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NI based PQ (Power Quality) Analyzers and PMUs (Phasor Measurement Units) for Smart Grids Monitoring and Analysis

Dr. Daniel Kaminsk ELCOM, a.s. Division of Virtual Instrumentation

Presentation Agenda

Few facts about ELCOM What is Power Quality ELCOM Solutions for Power Quality Analyzers ELCOM Solutions PMUs Applications

ELCOM Facts Sheet

Founded in 1990 Based in Czech Republic 150 employees Annual revenue 16mil Core business is electrical engineering and test & measurement

ELCOM Products & Services

Turnkey Solutions and Products Functional Testers


Power Quality Analyzers, PMUs

Lean Assembly Lines Electrical Drives Special Power Supplies Power Filters and Compensators Custom Solutions Laboratory Automation Test & Measurement Software Development Special Electronic and Mechanical Components

17 years of PQ Analyzers development at ELCOM

From the very beginning till now the instrument firmware is fully written in LabVIEW From the very beginning till now the NI DAQ boards are used (ISA, PCI, USB) From the very beginning till now we produce PC-based PQ analyzers In 2005 we started to use cRIO and later sb-RIO platform also

History of PC based PQAs

ENA510 Latest Model of Portable PQA/PMU Portable analyzer with two three-phase voltage/current systems and embedded touch screen 8 voltage inputs up to 600 V RMS; 8 current inputs using current clamps; 4,2kV isolation 16 digital inputs, external GPS receiver Uses two NI sbRIO-9612 and one industrial PC with display Works as PQ meter and PMU together

From PC-based PMU to sbRIO based PMU ENA460

ENA450

ENA440

ELCOM sbRIO based PQA ENA460

NIsbRIO9612based DINrailmountable Samplingrate12kS/s 4voltageinputs 75/150/300/600V,4.2kV isolation,600kOhm 4currentinputs1A,5A,4.2kV isolationbarrier 0.1%TVEprecision 8digitalinputs Upto16GBofCFdatastorage

ENA450 HW

Basic configuration: 9076 400MHz 9225 9227 Full configuration: 9023 Controller 9114 8-slot chassis 9225 9227 9422 DI

ELCOM-made modules for cRIO 4x U 300Vrms, 4x I 1/5Arms, overcurrent 6/15A contin., 20/100A 1sec 4.2kV isolation barrier GPS / GLONASS receiver

PQA SW Components

ENA-Node is the firmware of PQ analyzer. ENA-Touch is the PQ analyzer user interface. ENA-Report is tool for off-line processing of stored data.

ENA-Node = ENA450 firmware

Measurement service, which makes all data acquisition, calculation, storing and communication. Available functionality:
FFT analyzer (full bundle) Vector analyzer Power Flow monitor Flickermeter EN50160 Voltage monitor Power Network Impedance analyzer Half-period RMS monitor Transient Recorder (9.6kS/sec stored) (full bundle) Voltage Telegrams & Alarms (full bundle) Digital Inputs (full bundle)

ENA450 SW Deployment

ENA-Touch = ENA450 User Interface

ENA-Report

Electrical Power is a specific Product

Electricity is an unusual commodity because it is required as a continuous flow.


it cannot be easily stored in a ;quantity it cannot be subject to quality checks before it is used.

Electricity
is generated far from the point of use is fed to the grid together with the output of many other generators arrives to the point of use via several transformers and many kilometers of overhead lines and cabling.

Power Quality

Electricity can be looked upon as a product, like any other convenience provided. Therefore, electrical power has to comply with specific quality requirements:
230 Vrms (or different) AC sinusoidal 50Hz 3 phases Permanent availability

PQ Issues Across the Power System

Generation
Interaction with close coupled loads Harmonics from loads

Transmission and Sub-T


U Sags propagation Capacitor switching transients Lighting transients Excessive current harmonics U harmonics Flicker Unbalance

Distribution Feeders
Courtesy of EPRI

Same like Transmiss. and Sub-T

PQ Issues Across the Power System

End user
Inrush currents Grounding Stray Voltage RESD technologies Electromagnetic Interference/Fields (EMI/F) Radio Frequency Interference (RFI)

Overarching Issues
PHEV and renewables Smart Grid Energy Efficiency
Courtesy of EPRI

Voltage Disturbances E

E (generator) Z (impedance ofTS,DS)

U=E ZI

I(current)

Otherloads

Loadwithhigh currentharmonics

Voltage on the generator terminals is ideal Current causes voltage drop on any impedance on the way from generator to the load Voltage drop shape corresponds to the current shape Resulting voltage U=E ZI Voltage disturbance is caused by non-sinusoidal currents

Electrical Energy Transmission with PQ Monitoring

Power Quality Problems

Whether or not the customer is likely to suffer from power quality problems depends on:
The quality of voltage supplied by electricity supplier The types of loads in customers installation The sensitivity of customers equipment to various kind of disturbances

There is not single, generic solution of PQ problems. An optimum solution needs to be designed for each site, taking into account the above three factors.

