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INHALTSVERZEICHNIS
3 TRANSFORMERS............................................................................................................................8 3.1 SIGNIFICANT ELECTRICAL DATA........................................................................................................8 3.2 PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION................................................................................................................8 3.2.1 ELECTRICAL AMPERE - TURNS..........................................................................................................8 3.2.2 INDUCTION LAW.............................................................................................................................9 3.3 ONE PHASE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT AND ITS DERIVATION......................................................................11 3.3.1 THE REALLY EXISTING TRANSFORMER.............................................................................................11 3.3.2 THE STEPS OF DERIVATION............................................................................................................11 3.3.3 THE ONE PHASE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT............................................................................................13 3.3.4 SERIES IMPEDANCE AND IMPEDANCE VOLTAGE...................................................................................13 3.3.5 SHUNT ADMITTANCE AND NO LOAD CURRENT..................................................................................13 3.3.6 SYMMETRICAL OPERATION AND KAPPS TRIANGLE.............................................................................14 3.4 THE SHORT CIRCUIT AND NO LOAD TESTS......................................................................................15 3.4.1 THE SHORT CIRCUIT TEST............................................................................................................15 3.4.1.1 Measuring Method....................................................................................................................15 3.4.1.2 Short Circuit Test in the Positive Sequence System...................................................................16 3.4.1.3 Short Circuit Test in the Zero Sequence System........................................................................16 3.4.2 THE NO LOAD TEST....................................................................................................................17 3.4.2.1 Measuring Method....................................................................................................................17 3.4.2.2 No Load Test in the Positive Sequence System.........................................................................18 3.4.2.3 No Load Test in the Zero Sequence System..............................................................................18

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Transformers
3.1 Significant Electrical Data

The essential significant electrical data of a transformer are: Sr Ur1, Ur2 ecc er I0 Pfe Vector Group ... Rated Power [kVA, MVA] (three phase power) ... Rated Voltages [kV] (phase to phase values) ... Impedance Voltage (in [%] on basis Sr and Ur ) ... Ohmic part of ecc [%], represents the Copper Losses Pcu ... No Load Current [%] ... Iron Losses [kW, %]] ... e.g.. Yd5

3.2

Principle of Operation

h
N1
Vw Vw N2

Cross Section/Querschnitt A

C l a s s i c a l s i m p l i f i e d t r a n s f o r m e r lmFe d e l o K la s s is c h e s v e re in f a c h te s T r . M o d e ll

This figure shows the classical single phase model of the transformer. Simplified model: No leakage flux, no saturation, no losses.

3.2.1 Electrical Ampere - Turns Electrical Ampere - turns yield a magnetic field. Here the following law applies: H ds = I = Integral over a closed path, scalar product. H .. magnetic Field strength [A / m] ds ... element of length [m] I ... Sum of all currents = Ampere - Turns [A]

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, S1

S2,

V2

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The application on the simple transformer model as described above (closed path around the window in the iron core): H LFe = I1 N1 - I2 N2 = AT1 - AT2 =>> I

The law is valid for instantaneous values. The underlined terms are vector terms. The currents are summed up vectorially, their projection on the time axis gives the instantaneous values. LFe .. Length of iron core around the window The magnetic flux is produced by H as follows: h B [V s / m2 or T] = 0 r [V s / (A m )] H [A / m], Saturation neglected [V s or Wb] = B [V s / m2 or T] A [m2] h In no-load operation (I2 = 0) I1 is the magnetizing current I. Result: A small magnetizing current I (small compared with the rated current) drives the full magnetic flux with e.g.: B = 1.8 T. h

3.2.2 Induction law The induction law, applied to our simplified transformer model, yields: vw (t) = - d (t) / dt h In an arbitrary loop around the leg (inside or outside of it) an AC voltage will be induced due to the rate of change of the magnetic flux encircled by that loop. This voltage is desired in the windings 1 and 2, but not inside the leg: Vw ... voltage induced in one winding The vector Vw is shifted against the vector and also against the vector I. by 90 h degrees. Thus: Vh1 = Vw N1 Vh2 = Vw N2 In no load operation: V1 = Vh1 and V2 = Vh2 With increased load of the transformer AT2 rises, but keeps to induce the full supply h voltage V1 in the winding N1. and the resulting Ampere turns do not change. Result: AT1 adapts itself in such a way, that AT2 will be compensated. The small difference is used for the magnetization of the core.
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Because of the leakage flux and of the copper losses V1 Vh1 and V2 Vh2 when the transformer is loaded.

