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Competency Mapping

A STUDY ON EFFECTIVENESS OF COMPETENCY MAPPING IN SHODHA TOYOTA

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the award of the degree of Master of Business Administration of Bangalore University. By: LAXMI A. HALLIKERI Reg. No. 04XQCM6045 2004-2006

Under the guidance of: PROF. SUMITHRA SREENATH

M.P.BIRLA INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT ASSOCIATE BHARATIYA VIDYA BHAVAN BANGALORE

M. P. Birla Institute of Management

Competency Mapping

DECLARATION

I, Laxmi Hallikeri MBA student of M. P. Birla Institute of Management, Associate Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, Bangalore University, Bangalore, submit my dissertation report on

Effectiveness of Competency Mapping in Shodha Toyota in partial fulfillment of my course.

This is an original work and the result embodied in this project has not been submitted to any other University, Institution for the award of any degree or diploma.

LAXMI HALLIKERI

M. P. Birla Institute of Management

Competency Mapping

PRINCIPALS CERTIFICATE

This to certify that, this report is the result of research done on EFFECTIVENESS OF COMPETENCY MAPPING IN SHODHA TOYOTA by Miss Laxmi Hallikeri bearing the register number 04XQCM6045, under the guidance and supervision of Prof. Sumithra Sreenath, MPBIM, Bangalore.

Place: Bangalore Date:

Principal (Dr.N.S.Malavalli)

M. P. Birla Institute of Management

Competency Mapping

PROJECT GUIDE CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that Miss Laxmi Hallikeri, bearing register number 04XQCM6045 has done a research on Effectiveness of Competency Mapping in Shodha Toyota and has prepared this report under my guidance. This has not formed the basis for the award of any degree/diploma for any university.

Place: Date:

Project Guide (Prof. Sumithra Sreenath)

M. P. Birla Institute of Management

Competency Mapping

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Firstly, I would like to thank Mr. Mukul Sharma, GM of Shodha Toyota for allowing me to carry on my project in the company. I would also like to thank Mrs Shilpa K. HR of Shodha Toyota who helped me out for various things during my project. I also thank all the employees respondents who spared their valuable time to provide me the necessary information without which this report would not have been possible.

I thank Prog Sumithra, my faculty guide for giving me the guidance and helping me to make my project practically a feasible one. This project would not be possible without her help.

I would like to show my sincere gratitude towards my principal, Dr. Nagesh Malvali of M.P BIRLA INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES, Bangalore for giving me moral support for doing this project well.

Finally, I would like to thank my family and friends for their constant motivation and inspiration that kept me going.

LAXMI HALLIKERI

M. P. Birla Institute of Management

Competency Mapping

CONTENTS

PARTICULARS Introduction Competencies and competency mapping What do competencies do? Competency mapping by individuals Competency mapping by individuals. Steps in competency mapping Competency levels Company Profile Toyota Kirloskar Motors Vision and Mission of Toyota Kirlosker Motors Shodha Toyota Research Methodology Statement of problem and Objectives Data source Sample size, Sample technique and Instrumentation Limitation of study Data analysis and interpretation Findings Recommendations Conclusion Annexure

PAGE NO. 3 4 6 7 8 10 12 15 16 17 18 25 26 27 28

29 30 56 57 58 61

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LIST OF CHARTS AND TABLES


CHART AND TABLE NO.. 1 2 3 Shows the responses of employees for working in a team Shows responses of employees on communication Shows the responses of employees towards customer orientation 4 Shows the technical and managerial competencies of employees 5 6 7 8 9 10 Shows the motivation level of employees Shows employees level of analysis Shows employees level on influencing others Shows employees execution skills Shows employees response towards result orientation Shows communication and interaction skills of employees 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 Shows supervision skills of employees Shows employees level of delegating authority Shows resource utilization skills of employees Shows the employee competency level as a leader Shows how well employees manage cost and time Shows how well employees manage cost and time Shows employees initiative ness in his/her job Shows dependence of employees Shows employees ability of proposal generation Shows employees acceptability to change Shows importance of learning among employees Shows employees concern for the organization 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 36 38 39 40 41 42 35 32 33 34 PARTICUTARS PAGE NO

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Competency Mapping

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
The need is felt to create competency-based culture and systems in organizations to enable people to deliver their best and make organizations grow. Thus, HR professionals need diverse skills and continuous knowledge up-gradation to handle these issues and address these needs. With increased importance to operational efficiency, costreduction, higher productivity norms and managing with fewer employees than before by corporate, brings competency as the most important yardstick for all HR-related decisions like selection, assimilation, development, growth charting and promotion, etc. Thus, continuous mapping and assessment of competencies assumes critical importance for keeping people development strategies in sync with organizational growth and objectives.

In research part of dissertation, competency mapping was studied at Shodha Toyota-Hubli. This Company is following competency mapping and the company has seen tremendous change in the employees and their competencies. But the employees have not yet met requirements for the competency pool.

The study was confined to the extent of finding out the effectiveness of competency mapping so as to fit the organization structure and hence the project was company specific.

A sample size of 41 was taken into account for the research work. The sample consisted of employees with the age group between 21-45 years, having a basic qualification of diploma, graduation or post-graduation. The employees were all in the managerial level. All the employees were given 26 factors and were asked to rate on the standard scale. Those 26 competencies were grouped into five headings namely Team work, communication, customer orientation, technical and managerial skills and motivation.

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After the analysis it was found that as competency mapping it is yet in the initial stage the employees need to be trained and polished in order to meet the objectives of the company. The potential of the employees does not meet the competency pool and they need further training.

An organization that defines and applies competencies sends a strong message about the specific knowledge, skills, capabilities, attitudes, and behaviors that are important. Maintaining core competencies is one of the keys to achieving sustained success.

Hence the company if effectively applies this tool of competency mapping it may grow up to great heights. And one of the important methods of effectively using this tool is the Employees Satisfaction, by which the employees can use their talent to the maximum and in turn help the company in achieving better results.

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INTRODUCTION

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INTRODUCTION
Over the past 10 years, human resource and organizational development professionals have generated a lot of interest in the notion of competencies as a key element and measure of human performance. Competencies are becoming a frequentlyused and written-about vehicle for organizational applications such as defining the factors for success in jobs (i.e., work) and work roles within the organization, assessing the current performance and future development needs of persons holding jobs and roles mapping succession possibilities for employees within the organization, assigning compensation grades and levels to particular jobs and roles

and selecting applicants for open positions, using competency-based interviewing techniques etc.

