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A New Approach for Single-phase Shunt Active Power Filter (SSAPF) Operation

NFA Abdul Rahman


Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi
MARA (UiTM)
40450 Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia
farahaida@salam.uitm.edu.my
S.Z.Mohammad Noor
Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi
MARA (UiTM)
40450 Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia
ctzaliha_mn@yahoo.com


AbstractConventionally, active power filters are used as
voltage or current source inverters. The filters are utilized to
inject an expected distortion current and to shape up any
distortion supply current for achieving a fully sinusoidal shape.
In this paper, a new approach of single-phase shunt active
power filterr (SSAPF) operation is presented. In contra with
the conventional filters, the proposed filter acts as a new
current pathway for the expected distorted current.According
to the Kirchhoffs Current Law (KCL), the results of the
summation of the SSAPF current and the load current is an
almost fully sinusoidal current. The new SSAPF employing two
sets of insulated gate base transistor (IGBT) and diode pair
and the switching operation is controlled using unipolar pulse
width modulation (UPWM) signal. The study focuses on the
percentage of total harmonic distortion (THD) and the shape
of the supply current when the proposed SSAPF is connected
before and after the line inductor of the power system. From
the simulation results, both connections are capable to improve
the THD percentage below than 5%. Nevertheless, the filters
are able to reshape the supply current to a fully sinusoidal
wave shape. All presented simulation results were simulated by
MATLAB/Simulink (MLS).
Keywords-Single-phase shunt active power filter (SSAPF),
alternative current pathway, IGBT and diode pair and unipolar
pulse width modulation (UPWM)
I. INTRODUCTION
Extensive used of nonlinear applications such as power-
electronic devices have affected power quality of electrical
power system. One of the most crucial problem associated
with nonlinear devices is harmonic. The harmonic
contributes many problems such as transmission power
losses, conductor overheating, overloading of capacitor bank
and noise. In conjunction with the problems, both
distribution companies and end consumers are suffering from
the drawbacks (power losses and economy losses). [1].
Generally, passive power filters (PPFs) are used to
mitigate the harmonic components and to improve the power
quality of electrical power system. However, the PPFs
applications are limited due to some restriction such as
resonance problems, mistuning of passive elements and
instability in operation [2]. Therefore, active power filters
(APFs) has been introduced to overcome the PPFs
deficiencies. Unlike the PPFs, the APFs consist of
controllable semiconductor power switches and passive
elements. The power switches can be controlled using
various types of control techniques and consequently the
filter able to mitigate multiple harmonic components
simultaneously.
The most popular APFs are shunt active power filters
(SAPFs). The filters are connected in parallel with the load
and act as harmonic current generatorsfor harmonic and
reactive currents compensating at a certain point in electrical
power system [3]. The filters operate at relatively high
switching frequency for generating the desired injection
current which is used for cancelling lower order current
harmonic components [4]. Though the load current remains
distorted, the supply current which returns to the electrical
power system is merely fully sinusoidal [5].
In this study, a new single-phase shunt active power filter
(SSAPF) with unique operation is introduced. Unlike the
conventional SAPFs, the filter acts as an AC-AC converter
which forms an additional closed loop for current pathway.
Therefore, when the electrical power system supplying a
nonlinear load, the remaining current which complementary
to the load current will flow in the SSAPF. Eventually, the
current summation from the SSAPF current and the load
current results an almost fully sinusoidal shape and in phase
with the supply voltage.
The complementary current flows through two sets of
insulated gate base transistor (IGBT) and diode pair. In this
study, unipolar pulse width modulation (UPWM) technique
is applied to the IGBT. The UPWM signal is generated using
10 kHz carrier signal and 50 Hz modulating signal. The
operation of the SSAPF is examined and analysed using
simulation software; MATLAB/Simulink (MLS). The study
focuses on the SSAPF performance in improving the THD
percentage (THD%) of the electrical power system.
II. CONVENTIONAL SHUNT ACTIVE POWER
FILTER
Figure 1 shows a basic block diagram of a conventional
shunt active power filter (SAPF). The block diagram consists
of a voltage supply, a nonlinear load and the filter. The filter
acts as a supply current inverter controlled by pulse width
modulation (PWM) signal. In equation (1), the desired filter
current, I
F
is obtained from the deduction betweenthe load
current, I
L
and the supply current, I
S
. During the SAPF
operation, the nonlinear load behaves like a pure resistive
load and therefore only purely sinusoidal supply current is
drawn from the ac source [6]. Figure 2 shows all current
waveforms in the power system; the load current, the
G4 IEEE Conference on Power Engineering and Renewable Energy 2012
3-5 July 2012, Bali, Indonesia
978-1-4673-2470-0/12/$31.00@2012 IEEE
desiredfilter or injection current and the supply or resultant
current. [7].

