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CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE PROBLEM OF STUDY
The chief examiner report of the West African examination council (W.A.E.C) Senior
Secondary Certificate/General Certificate of education on biology for the year
2000 to 2002 revealed that candidate’s performances has continuously
deteriorated.( Olatoye2004)
The problem of student poor performance and under achievement in secondary school
subjects have been a major source of concern and interest in the Nigerian
educational sector. Kolawole (2000), Okpala (2001) in physics and Anuka (2000) of
financial accounting all attest to the above facts in their work. According to
Anuka(2000)student’s credit passes in this subject within Zaria educational zone
stood at 42%,38%,35%and 32% from 1997 to 2000. Also, Oyetunji (1998) had reported
student’s credit passes at Ijebu-north local government of Ogun-state to be
14%,14%,7% respectively for 1995 to 1997.All of these researchers have come out
with one thing or the other to buttress the point.
Besides the point stated, their are other teething problems facing student from
poor teaching methods to antique and ancient content or knowledge due to
inadequate finding . In a UNICEF report of 1999, Nigeria was reported to have
allocated 3% of it’s annual income to education between 1990 and 1997 of the
twenty African countries sampled, Nigeria had the least allocation to the sector.
The situation has not improved significantly since then.
Amongst these, is the use of poor instructional aid, archaic text books in the
country. Information technology and intellectual capital are the economic driving
forces. The 21st century has bought with it the rise of knowledge economy. The new
student according to Bayrakter (2001) is rapidly transforming from one building a
tangible product to one of creating, leveraging and turning information into
knowledge to solve a problem or produce an outcomes. The new age is not
characterized by how much you know but how much you can learn (Tapscoth 1997). As
noted by Brown (2000) technology is the “Language” of the knowledge age and that
the classic three R’s of education are being supplemented by three T’s.
Technology, teaming and transference.
The use of ability to learn, manipulate a variety of computer based technologies,
are to work in diverse, virtual environments leads itself well to the transference
of knowledge and skills to a variety of anticipated areas and situation.
Boling(2002)
The use of these technologies will help enhance and even develop essential skills
of verbal and written communications, problem solving, information access and
management, decision-making, collaboration teaming and virtual production.
Students of these must be able to use virtual production software and other
graphics applications to form static complex information into dynamic, easily
understood data. Hence, the need for Computer Associated Instruction (CAI).

1.1.1 Science, Biology And Instruction


The problem of instructional strategies and learning designs that will
promote effective learning of science has been recognized by seasoned educators
(Meluham 1999; Meconnel 2000). These researchers have equally stressed the
importance of scientific and technological education.
Science instructions have become one of the most importance instruments for
attainment of rapid socio-economic, scientific and technological instruction is
noteworthy. Biology is a unique life subject which promotes the acquisition of
specialized science skills and knowledge. such skills and knowledge enhances some
special career opportunities and enable one to live a meaningful life in the
society.coley and cradler(1997)
Research in biology sciences has yielded the knowledge that provides the basic for
dispelling certain superstition beliefs which as improved tremendously
agricultural practices, most especially in the area of livestock and crop
production.
The study of biology has provided useful information that has formed the logical
basis for genetic counseling and provision of logical solution in certain cases of
disputed paternity. Specialized knowledge and technologies of biology have formed
the fundamental principles on which many diagnostic treatment are based and also
the logical basis for blood transfusion.
Biologists have designed and produces a number of artificial organs, hearth can
now be attached to one of patients’ arteries; a person blood can be oxygenated in
an artificial lung chamber; an artificial kidney can be attached to a patient’s
body to remove metabolic wastes from the blood.
Biology has demonstrated itself as one of the most versatile science disciplines
that can be made to respond to the need of the nation in difficult times. For
instance, it has been estimated that over 55% of Nigeria’s agricultural produce is
lost in the field to annual pests while 15% of this is lost to the storage pest
(FAO, 1999).
It is of interest to note that within the Nigerian context, pesticides have been
developed to confront pest (Williams, 2000). Despite the foregoing utilization
value of biology in the attainment of scientific and technological advancement of
any nation these are a number of intricate problems associated with biology
instructions. The problem with the teaching and learning of biology can not be
isolated from the overall science education problems and these in turn is highly
related and interwoven with the economic, social and political changes talking
place in society.
The instruction (organized teaching and learning) is an enabling process in which
the teachers task is to guide the students through experience in controlled
environment, allowing him to form his opinions, carryout self-evaluations and
enable him form his judgments. According to Okebukola, (1985). The teachers should
neither demand or obstruct into the process of learning, rather he/she should act
as a catalyst and create an enabling environment in which the student find it easy
and interesting.
Some associated it with ineffective teaching strategy (Oyekan, 1993) poor
utilization of learning resources (Oyedokun, 2000). These have lead to a number of
science educators to conclude that science subjects are not being successfully
taught in our schools (Lockheed, 2000, Udukwe, 2004, Osae, 2003).
In search of alternative and effective instructional strategies in place of the
traditional ones, an attempt is made to examine the area of computer instruction.
1.1.2 THE COMPUTER SYSTEM
The computer is an information technology (IT) that has been put into
effective use in the instructional system around the globe. It is a technology
that is composed of hard software which can be made to perform the following
functions:
a. Input data
b. Process data
c. Output of data
d. Storage of data
The output devises sends data into the Control Processing Unit (CPU) for storage
or processing, these includes Visual Display Unit (VDU), Keyboard, torch seven,
mouse light, pen, joystick, scanner microphone, e.t.c. The output systems are
devises displaying processed information. These includes printer VDU,
Loudspeakers, computer output to Microfilm (COM) e.t.c.
The auxiliary storage devises includes the hard disk, floppy disk, magnetic
tape e.t.c. these basically two types of computers; the digital and the analogue
type. The digital computer are the commonest type in market today and these are
four main categories of this based on physical size, speed, processing
capabilities, memory size, storage capability and cost. These include the
microcomputers, the mini-computer, the main frame and the super computer. Lowe2001
1.1.3 CAI (Computer Assisted Instruction) Is an automated instruction in which the
computer is used to deliver instruction to the teamed through interactive process
of the leaner and computer. The computer based instruction (CBI) has certain
unique characteristic which includes the following; learner controlled, self
pacing, prompt feed back, random access facilities adaptability, flexibility,
adjustability and facilities for revision. In the process of instruction the
computer assesses the initial competence of learners, diagnoses difficulties and
uses this to determine what the learner will engage in. the instruction progresses
on the basis of what each learner achieve at every stage, the set of criteria of
competence and available alternative instructional materials and media that can be
presented.
In the instructional design of computer package, special attention is usually paid
to the following:
a. The objective of the package
b. The CAI mode to be used
c. The learning sequence
d. The presentation of information and control of other peripheral by the
computer
e. The processing of the student responses by the computer.
1.1.4 Computer as an Instructional Tool
Instant learning occurs from the use of application programme tools such as
word processing, spreadsheet and filling programmes in instruction. Word
processing enable students to rework written language continuously without
tiresome task of have rewritten an entire page or making a mess of that page.
As student become skilled in word processing programme. Their Keyboard skills
advance and improve. The spreadsheet programmes teaches student the
interrelatedness of numbers and also the practicality of some mathematical
concepts used in every day life. (Lookhead, 2001); Kennaman (1998).
1.1.3.4 Computer Industrialized and Network Education System.
Computer education system can be in form of stand alone computer in which
individuals learn with a personal computer using computer educational software.
This can come in form of a system of inter-connected computer and terminals that
communicates with each other where many learners are learning interactively with
the Network programmes. It may be a Local Area Network (LAN) in which the network
connects computers and terminals located in an organization, nearby offices or
building.
It may also be Wide Area Network (WAN) in which the network connects computer and
terminals located in towns and countries wide apart. Students can respond to
computers through the typing of messages on the keyboard, indicating position of
particular information on the display screen through speech. Some systems can be
recognized and respond to standard commands system into the microphone. The
easiest form of responses students can make is to indicate position on screen.
(Lowe, 2001).
Many students can point to a particular point on the screen with light pen and the
computer can detect whose the pen is pointed. In the alternative, the students can
position the cursor of a particular point on the screen using the joystick or
mouse. If the learner needs help in a workstation he may send an on-line message
to the instructor or another learner in the network without disturbing others. The
instructor in turn can monitor the learner progress by electronically scanning the
display screen of a particular learner and can respond to the learner or
individual’s needs without disturbing and distracting other workers. Feedback is
given by sending the required assistant to the learner. If a particular learner is
working on a problem that may be of interest to the other workers in the networks,
the instructor may broadcast the display of the learner to every other workers in
the network. Udukwe (2004).
1.1.3.5 Computer-Based Instructions in Nigeria
Classroom computing is now a common feature all over the world (Barakter2001). In
Nigeria, the initial onslaught has been demonstrated in the private sector. The
use of microphones expanded greatly during 1980’s between 1981 and the end of the
decade. By 1985, many private individual and companies had purchased computer in
their educational institute. When government saw those treat, government
inaugurated a National Committee on Computer Education. The committee was charged
with the responsibility of producing a draft policy on computer education.
According to Gey, (2000), computer can be used to change biology teaching by
decreasing the time needed for procedural skills and increasing the time for
conceptual understanding, the importance of which has been realized by many
researchers and computer assisted instruction is no exception amongst others such
as (CAL) computer aided learning, (CML) computer managed learning.
There are experimental classroom where interaction with graphic software on
computer draw picture and play music. Also there are facilities in some
Universities in Japan where examination nervous students types in answer to
multiple choice questions at computer console.
Computer assisted instruction come into being in U.S.A and has been widely used as
instructional aids facilitating the attainment of existing goals via more or less
traditional education methods.
According to Bayrakter (2001), most programme of computer based instruction
evaluated in the past have produced position effects on student learning
attitudes. Further Programms for developing and implementing computer based
instruction should be encouraged similarly based on.
1.2 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
A review of literature Eniosho 2000; Omoniyi 2002) revealed learning by
rote practices in most schools, as one of the major factors hindering effective
science teaching in Nigeria. Other factors range from lack of opportunities for
learners to have a direct experience with instructional materials; the use of
ineffective learning strategies and lack of appropriate learning environment under
which science classes occur. (Ajewole, 2002)
More recent findings by the Intel Corporation and its local partner,
Technology Support Center (TSC) are in the forefront of promoting technology
enabled learning in the country. They opined that technology enabled learning like
the (CAI) Increase performance by 30% (Punch newspaper, April 13, 2008 pp. 24).
According to Dr. Armstrong talking, the founder of TSE, the software developed,
enables schools to do better manage by aggregating all the key information about
the student, the performance, the progress of students and tracking attendance as
well as other student related issues.
In other studies and literature it is deduced that microcomputers have
potentials to promote more active, effective and efficient learning in Biology and
in integrated science (Okebukola(1985) It is a stressed fact that the students
would learn more if they are involved in significant and appealing activities Hays
and Robinson (2000).Hence. the need for alternative teaching-learning methods
which increases performance of students in science. Moreover, the computer
assisted instruction if hinged on individualized learning (or programmed learning
instruction) where student can receive accurate and adequate information and
obtain immediate feedback.
From the literature review several efforts have been extended towards the
development of CAI for senior secondary school curricular.
However, relatively few efforts have been extended with regards to computer
assisted instruction as it affects student’s achievement in biology and teacher’s
preparing level. In Nigeria CAI is still scantly researched, the need for vigorous
and systematic enquiry into the potentialities of CAI in the Nigeria’s Educational
Settings.
1.3 PURPOSE OF STUDY
The main purpose of these research aims to examine whether one can enhance
student’s performance in biology and improve student’s attitude towards the use of
computer for learning biology.
1.4 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
This study seeks to examine the effect of computer assisted instruction on
students learning outcomes (achievement) in biology.
1.5 THE SCOPE AND LIMITATION
This study will be restricted to the influence of computer assisted
instruction (CAI) on student’s achievement in biology, to improve the quality of
education. It is limited to Senior Secondary Schools in Ijebu-North Ogun State of
which 2 at Ijebu Ode. Therefore, it does not give room for generalization.
However, it can be a useful guide to educational administrator and biology
teachers in Ogun State on how to make use of computer assisted instruction for
effective learning in biology.
1.6 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
I. Does CAI improve performance of students in biology?
II. Is the attitudes of student towards biology enhanced/affected after exposure
to these teaching methods?
1.7 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1. There will be no significant difference in the achievement of student in the
experimental and control groups.4
2. There will be no significant difference in the attitude of students (female)
in the practical biology.
3. There will be no significant differences in the attitudes of male and female
students in the experimental and control groups.
4. There is no significant difference between Christian and Muslim students
achievement in Biology.
5. There is no significant effect of treatment (CAI) on student achievement in
Biology.
6. There is no significant effect of gender on student’s achievement towards
Biology.
7 There is no significant effect of religion on student achievement in Biology
8. There is no significant effect of religion and gender on student achievement
in Biology.
9. There is no significant effect of gender and religion on students
achievement
10. There is no significant effect of student exposed to treatment and those in
the control group. There is no significant effect of religion on student
achievement in Biology.

