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# 1. What is the importance of the Thermodynamics in the field of Mechanical Engineering?

All the mechanical engineering systems are studied with the help of thermodynamics. Hence it is very important for the mechanical engineers. 2. How many Laws of Thermodynamics are there? There are three laws of the thermodynamics. First Law: Energy can be neither created nor destroyed. It can only change forms. In any process in an isolated system, the total energy remains the same. Second Law: When two isolated systems in separate but nearby regions of space, each in thermodynamic equilibrium in itself, but not in equilibrium with each other at first, are at some time allowed to interact, breaking the isolation that separates the two systems, and they exchange matter or energy, they will eventually reach a mutual thermodynamic equilibrium. The sum of the entropies of the initial, isolated systems is less than or equal to the entropy of the final exchanging systems. In the process of reaching a new thermodynamic equilibrium, entropy has increased, or at least has not decreased. Third Law: As temperature approaches absolute zero, the entropy of a system approaches a minimum. 3. State Laws of conservation of energy? According to the laws of conservation of energy, energy can neither be created nor be destroyed. It can only be transformed from one form to another. 4. Is the boiler a closed system? Yes definitely the boiler is a closed system. 5. What is Carnot engine? It was being designed by Carnot and let me tell you that Carnot engine is an imaginary engine which follows the Carnot cycle and provides 100% efficiency. 6. Which formula forms a link between the Thermodynamics and Electro chemistry? Gibbs Helmholtz formula is the formula which forms the link between the thermodynamics and electromagnetism. Hs/R = * lnp / (1/T)+x Where: x mole fraction of CO2 in the liquid phase p CO2 partial pressure (kPa) T Temperature (K) R Universal gas constant

mole ratio in the liquid phase (mole CO2 per mole of amine) 7. Which is the hardest compound known? Diamond. 8. What is Hess Law? According to the Hess law the energy transfer is simply independent of the path being followed. If the reactant and the product of the whole process are the same then same amount of energy will be dissipated or absorbed. 9. Which has more efficiency: Diesel engine or Petrol engines? Off course Diesel engine has the better efficiency out of two. 10. A Bearing is designated as 6205, what is its bore diameter? Bore diameter is equal to: last two digits multiplied by 5. In case of 6205, the bore diameter =05 x 5 = 5 x 5 =25 mm 1. The third and fourth digits indicate the bore size in millimetres. Except for 0 through 3, the bore size is simply five times the third and fourth digits together. 0 through 3, however, are different: 00 10mm 01 12mm 02 15mm 03 17mm 2. Bearing number starts from a number means it is a metric series bearing. 3. Type 6, single-row deep groove, is perhaps the most common type of bearing. 4. The second digit is the series reflects the robustness of the bearing. In 6205 .>second digit is 2 and it is a light series. 11. Advantages and Disadvantages of using LPG in car? Advantages 1. Complete combustion 2. Fuel saving 3. Homogenous combustion

Disadvantages 1. As complete combustion is occurring, more heat liberated, not advised for long journey, engine will be over heated 2. Installation is difficult 3. Reduce engine life efficiency 12. All Reactor or Exchanger have Spherical/Hemispherical end why? Its in order to reduce the internal stress of the working substance. For eg., If Water Vapour Dry is the working substance in the reactor or boiler and if the ends are square, at the corners there are possibilities of pressure shoot up and also possibility of more pressure concentration at those points. In order to avoid that, Spherical/Hemispherical Vessels are used. Spherical head is the only remaining option because it is stronger. One more place where Spherical vessels are used for storage is LPG Storage Containers 13. Compare Brayton and Otto cycle. The heat addition and rejection processes in Otto cycle are of constant volume, whereas in Brayton cycle, they are of constant pressure. -Otto cycle is the ideal cycle for spark ignition engines. -Brayton cycle is the ideal cycle for gas power turbines. 14. Current rating of a 3 phase DG set is 20 Amps, but what will be the per phase current for single phase supply. Amps means product of voltage and current. For 3 phase generator, its Amps = (1.732 X (Line Voltage) X Current)/1000.substitute the value and you get the answer. 15. Define Overall Heat transfer coefficient. The overall heat transfer coefficient U is a measure of the overall ability of a series of conductive and convective barriers to transfer heat. It is commonly applied to the calculation of heat transfer in heat exchangers, but can be applied equally well to other problems. 1 / U A = 1 / h1 A1 + dxw / k A + 1 / h2 A2 Where U = the overall heat transfer coefficient (W/m2K) A = the contact area for each fluid side (m2) k = the thermal conductivity of the material (W/mK) h = the individual convection heat transfer coefficient for each fluid (W/m2K) (1)

