Anda di halaman 1dari 7

Document Display

Page 1 of 7

Troubleshooting: High Version Count Issues [ID 296377.1]


Modified: Dec 2, 2012 Type: TROUBLESHOOTING Status: PUBLISHED Priority: 1

In this Document Purpose Troubleshooting Steps What is a 'High' Version Count? What is shared SQL ? What is 'SQL Metadata'? Why should I be concerned about 'High' Versions? How do I see the versions and why they are not shared ? What do the reasons given in v$SQL_SHARED_CURSOR mean? Version_rpt script: What further tracing is available. Are there any times when a high version count is expected even though BINDS are being used?
Skip to contentExplanation:

Bug 10187168 Enhancement to obsolete parent cursors if Version Count exceeds a threshold High Version Count with Adaptive Cursor Sharing Troubleshooting Other Issues References

Applies to:
Oracle Server - Personal Edition - Version 10.2.0.1 and later Oracle Server - Enterprise Edition - Version 10.2.0.1 and later Oracle Server - Standard Edition - Version 10.2.0.1 and later Information in this document applies to any platform.

Purpose
The Troubleshooting Guide is provided to assist in debugging SQL sharing issues. When possible, diagnostic tools are included in the document to assist in troubleshooting problems. This document does not contain bugs/patches as these topics are addressed in the articles referenced at the bottom of this document.

Troubleshooting Steps What is a 'High' Version Count?


There is no definitive definition of what a 'High' number of versions for a particular cursor is, different systems may be able to deal with different ranges of versions, However, AWR reports start reporting versions over 20 for a particular cursor and so that is as good an indicator of a potential problem as any.

Once you start getting into the hundreds or thousands range, then these are definitely 'High' counts and the causes should be examined and the numbers reduced so as to encourage the SQL to be shared.

What is shared SQL ?


The first thing to remember is that all SQL is implicitly sharable. When a SQL statement is entered, the RDBMS will create a hash value for text of the statement and that hash value then helps the RDBMS to easily find SQL already in the shared pool. It is not in the scope of this article to discuss this in any great detail, so let's just assume entering a series of text results in a hash value being created. For instance :- 'select count(*) from emp' hashes to the value 4085390015 We now create a parent cursor for this sql and a single child. It does not matter that a SQL statement may never be shared - when it is first parsed a parent and a single child are created. The easy way to think of this is that the PARENT cursor is a representation of the hash value and the child cursor(s) represent the metadata for that SQL

What is 'SQL Metadata'?

https://support.oracle.com/epmos/faces/ui/km/SearchDocDisplay.jspx?_adf.ctrl-state=... 12/11/2012

Document Display

Page 2 of 7

Metadata is all the information which enables a statement to run. For instance, in the example I have given EMP is owned by scott and therefore has an OBJECT_ID which points to the EMP table owned by this user. When the user SCOTT logged in, optimizer parameters are initialised in that session for use by the statement, so this too is used by the optimizer and is therefore metadata. There are other examples of Metadata which will be mentioned further in this document. Let's say this session logs out and back in again now. It then runs the same command again (as the same user). This time we already have the SQL in the shared pool (but we don't know this yet). What we do is hash the statement and then search for that hash value in the shared pool. If we find it, we can then search through the children to determine if any of them are usable by us (ie the metadata is the same). If it is, then we can share that SQL statement I would still have one version of that SQL in the shared pool because the metadata enabled me to share the statement with the already existent child. The fundementals are that the parent is not shared, it is the children which determine shareability. Now - another user 'TEST' has it's own version of EMP. If that user was to now run the select statement above then what would happen is :1. 2. 3. 4. The statement is hashed - it is hashed to the value 4085390015 The SQL will be found in the shared pool as it already exists The children are scanned (at this point we have one child) Because the OBJECT_ID of the EMP table owned by TEST is different the OBJECT_ID owned by scott we have a 'mismatch'

(Essentially, what happens here is that we have a linked list of children which we move through in turn, comparing the metadata of the current SQL with that of all the children. If there were 100 children then we would scan each of them (looking for a possible mismatch and moving on) until we found one we could share. If we cannot share any (ie. have exhausted the list of children) then we need to create a new child) 5. We therefore have to create a new child - we now have 1 PARENT and 2 CHILDREN.