1.8 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY


The potentialities inherent in CAI are enormous and are essential to educators,
learners and the government. An important aspect in the study of computer teaching
is that it enhances the understanding and improves learning in all spheres
(specifically biology)
To the educators which primary includes teachers, principals, researchers in
education, this project will serve as a pointer and give bearing to computer can
be harassed to teaching their various subjects
Student are equally not left out has they will realized from the research that
computer are potent motivators in learning. Thus, it helps and increases student’s
interest in learning and subject. The school authority or institution will
realized that the use of CAI is economically in relation to manpower needed in
schools for teaching.
The CAI will be able to carryout the work of more than two teachers effectively
with every sense of accuracy. Furthermore, CAI is important as it serves as
manager in classroom management in storing information such as names, scores,
addresses, attendance and so on.
Doctors who have previous experience with CAI will appraise its relevance and
encourage their words to attend institute where CAI is used. This is because the
report will further serve as an indicator and motivator for such actions.
The government will apply this finding of this research report by introducing the
used of CAI into various government institutions of higher learning. With the
inclusion of public secondary and primary schools, government offices e.t.c.
Government could be motivated to grant import license to import computer into the
country.
At this juncture, it is crystal clear that this project will reveal; to
researchers, educators and students and government, the influence of computer
assisted instruction (CAI) on effective and meaningful learning and equally
serving as an instructional media.
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS AND ABBREVIATION
Achievement: This is the immediate post test scores obtained by students on the
achievement test in biology (ATB).
Attitude: It refers to the subjects’ disposition towards biology problem solving.
Learning Outcomes: This refers to student’s attitude and achievement in biology.
Computer: This is a devices that is able to accept information and apply some
processing procedure to it and then provide feedback on the information fed into
it suitable form, to the user of the computer.
COMPUTER ASSISTED INSTRUCTION: (CAI)
It is an automated instructional technique in which a computer is used to present
an instructional programme text to the learner through an interactive process.
Conventional Method: it is an instructional technique in which the teacher
dominates the lesson. The lesson are prepared and taught by the teacher and it
includes introduction, presentation and conclusion.

