost 50% more than the daytime fare. For popular destinations there are price lists showing the rate in Euro.

Transportation mode 2009


100.00%

airplan road

95,50% 4,50%

50.00%

0.00% airplan road

Table 25.Transportation mode in 2009/ Source: tourism sesone Antalya

102

Regarding organization how to travel many tourists, after the data in Table 25 shows that tourists prefer to travel in an organized way, calling the travel agency extensively with a total of 69.2% and independently about 28.3%. And the most widely used mode of reaching the Turkish Riviera resort of the airplane is being the fastest way and recently dropped fares airline tickets. Around 95, 50% travel by air and by road only 4.50%. Public transport, long distance buses from otogar54are privately owned and highly competitive. Antalya offers a variety of public transportation, such as public buses, trams, minibuses, taxicabs and dolmus.The simplest way to get somewhere in Antalya is to use the dolmus. Dolmus literally means "filled up", and is a large cab, a station wagon, a regular taxi or a minibus that travels a certain route. Most major public transportation stations have a dolmus station, in Antalya dolmus does not wait until it fills up. By tram-the historic tramway has been donated by the German city of Nuremberg and connects the western Konyaalti Beach and Antalya Museum to the eastern part of the city center. It runs all 30 min. in either direction and costs 1.75 TL per person. Tramway can be used for sightseeing as it passes most beautiful places of the city center. The new tram system ("AntRay") currently (04/2011) consists of one line, serving the route Fatih-Otogar-MuratpaaIsmetpaa-Meydan every 15min during the day. To get to the Kaleii or to the interconnection with the historic tram line, get off at Ismetpaa station. Tickets (1.75TL) can be obtained at the stores around the stations or at specific AntRay-counters. Rent a car. The largest companies are able to prevail largely because of their national and international adverstising. The auto rental business is extremely competitive.The car rental orients its advertising primarly to business travelers, but they also offer fly-drive and train/ auto packages that appeal more to vacation travelers. Car rentals in Antalya are available in the bus terminal, air port and city center. In Antalya there are many car rental services and despite the fact that Turkish authorities are demanding requirements are not too complicated and requires only a driver's license to be valid international. Car rental Antalya and its towns Belek, Kemer, Side, Alanya, Tekirova is available for car hire services with delivery and drop-off. By bicycle.Using bicycle in crowded roads might be dangerous and tiresome (especially in summer as the temperature hits high 40's at noon (100F-120F). However, there are a few bicycle-only roads passing beside the sea having incredible views.

54

Bus station

103

CONCLUSION
In conclusion, all forms of tourism that are meeting in Turkish Riviera, coastal tourism, are highly diversified, with luxury hotels and quality services; mountain tourism, with Saklikent Resort from Turkish Riviera, where the tourist can combine the two forms of tourism at the same time; cultural tourism which has a particular value

because the traditional is combined with tourism,with a very rich culture, full of history and a series of traditional events that the tourist gets to participate in them; sports tourism, which is also highly developed,tourists may choose to practice a variety of sports which is practiced in Turkish Riviera, from summer sport until the winter sports; golf which is a real tourist pole which draws so internal and international business peoples and made to know the Turkish Riviera an internationally renowned.All this together donot as ,,tourist life is always active, and make Antalya the true be know as a tourist center. I option for this destination to promote first, for belongs to another civilization and culture, which may arouse interest each person and secondly for wealth and natural beauty that it offers. Antalya is not only an exotic destination, but noted and combines a rich architectural heritage, cultural and historical worth not missing, may be known and as the "tourism capital" of Turkey is an exotic place with a fascinating history, combining spectacular the sea and mountains. Today, Antalya is a resort with a large crowd of villas, hotels, restaurants, a variety of styles that address the foreign and Turkish tourism.Antalya is for the first time that one sees as a wonderful surprise while the passenger already in love found here, quiet beaches, boulevards shadowy palm, landscape richness. In other words, I can say that, for nature lovers and sun, Antalya is the perfect destination to spend an unforgettable holiday. With al this, will remain an exuberant resort,an international resort, will be really one of the Mediterranean Riviera, valuing with lucidly the natural and human potential available.