Why should I be concerned about 'High' Versions?


Unnecessary non-sharing of SQL, and the resultant versions of SQL, is a primary cause of library cache contention. Contention reduces the performance of your database and, in extreme cases, can cause it to appear to 'hang'. When you have unnecessary versions of a cursor, each time that cursor is executed, the parse engine has to search through the list of versions to see which is the cursor that you want. This wastes CPU cycles that you could be using on something else.

How do I see the versions and why they are not shared ?
The easiest way to get version information in a clear format is to use the script in the following article: Document 438755.1 High SQL Version Counts - Script to determine reason(s)

To find the reasons for mismatches see the following section: What do the reasons given in v$SQL_SHARED_CURSOR mean? If you are unable to use that script then you can select the same information from the base views as illustrated in the examples below. Lets use the example above and take a look at what SQL we can use to see this in the shared pool. SCOTT runs select count(*) from emp I can now run the following to see the PARENT statement and it's hash value and address
select sql_text, hash_value,address from v$sqlarea where sql_text like 'select count(*) from emp%'; SQL_TEXT HASH_VALUE ADDRESS ------------------------ ------------ ---------------select count(*) from emp 4085390015 0000000386BC2E58

To see the CHILDREN (I expect to see 1 at this point) : Version 9.2.X.X and below :
select * from v$sql_shared_cursor where kglhdpar = '0000000386BC2E58'

Version 10.0.X.X and above:


select * from v$sql_shared_cursor where address = '0000000386BC2E58'

Output:

ADDRESS

KGLHDPAR

U S O O S L S E B P I S T A B D L T R I I R L I O S M U T N F

---------------- ---------------- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 0000000386BC2D08 0000000386BC2E58 N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N

We can see we have a single child (ADDRESS 0000000386BC2D08). The mismatch information (U S O O S L etc) is all N because this is the first child. Now, if I log in as another user and run the same select (select count(*) from emp) and look again I will get the following output:-

https://support.oracle.com/epmos/faces/ui/km/SearchDocDisplay.jspx?_adf.ctrl-state=... 12/11/2012

Document Display

Page 3 of 7

ADDRESS

KGLHDPAR

U S O O S L S E B P I S T A B D L T R I I R L I O S M U T N F

---------------- ---------------- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 0000000386BC2D08 0000000386BC2E58 N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N 0000000386A91AA0 0000000386BC2E58 N N N N N N N N N N N N N Y N N N Y N N N N N N N N N N N N N

We can now see the 2nd child ( 0000000386A91AA0) and also the reasons why it could not be shared with the first (The 'Y's denote a mismatch). The reasons are: (1) AUTH_CHECK_MISMATCH and (2) TRANSLATION_MISMATCH This is because the objects under my new user do not map to those of SCOTT (the current child). A mismatch occurs because I cannot access SCOTTs objects and translation fails since we have different object_ids for the objects in each of our schemas.

What do the reasons given in v$SQL_SHARED_CURSOR mean?


Below are the list of reasons as well as some worked examples (Those denoted by ** are the ones most often seen) : UNBOUND_CURSOR - The existing child cursor was not fully built (in other words, it was not optimized) SQL_TYPE_MISMATCH - The SQL type does not match the existing child cursor **OPTIMIZER_MISMATCH - The optimizer environment does not match the existing child cursor. For example:
select count(*) from emp; ->> 1 PARENT, 1 CHILD alter session set optimizer_mode=ALL_ROWS select count(*) from emp; ->> 1 PARENT, 2 CHILDREN (The optimizer mode has changed and therefore the existing child cannot be reused)