Competency-based human resource management has a great impact individual workers and their performance. It helps the individual to identify and present their competency strengths in various work or job search situations.

Many definitions of the term competencies have arisen over the past decade Competencies include the collection of success factors necessary for achieving important results in a specific job or work role in a particular organization. Success factors are combinations of knowledge, skills, and attributes (more historically called KSAs) that are described in terms of specific behaviors, and are demonstrated by superior performers in those jobs or work roles. Attributes include: personal characteristics, traits, motives, values or ways of thinking that impact an individuals behavior. In a nut shell competency is a combination of knowledge, skill, attitude, traits and values required to perform effectively in any given organizational role / job. Competencies in organizations tend to fall into two broad categories: Personal Functioning Competencies. Functional/Technical Competencies.

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Competency Mapping

Personal Functioning competencies include broad success factors not tied to a specific work function or industry (often focusing on leadership or emotional intelligence behaviors).Functional/Technical competencies include specific success factors within a given work function or industry. Three other definitions are needed Competency Map. A competency map is a list of an individuals competencies that represent the factors most critical to success in given jobs, departments, organizations, or industries that are part of the individuals current career plan. Competency Mapping. Competency mapping is a process an individual uses to identify and describe competencies that are the most critical to success in a work situation or work role. Top Competencies. Top competencies are the vital few competencies (four to seven, on average) that are the most important to an individual in their ongoing career management process. Importance to the individual is an intuitive decision based on a combination of three factors: past demonstrated excellence in using the competency, inner passion for using the competency, and the current or likely future demand for the competency in the individuals current position or targeted career field. There are a number of sources that describe some very common personal functioning competencies found to be important for employees at all levels across organizations. One good quote in this area is from Michael Zwell, the author of Creating A Culture of Competence, he says, From the body of competency research to date, a basic set of 6 competencies would differentiate the top quartile of performers from the rest in most positions in an organization: Initiative, Influence, Results Orientation, Teamwork, Service Orientation, and, Concern for Quality.

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What do competencies do?

They translate strategic direction into action, establish standards of excellence, focus learning and development on the achievement of business outcomes, provide a basis for ongoing performance feedback and development and they identify and leverage high performer. An organization that defines and applies competencies sends a strong message about the specific knowledge, skills, capabilities, attitudes, and behaviors that are important. Maintaining core competencies is one of the keys to achieving sustained success. Why Should Individual Employees Map Their Competencies? Following are a few compelling reasons why individual should map his competencies. Gains a clearer sense of true marketability in todays job market; the individual should know his/her competencies compared to those that are asked for by the job market in key positions of interest. Projects an appearance as a cutting-edge and well-prepared candidate, who has taken the time to learn about competencies, investigate those in demand, and map his/her own competencies prior to interviewing. Demonstrates self-confidence that comes from knowing ones competitive advantages more convincingly, and from being able to articulate those advantages in specific language. Secures essential input to resume development - a set of important terms to use in describing expertise derived from prior career experience. Gains advanced preparation for interviews, many of which may be delivered using a competencybased approach called structured behavioral interviewing or behavioral event interviewing. Develops the capability to compare ones actual competencies to an organization or positions required/preferred competencies, in order to create an Individual Development Plan.

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How is Competency Mapping carried Out by Individuals? Individuals can complete their own competency mapping process by completing a series of logical steps, including:

1. 2.

Find and locate relevant competency resources. Identify the individuals current competencies and then determine the top competencies.

3.

Define the top competencies with a list of behaviors the individual has demonstrated in the past.

4. 5.

For each key behavior, identify past performance examples. Prepare verbal explanations of the examples, using the CAR Model. (Note: Completing this step of the process has considerable value for the individual. In addition to being used during interviews, situation examples will also be of great value when participating in a performance appraisal, in a proactive career networking situation, or in identifying future positions of interest either internal or external to the organization).

6.

Use the top competencies and key behavioral examples to write or revise the individuals resume.

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COMPETENCY MAPPING IN ORANIZATIONS


The competency mapping is also done by the organization. Organizations map competencies, but from a different perspective. Organizations describe, or map, competencies using one or more of the following four strategies: Organization-Wide (often called core competencies or those required for organization success) Job Family or Business Unit Competency Sets Position-Specific Competency Sets Competency Sets Defined Relative to the Level of Employee Contribution (i.e. Individual Contributor, Manager, or Organizational Leader) Competency mapping is the process of identification of the competencies required for effective performance on any given job / role at a given point of time. Competency mapping consists of breaking down any role / job into its constituent tasks or activities and identifying the competencies (technical, managerial, behavioral, conceptual knowledge, attitudes, skills, etc.) needed to perform the same effectively. Competency Mapping is a process of identifying key competencies for an organization and or/a job and incorporating those competencies throughout the various processes (i.e. job evaluation, training, recruitment) of the organization. Competency mapping may be defined as a behavior (i.e. communication, leadership) rather than a skill or ability.

Worldwide, top performing organizations using decision mapping are routinely invited by their customers to take an active part in joint decision-making and strategy formulation. Decision mapping has taught them to think and act in ways that build confidence and respect. These are global stars: GE, Boeing, Procter & Gamble, Lucent, and Dupont etc.

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COMPETENCY MAPPING in an organization compares the organizational and on job skill, trait and behavior requirements with the workers capabilities and mapping them and designing a method to develop them.

USE OF COMPETENCY MAPPING IN CORPORATIONS


Install a world-class business development process. Establish a unifying process across the organization. Lift teams to quietly engage at least at the strategy level. Assure sales thinks and acts as a multi-functional team. Increase win-rate and sharestabilize customer relations. Provide single-point strategic responsibility. Document, communicate and leverage winning strategies. Affect a dramatic shift in customer perceptions Disengage from snarly price wars to communicate total value. COMPETNCY MAPPING BASICALLY INVOLVES FOUR STEPS

Identifying the competencies required for the job in the organization. Analyzing gaps in performance. Identifying training and development needs. Promotion, career and succession planning THE MAPPING PROCESS Understanding the strategic needs of the company, roles & organization designs (through study of company documents, interviews and analytical work. Deriving the core competencies/desired competencies for the target group; preparing competency dictionary (through interviews &analytical work). Study of role/job descriptions; validation of competence levels required for the position; preparation of competency standard, if necessary.