Figure 1. Block diagram of conventional shunt active power filter

(1)

Figure 2. Load current (top), filter current (middle) and supply current
(below) of conventional SSAPF
III. THE NEW SHUNT ACTIVE POWER FILTER

Figure 3. Block diagram of conventional shunt active power filter
Basic circuit topology of the proposed SSAPF is
described using Figure 3. Unlike the conventional filter, the
new filter behaves as an AC-AC converter which provides an
additional current pathway between the power supply and
the nonlinear load. In contra to Figure 2, the desired filter
current in Figure 4 is complementary to the load current.
Thus, equation (1) becomes

(2)
From equation (2), the desired filter current, I
F
is a
deduction result between the load current, I
L
and the supply
current, I
S
.

Figure 4. Load current (top), filter current (middle) and supply current
(below) of proposed SSAPF
The block diagram of the proposed SSAPF is shown in
Figure 5. The filter resembles a two switches AC-AC
converter. The switches are constructed using two sets of
IGBT and diode pair. Each pair of IGBT and diode from
different set is responsible to conduct current duringhalf
positive or half negativecycle of the desired filter current.
During half positive cycle S
1
and D
2
are turned on while S
2

and D
1
are turned on during half negative cycle. Other than
the switches, diode D is employed as a reverse blocking
diode and an inductor L
2
is used for filtering the SSAPF
current. In the simulation work, the L
2
value was varied in
step from 4mH to 8mH.

Figure 5. Circuit topology of the proposed SSAPF
3
n
u
a
th
s
S
in
d
th
o
g
a
e
o
a
c
E
s
th
d
s
In this stud
325.3 V (230
nonlinear load
unidirectional f
and a 100 F c
he load ripple
smoothing the
SSAPF was co
nductor, L
1
and
determine whet
he proposed SS
IV. CONTR
Proper swit
on equation (2
generation. The
activities for b
engage in prod
of a peak detec
a product bloc
controller, a tria
Each block pla
signal can be co
Sine wave
X
Prod
IN
PD
|u
Peak
Detector
Figure 6
Figure 7. Unipo
The desired
he UPWM sign
desired filter cu
supply current
dy, the propose
Vrms), 50 Hz
d. The nonli
full-bridge dio
capacitor. The c
e voltage and
e supply curre
onnected in tw
d after the line
ther there are s
SAPF operation
ROL STRATEG
ACTIVE PO
ching strategie
2). The strateg
e signal is then
both IGBTs. F
ducing the UPW
ctor, a sine wav
ck, a subtracto
angular or carr
ays an importa
orrectly and acc
e
X
duct
|u|
u|
S
6. Control strateg
olar supply current
and unipolar filte
d filter current i
nal generation
urrent is a resul
and the load
ed SSAPF wa
z single-phase
inear load c
ode rectifier, a
capacitor was u
d an inductor
ent waveform
wo different w
inductor, L
1
. T
ignificant diffe
n.
GIES FOR TH
OWER FILTER
es are designed
gies involve th
n used for cont
igure 6 shows
WM signal. Th
ve generator, a
or, a proportio
rier generator a
ant role to en
curately genera
PI
Controller
Carrier
Reff .
signal
ubtractor
-
+

gies for the propos
t (top), unipolar lo
er current (bottom
is used as a ref
. According to
lt of the subtrac
current. The s
s connected to
ac supply and
constitutes of
1000 resis
used to minimi
L
1
(1 mH)
m. The propos
ways; before li
Therefore, we c
erences in term
HE NEW SHUN
R
d and tested bas
he UPWM sign
trolling switchi
s all componen
he figure consi
an absolute bloc
onal integral (P
and a comparat
sure the UPW
ated.
comparator
UP
Si
O
ed SSAPF
ad current (middle
m)
ference signal
equation (2), t
ction between t
supply current
o a
d a
a
tor
ize
for
sed
ine
can
m of
NT
sed
nal
ing
nts
ists
ck,
PI)
tor.
WM
PWM
gnal
OUT

e)
for
the
the
t is
generat
used to
accurat
the line
both th
signals
subtrac
7.
The
signal
modula
previou
the refe
a 10 k
UPWM
connec
IGBT S
UPWM