104

BIBLIOGRAPHY
1. Albert G. Wackerman, Tourisme et Transport, SEDES, Paris, 1993; 2. Altman Jack, Southeran Turhey, JMP Publications S.A, 1006 Switzerland; 3. Bran F. Marin P. Simion T.The Economics of Tourism and Environment, Published by Economica, 1999; 4. Cristian Stoica, Madalin Spanu-Tourism and Marketing touristic, Published by Fundatia Romania Mare, Bucharest, 2003; 5. C.I Origent du Clezeau, Le tourism cultural, PUF, Paris, 2008; 6. Collins Travel, Turkish Coast, Travel Guide, Published by Haper Collins Travel, 1990; 7. Cengiz Ekici, Hilal Cengiz, Mustafa Yilmaz, Antalya, Le Plan de la Ville, Turkey, 2007; 8. Debarbieux, Tourisme at montagne, Published by Economica, Paris 1995; 9. Erdal Yazici, Cardbook of Antalya, Uranus Photography Angency, Instabul, Turkey, February, 2011; 10. Gokce Ofset, Antalya, Turkey. Ankara 2010; 11. G. Peabody Gardney, Southeran Coast of Turkey, Published by Peabody Museum, 1964; 12. Lindsay Bennett, Robin Gauldie, Turkey Mediterranean Coast, Published by Thomas Cook Publishing, England, 2006; 13. Michael Bussman, Turkish Coast, Antalya to Demre, Published by Sunflower Books, 2007; 14. Michael M.Coltman, Introduction to Travel and Tourism, An International Approach, Published by Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1989, New York; 15. Rosie Aylifee, Marc Dubin, John Gawthrop, Terry Richardson, The Region to Turkey, Published by Rough Guide, Januarie 2007; 16. Rehber Basin Yayin Dagitim Reklamcilik ve Tic. A.S, Antalya Turkeys Southern Coast, Instanbul Turkey, 2002; 17. Republique de Turquie, Ministere de la Culture et du tourisme, Golf in Tourquie, Ankara, 2009; 18. Republique de Turquie, Ministere de la Culture et du tourisme, Antalya and Mediterranean Region, Publised by Dumat Ofset, Ankara 2009; 19. Republique de Turquie, Ministere de la Culture et du tourisme,Yachting in Turkey, Ankara, 2007;
105

Publications:
1. Cigdim Atakuman, Value of Hritage in Turkey, History and Politics of Turkeys World, Heritage Nominations, Ankara 06100, Turkey; 2. Hilal Erkus Ozturk, Planing of Tourism Development, The case of Antalya. Anatolia:An Intenational Jounal of Tourism and Hospitality Reseach, Turkey 2010; 3. Mihat Uner, Nezir Kose, Soner Gokten, An Econometric Model of Tourism Deman and Room Rates.

Internet Sites:
www.goturkey.com www.kulturturzm.gov.tr www.antalyaturizm.gov.tr www.turizm.gov.tr www.antalya.gov.tr www.antalya.org www.turkishdictionary.net www.britannica.com www.larousse.fr www.visit-antalya.com www.world-tourism.org www.turkey-now.org. http://www.tuik.gov.tr

106

Kemer

Side
Belek

LARA

Top towns in Turkish Riviera/Source:antalya.org

1.Olympus
4.Saklikent 7.Duden Waterfall

2.Karaian cave
5.Beldebi Cave 8.Kursulu Waterfall

3.Manavgat

Waterfall
6.Koprulu Kanyon 9.Sarapasa Inn

Top Places in Turkish Riviera/Source:antalya/org

107

Top 6 hotels from Turkish Riviera

Hotel Rixos PremiumBelek5*/Source:Boutiquestylehotels.net

Hotel Rixos Sungate Kemer 5*/Source:maniatravel.ro

108

Hotel Cornelia Diamond Golf Resort/Source:turkeyholidaytours.com

Wow Top Kapi Palace, Lara/Source:ematour.ro

109

Belek Sunsensi Deluxe Resort/Source:mymotels.com

Calistra luxury Resort-Belek 5*/Source:calistra.com.tr

110