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THE STEPS IN COMPETENCY MAPPING WITH AN END RESULT OF JOB EVALUATION INCLUDE THE FOLLOWING:
1. Conduct a job analysis by asking incumbents to complete a position information

questionnaire (PIQ). This can be provided for incumbents to complete, or can conduct one-to-one interviews using the PIQ as a guide .A sample PIQ used when conducting this step with clients was provided to the clients. The primary goal is to gather from incumbents what they feel are the key behaviors necessary to perform their respective jobs.

2.

Using the results of the job analysis, a competency based job description can be

developed. A sample of a competency based job description generated from the PIQ should be provided to the client. This should be developed after carefully analyzing the input from the represented group of incumbents and converting it to standard competencies.

3.

The competencies of the respective job description become the factors for

assessment on the performance evaluation. Using competencies will help to guide, to perform more objective evaluations based on displayed or not displayed behaviors.

4.

Taking the competency one step further, the results of evaluation to identify in

what competencies individuals need additional development or training. This will help to focus training needs on the goals of the position and company and help employees develop towards the ultimate success of the organization.

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PERFORMANCE CRITERIA
When defining the performance criteria, reference is made to the expected result, where the element of competence and a judgmental statement of the quality of the result should be present. Performance criteria are descriptions of the requisites of quality for the result attained in labor performance: they allow a person to establish whether or not a worker reaches the result described in the element of competence.

When possible, the criteria should refer to the essential aspects of the competency. They should therefore, express the characteristics of the results, highly related with, and meaningful for, the achievement described in the element of competence. They are the bases for an evaluator to judge if a worker is or is not yet, competent: in this way they nourish the production of the evaluation material. They allow us to specify what was done and how well it was done.

COMPETENCY LEVELS
In United Kingdom, the levels have been structured beginning with the analysis of the productive functions. Their intention was to create a frame of reference sufficiently ample so as to conserve a sense of flexibility and maintain the possibilities individuals have to transfer their competencies to new labor contexts.

The competence standards are elaborated to reflect actual working conditions that present different degrees of complexity, variety and autonomy. Such degrees generate different competence levels required for the performance. The different levels make up part of the structures of standardized systems of competency-certification; its use allows a person to visualize the possibilities of promotion and transferal among different qualifications.

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THE FIVE COMPETENCY LEVELS

Level 1: Competence, which involves the application of knowledge in the performance of a range of varied work activities, most of which may be routine and predictable.

Level 2: Competence, which involves the application of knowledge of significant range of work activities, performed in a variety of contexts. Some of these activities are complex or not routine and there is some individual responsibility and autonomy and control or guidance of others is often required.

Level 3: Competence, which involves the application of knowledge in a broad range of varied work activities performed in a wide variety of contexts most of which are complex and non-routine. There is considerable responsibility and autonomy. Responsibility for the work of others and the allocation of resources are often required.

Level 4: Competence, which involves the application of knowledge in a broad range of Complex technical or professional work activities performed in a wide variety of contexts and with a substantial degree of personal responsibility and autonomy. Responsibility for the work of others and the allocation of resources is often present.

Level 5: Competence, which involves the application of a range of fundamental principles across a wide an often-unpredictable variety of context. Very substantial personal autonomy and often-significant responsibility for the word of others and for the allocation of substantial resources features strongly, as do personal accountabilities for analysis, diagnosis, planning, execution and evaluation.

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ASSESMENT OF COMPETENCIES
Competencies are being used by Organizations as weapons of Competitive Advantage. Since the mode of doing business and the nature of Organization are undergoing a sea-change, the roles in an Organization need re-assessment. Consequently, some Competencies have become less critical and some have become critical The IT and Internet revolution has made conventional middle management Roles redundant and created new role expectations requiring decentralized decision making. This requires Competency Mapping through conducting Assessment and Development Centers.

Assessment of competence takes place by verifying the performance evidence versus the set standard. The institution foresees the interaction between the maximum authority of vocational qualifications, the standardization committees of industrial sectors and certifying entities. Assessments of competencies are done on several dimensions like: Business competencies. Functional competencies. Man management competencies. Commercial management competencies. Information management competencies. THE MEASUREMENT PROCESS

Designing a feedback system (360/180 degrees) for the individuals. Administration of the feedback system - statistical analysis of data and interpretation. Assessment centre approach to determine competence levels (competence measurement using a menu of instruments/case situations/situational responses/indepth interviews.)

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Analysis of data includes


Graphs of feedback and comparison with self ratings. Analysis of various ratings Interviews, Tests, Case analysis etc and arriving at an average by the Panel. Preparing competence profile in a visual format. Comparing existing people vis--vis current role and also for progression.

Competency mapping compares the organizational and on job skill, trait and behavior requirements with the workers capabilities and mapping them and designing a method to develop them. Competency-based processes utilize a competency framework to align the strategic objectives of your organization with your key HR business processes. By applying a systematic approach of measuring individual competencies, you will build ongoing snapshots of the overall knowledge capital of your organization. You can utilize this information to perform individual and organizational analysis, reduce education costs, improve hiring practices, improve retention, improve your human resources performance and developmental planning processes, deploy your human capital more effectively, and help management make strategic decisions regarding readiness to take on more or new projects.

Competency mapping supports the following competency-based HR processes: Personal Competency Gap Analysis Rapid Assessment Individual Development Planning Performance Planning 360 Feedback Career Management Organizational Skill Health Analysis Predict Training Demand Team Building and Internal Selection Succession Planning 21

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COMPANY PROFILE

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COMPANY PROFILE
The joint venture between Toyota Motors Corporations and Kirloskar Group gave a way to start a business in India in October 6, 1997. Toyota Kirloskar Motor Private Limited (TKM) aims to play a major role in the development of the automotive industry and the creation of employment opportunities, not only through its dealer network, but also through ancillary industries.