dxw = the wall thickness (m) The thermal conductivity k - for some typical materials: . Polypropylene PP 0.12 W/mK Stainless steel 21 W/mK Aluminum 221 W/mK 16. Does Is 2062 Specifies Only Seamless Pipes or ERW Pipe Is Also Covered Under Is 2062 IS:2062 Steel is a hot rolled structural steel that comes in three grades- low, medium and high tensile strengths. So its only applied for Seamless pipe. ERW (Electric Resistance Welding) pipe is manufactured by rolling metal and then welding it longitudinally across its length. Seamless pipe is manufactured by extruding the metal to the desired length; hence ERW pipe has a welded joint in its cross-section, while seamless pipe does not have any joint in its cross-section through-out its length. 17. During Steam Blowing of Pipe Line, A Bluish Color Conical Pattern Is Observed At The End. Why? Flames are blue because of the molecules that are produced during combustion. CH and C2 radicals give off light in the green to blue region of the visible spectrum. Fire needs oxygen to burn, and since the bottom of a flame does not get much oxygen, it is the hottest spot in the flame and is blue in color. 18. Even though LPG is economical than petrol, why we are not promoting LPG usage? Because its not an alternating source. Its exhaust emissions contain a large number of harmful substances, these substances emitted to the atmosphere, in a free state, ready for human and biological absorption affected by. LPG does not have as many BTUs per gallon as petrol. That means an engine running on LPG will not have as much power as the same engine running on petrol. 19. Different between technology & engineering? Engineering is application of science. Technology shows various methods of Engineering. A bridge can be made by using beams to bear the load, by an arc or by hanging in a cable; all shows different technology but comes under civil engineering and science applied is laws of force/load distribution. 20. How a diesel engine works in generator? Diesel engine is a prime mover, for a generator, pump, and for vehicles etc.generator is connected to engine by shaft. Mostly in thermal power plant, there is an engine is used to drive generator to generate power.

29. What is the effect of reheat on rankine cycle? 1. Efficiency increases 2.work output increases 3. Both 4. None of these. 1. Efficiency increases. This prevents the vapour from condensing during its expansion which can seriously damage the turbine blades, and improves the efficiency of the cycle, as more of the heat flow into the cycle occurs at higher temperature. 30. WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN RATED SPEED AND ECONOMIC SPEED? The rated speed tells us about the maximum speed which can be achieved by a vehicle or some other machine but the economical speed means the speed limit at which the machine works efficiently with least consumption of fuel.eg-in normal bikes (not racing), the max.speed limit shown on speedometer is upto 120 kmph but companies always advice their customers to drive such bikes at around 60 kmph to have maximum mileage. 31. What is the purpose of scrapper ring scrap the excess lube oil from the cylinder walls. there by preventing oil from entering combustion zone. 32. What are the causes of main engine black smoke? There is many cause of black smoke. 1. Is improper mixture of fuel supply by carburettor like very rich mixture so the fuel improper burn. 2. it is when piston or piston ring is fail so back side cooling oil release in combustion chamber it cause black smoke. 3. Improper ignition system like not sufficient time of pressure rise delay period . 33. How cooling tower height selected? The Function of a cooling tower is to cool the water coming from condenser. The water coming from condenser is hot and it is sprayed in a cooling tower and a air coming out from bottom cool the water which is coming down. Outside air is cool and air in inside the cooling tower is hot due to humidity. So there is a density difference between outside and inside air which caused pressure difference. Pr Difference = g x H x (density difference) Where, H = Height of chimney Pr Difference = Pr Difference so that air can flow to cooling tower from outside

34. How does axial thrust balance in multistage pump? A balancing line from discharge end is connected to suction side to balance axial thrust. 35. How to calculate the boiler efficiency? Any formula is there? Boiler efficiency= (heat transferred to feed water in converting it to steam)/(heat released by complete combustion of fuel) n(eta)= Mass of steam * (h- H(water))/(mass of fuel *calorific value fuel) 36. What is the significance of torque (in N-m) given in the engine specification It gives the moment about any point or simple rotation. 37. What is the exact requirement of priming? Priming is done in pumps to remove the entrapped air from the suction pipe thus aiding in smooth operation and avoiding in excess load on the pump. 38. What is the use of a PULLEY? Transmission of power (force) in rotary form 39. Why does cycle rim dont bend even in heavy loads? Because of rubber tires. The load is distributed and its effect reduces i.e. tires absorbs heavy load and shocks with the support of steel rim. The rim has many spokes. The spokes distribute the load equally and the rubber tires absorb more than half of the load. 40. How tonnage can be controlled in PLC base hydraulic press Custom integration of press interlocks to interfacing with other parts of the hydraulic press line such as the feeder or transfer systems. 41. What is BHP? Brake horsepower is the amount of work generated by a motor under ideal conditions. This work is calculated without the consideration of effects of any auxiliary component that may slow down the actual speed of the motor. Brake horsepower is measured within the engines output shaft and was originally designed to calculate and compare the output of steam engines. As per the conventions, 1 BHP equals to: 745.5 watts 1.01389 ps 33,000 ft lbf/min 42.2 BTU/min