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3.3

One phase Equivalent Circuit and its Derivation 3.3.1 The Really Existing Transformer

1
V
1

N1

PCu
N2

h , , P Cu

, PFe , N 1 / N

PFe
2

1 .T r a n s f o rm e r w ith p ro p e rtie s T r a n s f o rm a to r a to r m it E ig e n s c h a f te n

3.3.2 The Steps of Derivation

,S1

R1

R2
h

1
V1
N1

N2
h , PFe , N 1/N
2

2.After Elimination of P Cu 2. Nach Auslagerung von

+Leakage fluxes P
Cu

+Streuung

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L 1

S2 ,

,S1

I I

S2 ,

V2

V2

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Fig 3: After Extraction of Pfe

Fig 4: After extraction of transformer ratio

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3.3.3 The One Phase Equivalent Circuit

Bild: 5. One phase equivalent circuit

3.3.4 Series Impedance and Impedance Voltage


The absolute value of the series impedance | Zseries | is equivalent to the impedance voltage ecc. The real partof the series impedance Re ( Zseries ) corresponds to the ohmic part of ecc , er . Thus the imaginary part of the series impedance is e , which always dominates against er when large transformers are concerned. When loaded with the rated current, the rated copper losses are generated in er. The order of magnitude of the series impedance and, consequently, the decay time constant of the DC component due to a three phase short can be taken from the following table:

Tafel 110.1

Table: Typical parameters of three phase transformers

3.3.5 Shunt Admittance and No Load Current


The absolute value of the shunt admittance | Yshunt | corresponds to the no load current I0 in pu., when a voltage of 1 pu. Is applied. The norder of magnitude of I0 is only a few percents of the rated current of the transformer. In the real part of the shunt admittance, Re ( Yshunt ) the iron losses are generated. The imaginary part of the shunt admittance, Im ( Yshunt ) (with a negative sign) leads the magnetizing current as a part of the no load current. Also in Yshunt the imaginary part is dominant.
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3.3.6 Symmetrical Operation and Kapps Triangle


Fig 113.1 shows the complete phasor diagram together with the one phase equivalent circuit for an arbitrary symmetrical operation point.

Fig 113.1

For loads near the rated current, and for large transformers, Yshunt can be neglected, without decreasing too much the accuracy of the results using the phasor diagram with respect to voltage drop and balance of reactive power. The voltage drop across Zseries is called Kapps triangle.

Fig 115.1

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3.4

The Short Circuit and No Load Tests 3.4.1 The Short Circuit Test 3.4.1.1 Measuring Method

Fig: Three winding transformer: HV=1, MV=2, LV=3 With infeed and short circuit connections incl. ground

Application of the feeding voltage source at winding i, Short circuit connection incl. ground at winding j, No load at winding k. Increase the voltage source until the rated currents are measured in the windings i and j. - The voltage at the infeed in i, measured in the way as described and scaled to the rated voltage at i, yields the absolute value of the impedance voltage, |ecc| in the relation ij - The active power, which is consumed by the equivalent circuit at i in this test, is scaled to the rated power at i, and then yields the copper losses PCu and thus also the ohmic part of the impedance voltage Re(ecc) in the relation ij - The imaginary part Im(ecc), which corresponds to the leakage reactance e, is derived by (|ecc| 2 - Re(ecc) 2) - The series impedance Zseries in the relation ij is calculated as Re(ecc) + j Im(ecc) With three winding transformers, this method must be applied in the following relations: Relation HV - MV: i = MV, j = HV, k = LV Relation MV - LV: i = MV, j = LV, k = HV Relation HV - LV: i = LV, j = HV, k = MV

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3.4.1.2 Short Circuit Test in the Positive Sequence System


