Anda di halaman 1dari 9

A nursing student is studying about disasters and emergency preparedness.

Which of the following statements by the nursing student depicts a correct understanding of the difference between a disaster and an emergency?
Disasters are man-made only. An emergency is an unforeseen combination of circumstances calling for immediate action for a range of victims. Man-made disasters are intentional only. Emergencies are caused by acts of nature or emerging diseases.

An emergency room nurse is working when there is a bioterrorism attack in the city. Which of the following statements is a correct with regard to injuries or symptoms associated with a bioterrorism attack?
The main purpose of biological weapon use is contained devastation. It is not uncommon for the results of a biological attack to be made known several hours or days after the attack. Biological attacks are usually known right away. Detection is easy as clients go to a number of different health care facilities.

The nurse is caring for a client with a blast injury. Which of the following nursing assessments would be most appropriate for this client?
Assess for vasovagal hypotension Assess the client for confusion Assess for asphyxia Assess for hypervolemia

An emergency room nurse is working when an Amtrak train derails. The emergency room nurse knows that reverse triage may need to be instituted. What is the rationale for using reverse triage?
Mass casualty is an event with greater than 20 victims. A very basic reverse triage system is to categorize or label victims needing the most support and emergency care as red. Victims most likely to survive are color coded as black. Reverse triage works on the principle of the greatest good for the greatest number.

There has been a radioactive explosion nearby. The emergency room nurse must triage and manage the decontamination of the clients systematically. Which of the following clients would be decontaminated first?
A client with severe injuries. A client with minor injuries. A client with the least injuries. A client with the most injuries.

A preceptor is teaching a graduate nurse the concepts of mitigation. Which of the following statements, if made by the graduate nurse, would indicate an understanding of this concept?
A key nursing activity related to mitigation is the active participation in learning about the major aspects of disasters. Response is having a comprehensive disaster plan in place that coordinates efforts. Mitigation is the health care systems ability to rapidly expand beyond normal services to meet the increased demand for qualified personnel. The key to effective disaster management is predisaster planning and response.

A military nurse is working in Iraq. Because of the potential threat of hazardous gas, which of the following should be worn when working in a dangerous war zone? Select all that apply.
A gas mask A surgical mask Protective clothing A hood, helmet, or headgear Sunglasses

An emergency room nurse is at work when a major terrorist attack occurs. In addition to caring for injured clients, the nurse must control the crowd. Which of the following statements, if made by the nurse, demonstrates an understanding of the concept of crowd control?

The job of crowd control is under the auspices of the nurses. Even if the crowd control is maintained, chaos ensues. The agencys security personnel and/or the local police force must control these crowds. Nurses will need to enter areas that have not been secured yet in order to reach the clients.

A newly graduated nurse is learning about the nurses role in disaster relief as part of an orientation to the hospital. Which of the following concepts is accurate?
Learning about the prevention and mitigation of disasters is nice to know, but not essential. Nurses take a passive role in helping others to save lives and fulfill an important obligation. Applying advanced skills can be very helpful until help arrives. Nurses may have to assume expanded roles in making decisions for the most appropriate treatment of casualties.

A nursing student is learning about how to manage immunocompromised clients in a disaster situation. Which of the following statements made by the nursing student demonstrates an understanding of this concept?

The immunocompromised population is at lesser risk for complications and death than the general population should a bioterrorist attack occur. A compromised immune system may be due to treatments such as chemotherapy, those who have had organ or bone marrow transplants, or from an underlying disease such as HIV. In noncompromised persons, generalized vaccinia consists of vesicles or pustules appearing on normal skin near the vaccination site. Bone marrow transplant clients are instructed to eat fresh fruits and vegetables due to the risk of contamination of canned goods.

1.

A nursing student is studying about disasters and emergency preparedness. Which of the following statements by the nursing student depicts a correct understanding of the difference between a disaster and an emergency? Your Answer: An emergency is an unforeseen combination of circumstances calling for immediate action for a range of victims.

Rationale: # 1 is incorrect because disasters may be natural or man-made. # 3 is incorrect because man-made disasters are either accidental or intentional. # 4 is incorrect because natural disasters, not emergencies, are caused by acts of nature or emerging diseases. Nursing Process: Assessment Client Need: Safe, Effective Care Environment Cognitive Level: Application Objective: Distinguish the difference between an emergency and a disaster. Strategy: Look at each statement to see if it clearly defines either a disaster or emergency. Then select the correct answer.