Figure
In t
and mo
compar
signal o
ratio of
to regu
Acc
distorte
infinite
Where

ted by the sine
o determine the
tely. Therefore
e inductor. The
he supply curren
. Then, the d
cting the both s
e following step
is generated
ating signal a
us subtopic, the
erence signal. T
kHz unipolar
M signal is inje
tion, IGBT S
1
S
2
turns on dur
M signal is show
8. Reference sig
this study, the
onitored by the
red to the car
or pulses can b
f the UPWM. L
late the error.
V. MAT
cording to Fig
ed current wav
e harmonic com
wave generato
e peak amplitu
e, the peak det
e absolute bloc
nt and the load
desired filter
signals. The sig
p is the UPWM
using two s
and a carrier
e 50 Hz desire
The reference s
triangular wa
ected to both IG
turns on durin
ring negative c
wn in Figure 8.
gnal and carrier sig
(bottom)
reference sign
controller syst
rrier signal. Th
be altered by
Lastly, the PI
THEMATIC T
gure 1,2 and 4
veform. The c
mponents and it

or and the peak


ude of the supp
ector is connec
cks are used to
d current to uni
current is gen
gnals are shown
M signal gener
signals; a ref
signal. As m
d filter current
signal is then co
aveform. The
GBTs. Due to
ng positive cycl
cycle only. Sam

gnal (top), and UP
al is continuou
tem and it is co
he width of th
changing the m
control algorith
THREATMENT
4, the load cu
current, c
t can be represe

k detector is
ply current
cted before
o transform
idirectional
nerated by
n in Figure
ration. The
ference or
mention in
t is used as
ompared to
e resultant
the IGBTs
le only and
mple of the
WM signal
usly sensed
ontinuously
he UPWM
modulation
hm is used
T
urrent is a
consists of
ented as
(3)


u
s
f
e
W

c
e
A
c
th
S
a
p
a
c
I
0
T
S
o
c
lo
S
b
th
b
From Figur
up as similar a
signal. The ref
fully sinusoida
equation for the
Where

The Equati
complimentary
equation and t
According to th
current, ca
he supply curre
VI. SIMUL
Figure 9.
The propos
Simulink (MLS
as the operatio
point between t
and the filters
current using th
n the figure, th
0.4 mH to 0.8
THD.
The tabulat
SSAPF has full
of its connectio
can see that the
owest THD%.
SSAPF which
better result tha
he line inducto
An addition
before the line
re 5 and 6, the
as the referen
ference signal
al signal,
e reference sign
ions (5) show
to the load
the signal in F
he Kirchhoffs
an be written
ent has same eq
LATION RESU
THD% results un
sed SSAPF wa
S). The study f
on of the prop
the filter and th
s inductor valu
he proposed SS
he filters indu
mH and all pa
ted results ha
ly capability to
on to the main
e highest value
Overall, we ca
connected bef
an the proposed
or.
nal, the propo
inductor gener
filter current i
nce signal,
is generated
and the loa
nal is written as


ws that the ref
current. Ther
Figure 4 agre
Current Law (K
as Equation (6
quation as in E

ULTS AND D
nder variation filte
as simulated u
focuses on sev
posed SSAPF
he main electric
ue. The THD%
SAPF is illustr
uctor values are
arameters show
ave shown th
o improve the T
n electrical po
e of inductor va
an clearly see t
fore the line in
d SSAPF which
osed SSAPF w
rates lower fun
s forced to sha
of the UPW
by comparing
ad current. T
s
(
(
ference signal
refore, both t
ee to each oth
KCL), the supp
6). As the resu
Equation (4).
(
ISSCUSSIONS
ers inductor
using MATLA
veral aspects su
, the connecti
cal power syste
% of the supp
rated in Figure
e varied betwe
w less than 5%
hat the propos
THD% regardle
ower system. W
alue resulting t
that the propos
nductor L
1
sho
h connected af
which connect
ndamental supp
ape
WM
g a
The
(4)
5)
is
the
her.
ply
ult,
(6)
S

AB/
uch
ion
em
ply
e 9.
een
of
sed
ess
We
the
sed
ws
fter
ted
ply
current
line ind
are 4.0
simulat
harmon
are sho
Figure
SSA
The
10 and
filter cu
figures
propose
propose
and Fig
connec
Figu
current
almost
It is o
connec
the dis
t than the prop
ductor. The fun
52 A and 4.19
tion result usin
nic spectrums u
wn in Figure 1
e 10. Harmonic sp
APF is connected b
conn
e following fig
the supply vol
urrent and the
were obtain
ed SSAPF. Fig
ed SSAPF wh
gure 12 shows
ted after the in
ure 11 (a) and
t wave shape.
fully sinusoida
obviously show
ted before or a
torted supply
osed SSAPF w
ndamental curr
91 A. These re
ng 0.8 mH filt
using the sam
0.
(a)
(b)
pectrums using 0.8
before the line indu
ected after the line
gures show the
ltage waveform
load current w
ned after the
gure 11 shows
hich connected
simulation resu
ductor.
Figure 12 (a)
The shape of
al and in phase
wn that the p
after the line ind
current to its
which connecte
rent for both c
esults are taken
ters inductor
e filters induc
8 mH filters induc
uctor and (b) the S
e inductor
supply current
ms, the supply c
waveforms. All
implementatio
simulation resu
before the lin
ults for the SSA
show an ident
f the supply cu
e with the volta
proposed SSA
ductor is able t
nature shape.
ed after the
connections
n from the
value. The
ction value