(The same applies with events - if I turned on tracing with 10046 than I would get the OPTIMIZER_MISMATCH again and a 3rd child) It is possible to see more details for the reason using cursortrace. Something like the following will be see:

<span class="sBugInternalContent">Optimizer mismatch(12)</span>

The number is brackets gives the reason why 1 = Degree used is not the default DOP 2 = In (RAC) cases where instance count is not the same, or session CPU count is not the same, or thread count is not the same 3 = _parallel_syspls_obey_force is FALSE 4 = The PQ mode does not match. 5 = The degree does not match. 6 = The parallel degree policy does not match. 7 = The session limit is not the same as the cursor limit but the cursor limit is the same as the degree used. 8 = The cursor limit is greater than the degree used and the session limit is less than the cursor limit 9 = The cursor limit is less than the degree used and the session limit is not the same as the cursor limit 10 = Optimizer mode difference 11 = Materialized View mismatch 12 = Optimizer environment mismatch (ie an optimizer parameter is different) 13 = Cardinality Feedback is use OUTLINE_MISMATCH - The outlines do not match the existing child cursor If my user had created stored outlines previously for this command and they were stored in seperate categories (say "OUTLINES1" and "OUTLINES2") running:alter session set use_stored_outlines = OUTLINES1; select count(*) from emp; alter session set use_stored_oulines= OUTLINES2; select count(*) from emp;

--> Would create a 2nd child as the outline used is different than the first run. STATS_ROW_MISMATCH - The existing statistics do not match the existing child cursor. Check that 10046/sql_trace is not set on all sessions as this can cause this. LITERAL_MISMATCH - Non-data literal values do not match the existing child cursor SEC_DEPTH_MISMATCH - Security level does not match the existing child cursor

https://support.oracle.com/epmos/faces/ui/km/SearchDocDisplay.jspx?_adf.ctrl-state=... 12/11/2012

Document Display

Page 4 of 7

EXPLAIN_PLAN_CURSOR - The child cursor is an explain plan cursor and should not be shared. Explain plan statements will generate a new child by default - the mismatch will be this. BUFFERED_DML_MISMATCH - Buffered DML does not match the existing child cursor PDML_ENV_MISMATCH - PDML environment does not match the existing child cursor INST_DRTLD_MISMATCH - Insert direct load does not match the existing child cursor SLAVE_QC_MISMATCH -The existing child cursor is a slave cursor and the new one was issued by the coordinator (or, the existing child cursor was issued by the coordinator and the new one is a slave cursor). TYPECHECK_MISMATCH - The existing child cursor is not fully optimized AUTH_CHECK_MISMATCH - Authorization/translation check failed for the existing child cursor The user does not have permission to access the object in any previous version of the cursor. A typical example would be where each user has it's own copy of a table **BIND_MISMATCH - The bind metadata does not match the existing child cursor. For example:
variable a varchar2(100); select count(*) from emp where ename = :a ->> 1 PARENT, 1 CHILD variable a varchar2(400); select count(*) from emp where ename = :a ->> 1 PARENT, 2 CHILDREN (The bind 'a' has now changed in definition)

DESCRIBE_MISMATCH - The typecheck heap is not present during the describe for the child cursor LANGUAGE_MISMATCH - The language handle does not match the existing child cursor TRANSLATION_MISMATCH - The base objects of the existing child cursor do not match. The definition of the object does not match any current version. Usually this is indicative of the same issue as "AUTH_CHECK_MISMATCH" where the object is different. ROW_LEVEL_SEC_MISMATCH - The row level security policies do not match INSUFF_PRIVS - Insufficient privileges on objects referenced by the existing child cursor INSUFF_PRIVS_REM - Insufficient privileges on remote objects referenced by the existing child cursor REMOTE_TRANS_MISMATCH - The remote base objects of the existing child cursor do not match
USER1: select count(*) from table@remote_db USER2: select count(*) from table@remote_db (Although the SQL is identical, the dblink pointed to by remote_db may be a private dblink which resolves to a different object altogether)