2.

An emergency room nurse is working when there is a bioterrorism attack in the city. Which of the following statements is a correct with regard to injuries or symptoms associated with a bioterrorism attack? Your Answer: The main purpose of biological weapon use is contained devastation. Correct Answer: It is not uncommon for the results of a biological attack to be made known several hours or days after the attack. Rationale: Biological terrorism is the use of etiological agents (disease) to cause harm or kill a population, food, and/or livestock. # 1 is incorrect because the main purpose of biological weapon use is mass devastation. # 3 is incorrect because a biological attack may not be known for several hours or days after the attack. # 4 is incorrect because detection is difficult as clients go to a number of different health care facilities for treatment. Nursing Process: Planning Client Need: Safe, Effective Care Environment Cognitive Level: Analysis Objective: Describe the types of injuries or symptoms that are associated with biological, chemical, or radiological terrorism. Strategy: Examine each statement to look for a correct statement about bioterrorism.

3.

The nurse is caring for a client with a blast injury. Which of the following nursing assessments would be most appropriate for this client? Your Answer: Assess for vasovagal hypotension

Rationale: Blast injuries are the result of explosive munitions, often involving car or package bombs. Care for persons injured by blast injuries typically focuses on abdominal and lung injuries, penetrating wounds, traumatic amputations, and burns. # 2 is incorrect because a concussion, closed and open brain injury, stroke, spinal cord injury, and an air embolism-induced injury could result from a blast injury. #3 is incorrect because asphyxia could result from a hurricane injury. # 4 is incorrect because the client would have hypovolemia as a result from a blast injury. Nursing Process: Assessment Client Need: Safe, Effective Care Environment Cognitive Level: Analysis Objective: Evaluate nursing interventions related to the treatment of injuries related to biological, chemical, or radiological terrorism. Strategy: Differentiate between the different types of common injuries and the associated assessments necessary to care for the client.

4.

An emergency room nurse is working when an Amtrak train derails. The emergency room nurse knows that reverse triage may need to be instituted. What is the rationale for using reverse triage? Your Answer: Reverse triage works on the principle of the greatest good for the greatest number. Rationale: During a disaster, nurses may be expected to perform triage. Triage means sorting. # 1 is incorrect because a mass casualty is an event with more than 100 victims. # 2 is incorrect because it describes basic triage and not reverse triage. # 3 is incorrect because victims least likely to survive or are already dead are color-coded as black. Nursing Process: Planning Client Need: Safe, Effective Care Environment Cognitive Level: Application Objective: Explain the rationale for reverse triage in disasters versus conventional triage in emergencies. Strategy: Read each answer choice to decide which statement correctly depicts the concepts of reverse and conventional triage.

5.

There has been a radioactive explosion nearby. The emergency room nurse must triage and manage the decontamination of the clients systematically. Which of the following clients would be decontaminated first? Your Answer: A client with the least injuries.

Rationale: Reverse triage works on the principle of the greatest good for the greatest number. In this case, those persons who are the most ambulatory and least injured would be instructed to move quickly to the warm zone, away from the immediate accident site to get decontaminated and processed first. Those with minor injuries would be decontaminated next. Those with more severe to most severe injuries would be treated in that order. Nursing Process: Implementation Client Need: Safe, Effective Care Environment Cognitive Level: Application Objective: Discuss situations requiring the need for client isolation or client decontamination. Strategy: Determine which client needs to be decontaminated first based on reverse triage principles.

6.

A preceptor is teaching a graduate nurse the concepts of mitigation. Which of the following statements, if made by the graduate nurse, would indicate an understanding of this concept? Your Answer: The key to effective disaster management is predisaster planning and response. Correct Answer: A key nursing activity related to mitigation is the active participation in learning about the major aspects of disasters. Rationale: Health care professionals are among the essential Nursing Process: Planning Client Need: Safe, Effective Care Environment Cognitive Level: Application Objective: Discuss the role of the nurse in disaster planning, response, and mitigation. Strategy: Understand and be able to define the concepts of disaster planning, response, and mitigation. Utilize these definitions in order to select the correct answer.

7.

