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Annotated Bibliography

Primary Sources
Fleming, Alexander. Sir Alexander Fleming Banquet Speech. Nobelprize.org. Web. 15 Jan 2013. <http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicinelaureates/1945/flemingspeech.html>.
This source is Sir Alexander Flemings speech at the Nobel Banquet in Stockholm on December 10, 1945. I used it to acquire quotes from Sir Fleming.

Laurence, William L. Giant Germicide Yielded by Mold. New York Times. 6 May 1941. N.p. Web. 13 Jan 2013.
This source is a news article on the preliminary studies of penicillin. I used it to acquire quotes.

Secondary Sources
American Cancer Society. Cupping. Cancer.org. American Cancer Society. 1 November 2008. Web. 4 February 2013. <http://www.cancer.org/treatment/treatmentsandsideeffects/complementaryandalternativem edicine/herbsvitaminsandminerals/cupping>.
This source provides general information about cupping. I used it to acquire several side effects of cupping.

The Art of Bloodletting. Medical Advances Since Medieval Times. Angelfire. Web. 3 February 2013. <http://www.angelfire.com/weird2/quirky_girl0/quirky_girl1.html>.
This source provides general information about bloodletting. I used it to learn when bloodletting fell out of favor.

Bakos, J.A., et al. Blood-Letting. The Best Home Remedies of 1700. University of Michigan. Student Project. Web. 3 February 2013. <http://www.umich.edu/~ece/student_projects/remedies/rituals/blood.html>.
This source provides general information about bloodletting. I used it to acquire several side effects of bloodletting and what people used bloodletting for.

Bloodletting. Lexic.us. Web. 3 February 2013. <http://www.lexic.us/definition-of/bloodletting>.


This source is a dictionary. I used it to acquire the definition of bloodletting.

CDC. Achievements in Public Health, 1900-1999: Control of Infectious Diseases. MMWR Weekly. 48.29 (1999): 621-629. CDC. Web. 6 February 2013. <http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm4829a1.htm>.
This source provides information about the control of infectious diseases in the 20 century. I used it to acquire facts about the changes penicillin made in our world.
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Clark-Fox, Danielle. Massage Cupping 101: What you need to know. Boston Sports Medicine. Boston Sports Medicine. 6 April 2012. Web. 4 February 2013. <http://bostonsportsmed.com/massage-cupping/>.
This source provides general information about cupping. I used it to acquire information on the history of cupping.

Cupping. Merriam-Webster.com. Merriam-Webster, 2013. Web. 3 February 2013. <http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/cupping>.


This source is a dictionary. I used it to acquire the definition of cupping.

Duke Today. The Long, Respected History of Bloodletting. Duke Today. Duke University. 18 February 2000. Web. 3 February 2013. <http://today.duke.edu/2000/02/blood218.html>.
This source provides information about the history of bloodletting. I used it to acquire information on the history of bloodletting.

Eliopoulos, George M. and Pentti Huovinen. Resistance to Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole. The Journal of Clinical Infectious Diseases. 32.11 (2001): 1608-1614. cid.oxfordjournals.org. Web. 3 February 2013. <http://cid.oxfordjournals.org/content/32/11/1608.full>.
This source provides general information about sulfonamides and TMP but focuses on bacterial resistance to the drugs. I used it to acquire the dates at which sulfa drugs were discovered and put into clinical use; also it provided several side effects.

Mailer, John S. Jr. and Barbara Mason. Penicillin: Medicines Wartime Wonder Drug and Its Production at Peoria, Illinois. Illinois History Teacher. 8.1 (2001): 39-47. www.lib.niu.edu. Web. 3 February 2013. <http://www.lib.niu.edu/2001/iht810139.html>.
This source provides information about the history of penicillin. I used it to acquire information about treatments prior to penicillin.

McGaugh, Scott. Battlefield Angels: Saving Lives Under Enemy Fire from Valley Forge to Afghanistan. Osprey Publishing, 2011. Google Books. Web. 3 February 2013.
This source provides information about battlefield medicine from the Revolutionary War to current times. I used it to acquire facts about deaths from infection during World War I.

McManus, Ailsa and Nonee Walsh. Antibiotics 1928-2000. The Real Millennium Bugs. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 1999. Web. 1 February 2013. <http://www.abc.net.au/science/slab/antibiotics/history.htm>.
This source provides information about the development of antibiotics, how well they worked against infection and the emergence of resistant bacteria. I used it to acquire facts about how antibiotics increased human life expectancy.

Penicillin. Freedictionary.com. Farlex. Web. 6 February 2013. <http://www.thefreedictionary.com/penicillin>.


This source is a dictionary. I used it to acquire the definition of penicillin.

Popular medical treatments cupping, bleeding and purging. The World of the Habsburgs. Schloss Schnbrunn Kultur- und Betriebsges. 2008. Web. 4 February 2013. <http://www.habsburger.net/en/chapter/popular-medical-treatments-cupping-bleeding-andpurging?language=de>.
This source provides general information about cupping bleeding and purging. I used it to acquire information about what bloodletting was used for.

Rosenberg, Jennifer. Alexander Fleming Discovers Penicillin. About.com 20th Century History. About.com. Web. 3 February 2013. <http://history1900s.about.com/od/medicaladvancesissues/a/penicillin.htm>.
This source provides information about the history of penicillin through its discovery, development and production. I used the information to write a history of penicillin.