LOGMINER_SESSION_MISMATCH INCOMP_LTRL_MISMATCH OVERLAP_TIME_MISMATCH - error_on_overlap_time mismatch SQL_REDIRECT_MISMATCH - sql redirection mismatch MV_QUERY_GEN_MISMATCH - materialized view query generation USER_BIND_PEEK_MISMATCH - user bind peek mismatch TYPCHK_DEP_MISMATCH - cursor has typecheck dependencies NO_TRIGGER_MISMATCH - no trigger mismatch FLASHBACK_CURSOR - No cursor sharing for flashback ANYDATA_TRANSFORMATION - anydata transformation change INCOMPLETE_CURSOR - incomplete cursor. When bind length is upgradeable (i.e. we found a child cursor that matches everything else except that the bind length is not long enough), we mark the old cursor is not usable and build a new one. This means the version can be ignored. TOP_LEVEL_RPI_CURSOR - top level/rpi cursor In a Parallel Query invocation this is expected behaviour (we purposely do not share) DIFFERENT_LONG_LENGTH - different long length LOGICAL_STANDBY_APPLY - logical standby apply mismatch DIFF_CALL_DURN - different call duration BIND_UACS_DIFF - bind uacs mismatch PLSQL_CMP_SWITCHS_DIFF - plsql compiler switches mismatch CURSOR_PARTS_MISMATCH - cursor-parts executed mismatch STB_OBJECT_MISMATCH - STB object different (now exists) ROW_SHIP_MISMATCH - row shipping capability mismatch PQ_SLAVE_MISMATCH - PQ slave mismatch Check you want to be using PX with this reason code, as the problem could be caused by running lots of small SQL statements which do not really need PX. If you are on < 11i you may be hitting Bug:4367986 TOP_LEVEL_DDL_MISMATCH - top-level DDL cursor MULTI_PX_MISMATCH - multi-px and slave-compiled cursor BIND_PEEKED_PQ_MISMATCH - bind-peeked PQ cursor MV_REWRITE_MISMATCH - MV rewrite cursor ROLL_INVALID_MISMATCH - rolling invalidation window exceeded This is caused by the rolling invalidation capability in DBMS_STATS. The child cannot be shared as it's invalidation window is exceeded. See: Note:557661.1 Rolling Cursor Invalidations with DBMS_STATS in Oracle10g (Doc ID 557661.1)

OPTIMIZER_MODE_MISMATCH - optimizer mode mismatch PX_MISMATCH - parallel query mismatch If running 11.1.0.6 and RAC see Bug:7352775. Check that if (on each instance) parallel_instance_groups is set then instance_groups is set to the same. MV_STALEOBJ_MISMATCH - mv stale object mismatch FLASHBACK_TABLE_MISMATCH - flashback table mismatch LITREP_COMP_MISMATCH - literal replacement compilation mismatch

New in 11g :
PLSQL_DEBUG - debug mismatch Session has debugging parameter plsql_debug set to true

https://support.oracle.com/epmos/faces/ui/km/SearchDocDisplay.jspx?_adf.ctrl-state=... 12/11/2012

Document Display

Page 5 of 7

LOAD_OPTIMIZER_STATS - Load optimizer stats for cursor sharing ACL_MISMATCH - Check ACL mismatch FLASHBACK_ARCHIVE_MISMATCH - Flashback archive mismatch LOCK_USER_SCHEMA_FAILED - Failed to lock user and schema REMOTE_MAPPING_MISMATCH - Remote mapping mismatch LOAD_RUNTIME_HEAP_FAILED - Runtime heap mismatch HASH_MATCH_FAILED - Hash mismatch Set to "Y" if sharing fails due to a hash mismatch, such as the case with mismatched histogram data or a range predicate marked as unsafe by literal replacement (See Bug:3461251)