Infeed: 3 phase generator or VARIAC, the three phase voltages are displaced from each other by 120 degrees respectively (phase sequence R-S-T). Reference phase R: Voltage VR and the other phases are derived from the reference phase as follows: VS = a2 * VR a2 = 1 -120 V T = a * VR a = 1 +120 The three resulting phase currents are also displaced from each other by 120 degrees respectively. As a sum in the three phases, they cancel each other out. (Residual current 3*I0 = 0). The ground connection in the short circuit path does not carry a current. The series impedance is calculated as the quotient Phase voltage / phase current. For the short circuit test in the positive sequence system, the type of the internal connection of the windings involved (star, triangle, zigzag) is not relevant. It is not important whether in a relation i - j the voltage source is applied in i or in j. This choice can be made according to the convenience of the measurement.

3.4.1.3

Short Circuit Test in the Zero Sequence System

Infeed: 1 phase generator or VARIAC, the three phase voltages are equal to each other. Reference phase R: Voltage VR and the other phases are derived from the reference phase as follows: VS = VR VT = VR The three resulting phase currents are also equal to each other. As a sum in the three phases, they do not cancel each other out. The ground connection in the short circuit path carries the residual current = ground return current = 3*I0 . One third of it, I0, is called the zero sequence current. The series impedance is calculated as the quotient Phase voltage / phase current. For the short circuit test in the zero sequence system, the type of the internal connection of the windings involved (star, triangle, zigzag) plays a very important role. In the relation i - j the infeed voltage must be applied both to i and to j because of the different internal connection of the windings. A winding which is not grounded cannot take in a zero sequence current. The zero seqience impedance seen from this side is infinite. In windings connected in triangle, internal circulating currents may flow for the compensation of the ampere turns in the windings involved.

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3.4.2 The No Load Test 3.4.2.1 Measuring Method

Fig: Two winding transformer: HV=1, LV=2 With infeed and short circuit connections incl. ground

Application of the feeding voltage source at winding i, no load at winding j. Increase the voltage source until the rated voltages are measured in the windings i and j. - The current at the infeed in i, measured in the way as described and scaled to the rated current at i, yields the absolute value of the no load current, |i0| in the relation ij - The active power, which is consumed by the equivalent circuit at i in this test, is scaled to the rated power at i, and then yields the iron losses PFe and thus also the ohmic part of the no load current Re(i0) in the relation ij - The imaginary part Im(i0) , which corresponds to the magnetizing current I, is derived by (|i0| 2 - Re(i0) 2) - The shunt admittance Yshunt in the relation ij is calculated as Re(i0) - j Im(i0)

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3.4.2.2

No Load Test in the Positive Sequence System

Because of the small no load current (0.5 ... 2% of rated current) the no load test is of practicla importance only in the positive sequence system. Infeed: 3 phase generator or VARIAC, the three phase voltages are displaced from each other by 120 degrees respectively (phase sequence R-S-T). Reference phase R: Voltage VR and the other phases are derived from the reference phase as follows: VS = a2 * VR a2 = 1 -120 V T = a * VR a = 1 +120 The three resulting phase currents are also displaced from each other by 120 degrees respectively. As a sum in the three phases, they cancel each other out. (Zero sequence current I0 = 0. The shunt admittance is calculated as the quotient Phase current / phase voltage. For the no load test in the positive sequence system, the type of the internal connection of the windings involved (star, triangle, zigzag) is not relevant. It is not important whether in a relation i - j the voltage source is applied in i or in j. This choice can be made according to the convenience of the measurement.

3.4.2.3

No Load Test in the Zero Sequence System

The no load test in the zero sequence system is of minor importance. It will be covered here only for systematic reasons. Infeed: 1 phase generator or VARIAC, the three phase voltages are equal to each other. Reference phase R: Voltage VR and the other phases are derived from the reference phase as follows: VS = VR VT = VR The three resulting phase currents are also equal to each other. As a sum in the three phases, they do not cancel each other out. The ground connection in the short circuit path carries the residual current = ground return current = 3*I0 . One third of it, I0, is called the zero sequence current. The shunt admittance is calculated as the quotient Phase current / phase voltage.

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