Examples of Financial Loss due to PQ

(*)European Copper Institute,European Power Quality Survey,2002

Power Quality Phenomenas

electromagnetic reactions

Voltage dips Voltage interruptions Voltage swells Voltage transients Voltage fluctuation Harmonics + interh. Voltage unbalance Flicker Signaling voltages Frequency fluctuation

Voltage events categories

Voltage sag/dip U bellow 90% of Un, but not bellow interr. Voltage interruption U bellow 1% - 15% of Un Voltage swell U above 110% Voltage transient (switching overvoltage) On much higher than fundamental frequency

Voltage dips

Voltage dip is a sudden reduction of the voltage, followed by voltage recovery after a short period of time. Characterized by:
Time of start Depth or residual voltage Duration

Duration from one period of fundamental

Voltage swells

They occur at power frequency 50Hz They have various origins


Earth fault in isolated neutral system or impedance earthed neutral system voltage of the healthy phases can reach the phase to phase voltage Ferroresonance in circuits containing a capacitance and saturable inductance Break of neutral conductor Overcompensation Faults on alternator regulators or tap changer transformer

Rapid voltage changes Amplitude changes within range Un 10% RVCH causes flicker.

Harmonics and inter-H E

~
Z

Harmonics are mainly produced by non-linear loads PQA calculates each Tw the FFT for U signals Frequency domain step:
Harmonics 50Hz Interharmonics 25Hz

U=E ZI

I(current)

Each particular harm. or interharm. has defined certain limit in % referenced to Un (not to the fundamental harmonic)
Otherloads Loadwithhigh currentharmonics

Harmonic Distortion

Total Harmonic Distortion is ratio of sum of all harmonics RMS values to RMS value of fundamental wave (50Hz) In standards the THD has defined compatible limit in %

THDu =

=2

U2 U1

Voltage unbalance

A 3-phase system is unbalanced if:


the rms values of the phase voltages are not equal the phase angles between phases are not equal both of them

Flicker

Definition: Impression of unsteadiness of visual sensation induced by a light stimulus whose luminance or spectral distribution fluctuates with time.
400 300 200 100 0 -100 -200 -300 -400

Flicker Pst, Plt

Chain: lamp eye brain = flickermeter IEC61000-4-15 Depends on: frequency of voltage changes depth of voltage changes type of lamp: incandescent lamp, energy saving lamp, LEDs Flicker is represented by: Pst...short term (10 min) Plt...long term (2hours) A flicker severity level of 1 corresponds to a flicker level that irritates 50 % of the test persons and is defined as the threshold of irritability.

Signaling Voltages

Sometimes called ripple signal Signal voltages are superimposed on the fundamental frequency by DSO The reason is remote control of big loads etc. over power network in some countries. Allowed amplitude depends on the frequency according to the defined curve

Frequency of the power system

Frequency of the power system will vary as load and generation change. In the whole interconnected grid has to be balance between electricity generation and consumption

Frequency limits in EU

10sec-mean values are evaluated 95% measured values over a week should be 50Hz 1% stand alone power network: 50Hz 2% 100% measured values over a week should be 50Hz +4%/-6% stand alone power network: 50Hz 15%

Agregation time intervals

3 seconds: Signalling voltages 10 seconds: Power Frequency 10 minutes Urms, Harmonic+interharmonic voltages Voltage unbalance Flicker Pst 2 hours Flicker Plt

Basic observation interval for measurement evaluation according to EN50160 is one week

IEC61000-4-30 Ed.2 (2008)

Defines the methods for measurement and interpretation of results for power quality parameters in 50/60Hz AC power supply systems. Measurement methods are described for each relevant type of parameter in terms that will make it possible to obtain reliable, repeatable and comparable results regardless of the compliant instrument being used and regardless of its environmental conditions.

IEC61000-4-30 Ed.2 (2008)

IEC61000-4-30 is a performance specification, not a design specification. gives measurement methods but does not set thresholds. The effects of transducers (VT, CT) being inserted between the power system and the PQA are acknowledged but not addressed in detail in this standard.