A military nurse is working in Iraq. Because of the potential threat of hazardous gas, which of the following should be worn when working in a dangerous war zone? Select all that apply. Your Answer: A gas mask

Protective clothing A hood, helmet, or headgear Sunglasses Correct Answers: A gas mask Protective clothing A hood, helmet, or headgear Rationale: Gas masks are used in a broad range of military, industrial, and emergency situations to protect the user from hazardous dust, gas, or other aerosols. Biological contaminants that are spread through aerosolized droplets create a threat to those not wearing personal protective equipment. A gas mask may be considered as a high-performance respirator, usually equipped with both eye protection and air supply protection or treatment. A hood, helmet, or headgear is generally worn to protect the skin, eyes, airways, and respiratory systems. Protective clothing is made to guard against mild irritants to serious lethal materials. Some protective suits are disposable, intended for one use only. Others are durable, multi-layered fabrics, are completely impermeable and are reusable. Sunglasses and a surgical mask will not provide enough protection in this instance. Nursing Process: Planning Client Need: Safe, Effective Care Environment Cognitive Level: Application Objective: Discuss the role of the nurse in disaster planning, response, and mitigation. Strategy: Determine if each item would be indicated in this situation. Multiple answers are correct.

Rationale: Gas masks are used in a broad range of military, industrial, and emergency situations to protect the user from hazardous dust, gas, or other aerosols. Biological contaminants that are spread through aerosolized droplets create a threat to those not wearing personal protective equipment. A gas mask may be considered as a high-performance respirator, usually equipped with both eye protection and air supply protection or treatment. A hood, helmet, or headgear is generally worn to protect the skin, eyes, airways, and respiratory systems. Protective clothing is made to guard against mild irritants to serious lethal materials. Some protective suits are disposable, intended for one use only. Others are durable, multi-layered fabrics, are completely impermeable and are reusable. Sunglasses and a surgical mask will not provide enough protection in this instance. Nursing Process: Planning

Client Need: Safe, Effective Care Environment Cognitive Level: Application Objective: Discuss the role of the nurse in disaster planning, response, and mitigation. Strategy: Determine if each item would be indicated in this situation. Multiple answers are correct.

8.

An emergency room nurse is at work when a major terrorist attack occurs. In addition to caring for injured clients, the nurse must control the crowd. Which of the following statements, if made by the nurse, demonstrates an understanding of the concept of crowd control? Your Answer: The agencys security personnel and/or the local police force must control these crowds. Rationale: When a disaster occurs, many people converge on the site. Those who come are the curious and those who truly mean to assist in the rescue and recovery of victims. However, this crowd of people needs to be controlled by authorities in charge of the site and rescue and recovery. #1 is incorrect because the job of crowd control is not under the auspices of the nurse. # 2 is incorrect because chaos ensues when the crowd is not maintained. # 4 is incorrect because nurses should not enter an area that has not been secured. Nursing Process: Planning Client Need: Safe, Effective Care Environment Cognitive Level: Application Objective: Discuss the role of the nurse in disaster planning, response, and mitigation. Strategy: Determine if the principles of crowd control are demonstrated in each answer choice. Eliminate each answer choice that incorrectly describes crowd control.

9.

A newly graduated nurse is learning about the nurses role in disaster relief as part of an orientation to the hospital. Which of the following concepts is accurate? Your Answer: Nurses may have to assume expanded roles in making decisions for the most appropriate treatment of casualties. Rationale: Nurses must be aware of the roles nurses play in all aspects of disaster preparedness and response. #1 is incorrect because learning about

disasters is essential. #2 is incorrect because the nurses role will be active, not passive. #3 is incorrect because basic skills should be applied. Nursing Process: Planning Client Need: Safe, Effective Care Environment Cognitive Level: Analysis Objective: Discuss the role of the nurse in disaster planning, response, and mitigation. Strategy: Examine the role of the nurse in disaster planning.

10 .

A nursing student is learning about how to manage immunocompromised clients in a disaster situation. Which of the following statements made by the nursing student demonstrates an understanding of this concept? Your Answer: A compromised immune system may be due to treatments such as chemotherapy, those who have had organ or bone marrow transplants, or from an underlying disease such as HIV. Rationale: Clients who are immunocompromised pose special problems to the health care community especially if these persons are unable to access health care quickly in a disaster situation. # 1 is incorrect because the risk is greater. # 3 is incorrect because the vesicles or pustules will be distant from the vaccination site. # 4 is incorrect because bone marrow transplant clients need to avoid fresh fruits and vegetables. Nursing Process: Assessment Client Need: Safe, Effective Care Environment Cognitive Level: Analysis Objective: Identify ways that nurses are able to provide care to clients with special considerations. Strategy: Determine if each statement is correct with regard to caring for the immunocompromised client.