CHAPTER TWO
2.0. LITERATURE REVIEW
This Literature study will be reviewed under the following heading.
2.1 INTRODUCTION
The importance of academic achievement in biology indicates that if successful, it
should be applauded. The limited amount of funding available to education requires
that no money should be wasted, computer assisted instruction is needed as a major
step forward in education. Billions of dollars have been spent on technology in
schools. The research on the effectiveness of computer assisted instruction on
academic achievement by traditional teaching method is spare and in some case, not
good quality (North central regional laboratory, 2004).
Proponents of computer of technology in education argue that it makes
learning easier, more efficient and more motivating (Schacter, 1999). Skeptics
argue that there is a lack of experiment data obtained under rigorous scientific
standard. An argument is made that if the experiment were done using a more
scientific method the instructional. The teacher via observations, quizzes and
tests determines mastery of the material.
Another argument made is that if the experiment were done using a more
scientific method the instructional method would prove to be the controlling
factor and not the media of the instruction(Clark, 1983, Neal 1998). This chapter
will provide information on the history of computer in education and cost
association with this technology. Finally, review of other research on the effects
of computer assisted instruction on student achievement will be provided.

2.2. BRIEF HISTORY OF COMPUTER IN EDUCATION


Computer use in class rooms has changed greatly since the inception of the
medium. The early computer assisted instructional software was developed by
Patrick suppes at Stanford systematically analyzed arithmetic courses and other
subject’s course. He designed highly structured computer systems that allowed for
learner feed bade, branching of the material answer student record keeping (Coburn
et al. 1982).
Before the early 1980’s computers were too expensive to be used in k-12
education (i.e. key stage 12level). The in production of Apple II and the Radio
shack TRS-SO allowed widespread use the computer was considered a subject area.
Computer were topic to be studied and of integrated into all areas of the
curriculum.
Students were taught computer literacy as well as BASIC computer language
(Kinnamen 1999). Then, the punctual uses of the computer were record keeping.
The late 1980’s saw a method reduction in the cost of computer schools began
to budget money for technology. Computers were still not fully implemented into
the curriculum due to money factors. Money was budgeted for factors training or
computer maintenance and limited software application for education were
available. The future need in the job place for skill associated is the use of
technology was not yet determined (Christman Badgett, 2000). The educational
community had only began to herald computers as being an effective teaching
methodology Christman & Badgelt, 2004.
The emergence of computer assisted instruction and incorporation of
technology into all aspect of the curriculum began in the early 1990’s. The
internet led to a quick proliferation of computer in the home. Students were more
comfortable using computer allowing for a great integration in to their day.
Computer assisted instruction zoom more beyond simple drill and practice and
became a software affair. Software became more effective and adaptive to each
individual students needs (Hayes & Robinson, 2000). The increased analysis
requirements caused a greater interest in computer-assisted instruction.
As more research was completed on student on student learning. It was
discovered that students benefit from the learning environment that computer
provided. The focus of computer use in the classroom to quality of learning.
Product based learning became more prevalent in the educational arena. Product
based learning has a project as part of the assignment such as a research paper or
presentation. (North Central Regional Laboratory).
2.3 MASTERY LEARNING
One of the basic for computer assisted instruction is the theory that every one
can learn given enough time and personal attention (Bloom, 1984). Bloom’s model of
mastery learning calls for students to receive individualizes instruction as
necessary until they master all the course material (Bloom, 2000). Mastery
learning does not focus on content, but on the process of mastering it. Major
objectives representing the course or until define mastery of the subject. The
material is divided into smaller, sequential organized until, such that it can be
easily absorbed. Mastery learning should include meandrous opportunities for feed
back to the brief diagnostic test or used the result of the diagnostic test are
used to determine supplemental instruction to help the students overcome problems.
The students must demonstrate mastery of the individual units before money on to
the other units (Huet 1996).
Another model of mastery learning is Keller’s personalized system of
instruction (Keller, 1968). Keller’s model has found distinguishing
characteristics. Firstly, the instructions presents the information utilizing,
more written materials that the traditional lecture method or conventional method.
Instead of the oral method of instead of the oral method of instruction the
teacher selects and creates appropriate ready material as well as provides the
students with the learning objectives and study questions. Secondly, students
finish assignment as their own pace. Thirdly, students must demonstrate their
mastery of objectives before they are allowed to proceed. Finally, the teaching
resources are devoted to helping students overcome their deficiencies (Kulik2002).
The concept of mastery learning has been further enhanced by the use of
computer in education. The computer allows for very individualized instruction.
Each child can work at his or her own pace. This is one of the cornerstones of
mastery learning (Vockhell 1990).
COMPUTER-ASSISTED INSTRUCTION
Computer-assisted instruction {CAI} is an educational medium in which a computer
delivers instructional contest or activities, the association for educational
communication and technology defined computer-assisted instruction as a method of
instruction in what computer is used to instruct the student and contains the
instruction designed to teach, guide and foot the student until a desires level of
proficiency a attained {association for educational communication and technology,
1997}. The level that computer assist the learning process varies among programme.
According to Parr (2003) student learn by interacting with the computer whilst
using computer assisted instruction.
The computer analyzes the student responses and suppler proper feedback to
the student. More advances software packages adjust the level and direction of the
instruction to best suit the individual needs.
There is a general belief that computer technology allows educator more
options for communicating, facilitating the lesson, and enhancing the teaching
learning process. Proponents claim that computer technology makes learning easier
more efficient and more motivating(Schacter &Fagnano, 1999)
These belief are supported by research that has found that learning with
computer-assisted instruction added to the traditional teaching methods produces a
high level of academic achievement that the conventional/traditional teaching
methods only {Fletcher- 1995}.
Traynor {2003} suggest that computer assisted instruction affect cognitive
process asses and increases motivation by the following ways.
- Personalizing information
- Animating objects on the screen
- Providing practices activities that incorporate challenge and curiosity
- Providing a fantasy of context
- Providing a learner with the choice of his/her own learning style.
These activities are found to increase personal satisfaction and promote a
positive perspective on lifelong learning (Kinzie, 1999). Parker and Lepper found
that a fantasy context such a computer Programms that produce an action packaged
game. Environment instead of simple rote recitation of facts increased learning by
placing the learner in a situation that was instruction motivating .Boiling and
Martin (2002).
Finally, providing student with a choice over their own learning provides
the learner with controlled instruction that greatly contributed to motivation
(Traynor2003).
Researcher first divided computer assisted instruction into four
subcategories through the works of and kulik(1991):kulik(2002) the fist is drill
and practice session. Researcher can be an addition to the drill and practice
method of the convention instruction through relevant practical exercise. Drill
and practices session provide feedback and practices on a topic. The computer can
provide different question to each at the proper development level. It can also
decrease the fore required for the lesson by grading and providing more
instantaneous feedback.
The second major category is tutorial session. The tutorial session/mode is
a method for presenting new information to the student and reinforcing it with the
appropriate question. The student interacts with the computer much as a student
would interact with a tutor in a one to one medium. Student’s grasps of the
material is measured and the computer then provides more instruction or remedial
based on his or her response.
The third category is games. Games are way to teach concepts such as
“Resuscitation of victim a smart board device for teaching biology. Game allow
students to learn respective material in different ways to elevate the tedium
The final category is simulation computers can be used to simulate scenarios