TKM firmly believes that the success of this venture depends on providing high quality products and services to all valued customers through the efforts of its team members. TKM, along with its dedicated dealers and suppliers, has adopted the "Growing Together" philosophy of its parent company TMC to create long-term business growth. In this way, TKM aims to further contribute to progress in the Indian automotive industry, realize greater employment opportunities for local citizens, improve the quality of life of the team members and promote robust economic activity in India.

Toyota Kirloskar Motor Pvt. LTD


Date Of Establishment Chairman Vice Chairman Managing Director October 6, 1997 Mr. Akira Okabe Mr. Vikram S Kirloskar Mr. A. Toyoshima Mr. K. K. Swamy Deputy MD's Mr. S. Tomonaga Paid-In Capital Rs. 7 billion Toyota Motor Corporation (89% equity) Shareholders Kirloskar Group

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TOYOTA- Empowering employees in achieving perfection TKM firmly believes that employees are the main source of strength for the organisation. The human resources management in Toyota seeks to create a corporate culture where values such as "Continuous Improvement" and "Respect for People" are fully reflected in all actual corporate and individual activities. The company takes maximum care to ensure stability of employment and strives to improve working conditions. To develop human resources and improve the technical skills of its employees, TKM's young team members are regularly sent to Japan, Indonesia and Taiwan for training programs. More than 425 team members have benefited from such programs at various Toyota plants worldwide. TKM also believes in continuously improving its products and practices. Every team member is encouraged to give suggestions to improve the product, efficiency of processes or working conditions. They are also appropriately rewarded for the same. Thus TKM seeks to progress by empowering its employees.

The vision of Toyota Kirloskar Motor is to: 1. Contribute to Indian industry and economy through technology transfer, human resource development and vehicles that meet global standards at competitive price. 2. Contribute to the well-being and stability of team members.. 3. Contribute to the overall growth for our business associates and the automobile industry. Mission Our mission is to design, manufacture and market automobiles in India and overseas while maintaining the high quality that meets global Toyota quality standards, to offer superior value and excellent after-sales service. We are dedicated to providing the highest possible level of value to customers, team members, communities and investors in India.

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Shodha Motors Private Ltd is a dealer of Toyota motors which meets


Toyota international standards. It deals with 3S. 3S stands for Sales, Service and spare parts under roof. This is Toyotas unique approach to customer care and service. It is fully equipped with all tools, equipments and spare parts, from the day of commencement of its operations. Mr. Yamazaki, Managing Director, in the presence of Honourable minister for large and medium industries, Govt of Karnataka mr. R.V. Deshpande the deputy managing director of TKML, Mr. K.K. Swamy, and Director of Marketing TKML, Mr. S. Aoki inaugurated Shodha Toyota on 28th April 2001.

The Managing Director of Shodha Toyota is Mr. Prasad Deshpande. The CEO and Director is Mr. Prakash Naik and other two directors are Mrs.Kalpana Naik and Mrs. Meghana Deshpande. Shodha Toyota is ISO certified company which speaks about the standard working conditions.

By Integrating sales, after-sales service and spare parts storage in a single convenient location, 3S dealers contribute to the High level of quality associated with Toyota throughout the World. It provides extensive range with an equally wide range of unmatched advantages of accessories.

THE MISSION STATEMENT OF SHODHA TOYOTA


Total customer satisfaction is our mission. To achieve this we will always strive to improve processes continuously and deliver quality service as per customer needs and thus build Customer for life.

The organization believes in KAIZEN principle where in each individual and process has to improve continuously. The organization conducts strong in house training programs as well as external training programs for their employees. The organization has framed a list of objectives so as to meet the mission statement.

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QUALITY OBJECTIVES OF SHODHA TOYOTA

To understand and define customer vehicle requirements clearly and executing the order as per the sales process so as to achieve 100% customer satisfaction. To procure spare parts and materials from approved suppliers and keep optimum stock levels so as to fulfill customer requirement. To understand and define customer service needs clearly and executing them as per service process so as to achieve 100% customer satisfaction. To allocate work to competent personnel and improve their competence level through effective training. To improve process continuously at every opportunity. To maintain pressure free environment, hygienic facilities and clean atmosphere with an aim to serve people and society. To meet the requirements of all interested parties viz, suppliers, directors, employees and customers and other statutory and regulatory bodies with an aim to enhance stock holders satisfaction.

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COMPETENCY MAPPING is followed in the company. It has defined certain competencies that are required for the job in their organization and those competencies are technical know-how, attitude, team work, communication skills, logical thinking, customer orientation, neatness and tidiness etc. Based on these competencies they recruit their employees and also appraise their performance. Those competencies that are defined by the organization form the organizational competency model. It also takes steps to improve the competency level through training programs. Employees are more competent to the changes in the market and can meet the required demand.

1) Basic introduction

Organizational performance, team performance and individual performance are all critical to the survival and growth of an organization. More often than not, performance is an output of individual talent, initiative and leadership brilliance rather than a managerial process. Competency maps can be integrated into various systems like recruitment, selection, induction; training for performance; appraisal and promotion to enhance their effectiveness.

2) Strategy

Strategies may be defined as the tools available to develop the competencies of employees and improve the overall organizational climate. Some of the benefits from competency mapping are;

Succession planning A succession plan means to know and understand the person who is holding the current position and who is available and qualified to take over during unforeseen circumstances. The purpose of succession planning is to identify and develop people to replace current job holders in key positions. Through succession planning, company

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assures a steady flow of internal talent to fill key positions. Therefore it becomes easy to groom in-house talent and provide opportunities as and when it arises. If qualified people are not available within the company, the company considers outsiders for possible openings. Internal candidates require a pat on the back when they do well, before company injecting fresh blood into the organization.

Career planning It is the process by which one selects career goals and the path to these goals. The major focus of career planning is on assisting employees achieve a better match between personal goals and the opportunities that are realistically available in the organization. This will also help the organization to give opportunity for the employees to occupy the positions when it comes. In this company the long term plans are not kept secret, they are made available to the employees. Major changes are discussed at all levels to promote understanding and commitment among employees. The immediate concern of employees is to find out where they stand in such a road map.

3) Methodology

Once the strategies are clearly stated, the various methods may be through development centres, SWOT analysis, scoring sheet etc. Methods like case studies androle play can be used. This will distribute knowledge and improve participants skills in problem analysis. Then the assessment is done and the employees are rated and their competencies are identified.