Ross-Flanigan, Nancy and Samuel Uretsky. Sulfonamides. Encyclopedia of Childrens Health. Advameg. Web. 3 February 2013. <http://www.healthofchildren.com/S/Sulfonamides.html#b>.
This source provides general information about sulfonamides. I used it to acquire the definition of sulfa drugs, some of the side effects, and what they are used for.

Spink, William Wesley. Infectious Diseases: Prevention and Treatment in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1979. Google Books. Web. 3 February 2013.
This source provides information about treatments of infections in the 19 and 20 century. I used it to acquire information about what treatments were used to cure infections before penicillin.
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Stewart, Leslie. Penicillin: The Breakthrough of the Century. Professor Deborah De Rosa Student Papers. University of North Carolina. 1999. Web. 29 January 2013. <http://www.unc.edu/~dcderosa/STUDENTPAPERS/Natural_Science_Projects/Penicillinlesli e.htm>.
This source provides general information about penicillin and how it changed lives. I used it to acquire information about the consequences that using penicillin had on the world.

Tames, Richard. Penicillin: A Breakthrough in Medicine. Chicago: Heinemann Library, 2006. Print.
This source describes the development of penicillin, from its discovery and use in WWII to the possible implications of overuse. I used it to write the history of penicillin and to document the changes that penicillin caused.

Ullah, Kaleem. A Brief Overview of Cupping Therapy. British Cupping Society. British Cupping Society. 15 May 2011. Web. 4 February 2013. <http://www.britishcuppingsociety.org/http:/www.britishcuppingsociety.org/a-brief-overviewof-cupping-therapy>.
This source provides general information about cupping. I used it to acquire information on the side effects of cupping.

WebMD. Cupping Therapy. Webmd.com. WebMD. 2012. Web. 4 February 2013. <http://www.webmd.com/balance/guide/cupping-therapy>.
This source provides general information about cupping. I used it to acquire the information about what cupping is used for.

Wright, Shauna. This Day in History for September 28 Penicillin Discovered and More. 97.1 K-Bear.com. K-Bear. Web. 6 February 2013. <http://kbear.com/this-day-in-history-forseptember-28-penicillin-discovered-and-more/>.
This source provides interesting events that took place on September 28 in history. I used it to document when Alexander Fleming first discovered penicillin.
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Multimedia
Alexander Fleming. Topical Press Agency/Getty Images. About.com 20th Century History. About.com. Web. 3 February 2013. <http://history1900s.about.com/od/medicaladvancesissues/a/penicillin.htm>.
This is an image of Alexander Fleming in his laboratory. I used it in the slideshow on all of pages; it helps visually summarize the information on the website.

Case, Christine L. Penicillin Inhibits Staphylococcus aureus. accessexcellence.org. Web. 5 February 2013. <http://www.accessexcellence.org/AE/AEC/CC/s5.php>.
This is an image of a Penicillium mold colony and the bacteria Staphylococcus aureus. I used it in the slideshow on all of pages; it helps illustrate what penicillin looks like.

Gregory, David and Debbie Marshall. Penicillium mould and spores. Wellcome Images. Wellcome Trust Blog. Web. 13 Feb 2013. <http://wellcometrust.wordpress.com/2011/09/05/out-of-africa-what-is-anallergen/b0004843-sem-penicillium-mould-spores-close-up/>.
This is an image of a Penicillium mold and spores close-up. I used it in the slideshow on all of pages as a background for quotes. It helps set the scene for my website.

Hochschild, Jack. Penicillin Documentary. Online video clip. YouTube. YouTube, 1 February 2012. Web. 20 February 2013. <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=de5kxwp3vzI>.
This is a video clip describing why penicillin is the greatest chemical discovery in the past 100 years. I used it on the home page to help the viewer understand what penicillin is.

Penicillin. Examiner.com. Clarity Digital Group. 27 May 2012. Web. 5 February 2013. <http://www.examiner.com/article/sunday-may-27-1962>.
This is an image of Penicillium mold colonies. I used it in the slideshow on all of pages; it helps illustrate what penicillin looks like.

Penicillium chrysogenum. Digital image. Tom Volks Fungus of the Month for November 2003. Thomas J. Volk. Nov 2003. Web. 5 February 2012. <http://botit.botany.wisc.edu/toms_fungi/nov2003.html>.
This is an image of a Penicillium chrysogenum mold colony. I used it in the slideshow on all of pages; it helps illustrate what penicillin looks like.

Phenoxymethylpenicillin AKA Penicillin V. 1957 Time Capsule. Web 5 February 2013. <http://1957timecapsule.wordpress.com/2012/03/18/march-18-1957-first-laboratorysynthesis-of-pencillin/>.
This is an image of Phenoxymethylpenicillin. I used it in the slideshow on all of pages; it helps illustrate what penicillin looks like at a molecular level.

Preparation of penicillin. U.S. Army Medical Department, Office of Medical History. San Antonio. Learn NC. Web. 5 February 2013. <http://www.learnnc.org/lp/multimedia/14172>.
This is an image of someone preparing penicillin. I used it in the slideshow on all of pages; it helps illustrate how people prepare penicillin.

Procaine penicillin. Drugline.org. Cerner Multum, Inc., 21 September 2009. Web. 20 February 2013. <http://drugline.org/drug/medicament/19169/>.
This is an image of two bottles of penicillin. I used it to illustrate what penicillin looks like when it is going to be used as a medication.