which student can experience seductions that are too dangerous or expensive for
real life. The sciences and fine arts benefit extensively from simulation software
(Larson, 2001).
A study by Kitsap on the effects of computer-desisted instruction on
language classes in Japan found several advantages to computer- assisted
instruction. The study was conducted by surveying them student attitude in English
classes. Xiao found that students study in a more active way when using a
computer. They students could not passively sit in class and listen to the
teacher. They were forced to be involved. Immediate feed back was indicated as one
of the major benefits of computer assisted instruction. The instruction is
individualized (since a student is to a computer). Each student progress at his/
her own pace (1998).
STUDIES OF THE EFFECTS OF COMPUTER ASSISTED INSTRUCTION
Research on the computer in education began in earnest in the 1960’s. The
book by schemer 1965, he states that using computer to teach could being
confidence in education of CAI to teach mathematics to K-12
Students are real hand to find (keeve k, 1994). A 1997 report Coley, Cradler and
Engel on the use of technology in the classroom was unable to etc on study on the
effectives of CAI using a control group. Government studies such as those
conducted by the National science foundation and the U.S, department of education
largest potential education from the use of technology in the classroom but acted
no research to support their conclusion (Crosby 2002)
A meta-analysis conducted during the 1970s assessed the effectiveness of drill and
practice ,problem solving simulations and tutorial assisted instruction plus
traditional instruction was more effected than traditional instruction alone
(Suppes and Well,1974) The study found that thee students at the elementary level
benefited from a combination of the traditional teaching methods with computer
assisted instruction. Another conclusion found in the study was that economically
disadvantaged students peers benefited to an ever greater extent academically from
their more affluent peers.
Lowe (2001)conducted a study involving junior high students. The study found that
computer –assisted instruction was the most effective instructional delivery
system compared to video alone. In 2000,a large project integrating technology
with curriculum was studied. The study involved grades one through eight .All
grades met the goals met the goals set forth in the study while several grades
exceeded the predicted increase.
John Kulik used meta-analysis to aggregate the findings from more than 500
individuals research studies of computer –based instruction. He drew several
conclusions from his 1994 work .Kulik determined that students who used computer
assisted instruction scored at the 64th percentile on the test of achievement
compared to students in the control condition s without computers who scored at
the 50th percentile. He also found that students learn more in less time when they
received computer-based instruction.
A meta analysis by Niemiec (1987) reviewed sixteen major studies between the
years 1978 and 1985. The study found the students received computer assisted
instruction as well as traditional scored at the 66th percentages on test of
advantages compared to the 50th percentages. The study suggested that CAI is
approximately twice effective as performing (Niemiec and Alalberg, 1987).
A study by Lafayette in Louisiana during the 1996 – 1997 school years and
released in 1998. Louisiana found that effective use of computer- assisted
instruction can be utilized with a minimum time. The school system has a program
that allows for pullet of low achieving students. The program allows students
utilize a computer assisted software program for ten minutes per day. After a
period of two months the school system found that the student using the program
had increased in mathematics achievement by a statistically significant level as
measured by a locally dependent (Johnson, 2000). Brown (2000) conducted one of the
more complete studies of the effects of computer assorted instruction on Learner
achievement. Brown conducted a scientific study of the effect of computer-
assorted instruction on biology achievement. The study was conducted in a large
urban North Carolina public school system. The system had an enrichment of
appropriate 100,000. Overall 427 of the students in the school system were blacks,
50%, where whites and 80% were from other racial and ethnic group. The study
divided the students in to two groups, an experimental group, used the CAI program
and a control group were not exposed to the CAI program. The study involved
students from three schools in eleven different classes. The software score all
the areas in mathematics except calculation and probability protest and protest
scores on the state and of grade examination for the student were collected using
the t-test if a significant difference was present, the study received that the
students who utilized CAI scored significantly larger than students who did not
participate. The algebra students using the CAI made 17% jumps in scores (Brown
2000)
A recent study by Traynor (2003) found that utilized CAI unproved instruction over
only using traditional method; the study compared the effects on many types of
learner including special education, non- English proficient and regular
education. The students should significant present and post- test gains (Traynor,
June 2003)
Another recent meta- analytic study on the effects of CAI found that students was
received instruction supplemented by CAI attained higher- academic achievement
than did 63.3% of those receiving only traditional instruction. The study was a
meta-analysis (Chrisman and Badgett 2003)
Some other study by Anderson (2001)conducted which was designed to investigate the
impact of a short computer assisted instruction(CAI)revealed that pupils scored
significantly higher too.
COST OF IMPLEMENTING/ ESTABLISHING THIS TECHNOLOGY
The use of computers in the classroom has increased tremendously in the last
few years. One study in 2001 by the united state department of education of
America schools indicates that today 60% of teachers use computer on a daily basis
in their classroom. This number is up from 22% in 1998 (Johnson 2000).
Greater use of technology in the classroom has taken place at a larger
financial cost. One study indicated that the school deific spear about $ 4.8
billion on instructional technology and $895 billion. This is a huge seem invested
and this is a pointer to the fact that if things are to change dramatically we
must say valued Investment. According to Omoniyi (2005) the 21st country classroom
must aligns with proven technology and achieve sporadic academic result and the
Government may be involved. An restricted 4.4 million competes are now in America
classroom. (Coley, cradler and Engel, 1997)
The maiden independent school descried a small rural school in central Texas has
spent over a million dollars grant and local funds over the past decade towards
teaching. It had three strategies in mind. These were:
• Technical training assurance for teaches
• Thread and integrate classroom technology
• Attain 90% above for all students in the area of the Texas assessment of
knowledge and skills (TAKS) math’s test.
In setting up technology such as the computer instruction, certain facts are
to be considered such as technical support, connectively, power, and software.
Among this training of staffs is highly essential.
Technical support is one considerable in implementing cost of technology. By
its very technology is rapidly changing and becoming outdated school system must
provide proper finding to maceration and replace computer technology as it becomes
in operable or absolute. (Fitzgerald, 1999).
One other area of consideration is connectivity. Enough funds must be
budgeted in order to ensure proper bandwidth to proper puncturing. The system
must be retrofit and take advantages of the latest advancements in the interest,
as well as local area networks. (Fitzgerald, 1999)
A good example of schools with top shape technology is grange schools
(Ikeja, G.R.A) Nigeria. This disposition is common amongst international private
schools compared to their public counterparts.
According to quality research networks, billions of dollars have been spent
on computer and related. This number as been on the rise of about 22% since
then.(Johnson 2000).
Recently conducted was a research showing position of relationship between
the use of computer assisted instruction and student achievement. (Chrisman and
Budget, 2003, Brown, 2000). Trautman work in 2003 suggested further that more
scientific work should be utilized and maximized in the studies on computer
assisted instruction (Trautman,2002). Dr. Tony cong, founder of TSC said recently
in (Punch April 13.2002 pg.24) software enable schools to be better managed by
aggregating all the keys information about student, the performance tracking
attendance and other student issues.
THE CONCEPT OF COMPUTER ASSISTED INSTRUCTION:
According to Charles (2006),a range of computer are arranged together (CAI based
packages)with the aim of providing interactive instruction usually in specific
subjects area like mathematics and biology. Brown(2000) conducted a complete
studies on the effect of computer assisted instruction in large Urban area in
California public schools. The system had an enrolment of approximately 100,000
over
42% of the students in the school were black,50% were white while 8% were from
other racial groups. His study comprised of students in two groups: The
Experimental and the control group of which the experimental group were exposed to
treatment of CAI while the control was not exposed.