ctor. (a) the
SSAPF is
t with gain
current, the
l simulated
on of the
ults for the
ne inductor
APF which
ical supply
urrents are
age supply.
APF which
to shape up
However,
b
c
r
c
th
N
S
F
both connection
currents. The
ripples are obse
can see that the
he SSAPF w
Nevertheless, t
SSAPF is conn
Figure 11. (a) the
line) (b) the supp
current (bottom
ns do not gene
currents are s
erved in Figure
e load current
which connec
the load curren
ected before th
(
(
supply voltage (do
ply current (top), th
) for SSAPF which
(
Supply vo
Supply
erate an identic
slightly differe
e 12 (b). Based
is affected by
cted after the
nt is remains u
he line inductor
(a)
(b)
otted line) and the
he filter current (m
h connected befor
(a)
oltage
y current
cal filter and lo
ent and a lot
on the result, w
y the operation
e line induct
unchanged if t
r.
supply current (so
middle) and the loa
re the line inductor
oad
of
we
of
tor.
the


olid
ad
r

Figure 12
line) (b
curre
Oth
affected
the ma
both typ

Figure
inductor
A s
in the f
SSAPF
Despite
voltage
bottom
are less
which c
(233 V
higher
the prop
A
success
Unlike
filter p
current
Other t
2. (a) the supply v
b) the supply curre
ent (bottom) for SS
her than the l
d by the conne
in electrical sy
pes of connecti
e 13. Load voltage
r (top) and load vo
harp rise of the
first figure. The
F is connected
e of the sharp
e has a slightl
figure. The p
s than 340 V
connected befo
Vrms) for anoth
than the volta
posed SSAPF i
V
new single-ph
sfully develop
the conventio
rovides an alte
t flow and at th
than the filters
(b)
voltage (dotted lin
ent (top), the filter
SAPF which conne
oad current, t
ction between
ystem. The loa
ion are shown
e when the SSAPF
ltage when the SS
inductor
e load ripple v
e figure is obs
d before the
increase of the
ly higher peak
eak load volta
(240 Vrms) f
ore the line indu
her connection
age supply. Th
is also works a
II. CONCLU
hase shunt a
ed and simul
onal shunt activ
ernative curren
e same time w
s inductor valu
ne) and the supply
current (middle) a
ected after the line
the load volta
the proposed S
ad current wav
in Figure 13.
F is connected befo
APF is connected
voltage has been
erved when th
main electric
e load ripple v
k value compa
ages for both c
for the propos
uctor and less t
. Both load v
herefore, we ca
as a boost conv
USION
active power
lated with goo
ve power filte
nt pathway for
orks as a boost
ue, the filter an

current (solid
and the load
e inductor
age is also
SSAPF and
veforms for
fore the line
after the line
n observed
e proposed
al system.
voltage, the
ared to the
connections
sed SSAPF
than 330 V
oltages are
an say that
erter.
filter was
od results.
er, the new
r distortion
t converter.
nd the main
electrical power system operations are affected by the way of
the proposed SSAPF and the main electrical power system
connection. Based on the simulation results, the proposed
SSAPF which connected before the line inductor is much
better as compared to another connection.
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
Financial support from Ministry of Higher Education
(MOHE), Fundamental Research Grant Scheme (FRGS) No:
600-RMI/ST/FRGS5/fst(34/2011) is gratefully
acknowledged for implementation of this project.
Financial assistance from Universiti Teknologi MARA
(UiTM) Malaysia and Research Management Institute
(RMI), UiTM is also gratefully acknowledged.
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Tu, Development of Hybrid Active Power Filter Based on the
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Transactions on Power Delivery, Vol. 24, No. 1, January 2009.
[3] Victor Fabin Corasaniti, Maria Beatriz Barbieri, Patricia Liliana
Arnera, and Mara Ins Valla, Hybrid Active Filter for Reactive and
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Transactions on Industrial Electronics, Vol. 56, No. 3, March 2009.
[4] Consalva J. Msigwa, Beda J. Kundy, and Bakari M. M.
Mwinyiwiwa, Improving the Shunt Active Power Filter Performance
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[5] Roger C. dungan, Mark F. McGranaghan, Surya Santoso and H.
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