42. How Cavitation can be eliminated in a Pump? Cavitation means bubbles are forming in the liquid. To avoid Cavitation, we have to increase the Pump size to one or Two Inch; To increase the pressure of the Suction Head, or Decrease the Pump Speed. 43. Which pump is more efficient Centrifugal pump or reciprocating pump? Centrifugal pump. Because flow rate is higher compared to reciprocating pump. Flow is smooth and it requires less space to install. Lower initial cost and lower maintenance cost. 44. Why Centrifugal Pump is not called as a Positive Displacement Type of Pump? The centrifugal has varying flow depending on pressure or head, whereas the Positive Displacement pump has more or less constant flow regardless of pressure. Likewise viscosity is constant for positive displacement pump where centrifugal pump have up and down value because the higher viscosity liquids fill the clearances of the pump causing a higher volumetric efficiency. When there is a viscosity change in supply there is also greater loss in the system. This means change in pump flow affected by the pressure change. One more example is, positive displacement pump has more or less constant efficiency, where centrifugal pump has varying efficiency rate. 45. Why the centrifugal pump is called high discharge pump? Centrifugal pump is a kinetic device. The centrifugal pump uses the centrifugal force to push out the fluid. So the liquid entering the pump receives kinetic energy from the rotating impeller. The centrifugal action of the impeller accelerates the liquid to a high velocity, transferring mechanical (rotational) energy to the liquid. So it discharges the liquid in high rate. It is given in the following formulae: Centrifugal force F= (M*V2)/R. Where, M-Mass V-Velocity R-Radius

46. Why cavitation will occur in Centrifugal Pumps and not in Displacement pumps? The formation of cavities (or bubbles) is induced by flow separation, or non-uniform flow velocities, inside a pump casing. In centrifugal pumps the eye of the pump impeller is smaller than the flow area of pipe. This decrease in flow area of pump results in increase in flow rate. So pressure drop happened between pump suction and the vanes of the impeller. Here air bubbles or cavities are formed because of liquid vapour due to increase in temperature in impeller. This air bubbles are transmitted to pump which forms cavitation. 47. Explain the Second Law of Thermodynamics. The entropy of the universe increases over time and moves towards a maximum value. 48. How do you measure temperature in a Wet Bulb Thermometer? Wet bulb temperature is measured in a wet bulb thermometer by covering the bulb with a wick and wetting it with water. It corresponds to the dew point temperature and relative humidity. 49. What is Bending moment? When a moment is applied to bend an element, a bending moment exists in the element 50. What are the points in the Stress Strain curve for Steel? Proportional limit, elastic limit or yield point, ultimate stress and stress at failure. 51. Define Reynolds number. Reynolds number is the ratio of inertial force and viscous force. It is a dimensionless number. It determines the type of fluid flow. 52. What is a Newtonian fluid?

A Newtonian fluid possesses a linear stress strain relationship curve and it passes through the origin. The fluid properties of a Newtonian fluid do not change when any force acts upon it. 53. How many Joules is 1 BTU? 1 BTU is equal to 1055.056 joules. 54. What is PS? PS is Pferdestarke, the German unit for Horsepower. 55. Explain Otto cycle. Otto cycle can be explained by a pressure volume relationship diagram. It shows the functioning cycle of a four stroke engine. The cycle starts with an intake stroke, closing the intake and moving to the compression stroke, starting of combustion, power stroke, heat exchange stroke where heat is rejected and the exhaust stroke. It was designed by Nicolas Otto, a German engineer.

56. Explain the nomenclature of a 6203-ZZ bearing. 6 is the type code, which shows it is a single-row ball bearing, 2 is the series, means light, 03 is the bore, which is 17 mm and ZZ is the suffix meaning double shielded bearing. 57. What is Gear ratio?