4) Outcome

No program can be effective unless it is aided by proper support system. Hence depending upon the assessment results the strengths and weakness of the employee are identified and accordingly training is given.

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5) Training and development

A competency refers to an individuals demonstrated knowledge, skills, or abilities (KSAs) performed to a specific need. Developing a training module is also a competency this is composed of several KSAs as a knowledge of adult learning principles, knowledge of instructional design principles, and ability to communicate. The company considers both in house training and external training. Its for new employee during his induction as well as to the already working employee. Training may also become essential due to introduction of new lines of work, the demands of competition and economy, promotions, technological change, individual adjustments etc.

6) Placement

After training period its seen whether trainee is benefited from the training. If the training is beneficial and he/she has better knowledge, then they may be placed accordingly. If the trainee even though after training does not show any type of improvement, they are again put into training.

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Need and importance of the study

It is a challenge to train toward future states rather than to current practices. Training efforts are being stretched in many organizations to meet the current demands of developing proficient employees in the jobs that exist today. Moreover, organizations are looking to training to prepare the next generation of leaders to replace the great number of managers who are expected to retire during the next decade. The strategic directions themselves are changing rapidly to meet new demands and cope with new challenges. The concept of competency focuses on what is expected of an employee in the workplace rather on the learning process; and embodies the ability to transfer and apply skills and knowledge to new situations and environments. This study helps to know the following aspects:

The competencies required to perform individual tasks (task skills).

The skills required to manage a number of different tasks within the job (task

management skills). The requirement to respond to irregularities and breakdowns in routine (contingency

management skills). The requirement to deal with the responsibilities and expectations of work

environment (job/role environment skills), including working with others.

In addition competencies should be: Related to realistic workplace practices.

Expressed as outcomes.

Understandable to trainers, supervisors and potential employers.

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It is important to take account of the role of general competencies in broadening of competency standards necessary to address emerging requirements for a more highly skilled and adaptable workforce. The growing breadth in work functions also needs to be reflected in the formulation of standards.

A competency based system seeks the integration of knowledge, skill, and application. A key aspect of competency is the application of knowledge. Performance of a task commonly draws upon a body of knowledge and understanding. Moreover, the transfer of competency to new situations may not be fully achievable without knowledge and understanding.

This source of information is selected for the purpose of finding out whether there exists relation between competency mapping and fitment to the organization. The main purpose of conducting this study is that the topic that is the competency map is a recent trend in the organization and most of the companies are applying it. And one of the interesting factors is that it has proved very effective and has given good results. So in order to study and know more about how to go about and use this tool the study was carried out.

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RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

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RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Research is a systematic and intensive study directed towards a more complete knowledge of the subject studied. Research always starts with questions through the application of the scientific method. Information is gathered through different instruments and the data is analyzed and legitimate results are derived.

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM


Competency mapping consists of breaking down any role / job into its constituent tasks or activities and identifying the competencies (technical, managerial, behavioral, conceptual knowledge, attitudes, skills, etc.) needed to perform the same effectively. This research study considers the evaluation of competency mapping conducted. The problem is to find whether the competency mapping followed in the organization is effective or not.

OBJECTIVES
To develop professionals' competence (knowledge and skills) to map the competencies. To conduct competency mapping exercise for the organization. To learn designing various interventions based on competency mapping. To know how effective competency mapping has been in the organization.

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Competency Mapping

RESEARCH TYPE
Since the purpose is to gather information regarding specific questions the research must be designed to ensure accuracy of the findings. Exploratory research often makes use of survey research design which consists of a cross sectional research design, i.e. collecting data on a few factors from a number of cases at one point of time. The information was gathered from the questionnaires that were filled by the employees of the company.

DATA SOURCE

PRIMARY DATA

The information needed is descriptive. This study includes construction of the data collection instrument i.e. structured questionnaire, the sample design and collecting the data. Primary information was collected through these questionnaires which contained questions regarding various competencies mapped. The employees were to rate the competency level accordingly.

SECONDARY DATA

Secondary information is any data originally generated for some purpose other that the present research objectives. It includes findings based on research done by outside organization as well as data generated in-house for earlier studies or even customer information collected by the firms. Most often, if provides clues and directions for the design of primary research. Here the information is collected through company websites, journals, books and other websites.

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SAMPLE SIZE
The sample size of the survey was 41. The respondents had been picked on the basis of random convenience sampling from all the departments of the organization. .The sample size obtained for the study was between the age group of 21 years to 40 years .They were all managerial level employees with an education qualification of diploma, graduation or post-graduation.

SAMPLE TECHNIQUE
The information was obtained through questionnaires. Respondents were asked a variety of questions regarding the behavior, attitude, intentions, awareness motivations and demographic characteristics of the employees. 360 degree type of evaluation was considered. The superiors and the supervisors gave responses to the questions for their subordinates. And the questionnaires were answered by the collegues of the employees at senior level. Typically, the questioning is structured i.e. standardization is imposed on the data collection process.

INSTRUMENTATION TECHNIQUE
The questionnaire serves as a useful guide for the communication process and may be used with survey research in any form- whether the questions are in written or verbal form. Without a questionnaire the interview has no structure.

TYPE OF QUESTIONNAIRE:

STRUCTURED QUESTIONNAIRE A structured questionnaire consistently and repeatedly follows the same pattern and leaves little scope for a respondent to stray beyond the structured format. Structured questionnaires and interviews are very handy in large quantitative surveys. The use of fixed-response questions reduce the variability in the results that may be caused by
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differences in interviewers. Finally, coding, analysis, and interpretation of data are relatively simple. Structured questionnaire was formed to rate the competencies of employees at a set standard. Rating on 1 to 5 scale and rating employees competency at different level like excellent, good, average and poor were used as rating standards.

RESEARCH TOOL
Simple statistical tool is used for this study of effectiveness of competency mapping. The data is analyzed and expresses in terms of percentage. The information gathered from the primary source would be analyzed by tabulating all information received. Conclusion and interpretation of this study would then be made using various tools like graphs, charts and tables.

LIMITATIONS OF STUDY

Time available for the research was limited. Study is limited in getting the information from management and employees through questionnaires. There might be a bias in providing information from some percentage of employees.