2.4 USE OF COMPUTER ASSISTED INSTRUCTION


A much recent study by Traynor found that utilizing computer assisted
instruction improved instruction over the conventional methods comparing the
effects on learners including special education students showed significance
pretest gains (Traynor, June 2003).
A growing body of research indicates that technology in the classroom can be
useful in pedagogy management (Hages and Robinson, 2000)
In fact, the emergence and widespread use of technology has created a defined
atmosphere in the classroom. Through it’s use (i.e computer assisted instruction
into various causes, was enhanced courses and multimedia enhance presentations
students are stimulated with a sustained interest (Bassey, 2000; Hayes and
Robinson, 2000
BENEFIT AT A GLANCE
Text, sound, motion, picture and discussions can be made available to learners 24
hours a day at computer connected to the internet. Thus both students and faculty
are free from constructing schedules.
Access to a variety of instructional media at one website can help accommodate
differences in the way student can learn.
Programms developed at one media school can be used of other media school of
difference composes of the same media school with minimal concern about machines
or software capability.
Storing an instructional programme on a single, central server enable all student
content current, and up till date if expand material when necessary.
Drill and practice: The computer provides the student with exercises that
reinforce the learning of specific skills taught in the classroom, and supplies
immediate feedback on the correctness of the response. Used in this manner, CAI
functions as a supplement to regular classroom instruction, and may be especially
useful when a teacher does not have the time to work individually with each
student. Drill and practice on the computer may also motivate students more than
traditional workbook exercises.
Tutorial: Tutorial CAI provides some information or clarifies certain concepts in
addition to providing the student with practice exercises. In this sense, the
computer begins to take over actual instructional functions, tailored to the
student’s individual level of achievement.
Dialogue: With this type of computer use, the student takes an active role in
interacting with the computer, giving instructions in the form of a computer
language so as to structure the student’s own curriculum. The computer provides
information, exercises, and feedback. Dialogue CAI is believed to come closest to
actually substituting for regular instruction
The verdict for the use of computers in education seems to be in. As stated by the
National Center for Education Statistics (NCES):
Computers have become an essential tool in our society. Early exposure to
computers may help students gain the computer literacy that will be crucial for
future success in the workplace. Access to computers at school and at home allows
students to retrieve information, manipulate data, and produce results efficiently
and in innovative ways. Examining the extent to which students have access to
computers at school and at home may be an indicator of how well-prepared students
will be to enter an increasingly technological workplace. (NCES, 1999a,
Soon after the introduction of CAI, educational researchers began to develop
evaluation studies to answer this question. Although these evaluation studies
produced potentially useful information on the effects of CAI, their messages were
shrouded in ambiguity. One reason for unclear messages was that each evaluation
report was published separately, making the total picture somewhat murky.
Another problem had a deeper and more serious nature. These evaluation studies
were never exact replications of one another. They differed in experimental design
and execution, setting, and the type of computer applications investigated. To
confound matters, evaluation findings or results tended to differ from one
investigation to another. Findings from different studies differed from each
other, with some studies producing contradictory results. As well, many of the
reviews are typically narrative and discursive in presentation, resulting in their
multiplicity of findings not capable of being absorbed by the reader without
quantitative methods of reviewing .

2.5 APPRAISAL OF LITERATURE


From the write-ups so far ,some of the topics in question has been stated both in
the literature review and in the expressions in relation to the effect of
computer assisted instruction towards students achievement and attitude in
biology.
The attitude of students is greatly affected by several factors ranging from
teacher’s motivation, poor attitude towards teaching, style and methodology of
teachers, access to modern technology, lack of trained personnel, social economic
background, gender inequality amongst others.
Others as it relates with CAI include cost of establishing the laboratory and the
implementation of the policy. Many times the implantation often meets with brick
walls as the case may be.
Taking a look at the aforementioned, gender inequality for instance, is key as it
borders on the mind as they ponder on these daily. The girl child is relegated to
the background while the male child are often considered superior and of more
value than the male child and there is also a school of thought that believe male
students perform better than female students. Gender issues have no doubt become
the bane of discourse as a result of the gross imbalance in the society at large.
All of this are vital as it affects the attitude of students towards the subject
(i.e. biology)

CHAPTER THREE
METHODOLOGY
3.0 RESEARCH DESIGN
This study was designed with the purpose of proving and disproving the prelateship
in which one can manipulate the variable of computer assisted instruction.
3.1 POPULATION OF THE STUDY
The population of this study covers students in SSS2 i.e. Senior Secondary School
in Ijebu-North & Ijebu-Ode Local Government
3.2 SAMPLING AND SAMPLING PROCEDURE
The sample was made up of 100 students randomly selected from four co-educational
secondary schools in Ijebu-North Local Government of Ogun State. Simple Random
Sampling procedure was used in the selection. The sample was made up of 100
students which consist of 51 female and 49 female and 49 male randomly selected.
3.3 RESEARCH INSTRUMENT
A two sample treatment, pre-test, post-test design was used instrumentation.
The instrument used for this study was three types:
a. Biology Achievement Test (BAT)
b. Questionnaire on students attitude towards biology
BIOLOGY ACHIEVEMENT TEST (BAT)
The instrument used was developed in order to measure student’s achievement
skeleton and supporting tissues in biology.
3.4 REALIABILITY OF INSTRUMENT
The reliability of the instrument was done through a pilot test. A test-retest
method was adopted and a correlation coefficient of 0.73 was obtained. This is an
indication that the instrument is quite reliable.
3.5 VALIDITY OF THE INSTRUMENT
Content Validity: The research instrument covers the effect of computer assisted
instruction on students achievement and attitude towards biology in senior
secondary schools.
Face Validity: The instrument used for this study was subjected to assessment by
my project supervisor. Some items agreed while others disagreed
Administration of Instrument: In the randomly selected schools, the questionnaires
were applied one by one to each student separately. The purpose of the
questionnaire was explained to them for objectivity. This made the respondents
respond positively and their response reliable and objective.
The results obtained were scored as follows:
Strongly Agree - 1 point
Agree - 2 points
Disagree - 3 points
Skeleton and supporting tissues in biology.
SECTION A
This consisted of the personal/demographic data of the subjects involved,
(the biology students) their names etc.
SECTION B
It consisted of 40 items on the four sub-concepts to be taught during the
treatment period. The sub-concepts are axial, appendicular skeleton. All the items
were drawn inline with Bloom’s taxonomy of cognitive domains and educational
objectives, as shown in the table of specification below. From the table of
specification, equal number of items survived scrutiny to evaluate knowledge,
comprehension, application, analysis. Instrument was administered separately on
the respondents which was separately administered and collected back fro data
analysis.

3.6 TABLE OF SPECIFICATION


CONCEPT/SUB CONCEPTS KNOWLEDGE COMPREHENSION APPLICATION ANALYSIS
SYNTHESIS EVALUATION TOTAL NOS OF ITEM

Strongly - 4 points
The points gotten from each respondents were summed up to get the total points for
each of the respondents

3.7 METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS


In an effort to appraise the Effect of Computer Assisted Instruction on students
achievement and attitude towards biology. Descriptive statistics involving mean,
standard deviation scores frequency counts, were used to describe the sample bio
data. Also, the inferential statistics of t-test at 0.05 significance level was
used to test all the hypothesis for the study.
METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION
The instrument was administered on Senior Secondary School Students by the
researcher to collect the necessary information required. 100 questionnaire were
distributed to the students and all the questionnaires were retrieved with a
return rate of 98%. The collection of data was done by the researcher with the
assistance of other teachers.
CHAPTER FOUR
DATA ANALYSIS
4.0 INTRODUCTION
Research question involving main and interaction of treatment (CAI), gender
and religion.
4.1 RESEARCH QUESTION ANALYSIS
Analysis covariance of post-test means scores by treatment, gender and religion of
achievement in Biology.
Test between subject factors.
Table 4.1 ANCOVA of the main and interactive effect of treatment, gender and
religion on student’s achievement.

SOURCE TYPE III SUM OF SEQUENCE DF MEAN SQUARE F SIG.


Corrected Model 1032.781 8 166.56 9.901 .000
Intercept 2312.305 1 2312.305 137.420 .000
Pre-test 42.544 1 42.574 2.530 .115
Treatment 842.871 1 842.871 50.192 .000
Gender 89.736 1 89.736 2.530 .115
Religion 16.859 1 16.859 1.002 .320
Treatment *gender 4.736 1 18.500 .281 .597
Treatment *religion 18.500 1 32.798 1.099 .297
Gender* religion 32.798 1 .447 1.947 .116
Treatment*Gender .442 1 16.827 0.27 .871
Error 1531.219 1
Total 6738.000 100
Corrected total 2864.000 99