Classes of measurement methods

According to IEC61000-4-30 Ed.2 Class A Used where precise measurement are necessary. E.g. for contractual application to resolve disputes. Class S Processing requirements and price of the instrument are lower. Class B Obsolete. The weakest requirements. Not recommended for new designs.

Other standards for PQA

IEC61000-4-30 Ed.2 contains two links to another standards: IEC61000-4-7 in connection with voltage harmonics measurement IEC61000-4-15 in connection with Flicker measurement

IEC61000-4-15 Ed.2 (2010)

Flickermeter functional and design specifications IEEE 1453: Recommended PracticeAdoption of IEC 610004-15:2010

EN 50160

EN 50160 is not IEC, but CENELEC standard EN50160 function is to give values for the main voltage characteristics of electricity supplied by public networks. Defines the electrical product for HV, MV and LV system giving the voltage characteristics which can be expected at the supply terminals.

EN 50160

IEEE 1159
Recommended Practice for Monitoring Electric Power Quality

Working Group for Power Quality Monitoring formed in nearly 20 years ago in response to a need for standardizing power quality monitoring manufacturing industry and the use of these monitors in the field by utilities and end-users.

IEEE 1159 contains:


Consistent terminology Definitions Applications Data interpretation

1599 x 61000 Differences

IEEE 1599 Not enforced, just informative, tutorial, instructive Developed by volunteers Approved by consensus

IEC 61000 series Adopted and enforced as national standards force of law. Very careful drafting Developed by assigned national experts Approved by national voting

CourtesyofPowerStandards.com

Biggest ENA Installation

CEZ - Distribution Network Operator


45 multi-system PQAs, 146 monitored 3~ systems 42 single-system PQAs

E.ON Czech Republic


34 single-system PQAs

CEPS - Czech Transmission Network Operator


35 PMUs

SEPS - Slovak Transmission Network Operator


36 single and multi system PQAs, 54 monitored 3~ systems 2 portable PMUs, 8 PMUs for fixed installation

Synchronous Phase Measurements

What Is Phasor Measurement

Grid stability becomes more fragile/important as distributed generation increases as well as cross-border energy transfers Grid operator uses phase angle and amplitude (phasor) acquired at various points of the grid AT THE SAME TIME to determine grid stability Based on phasor values operator can take action to prevent unstable operation or even blackout Instrument to measure phasors is called Phasor Measurement Unit, sometimes is coupled with protection relays IEEE C37.118 defines requirements to be met by phasor measurement units

Why to Measure Synchronous Phase

The phase position of AC voltages and currents in different parts of an electric power system determines the stability and the dynamic performance of the system. PMUs are used for Wide Area Monitoring Systems (WAMS). The WAMS supports utilities in making optimal usage of the transmission grid capacity with regard to active power flow and voltage profile. Real-time information from WAMS gives early warning of power system disturbances that, if left unattended, could cascade into system wide blackouts

PMU Standardization

PMU must meet IEEE Std C37.1182005 This standard covers synchronized phasor measurement in electric power systems, defines steady state performance and data transmission format for real-time reporting New released standards:
C37.118.1 definition of 2 types of PMU classes: P protection and M measurement/monitoring with regard to reporting latency included definition of dynamic behavior requirements C37.118.2 description of communication protocol Testing, calibration, installation guides IEEE PC37.242

WAMS Customer

- Czech TSO
HV Lines Length: 400 kV 2 979 km 220 kV 1 371 km Domestic production approx. 10 GW consisting of: 57% 32% Solid Fuels Nuclear Gas Water Photovoltaic Wind

1%

2% 3%

5%

Project Description

Wide Area Monitoring System installation and commissioning Number of PMUs: 39 Reporting Rate: 50 Hz WAMS Central Server located in Prague Only part of the grid covered

Grid Areas Covered by WAMS

Wide Area Monitoring System

WAMSOperator Interface
Psymetrix PhasorPoint Client

WAMSCentralServer
HW:DELLPowerEdge PE720XD SW:Psymetrix PhasorPoint ServerApplication

Phasor DataConcentrators(PDCs) HW:iEi ECW,OSLinuxDEBIAN SW:Psymetrix PhasorPoint PDC

Phasor MeasurementUnits(PMUs)
ELCOMENA460PMU

Thank you for your attention ! Questions?

www.elcom.cz/en/ www.power-quality.eu/ www.elcom.cz/en/virtual-instrumentation/