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DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION

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DATA ANALYSIS
Questionnaire here comprised of question relating to 26 competencies and those competencies were grouped under different sets namely: Team work, Self motivation, Communication, Relationship building, Technical and managerial skills. Employees rated their competencies on the scale of five points or the respective rating factor given. Later the rating factors were reduced to three main categories and analysis of the data was done for the different sets mentioned above. The categories were the competency level that are below requirement, that just meets the requirements and the level that exceeds the requirement.

Table showing the analysis of the data gathered on the competencies of employees

Rating by the employees

OBSERVED VALUES Team work Communication Customer orientation Technical and managerial skills Motivation

1 10 11 5 8 11

% 24.39 26.82 12.19 19.5 26.82

2 27 27 33 28 27

% 65.85 65.85 80.48 68.29 65.85

3 4 3 3 5 3

% 9.7 7.3 7.3 12.19 7.3

Total 41 41 41 41 41

1 = Below Requirement, 2 = Meet Requirement, 3 = Above Requirement.

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Following are the tables and charts showing the competency level of employees for different competencies grouped under Different sets.

Table and chart no. 1 showing the responses of employees for working in a team

Competency level Employee

Below requirement 10

Meets requirement 27

Exceeds requirement 4

30 25 No of employees 20 15 10 10 5 0

27

Competency level Below requirement Exceeds requirement Meets requirement

The responses under this team work includes employees competency level towards working in a team, supervising the work in a team, building relationships, leadership qualities and concern for the work and the organization. Among the total responses 65.85% employees meet the level of competency required to work effectively in a team, 24.39% employees do not meet the competency level and 9.7% employees meet more then the required level of competency.

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Table and chart 2 showing responses of employees on communication

Competency level Employee

Below requirement 11

Meets requirement 27

Exceeds requirement 3

Below requirement Meets requirement Exceeds requirement

Under communication competencies like attitude of employees, the extent an employee can influence others on getting the work done, his communication skills, openness etc are considered. According the survey 65.85% people have a good communication that is required for their job. 26.82% fall below the requirement level and 7.3% people have skills that exceed the minimum required level and excel in those mentioned competencies.

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Table and chart 3 showing the responses of employees towards customer orientation

Competency level Employee

Below requirement 5

Meets requirement 33

Exceeds requirement 3

Series1 Competency levels

Exceeds requirement Meets requirement Below requirement 0

3 33 5 10 20 No of employees 30 40

Customer orientation includes employees concern towards customer needs, result orientation, honesty and integrity, service orientation and positive attitude. Among the responses 80.48% employees are customer oriented, 7.35% employees are extremely inclined towards customer orientation and surpass the required level and 12.19% people are below the required level.

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Table and chart no.4 showing the technical and managerial competencies Of employees.

Competency level Employee

Below requirement 8

Meets requirement 28

Exceeds requirement 5

30 25 20 no of 15 employees 10 5 0 competency levels 1 Below requirement Meets requirement Exceeds requirement

Under the technical and managerial skills competencies like technical know-how, handling situation, logical thinking, analyzing skills, generating new ideas and proposals, execution of their job, recourse utilization and cost and time management are considered. Research tells 19.5% employees do not meet the required level of competency pool. 68.29% employees meet the required technical and managerial skills and 12.19% people are well above the required level

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Table and chart no. 5 showing the motivation level of employees

Competency level Employee

Below requirement 11

Meets requirement 27

Exceeds requirement 3

3 11

27

Below requirement Exceeds requirement

Meets requirement

Motivation considers aspects like self-motivation, initiative ness, openness, importance of learning, dependence on others, delegation of authority, flexibility to accept change. Among the responses 7.31% of employees are highly motivated and exceed the requirement level. 65.85% just meet the requirement level and the rest 26.82% employees fall below the level of competency required.

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CONCLUSION FROM THE ABOVE ANALYSIS


This study was mainly carried out to find out whether the competency mapping being followed by the company is effective or not. If the competency mapping is being followed then there has to be a relation between mapping and fitment to the organization. By looking at the graphs and tables it is quiet clear that the employees still are not up to the level of competent pool, they still have to be trained and made competent in order to fill the gap. The organization has to see to that it meets all the requirements for competency mapping.

Therefore the graphs make it quiet clear that, the potential of the employees is not up to the mark, and i.e. they are not competent enough to meet the competency mapping requirement. Hence by further training and counseling this gap can be closed. Hence it is quiet clear from the analysis that there are very less employees who are above the requirements.

Therefore the company has to make an effort to train all the employees who just met the requirements and who are below the requirements. And only the employees who are above the requirements should be considered for promotion or higher grades. These are star performers and company should take all the initiative to award such employees.

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FOLLOWING ARE THE CHARTS SHOWING COMPETENCY LEVEL OF EMPLOYEES FOR VARIOUS COMPETENCIES MENTIONED EARLIER

Chart and table no. 6 showing employees level of analysis

29 30 No of 20 Employees 10 0 1 Competency Level Excellent


Competency level No of Employees 5 29 5 2 41 Excellent

Good
Good

Average

Dissatisfactory
Total

Average/Satisfactory Dissatisfactory

In the organization 71% of the employees have a good skill of analyzing. 12% employees are standing on average scale and 12% are excellent. Only 5% of employees are poor in analysis. There was another rating scale of poor. No employee in the organization fall under poor rating scale.

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Competency Mapping

Chart and table no 7 showing employees level on influencing others

12%

10%

29% 49%

Excellent

Good

Average

Dissatisfactory

Competency level No of Employees

Excellent

Good

Average/Satisfactory Dissatisfactory

Total

20

12

41

Among the respondents 10% are excellent in influencing others, 49% of employees are good and 29% are average. 12% employees are poor and are below the requirement of this competency. There was another rating scale of poor. No employee in the organization fall under poor rating scale.

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Competency Mapping

Table and chart no. 8 showing employees execution skills

Competency level

3 10 1 5 24

0 Excellent

10

15

20

25

No employees Good of Average Dissatisfactory

Competency level No of Employees

Excellent

Good

Average/Satisfactory Dissatisfactory

Total

24

10

41

12% employees are excellent in their execution skills and they are above requirement of this competency level 59% employees are good in their execution skills but organization still has employees whose execution skills are not satisfactory. There was another rating scale of poor. No employee in the organization fall under poor rating scale.