It is the ratio of the number of revolutions of the pinion gear to one revolution of the idler gear. 58. What is Annealing?

It is a process of heating a material above the re-crystallization temperature and cooling after a specific time interval. This increases the hardness and strength if the material. 59. Define Torque.

Torque is defined as a force applied to an object that results in rotational motion. 60. What is Ductile-Brittle Transition Temperature?

It is the temperature below which the tendency of a material to fracture increases rather than forming. Below this temperature the material loses its ductility. It is also called Nil Ductility Temperature. 61. What is D4D Technology used in Toyota Vigo? D-4D is widely recognized as one of the most advanced diesel technologies on the market today. Diesel engines relied on relatively simple technology with a low-pressure mechanical injector delivering fuel to a pre-combustion chamber in the cylinder head where a single ignition fired by the intense heat of high compression takes place. 62. Explain about Powder Technology? Powder technology is one of the ways of making bearing material. In this method metals like bronze, Al, Fe are mixed and compressed to make an alloy. 63. What is DTSi Technology? DTSI stands for Digital Twin Spark Plug Ignition. The vehicles with DTSI Technology use 2 spark plugs which are controlled by digital circuit. It results in efficient combustion of air fuel mixture. Digital - Since the spark generation will be initiated by a microchip. Twin - Since two spark plugs will be used. Spark ignition - Since the ignition will be done via a spark.

64. What is ATFT Technology used in Honda Hunk? ATFT means Advance Tumble Flow Induction Technology, Tumble flow means swirling. In this technology fuel air mixture from the carburettor into the engine cylinder with a swirl action. The advantage being one gets a more efficient burning of fuel hence more power and better fuel economy with lesser emissions.

65. Why we do not use same technology to start both SI /CI engine The S.I. or spark ignition engine uses petrol as a fuel and the C.I. or compression ignition engine uses diesel as a fuel. Both the fuels has different compression ratio. In SI engine the compression ratio is 8-12:1. In CI engine the compression ratio is 16-22:1. So in case of SI engine, the compression ratio is not sufficient for fuel to burn so a spark plug is used, whereas in ci engine, the compression ratio is so high that due to its internal heat the fuel is combusted so there is no need for a spark plug. so the technology used in si engine is different from CI engine. 66. What VVTi written on new cars of Toyota stands for? VVTi : Variable Valve Timing with Intelligence. It is the advanced version of the VVT engine. It changes the cam shaft position by using oil pressure. It is similar to CVVT in Hyundai. 67. What is PGM FI technology used in Honda Stunner Bike? The development of an ECU-integrated throttle body module for an electronic fuel injection system for small motorcycles. Honda has a goal to reduce the total emissions of HC (hydro-carbon) from new vehicles to approximately 1/3 and to further improve the average fuel economy by approximately 30 (both from 1995) by the year 2005. To realize the goal we at Asaka R&D Center considered that the small motorcycles used in many countries in the world should be improved further for clean exhaust gas and low fuel consumption. Accordingly we have started development of the PGM-FI system for small motorcycles with engines of 125cc or smaller including air-cooled engines. To ensure clean exhaust gas and high fuel economy the control of combustion through an accurate fuel supply is a must. As the conventional FI system (electronic fuel injection system) applied to motorcycles is bulky and costly its application has been mostly in large motorcycles using multicylinder engines. In the newly developed PGM-FI in order to apply to small displacement models the obstacles have been eliminated by fully using Hondas techniques to down-size components as well as making maximum use of the FI techniques attained from the large motorcycles. The compact PGM-FI offers new benefits such as the reduction of released environmentally detrimental substances and the improvement of drivability economy etc.