4.2 TITLE OF TABLE 1


ANCOVA OF MAIN INTERACTION EFFECTS OF TREATMENT, GENDER AND RELIGION ON STUDENTS
ACHIEVEMENT IN BIOLOGY.
In table 4.1 above i.e. the use of Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI)
significantly affects the students achievement in Biology (f=50.092, P≤0.05). This
implies that the case of CAI significantly affect student achievement in Biology.
Likewise grader alone significantly affect student achievement in Biology.
Likewise grader alone significantly affect student achievement in Biology
(E=5.333, P≤0.05). This implies that student achievement in Biology is
significantly affected by gender.
Religion does not affect student achievement in Biology (F=1.002, P≥0.05).
This means that student achievement in Biology is not sensitive to religion.
Treatment and gender when combined together does not significantly affect
students achievement in Biology (F=0.281 P≥0.005). Thus, in the use of CAI, gender
should not be taken into consideration i.e the use of CAI is not sensitive gender.
Likewise it is not sensitive to religion. As treatment and religion do not
also significantly influence students achievement in Biology (F=1.099, P≥0.05)
gender and religion do not also affect students achievement in Biology
(F=1.949P≥0.05)
At 3 level treatments, gender and religion do not significantly interact to
affect student’s achievement in Biology. (F=0.027P≥0.05). This implies that in the
use of CAI the instructor does not need a control for gender and religion. PAIR
WISE COMPARISM.
Table 4.2 comparism of experimental and control group of student’s achievement in
Biology.
TREATMENT TREATMENT (J) MEAN DIFFERENCES STD ERROR SIG
Control group Experimental CAI group -6.723 .950 .000
Experimental CAI Control 6.763 .950 .000
Mean (experimental) = 28.589, mean (control) =21.866, P≤.005. There is significant
difference between the experimental group and control students achievement in
Biology. The experimental group formed significantly better than control group.
Thus, the use of CAI to a great extent enhanced students achievement in Biology

Table 4.3 Comparism of male and female students achievement in Biology.


GENDER MEAN DIFFERENCE (I.J) STD ERROR SIG. 95% CONFIDENCE INTERNAL
DIFFERENCE
Female Male -2.1214 .928 Lower Upper
Bond
Male Female 2.214 .928 -3.984 -3.00
0.300 3.984

Based on estimated Marginal. Mean (Female) =24.157, Mean (Male) 26.299, P ≤ .005.
In the table above, there is significant difference between achievements of male
students compared to the female students in Biology. Male students performed
significantly better than the male counterparts. The mean achievement of male
students in Biology’s 28.299 while that of the female students is 24.157
4.3 COMPARISM OF CHRISTIAN AND MUSLIM STUDENTS ACHIEVEMENT IN BIOLOGY
RELIGION RELIGION MEAN DIFFERENCE STD ERROR LOWER BOUND UPPER BOUND
Muslim Christian .699 .320 -0.885 2.684
Christian Muslim .-899 .320 -2684 .885
Hence there is no significant difference between Biology achievement. The
mean achievement of Muslims students in Biology is 25.677 while that of Christian
performed equally well in Biology.

CHAPTER FIVE
SUMMARY, DISCUSSION, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.0 INTRODUCTION
This chapter presents the summary, discussion of findings suggestion for
further studies, conclusion and recommendations
5.1 SUMMARY
In the previous chapter treatment alone as shown in the table significantly
affects students’ achievement in Biology (F=50.092, P≤0.05). This implies that the
use of CAI significantly affects students achievement. Likewise for gender
(F=5.333, P≤0.05). This implies that students achievement in Biology is
significantly affected by gender.
Religion does not significantly affect students achievement in Biology (F=1.002,
P≥.005). This means that students achievement in Biology is not sensitive to
religion.
Treatment and gender when combined together does not significantly affect
student’s achievement in Biology (F-0.281P≥0.005). Thus, in the sue of CAI, gender
should not be taken into consideration i.e the use of CAI is not sensitive gender.
Likewise it is not sensitive to religion. As treatment and religion do not also
significantly influence students achievement in Biology (F=1.009, P≥0.05). Gender
and religion do not also affect student’s achievement in Biology. (F=1.949,
P≥0.05).
At 3 level treatment, gender and religion do not significantly interact to affect
student’s achievement in Biology (F=0.027, P≥0.05). This implies that in the use
of CAI the instructor does not need a control for gender and religion. Success in
Biology is central to a good education in today.
5.2 DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS
This discussion of the findings is presented in this chapter in relation to the
research hypothesis.
Research Hypothesis 1
There was no significant effect of treatment (CAI) on student achievement in
Biology. And it was found out that treatment alone has significant effect on
student’s achievement in Biology. (F=50.092, P≤0.05). This implies that the use of
CAI significantly affects student’s achievement. According to Hayes and Robinson
(2000): Lowe (2001) technology enhanced learning was a cure for most education
problems particularly one experienced in the conventional environment. Dr. Tanyang
Armstrong. (Punch April 13 2008 pg 24) further agreed by declaring that packages
such as the Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) enhanced learning by 30%.
Research Hypothesis 2
The research hypothesis states there is no significant effect of gender on
students achievement in Biology. (F=5.333, P≤.005). This implies that students
achievement in Biology this was in contrast with the findings of Ogunkola (2005)
who insist that there is a need to be gender sensitive. However this is different
with the CAI package.
Research Hypothesis 3
There is no significantly affect religion of students achievement in
Biology. Religion itself does not affect or impact on students achievement in
Biology (F=1.002, P.0.05). This implies that students achievement in Biology is
not sensitive to religion.

Research Hypothesis 4
The research hypothesis states “Treatment and gender will not have a significant
effect on students achievement in Biology.
From the findings in the data analysis, F = 0.0281, P≥0.05). This shows that
treatment and gender are considered together there will be no significant effect.
However this is different when gender is considered typically alone. This tends to
contradict the finding of Ogunkola who opined the need to be gender sensitive
although in the absence of treatment. Therefore CAI will work irrespective of
treatment or gender.
Research Hypothesis 5
Treatment and religion will not have any significant effect on student
achievement in Biology. From the data, (F=1.099, P≥0.05). This shows likewise that
CAI is not sensitive to religion as treatment and religion does not significantly
influence students achievement in Biology.
Research Hypothesis 6
There is not significant effect of gender, treatment and religion in
students achievement in Biology with the score where F=1.949, P≥0.05). Therefore
the does not affect CAI nether inferences the achievement of students towards
Biology.
Research Hypothesis 8,9 AND 10
There is no significant difference between Biology achievement of students
exposed to Computer Assisted Instruction and students in the control group.
There is no significant difference in Biology achievement of Muslim and
Christian students.
There is no significant difference between male and female students in
Biology.
At 3 level treatment, gender and religion do not interact to affect
generally students achievement in Biology. This is expressed by the graphical
expression in page four. This implies that in the use of CAI the instructor does
not need to control for gender and religion.
5.3 CONCLUSION
In conclusion it must be clarified here that Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI)
is an e-learning package, designed with the of increasing and enhancing students
performance and achievement in Biology and not meant to replace classroom teachers
but rather simplify their work, thereby increasing there worth.
It is expected that the treatment gives its support by further making it’s
presence much more felt in these aspect, providing financial and human resources.
The Ministry of Education should also ensure that the CAI package is harmonized
into the revised curriculum coordinating regular workshops and seminar for
teachers to imbibe its use. With the result of this findings, I strongly believe
this will be an eye-opener to all stakeholders and professional reluctant to adapt
electronic learning.
5.4 RECOMMENDATIONS
In the light of the findings made in the study, it is suggested that arrangement
be put in place to correct the attitude of students towards Biology and further
encourage the sue of Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI). This can be done through
workshops, seminars the print and electronic media e.t.c.
It is further suggested that conscious efforts be made at providing. Conducive
learning environment that is interactive, colorful and unique. This will to a
great extent increase student’s interest in the subject making learning very
practical, interesting and fascinating.
The National Institute of Teachers (NTI) should incorporate these package where
the need arises into the courses of the teacher’s institute, alongside seminars
and workshops for teachers so as to improve there disposition towards the subject
and familiarizing them with the technicalities and methodology involved. The same
advice goes for curriculum planners’ professionals, stakeholders, policy makers,
school administrator.
This will certainly change the perspective of students towards biology (i.e create
positive attitude) motivating students, interest and improving their performance.