New in 11.2 :
PURGED_CURSOR - cursor marked for purging The cursor has been marked for purging with dbms_shared_pool.purge BIND_LENGTH_UPGRADEABLE - bind length upgradeable Could not be shared because a bind variable size was smaller than the new value beiing inserted versions). USE_FEEDBACK_STATS - cardinality feedback Cardinality feedback is being used and therefore a new plan could be formed for the current execution. BIND_EQUIV_FAILURE - The bind value's selectivity does not match that used to optimize the existing child cursor There is no longer ROW_LEVEL_SEC_MISMATCH in 11.2. (marked as BIND_MISMATCH in earlier

Version_rpt script:
The script version_rpt can also be run to produce a summary report of the v$sql_shared_cursor view with additional diagnostic information. The script can be found in: Note:438755.1 High SQL Version Counts - Script to determine reason(s) (Doc ID 438755.1)

Running the Script: Generate reports for all cursors with more than 100 versions using SQL_ID (10g and up):
select b.* from v$sqlarea a ,table(version_rpt(a.sql_id)) b where loaded_versions >=100; -- Generate reports for all cursors with more than 100 versions using HASH_VALUE: select b.* from v$sqlarea a ,table(version_rpt(null,a.hash_value)) b where loaded_versions>=100; -- Generate the report for cursor with sql_id cyzznbykb509s: select * from table(version_rpt('cyzznbykb509s'));

What further tracing is available.


In 10G it is possible to use CURSORTRACE to aid the investigation of why cursors are not being shared. This event should only be used under the guidance of support and the resultant trace file is undocumented. To get the trace for a particular SQL statement you first of all need to get the hash_value (See the above select from v$sqlarea). You then set the trace on using:alter system set events 'immediate trace name cursortrace level 577, address hash_value';

(level 578/580 can be used for high level tracing (577=level 1, 578=level 2, 580=level 3) This will write a trace file to user_dump_dest each time we try to reuse the cursor. To turn off tracing use:alter system set events 'immediate trace name cursortrace level 2147483648, address 1';

Please note: BUG:5555371 exists in 10.2 (fixed in 10.2.0.4) where cursor trace cannot fully be turned off and single line entries will still be made to the trace file as a result. The w/a is to restart the instance. How invasive this BUG is depends on the executions of the cursor (and the size of the resultant trace file additions) In 11.2 there is also cursordump:
alter system set events 'immediate trace name cursordump level 16'

(please ensure system , not session, is used as the level meaning changes) This dumps some additional information such as expanding on the parameters for 'optimizer_mismatch' issues.

https://support.oracle.com/epmos/faces/ui/km/SearchDocDisplay.jspx?_adf.ctrl-state=... 12/11/2012

Document Display

Page 6 of 7

Are there any times when a high version count is expected even though BINDS are being used?
Consider the following where cursor_sharing=SIMILAR
select select select select select /* /* /* /* /* TEST TEST TEST TEST TEST */ */ */ */ */ * * * * * from from from from from emp emp emp emp emp where where where where where sal sal sal sal sal > > > > > 100; 101; 102; 103; 104;

SELECT sql_text,version_count,address FROM V$SQLAREA WHERE sql_text like 'select /* TEST */%'; SELECT * FROM V$SQL_SHARED_CURSOR WHERE kglhdpar = '&my_addr';

You will see several versions , each with no obvious reason for not being shared Explanation: One of the cursor sharing criteria when literal replacement is enabled with cursor_sharing as similar is that bind value should match initial bind value if the execution plan is going to change depending on the value of the literal. The reason for this is we _might_ get a sub optimal plan if we use the same cursor. This would typically happen when depending on the value of the literal optimizer is going to chose a different plan. Thus in this test case we have a predicate with > , if this was a equality we would always share the same child cursor. If application developers are ready to live with a sub-optimal plan and save on memory , then they need to set the parameter to force. "The difference between SIMILAR and FORCE is that SIMILAR forces similar statements to share the SQL area without deteriorating execution plans. Setting CURSOR_SHARING to FORCE forces similar statements to share the SQL area potentially deteriorating execution plans." It is also possible to tell from 10046 trace (level 4/12 - BINDS) if a bind is considered to be unsafe The flag oacfl2 in 9i and fl2 in 10g will show if a variable is unsafe.
BINDS #2: bind 0: dty=2 offset=0 bfp=1036d6408 value=16064 bind 1: dty=2 offset=0 bfp=1036d4340

mxl=22(04) mal=00 scl=00 pre=00 oacflg=10 oacfl2=500 size=24 bln=22 avl=04 flg=09 mxl=22(04) mal=00 scl=00 pre=00 oacflg=10 oacfl2=500 size=24 bln=22 avl=04 flg=09