A bearing is designated as 6205 , what is its bore diameter? advantages and disadvantages of using LPG in car? All Rector or Exchanger have spherical/hemispherical end Why? Compare Brayton and Otto cycle. current rating of a 3 phase DG set is 20 Amps, but what will be the per phase current for single phase supply. Define Overall Heat transfer coefficient. Does Is 2062 Specifies Only Seamless Pipes Or ERW Pipe Is Also Covered Under Is 2062 During Steam Blowing Of Pipe Line, A Bluish Color Conical Pattern Is Observed At The End Of? even though LPG is economical than petrol,why we are not promoting LPG usage? explain bearing nomenclature with example. Explain Why Nozzles are made convergent and Divergent? Function of clutch How a Diesel Engine Works in Generators?Explain with Labeled Diagram. how can you increase the efficiency of power plant without changing in effort? how gravity filling machine is designed How hydraulic power steering @ clutch works please explain? how much efficiency loss will took place in a steam turbine due to low vacuum how to calculate the speed of conveyer in meter per minute How to convert from HP to BHP or CC to BHP please explain? How to find rating of Chiller a.c. plant i.e. how to calculate the a.c. load of an area, feed by Chiller ? How to measure sound level of engine of tractor? how turbo charger works? If I want to set a power plant in desert of Rajasthan and I have option of steam and gas power plant. Which plant I should set up? if the blade height is increased,then how it increases the specific speed of centrifugal pump? if you have to give support in 1 km long bridge,where you will give it & how many? In a Waste heat recovery boiler feed control valve is after the economizer where as in auxiliary boiler feed control valve is given before the economizer.why? In auto mobile industry for any type of vehicle how can we differentiate 2 stroke and 4 stroke engine. In hydraulic clutch mechanism can i adjust clutch play? if it is possible please explain ? increase in unit speed increases the discharge of impulse turbine how? Name fuels used in nuclear power plant? On what property u can distinguish material as brittle or ductile? On what thermodynamic cycle nuclear power plant works? Pipe. Whats The Concept Behind It? Purpose of centrifugal pump casing wear ring and impeller wear ring what is back plate in centrifugal pumps and its purpose? Suppose a steel bar of cross sectional area A is subjected to load P at one end and 2P at the other end ,what will be the induced what are engines that use carburetor and that use inductor ? difference between them What are the conditions considered while evaluating MARGIN OF SAFETY for newly designed mechanical components.? or

what are the types of welding machine? What are your significant functional achievements in the present company? How did they contribute to the total process What does a pump develops? Flow or Pressure. Give the Answer with Proper Logic. what for orifice using in liquid flow line what is bearing? how many types of bearing What is difference between sand blasting and grit blasting ? What is its purpose and how is it done ? what is drive speed & what is driven speed What is Dry Bulb Temperature and Wet Bulb temperature? what is electronically operated pneumatic valves? give one example What is FEED? what is friction? what is gear ratio & how it can calculate what is gyroscopic & gyroscopic effect? What is mean by Resistance welding What Is Mean By Ss-314(Stainless Steel Pipe Grade)? what is pulverization what is requirement of bottle filling machine What is Solution Annealing? kindly explain its process in brief. what is the basic need for designing the bottle filling machines What is the critical speed. Compare the critical speed of hollow shaft and solid shaft. What is the definition of mechanical What Is The Difference Between Rated Speed And Economic Speed? What Is The Difference In Is2062 And Is1239 what is the difference between construction of reaction turbine and impulse turbine what is the difference between Torque and Power ( layman Idea)? what is the manufacturing process for impellers of closed, semi open and open type? What is the principle of operation of simple jet propulsion system? what is the relationship between cop and hp(horse power) of compressor? what is the thermodynamics? what is the use of vanadium (non metal) ? What is thermodynamics? what is unit Ps ? whats the difference between front and rear wheel drive?on what basis we choose the type of drive? whats the range of poissons ratio of a stable material?? when a solid shaft is subjected to tension its linear dimension changes equally as its lateral dimension,then what will be its poissons Whether ductile material can fail in brittle manner? WHEN? which engine is more suitable over all. petrol engine, diesel engine . what are their differences Who are the leaders among expansion valve manufacturers? what are the recent developments in the expansion valve industry, used in refrigeration and air-conditioning? Why Air Conditioner capacity measured in Ton. Like 1.5ton why as atmospheric pressure increases,boiling point also increases? why de-super heater tubes are bend in shape

why diesel engine does not have spark plug like petrol engine, how ever petrol is better fuel than diesel? why does cycle rim dont bend even in heavy loads? Why green curtains are used in hospital? why petrol engine gives more power than diesel engine even though diesel engine has high compression ratio? why petrol engines have more power than diesel engines of same capacity? why the back wheel of tractor is bigger than front wheel? why the path of a satellite is always elliptical with earth not at the centre of the ellipse? Why tires are manufactured in black colour? why we cant measure absolute entropy directly,but the change we can? why we express the unit of torque in Nm.even though it can be expressed as Joule ( J )? why we have to know the specific frequency of any equipment? does anybody know about specific frequency ? Will anybody tell me about types and numbers of sensors in Toyota corolla GLI, Honda civic and Suzuki Cultus VXRI? Write down the expression for air standard efficiency of diesel cycle? You have to design a machine component. For what type of failure (ductile or brittle) you will design?