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OLABISI ONABANJO UNIVERSITY


FACULTY OF EDUCATION
DEPARTMENT OF CURRICULUM STUDIES AND INSTRUCTIONAL TECHNOLOGY
TOPIC: THE EFFECT OF COMPUTER ASSISTED INSTRUCTION TOWARDS STUDENTS ATTITUDE AND
ACHIEVEMENT IN BIOLOGY

Dear Respondents,
This questionnaire is designed for research purpose. It is purely on
academic structure to collect information on the attitude of students as
determinates of student achievement in biology. So please feel free to answer
frankly and sincerely, as your response shall be treated confidentially.
QUESTIONNAIRE FOR STUDENT ATTITUDE TOWARDS BIOLOGY (QSATB)
SECTION A (PERSONAL DATA)
Please respond to all items below as candidly as possible.
Complete the blank spaces and tick ( ) for appropriate options.
Name of school:……………………………………………………………
Sex: Male Female
Class:………………………………………………………………………..
Age:………………………………………………………………………….
Religion: Christianity Islam
SECTION B
In this section, please tick ( ) the response that is most applicable to you,
use any of this.
SA - Strongly Agree
A - Agree
D - Disagree
SD - Strongly Disagree

FACTORS AFFECTING ATTITUDE OF PRACTICAL BIOLOGY AS PERCEIVED BY THE STUDENTS


S/N STATEMENT SA A D SD
1. I hate practical work because I hate dissecting
2 I prefer theoretical aspect of teaching because I hate drawing and slide
preparation.
3. Our biology teacher does not teach enough practical.
4. I prefer practical work to theoretical work because it allows me to study
more on what has been done in the class.
5 Too much practical work makes me to hate biology
6 The time allocated for practical is not sufficient for me.
7 I hate biology because of experimental setting up
8 I don’t like biology itself because they syllabus is too wide.

9 Biology appears difficult because our teacher does not make use of examples
in the vicinity.
10 Our biology laboratory is not large enough to contain all member of my
class.
11 Specimen and equipments are inadequate in the laboratory during practical
biology.
12. Male students are more favourably disposed to practical than female.

13 I prefer individual practice because I will be able to concentrate on my


work.
14 Our biology teacher does not allow us to ask question during the practical
work.
15 I prefer group work practical because my friends do almost all the work.

16 Our biology teacher is lazy the way he/she goes about the practical work.

17 We are not opportune to use the practical equipments often.

18 Lack of follow up reading let students fail biology


19 Improper guidance by teacher during practical cause me to stay away from
practical class.
20 Most of the textbooks available on biology are too difficult to read and
understand.
21 Most of the textbooks available on biology are too difficult to read and
understand.
The table 1 above revealed the factors affecting student’s attitude towards
practical in Biology.

S/N STATEMENT SA A D SD
1. The learning of biology is always a difficult exercise.
2 Many biology terms and topics are too technical or difficult to learn.
3.
4 Lack of interest in biology is largely due to the problem of fear of
biology.
5 Biology syllabus is too extensive to be covered.
6 I prefer other subjects to biology.
7 The poor methods of teaching, causes my lack of interest in biology.

8 My teachers seem to know the subject well.


9 I like biology but my teachers do not encourage me
10 Teachers are always theoretical in their teachings.
11 Poor scheduling of biology class hinders my interest in the subject.

12 Difficult in taking examinations is a problem to me in biology.

13 Examinations do not fairly evaluate my knowledge of biology as a subject.

14 Inability to dram perfectly well affects my performances in biology.

15 Lack of parental support affects my performance in biology.

16 Lack of relevant text books affects my performance in biology.

EFFECT OF COMPUTER ASSISTED INSTRUCTION AND SIMULATION ON STUDENTS ACHIEVEMENT IN


BIOLOGY
BIOLOGY ACHIEVEMENT TEST
SUBJECT: BIOLOGY
TIME ALLOWED: 45 MINUTES
CLASS SSII
SEX:
AGE:
1. The skeleton is the bony………… of the body (a) Frame work (b) Body work (c)
Hind work (d) Central work
2. The skeletal system is divided into …. parts (a) 3 (b)4 (c) 2
3. There are …… forms of skeletal materials in animals (a) 2 (b) 6 (c) 3 (d) 5
4. The two major components of the skeletal system are …… (a) Axial &
appendicular (b) Basal & Axial (c) Appendicular & Basal
5. The axial skeleton is divided into …. Components (a) 3 (b) 4 (c) 6 (d) 2
6. The axial skeleton components are ….. (a) Skull, thoratic cage, vertebral
column (b) Brain, spine, skull (c) Brain, thoracic cage, and spine.
7. The functions of skeleton in man includes … (a) Support (b) Protection (c)
Movement (d) all of the above.
8. ……. is a region where two or more bones meet (a) Joint (b) Socket (c) Pivot
(d) Slide
9. Joins are held together firmly by … (a) Wore (b) Ligament (c) Fibres (d)
Articulate.
10. The two main types of joints in mammals are… (a) Immovable and fixed joints
(b) Immovable & movable joints (C) Fixed joints and immovable joints (d) removable
& Movable joints.
11. The appendicular skeleton is made up of the: (a) Pectoral girdles (b) Pelvic
girdles (c) limbs (d) all of the above
12. The bone is made up of all the following except ………... (a) Living & Non
living cells (b) hard substances (c) Mineral salts (d) None of the above.
13. Examples of organisms with exoskeleton include except …. (a) Euglena,
paramecium, hydra (c) lizard, birds, mammals (c) Fishes, toads, lizards (d)
mammals, snails, lizards.
14. Examples of organisms with hydrostatics skeleton are …. (a) Earthworm,
anemones (b) Crayfish, fishes (c) Tapeworms, earthworm, (d Hydra, anemones.
15. The ball and socket joints are found in the ……… region (a) Shoulder and hip
(b) Elbow & Knee (c) Pivot (d) all of the above.
16. Examples of gliding joints are found at the ……. (a) Wrist & Ankle (b) Elbow
and Knee (c) Shoulder & Hip (d) Skull
17. Exoskeleton is the type of skeleton which is found ….. the body (a) Inside
(b) Outside (c) Covered
18. Chitim is a non-living substance which ………………… the outer part of the body
(a) layered (b) covered (c) inside (d) outside
19. ……………. Are examples of organism which posses cartilages (a) Shark & Mammals
(b) Lizards & Snakes (c) Toad and frogs (d) all of the above.
20. There are ……. type so cartilages in mammals (a) 3 (b) 5 (c) 6 (d) 3
21. Vertebrate are organisms mainly with ……. (a) Hind bone (b) backbone (c)
Pivot (d) Glide joint
22. Cartilages are ………… (a) Tissues found in the skeleton (b) made up of soft
substances (c) made up of living cells (d) all of the above
23. Bones are ….. (a) made up of soft substances (b) are flexible tissues (c)
made up of living and non-living cell (d) mainly of mineral salts
24. The brain is located at the ……….…. Region of the skull (a) Upper (b) lower
(c) back (d) front.
25. In mammals the thoratic region is found at the ..… region (a) Neck (b) chest
(c) tail (d) non of the above.
26. Joints where two or more meet in such a way that make movement possible are
called ….. (a) Immovable joints (b) Fixed joints (c) mobile joint (d) movable
joints
27. Joints are fixed by ligaments in which movement of bones are impossible are
called …… (a) fixed joint (b) suture (c) movable (d) none of the above.
28. Where is pelvic girdle found in man? (a) waist (b) rib (c) chest (d)
brain.
29. There are …. Main types of movable joints (a) 5 (b) 6 (c) 4 (d) 8
30. Which of these, is not an example of movable joints. (a) ball and
socket (b) pelvic girdle (c) Pivot joint (d) hinge joint.
31. Thoratic vertebrate in man are … in number (a)12 (b) 15 (c) 20 (d) 18
32. The cervical vertebrate are found in the …….…. Region. (a) head (b) neck (c)
chest (d) none of the above.
33. The functions of the skull includes all the following except …. (a)
Protection of the brain (b) gives shape to the head (c) boars the teeth which aid
grinding (d) respiration.
34. The 3 forms of skeleton are (a) Endoskeleton, exoskeleton and hydrostatic
(b) Appendicular, axial and basal (c) Endoskeleton, exoskeleton and axial (d) none
of the above.
35. The skeletal materials are ….. (a) Cartilage, tendon, ligaments, (b) tendon,
tissue, cuticles (c) cuticles, bones, cartilages (d) bones, tissue, ligaments.
36. All these are true about cartilage except (a) Acts as shock absorber (b) has
tensile strength (c) tough and flexible tissue (d) made of hard substances
37. Bones are made of the following except (a) Mineral Salts (b) Stronger and
rigid tissue (c) living and non-living cells (d) Mainly living cells
38. Identify the object below