In 10g (10.2.0.5) and 11g using the example query above this looks like:
alter session set cursor_sharing=force; alter session set events '10046 trace name context forever,level 12'; select /* TEST */ * from emp where sal > :"SYS_B_0" END OF STMT .. BINDS #3071441600: Bind#0 oacdty=02 mxl=22(03) mxlc=00 mal=00 scl=00 pre=00 oacflg=10 fl2=0300 frm=00 csi=00 siz=24 off=0 kxsbbbfp=295c96f0 bln=22 avl=03 flg=09 value=103

The "fl2=0300" entry indicates that this is and Unsafe literal and the bind was generated by replacement :
#define UACFBLTR 0x00000100 /* Bind was generated by LiTeRal replacement */ #define UACFUNSL 0x00000200 /* UNSafe Literal */

The 0x200 entry being the important flag for determination of literal 'safety'. For additional details on this topic see: Note:377847.1 Unsafe Literals or Peeked Bind Variables (Doc ID 377847.1) Note:1401814.1 High Version Count with CURSOR_SHARING = SIMILAR or FORCE

Bug 10187168 Enhancement to obsolete parent cursors if Version Count exceeds a threshold
In 11gr2, an issue of Child cursors growing very long was introduced. An enhancement request was filed to address this issue. When the child cursors grow beyond certain count be it 20 or 100, it obsoletes the parent cursors. In order to activate this enhancement bug set following: 1. If 11.2.0.3 and above, set the following parameters:
"_cursor_obsolete_threshold" to 100 (this is the number of child cursor after which we obsolete it)

2. If 11.2.0.2.2, then set:

https://support.oracle.com/epmos/faces/ui/km/SearchDocDisplay.jspx?_adf.ctrl-state=... 12/11/2012

Document Display

Page 7 of 7

"_cursor_features_enabled" to 1026 event 106001 with value 100 (as the parameter _cursor_obsolete_threshold is not present)

For more information, please read the following article regarding the enhancement involved: Note:10187168.8 Enhancement to obsolete parent cursors if Version Count exceeds a threshold

High Version Count with Adaptive Cursor Sharing


With introduction of adaptive cursor sharing in 11g, there may be increased version count due to more child cursors. The adaptive cursor sharing is meant to adapt execution plans, depending on the selectivity of the bind variable. For more information on adaptive cursor sharing, please review following note: Note:740052.1 Adaptive Cursor Sharing Overview Some known issues with Adaptive Cursor Sharing Overview:

Note:7213010.8 Bug 7213010 - Adaptive cursor sharing generates lots of child cursors Note:8491399.8 Bug 8491399 - Adaptive Cursor Sharing does not match the correct cursor version for queries using CHAR datatype

Troubleshooting Other Issues


For guidance troubleshooting other performance issues take a look at: Document 1377446.1 Troubleshooting Performance Issues

References

NOTE:1401814.1 - High Version Count with CURSOR_SHARING = SIMILAR or FORCE from pre 10g to 11.2.0.3 NOTE:377847.1 - Unsafe Literals or Peeked Bind Variables NOTE:438755.1 - High SQL Version Counts - Script to determine reason(s) NOTE:557661.1 - Rolling Cursor Invalidations with DBMS_STATS.AUTO_INVALIDATE

https://support.oracle.com/epmos/faces/ui/km/SearchDocDisplay.jspx?_adf.ctrl-state=... 12/11/2012