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BIOLOGY IB Questions CELLs 2.1 cell thory 1.

Discuss possible exceptions to cell theory (4) All organisms are made up of cells,(microscopy) but there are some exceptions: - Bone consist of much inorganic substances and only a low percentage consist of cells so it is an unusual tissue. - Muscle cells are much larger then normal cells and are multi- nucleate, also fungal hyphae is multi- nucleate but also dividing walls and so does not consist of individual cells. - Unicellular organisms can be considered acellular as they are larger than a typical cell. Some tissues and organs contain large amounts of extracellular material so the statement that all organisms are made up of living cells has exeptions. Cell theory: all living organisms consist of cells (microscopy)The cell is the smallest unit of life; organelles could not live on their own after a longer period of time. All cells arise from pre- existing cell by cell division (swan necked flask by Louis Pasteur) 2. Explain how the surface area to volume ratio influences cell sizes. (6) when the cell size increases surface area and volume increases, the volume increases more therefore the ratio of surface area to volume ratio decreases The more volume a cell has the rate at which materials are produced and used increases. The surface area, so the membrane, must be large enough to absorb nutrients such as oxygen and other substances needed for the cell. The surface area, membrane, must also be large enough to excrete waste products. The size of the surface area affects the rate at which substances can enter and leave the cell. If the cell is to big and the volume compared to surface area is to big it will take too long for substances to diffuse in and out of the cell. Especially excretory products would take too long to be eliminated Therefore the cell will divide when it has reached a certain size.

3. Explain differentiation of cells in multicellular organisms. (6) This the way in which the cells in a multicellular organism develop in a certain way to carry out a specific function. Therefore the cells become specialised. All of the cells in a multi-cellular organism have the exact same set of genes.

A certain combination of genes is activated and this causes the cell to differentiate in a certain way. A red blood cell is an example of a specialised cell. It is specialised to transport oxygen so the genes for haemoglobin production gets activated in this cell whereas the gene for nucleus production gets switched off. A group of specialised cells is called a tissue. The mechanism by which cells differentiate is not fully understood but it may have something to do with the position of the cell in the ball, cell to cell signalling or hormones.

4. Outline one therapeutic use of stem cells (8) stem cells retain the capacity to divide and have the ability to differentiate into all types of cells. Stem cells can be taken from the placenta, umbilical cord and some adult tissues. New technology has developed for replacing dysfunctional cells with healthy cells. The stem cells have to be identified and are grown in controlled conditions. Biochemical are developed to cause the stem cell to differentiate into desired cells. The cells are now placed into the patients tissue so they function with the bodys natural cells. The immune system has to be supressed so the implanted cells are not rejected.

Examples: - retinal cells replace dead cells in retina for diseases such as glaucoma - new skin cells to treat burn victims - nerve tissue to help treat spinal injuries - collect stem cells from umbilical chord to treat leukaemia 2.2 Prokaryotic cells 5. Escherichia coli is a unicellular organism. Outline the functions of each of the structures in this cell. (8) An Escherichia coli contains different organelles to carry out processes required for life. The cell wall protects the cell from damage and prevents the cell from bursting The plasma membrane carries out active transport and controls what goes in and out of the cell. Cytoplasm contains enzymes that carry out metabolic reactions Pili are used to connect bacterial cells to other bacterial cells.

Flagella are used for movement of the prokaryotic cell. 70s ribosomes synthesise proteins. The naked DNA is located in the nucleoid, which initiates reproduction/ binary fission. The naked DNA controls the cell structure and functions such as disease resistance.

6. http://www.scribd.com/doc/56007215/Previous-IB-Exam-Essay-Questions