The symbol A represents (a) Neural canal (b) Neural spine (c) Centrum
39. The symbol B represent (a) Vertebrate canal (b) Neural arch (c) Neural
40. Identify the structure above
(a) Lumbar and thoratic (b) Sacral and Cervical vertebral (c) Thoratic and
vertebral (d) Centical Vertebral.
THE EFFECT OF COMPUTER –ASSISTED INSTRUCTION ON STUDENTS ACHIEVEMENT IN BIOLOGY IN
IJEBU-NORTH AND IJEBU-ODE LOCAL GOVERNMENT, OGUN STATE

BY

OJIEKERE DANIEL OLUWADAMILARE


MATRIC NO: 03047770

A PROJECT SUBMITTED TO THE DEPARTMENT OF CURRICULUM STUDIES AND INSTRUCTIONAL


TECHNOLOGY, FACULTY OF EDUCATION.

OLABISI ONABANJO UNIVERSITY, AGO-IWOYE, OGUN STATE IN PARTIAL FULFILMMENT OF THE


REQUIREMENTS FOR THE AWARD OF BACHELOR DEGREE IN EDUCATION (B.SC) (ED) BIOLOGY

NOVEMBER 2008.

CERTIFICATION

I certify that this project study was carried out by OJEIKERE DANIEL OLUWADAMILARE
in the Department of CSIT/Biology, Faculty of Education, Olabisi Onabanjo
University under my supervision.

---------------------------- ----------------------------
DR. (MRS.) B.D OLUDIPE DATE
SUPERVISOR

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
The journey to true success requires the help of others along the way. I am a
product of the input, investment, encouragement, criticism, and the advice of many
individuals whom I have been privileged to meet along the way in life.
I would like to start by acknowledging the support of my supervisor, Dr.
(Mrs.) Bimbo Oludipe who made out time to direct, correct and encourage me at the
crucial part of this study. Like a good coach she had a way of removing the
reproach. Thank you.
I must also thank the members of my family especially my parents, Mr. and
Mrs. Ojeikere for their moral, spiritual and financial support. You are the best
in the world. To my only brother Toyin. It is not what you don’t have that slows
you down but what you have and have not used. I believe in you, be the best!
To my friends, Eniola, Samsonsony, Bode God bless you.
And to all others whose names I cannot remember you are loved and blessed.
Thanks .

DEDICATION
To the resilient human spirit buried under centuries of oppression and
inhumane treatment screaming for freedom, (O.O.U) students to express it’s true
potential.
To generations destined to go beyond the attainment of degrees, to impacting the
whole of the human race.
To the generation destined to go beyond deliverance into the land of true freedom
to experience the fullness of God’s purpose and plan for mankind.

ABSTRACT
This study was carried out to investigate the “Effect of Computer Assisted
Instruction on Students achievement and attitude towards biology”. This study was
a descriptive type of research. Ten research hypothesis were tested at 0.05 level
of confidence. The sample was made up of 100 students (51 females, 49 males) drawn
from four co-educational secondary schools in Ijebu-North and Ijebu-Ode Local
Government Area in Ogun State.
A 20 items questionnaire on student’s attitude towards biology was used for data
collection, titled “Questionnaire on Student’s Attitude towards Biology (QSAB).
And 40 items of (BAT) Biology Achievement Test were used to collect data was from
the respondents. Statistical analysis was used to test for the hypothesis drawn.
The statistical method was the inferential statistics of t-test ANACOVA, and using
SPSS the findings revealed that:
There is no significant effect of treatment (CAI) on student achievement in
Biology.
There is no significant effect of gender on student’s achievement towards
Biology.
There is no significant effect of religion on student achievement in Biology
There is no significant effect of religion and gender on student achievement
in Biology.
There is no significant effect of gender and religion on students
achievement
There is no significant effect of student exposed to treatment and those in
the control group. There is no significant effect of religion on student
achievement in Biology.
There is no significant difference between Christian and Muslim students
achievement in Biology.
There is no significant effect between male students and female students
exposed student’s achievement in Biology.
Based on the findings, it was recommended that there should be future studies to
reinforce the claim that CAI has a positive impact on student achievement it is
equally suggested that the classroom sequence of classroom curriculum be allowed
to align without the use of CAI, using its tutorial package. This will increase
student’s performance and remove the frustration on teachers.
Also the government should make donations of computer laboratory to increase
student’s interest in the given subject. There is no significant effect of
religion on student achievement in Biology.
Lastly, to improve the efficiency and effectiveness in teaching and learning
process the CAI package should be improved upon by all professionals concerned
with all these we shall all be better for it.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
CERTIFICATION I
DEDICATION II
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT III-IV
ABSTRACT V-VI
TABLE OF CONTENTS VII-XI
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE PROBLEM OF THE STUDY 1-4
1.1.1 SCIENCE, BIOLOGY AND INSTRUCTION 4-8
1.1.2 THE COMPUTER SYSTEM 8-9
1.1.3 CAI (COMPUTER ASSISTED INSTRUCTION) 9-11
1.1.4 COMPUTER AS AN INSTRUCTIONAL TOOL 11-14
1.1.5 COMPUTER –BASED INSTRUCTIONAL IN NIGERIA 14-16
1.2 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK 16-19
1.3 PURPOSE OF STUDY 19
1.4 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM 19
1.5 THE SCOPE AND LIMITATION 19-20
1.6 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS 20
1.7 RESEARCH QUESTIONS 20-22
1.8 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY 22-24
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS AND ABBREVIATION 24-25
CHAPTER TWO
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW 26
2.1 INTRODUCTION 26-27
2.2 BRIEF HISTORY OF COMPUTER IN EDUCATION 28-31
2.3 MASTERY LEARNING 31-49
2.4 USE OF COMPUTER ASSISTED INSTRUCTION 49-54
2.5 APPRAISAL OF LITERATURE 55-56
CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY
3.0 RESEARCH DESIGN 57
3.1 POPULATION OF THE STUDY 57
3.2 SAMPLING AND SAMPLE PROCEDURE 57-58
3.3 RESEARCH INSTRUMENT 58
3.4 RELIABILITY OF INSTRUMENT 58-59
3.5 VALIDITY OF THE INSTRUMENT 59-61
3.6 TABLE OF SPECIFICATION 61
3.7 METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS 61
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA ANALYSIS
4.0 INTRODUCTION 63
4.1 RESEARCH QUESTION ANALYSIS 63-64
4.2 TITLE OF TABLE 1 (ANCOVA OF MAIN INTERACTION EFFECTS OF TREATMENT, GENDER
AND
RELIGION ON STUDENTS ACHIEVEMENT
IN BIOLOGY) 65-69
4.4 COMPARISM OF CHRISTIAN AND MUSLIM
STUDENT’S ACHIEVEMENT IN BIOLOGY 69

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, DISCUSSION, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS


5.0 INTRODUCTION 70
5.1 SUMMARY 70-72
5.2 DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS 72-76
5.3 CONCLUSION 76-77
5.4 RECOMMENDATIONS 77-78
BIBLIOGRAPHY 79-90
QUESTIONNAIRE 91-102