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ANTECEDENTS OF PRONOUNS An antecedent is a word to which the pronoun refers. Examples: Fr. Carreon is here. He wants to see you.

(Fr. Carreon is the word to which the pronoun He refers; hence the antecedent of the pronoun He is Fr. Carreon.) Mrs. Rosario dela Cruz announced that she might give an examination tomorrow. (Mrs. Rosario dela Cruz is the antecedent of the pronoun she.) The class officers decided that they would hold an acquaintance party for the class. (Class officers is the antecedent of the pronoun they.) RULE 1. Examples: The pronouns should agree with their antecedents in gender, in number and in person. The princess said, she wanted to take a pleasure trip. (she agrees in the gender with princess, feminine) (she agrees in number with princess, singular) ( she agrees in person with princess, third person) Father is here. He wants to see the principal. (He agrees in gender with father, masculine) (He agrees in number with father, singular) (He agrees in person with father, third person) The teachers said that they wouldnt admit students who are not in uniform. (they agrees in gender with teachers, common) (they agrees in number with teachers, plural) (they agrees in person with teachers, third person) AGREEMENT IN NUMBER 1. Use a singular pronoun to refer to a singular antecedent. Use a plural pronoun to refer to a plural antecedent. 2. Use a plural pronoun to refer to two or more singular antecedents joined by and. 3. Use a singular pronoun to refer to two or more singular antecedents joined by or or nor.

AGREEMENT IN GENDER 1. A pronoun should agree with its antecedent in gender. 2. Sometimes it is not clear whether the antecedent is masculine or feminine. Use his or her to show that the antecedent could be either gender. 3. Use the masculine pronoun to refer to antecedents of different gender.

AGREEMENT IN PERSON 1. Pronouns are in either the first person, the second person or the third person. First person pronouns refer to the speaker (s). Second person pronouns refer to the person or persons being spoken to. Third person pronouns refer to person(s) or thing(s) being spoken about. 2. The indefinite pronoun one is in the third person. When one is an antecedent, use a third singular pronoun to refer to it.

INDEFINITE PRONOUNS AS ANTECEDENT 1. The following pronouns are singular in meaning: anybody, anyone, anything, everybody, everyone, everything, nobody, no one, nothing, somebody, each, either, much, someone, neither, one, other, and something. When they are antecedents, they require a singular pronoun. 2. Some indefinite pronouns are plural in meaning, such as several, many, both and few. When they are antecedents, use plural pronoun to refer to them. 3. Some indefinite pronouns can be either singular or plural in meaning. Use singular or plural pronouns to refer to these indefinite pronouns depending on the meaning of the sentence. all enough most plenty any more none some

COLLECTIVE NOUNS AS ANTECEDENTS A collective noun as antecedent requires a singular or plural pronoun depending upon its use in the sentence. The committee are arguing about their plans. (The committee is thought in terms of its individual members.) The committee is requested to submit its budget for the occasion. (The committee is acting as a single unit)

RULE 2.

When used as subject of a subordinate clause, the relative pronoun who, that, or which derives its number and person from its antecedent; hence, the verb of the class should likewise agree in number and in person with antecedent of the relative pronoun. It is I who am hungry. (The antecedent of who is I, first person; hence, the verb am is used so that it agrees in number and in person with the antecedent of the relative pronoun who.) It is he who is hungry. (The antecedent of who is he; so, the verb must be is.) It is they who are hungry. (The antecedent of who is they; so, the verb of the clause should be are)

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