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Chart and table no.9 showing employees response towards result orientation

5% 20%

15%

60%

Excellent

Good

Average

Dissatisfactory

Competency level No of Employees

Excellent

Good

Average/Satisfactory Dissatisfactory

Total

25

41

Among the employee pool 60% employees are result oriented and 15% employees are extremely result oriented which shows they exceed the requirement. But still there are 20% employees who are just average and 5% who are poorly result oriented. There was another rating scale of poor. No employee in the organization fall under poor rating scale.

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Chart and table 10 showing communication skills of employees

10% 40% 20%

30%

Rating factor No of Employees

Total

25

41

15% employees exceed the required communication, 61% employees generally meet the requirement, 19% of employees partially meet the requirement and 5% employees are below the requirement.

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Chart and table showing no. 11 showing supervision skills of employees

1 10% 4 40% 3 30% 2 20%

Rating factor No of Employees

Total

14

16

41

10% employees exceed the required supervision skills, 34% employees generally meet the requirement, 39% of employees partially meet the requirement and 17%% employees are below the requirement.

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Chart and table no. 12 showing employees level of delegating authority

21 25 20 15 10 5 0 12 3 5

No of Employees

1 Competency level Excellent Good Average Dissatisfactory

Competency level No of Employees

Excellent

Good

Average/Satisfactory Dissatisfactory

Total

21

12

41

Among the employees 7% of employees have excellent delegation skills, 51% of employees are good which shows some employees exceed and some meet the requirement but who partially meet and are not satisfactory in delegating the authority. There was another rating scale of poor. No employee in the organization fall under poor rating scale.

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Chart and table no.13 showing resource utilization skills of employees

25 25 20 15 10 10 5 0 Excellent Good Average Dissatisfactory 3 3

No of employees

1 3 25 10 3 Competency Level

7% of employees are excellent in utilizing the resources, 61% employees are effective i.e. good, 24% employees partially meet and average in resource utilization and 8% employees are dissatisfactory in meeting the resource utilization competency level. There was another rating scale of poor. No employee in the organization fall under poor rating scale. 52

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Chart and table no. 14 showing the employee competency level as a leader

1 10% 4 40% 2 20%

3 30%

Rating factor No of Employees

Total

13

17

41

10% employees exceed the required leadership skills, 32% employees generally meet the requirement, 41% of employees partially meet the requirement and 17%% employees are below the requirement.

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Chart and table no. 15 shows how well employees manage cost and time

20 20 15 No of 10 Employees 5 0 1 Competency level Excellent Good Average Dissatisfactory 9 6 6

Competency level No of Employees

Excellent

Good

Average/Satisfactory Dissatisfactory

Total

20

41

Of the employees in the organization 15% employees are excellent in cost and time management. 49% employees are good, 21% employees meet the required level but not that effectively i.e. they are average and 15% employees are below the required level. There was another rating scale of poor. No employee in the organization fall under poor rating scale.

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Chart and table no. 16 shows how well employees manage cost and time

20 18 16 14 12 No of 10 employees 8 6 4 2 0

19

10 6 6

1 Competency level

Excellent

Good

Average

Dissatisfactory

Competency level No of Employees

Excellent

Good

Average/Satisfactory Dissatisfactory

Total

19

10

41

15% employees are excellent in relationship building. 46% employees are good, 24% employees are average and rest 15% employees are not satisfactory. There was another rating scale of poor. No employee in the organization fall under poor rating scale.

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Chart and table no. 17 shows employees initiative ness in his/her job

15%

7%

17%

61%

Excellent

Good

Average

Dissatisfactory

Competency level No of Employees

Excellent

Good

Average/Satisfactory Dissatisfactory

Total

25

41

61% of employees are good in taking initiatives, 7% employees are excellent and take initiatives to a great extent for their organization but 17% of employees are average and 15% employees are dissatisfactory. There was another rating scale of poor. No employee in the organization fall under poor rating scale.

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Chart and table no. 18 showing dependence of employees

Rating factors

10 1 6 25

10

15

20

25

No of employees Not at all dependent Always dependent Sometimes dependent

Competency Level No of Employees

Not at all dependent 6

Sometimes dependent 25

Always dependent

Total

10

41

From the employee pool of the organization around 61% of employees are sometimes dependent on each other, 15% employees does not need support of anybody at work and are totally independent but 24% of employees are always dependent on somebody for their work to be done.

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Chart and table no. 19 showing employees ability of proposal generation

20 20 15 10 5 0 1 To very great extent To some extent To great extent To less extent 4

10 7

Rating factor No of Employees

To very great extent 4

To great extent 20

To some extent 10

To less extent 7

Total

41

Among the respondents 10% employees generate new ideas and proposal to a very great extent, 49% of employees are to a great extent 24% only to some extent and 17% of employees to very less extent.

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Chart and table no. 20 shows employees acceptability to change

22

10

4
0 10
To very great extent 4

20

30

40

50

To very great extent To some extent

To great extent To less extent

Rating factor No of Employees

To great extent 22

To some extent 10

To less extent 5

Total

41

10% employees are open and flexible to accept change to a very great extent. 54% employees accept change to a great extent, only 24% employees are ready to accept change to some extent and 12% employees show a rigid behaviour to accept change.

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Chart and table no. 21 shows importance of learning among employees

23 25 20 15 No of employees 10 5 0 1 Competency rating factor Very important Important Less Important 15

Rating factor No of Employees

Very important 15

Important 23

Less Important 3

Total 41

Among the respondents most of the employees are keen to learn and updated their knowledge. 37% employees replied learning to be very important in their job, 56% employees told learning is important and only 7% employees replied learning to be less important. None of the employees replied that learning is not necessary.

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Chart and table no.22 shows employees concern for the organization

17% 32%

51%

Highly concerned

Concerned

Less concerned

Rating factor

Highly concerned

Concerned

Less concerned

Total

No of Employees

13

21

41

32% of employees are highly concerned for the organization, 51% employees have just concern for their organization but there are employees in the organization who are less concerned about it and there number is around 17%.

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FINDINGS AND SUGGESTIONS

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FINDINGS

From the research it is found that the company the company meets the competencies required for the job in the organization but its not up the mark. Organization has to provide training for the employees to be more effective in their competencies. Its been observed from the research study that Marketing and Sales people all meet the required competency pool. No Marketing person is below the required competency level. The organization has very few employees who lack technical skills. Most of the employees are good in technical know how. Maximum number of employees are not customer oriented and are inclined towards the service provide to the customers. Competencies like initiative ness, idea generation and leadership skills are in a lower end. All most all the employees are keen to learn and have an urge to increase their knowledge. Competency mapping has not yet proved to be effective and needs further steps to improve upon.

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RECOMMENDATIONS

Set targets that stretch the individual, but which should be attainable within the limits of delegated authority.

Recognize achievement by workmen and promote feeling of active keen involvement.

Promote constructive feedback on all levels of performance.

Effective internal and external communications can be a key to successful performance of employees.

Accountability for results must be clearly assigned and well understood by the employees and they must know what they are responsible for in achieving organizational goal.

All freedom to institute and implement courses of action within and overall company policies and individual targets.

By regular review and consultation develop a career progression which is sensitive to performance and ability.

Create an environment whereby people are trained and developed to enable them to take advantage of opportunities that arise.

The job can be redesigned where the workmen stays in what is nominally the same job but elements of it is changed.

The supervisors should regularly assess competencies of workmen.

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CONCLUSION

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CONCLUSION

The research shows that the company meets the need of various competencies that are required for the job in their organization to some extent but is not up to the mark. Though competency mapping is done the company is not yet able to keep up the required competency level. The company has defined certain competencies that are required for the job in their organization and those competencies are technical know-how, attitude, team work, communication skills, logical thinking, customer orientation, neatness and tidiness etc. These competencies that are defined by the organization form the organizational competency model. Based on these competencies they recruit their employees, provide them necessary training and also appraise their performance.

Since the organizations employee pool is not large it is able to manage the human resource but yet it has to meet the required level of skill and knowledge so that each employee carries out his job more effectively. By assessing the competency level of employees its clear that their exists a gap between the competencies of employees and the required level because certain percentage of employees still fall below the required competency level. By defining those competencies properly and providing training organization can get the right pool of employees and also appraise them rightly based on that.

Its been observed from the research study that Marketing and Sales people all meet the required competency pool. No Marketing person is below the required competency level. The organization has very few employees who lack technical skills and who are not customer oriented. Competencies like initiative ness, idea generation and leadership skills are in a lower end.

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The research shows that the competency mapping carried on is not been effective till date. By looking at the graphs and tables it is quiet clear that the employees still are not up to the level of competent pool, they still have to be trained and made competent in order to fill the gap. Therefore the graphs make it quiet clear that, the potential of the employees is not up to the mark. Hence by further training and counseling this gap can be closed. Thus competency mapping should be more effective so that could affect the effectiveness and efficiency of the performance of the employees to a great extent.

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ANNEXURES

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COMPETENCY MAPPING QUESTIONNAIRE


I am a student of M P Birla Institute of Management, pursuing MBA Program. As a part of MBA curriculum, I have taken up a research project on "Competency Mapping and its effectiveness". In this connection, I need some information from you. Below is the questionnaire. Kindly give your responses to the questions in the questionnaire. I sincerely assure you that your responses will be kept strictly confidential and shall only be used for academic purpose. I shall greatly appreciate your cooperation in completing my research project. Ms Laxmi Hallikeri

1)

To what extent competencies affect productivity? Extremely great extent Great extent Some extent Neutral

2)

To what extent competency mapping affects the employee pool in the organization? Extremely great extent Great extent Some extent Neutral

3)

How would you rate his/her analytical skill? Excellent Good Average/satisfactory Dissatisfactory Poor

4)

How well he/she influences others on doing the job or getting the work done? Excellent Good Average/satisfactory Dissatisfactory Poor

5)

How well he/she executes your assigned work? Excellent Good Average/satisfactory Dissatisfactory Poor

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6)

Where do you rate your result orientation? 1 2 3 4

7)

Where do you rate his/her communication skills? 1 2 3 4

8)

If he/she is given a team lead where do you rate his/her supervision skills? 1 2 3 4

9)

How would you rate him/her in delegating the authority to the team members or subordinates? Excellent Good Average/Satisfactory Dissatisfactory Poor

10)

How well can he/she utilize the resources provided to him/her? Excellent Good Average/Satisfactory Dissatisfactory Poor

11)

Where do you rate him/her as far as working with your team is concerned? Excellent Good Average/Satisfactory Dissatisfactory Poor

12)

Where do you rate him/her as a leader? 1 2 3 4

13)

How well can he/she manage the cost and time? Excellent Good Average/Satisfactory Dissatisfactory Poor

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14)

Is he/she good in building relationship? Excellent Good Average/Satisfactory Dissatisfactory Poor

15)

How well can he/she take initiatives? Excellent Good Average/satisfactory Dissatisfactory Poor

16)

How much do you think he/she are dependable on others? Not at all dependent Some times dependant Always dependant

17)

To what extent he/she is innovative or is able to generate proposals or new ideas? To very great extent To great extent To some extent To less extent

18)

To what extent he/she is open to express his view and opinion? To very great extent To great extent To some extent To less extent

19)

Where do rate your as a positive thinker? 1 2 3 4

20)

What extent he/she is flexible to change? To very great extent To great extent To some extent To less extent

21)

Where do you rate your orientation towards service? 1 2 3 4

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22)

Where do you rate your assertiveness and self confidence? 1 2 3 4

23)

In a job how much is learning important to him/her? More important Important Less important

24)

Where do you rate your anticipation skills? 1 2 3 4

25)

Is he/she concerned for the organization and its well beings? Highly concerned Concerned Less concerned

THANK YOU FOR SPARING YOUR VALUABLE TIME IN GIVING YOUR RESPONSE

EXPLANATION OF RATINGS:
1= EXCEEDS THE REQUIREMENTS 2 = GENERALLY MEETS THE REQIREMENTS. 3 = BELOW THE REQUIREMENTS EXCEEDS THE REQUIREMENTS. 4 = WELL BELOW THE REQUIREMENTS

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BIBLIOGRAPHY Websites
www.google.com www.HR.com www.competencymapping .com www.toyotabharat.com www.shodhatoyota.com

Reference books
Personnel management -Latha Nair

Human Resource Management -Ashwatappa

Magazines and Journal


Human Capital on competency mapping.

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