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AN EFFICIENT MODELING OF TRANSMISSION LINES TOWERS AND GROUNDING SYSTEMS FOR LIGHTNING PROPAGATION STUDIES

Joo Clavio Salari

CEPEL Electric Power Research Center jclavio@cepel.br

Carlos Portela

COPPE / UFRJ Federal University of Rio de Janeiro portelac@ism.com.br

Rogrio M. Azevedo

CEPEL Electric Power Research Center azevedo@cepel.br

P.O. Box 68007 Zip Code: 21941-911 Rio de Janeiro RJ Brazil Tel: (21) 2598-6223

Abstract This paper presents three alternatives for modeling sections of overhead transmission lines for surge propagation studies. The analysis takes into account the simulation of cables, towers and grounding systems by the computer program FDETP, combining both circuit and three-dimensional electromagnetic field models. From the gotten results, it is clear that reasonably accurate modeling can be obtained by simulating the line by a very simple circuital approach.

electric circuit under analysis may be simulated simultaneously by typical circuit analysis elements, like linear and non-linear RLC elements, transformers, transmission lines, switches, etc, and by threedimensional (3-D) elements of the type cylindrical electrodes, typically employed in 3-D electromagnetic field analysis [1-9]. In general, accurate traditional frequency-domain methods consider the modeling of all towers, grounding systems and cables only by cylindrical electrodes. This strategy typically demands to model a few line spans at least thousands of electrodes. Hence, considering that this kind of computation requires the manipulation of non-sparse complex matrices, which order is proportional to the amount of electrodes employed, and being those matrices different for each simulated frequency to represent the time interval under analysis, the whole process is very time-demanding. This computational effort may be prohibitive for the less powerful computers. On the other hand, the above-mentioned authors hybrid frequency-domain modeling, combining circuit elements and 3-D field elements, has demonstrated being very efficient, i.e., it allows reducing dramatically all matrices dimensions and so the total computing time under minimum impact on results accuracy. This strategy also allows evaluating specific combinations of RLC elements and ideal transmission lines to represent some (or all) cables, towers or grounding systems that compose the section of the line. Naturally, this resultant simple modeling of towers and grounding systems can also be included in typical time-domain based computer programs, e.g. the widespread EMTP-type codes. Therefore, this paper aims to present and exemplify this efficient modeling by the computation of the consequent overvoltages in typical transmission lines when a representative lightning stroke hits directly the line.

1 INTRODUCTION When a lightning stroke hits an overhead transmission line or a point at the earths surface near the line, it takes place an electromagnetic transient phenomena, which depends on line geometry and parameters, and on lightning parameters, most of them having high statistical dispersion and requiring a treatment based on their statistical distribution. In both cases, due to electromagnetic coupling among all line components and among them and the atmospheric discharge channel, the electromagnetic phenomena will propagate in shield wires and phase conductors, in tower structures, and in tower grounding systems. Because of such propagation, overvoltages will occur, e.g. near the tower between line structure and phase conductors, and between shield and phase conductors. If one of such overvoltages exceeds the insulation withstand voltage, a short-circuit occurs. In this direction, the authors have been engaged in developing optimized models to compute the lightning propagation in transmission lines and the consequent average number of short-circuits per hundred kilometer length per year, what defines the lines lightning performance. This work includes time-domain and frequency-domain based methodologies. The second group encompasses the more accurate models, mainly because the inclusion of frequency-dependency of any parameter is straightforward, and all components of the

2 THE ADOPTED HYBRID MODELING As introduced, to simulate sections of transmission lines for lightning propagation studies, it has been demonstrated that hybrid modeling, considering both circuit and 3-D field elements, proportionate great numerical accuracy under low computer effort. In other words, for the computation of consequent overvoltages in the line caused by lightning incidence, instead of modeling by 3-D electrodes all lines components, some or all towers and grounding systems may be modeled efficiently by specific combinations of RLC elements and ideal transmission lines. To exemplify, considering the solution of the full problem by a generic system of equations, the inclusion of a tower modeled by electrodes means adding at least a hundred of new equations, whereas the same tower modeled by circuit elements requires around no more than ten new equations. Therefore, for the present analysis, we considered each section of line composed by six spans and the lightning incidence at shield wire near the intermediate tower, as depicted in Fig. 1.

im pedan ce m atchin g

2. Modeling all towers and grounding systems by 3-D cylindrical electrodes, and all cables by the traditional 2-D quadripole model in frequency domain: As in part of alternative 1, in this case, the electromagnetic coupling among all cables and towers is not included, but only the connections among cables and towers at each span terminals. 3. Modeling all grounding systems by 3-D cylindrical electrodes, towers by adequate combinations among ideal transmission lines, and all cables by the traditional 2-D quadripole in frequency domain: As in alternative 2, in this case, the electromagnetic coupling among all cables and towers is depreciated. For each tower, the parameters of the respective ideal transmission lines (wave impedance, ZT , propagation velocity, v , and length, l ) are obtained analyzing the frequency response of their equivalent impedances. This correlation is computed previously modeling the tower by 3-D cylindrical electrodes. It is worthwhile noticing that these alternatives demand 3-D modeling, and, consequently, those computer codes typically employed in 3-D electromagnetic studies. These codes are normally developed in frequency domain, despite there exist import ones that are time-domain based. On the other hand, a simple variant of alternative 3 is fully modeled by traditional EMTP-type codes, which are timedomain based and normally of fast execution. This alternative considers the modeling of each grounding system by an equivalent rational function in s-domain or by an equivalent RLC synthetic circuit. For example, for the 138 kV line presented ahead in item 3.1, the modulus and angle of the equivalent grounding system impedance of each tower in function of frequency is presented in Fig. 2. For this case, we have successfully applied e.g. the method presented in [10] to obtain an accurate equivalent RLC synthetic circuit.

40 30 20 10 Parameter 0 -10 -20 -30 -40 -50 -60 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 Frequency (MHz) 2.0 2.5 Modulus (ohm) Angle (o)

current in jectio n

C ables

C ables

C ables

Cables

C ables

C ables

m ain span s

Regarding the modeling of towers, cables and grounding systems, we considered three alternatives, namely: 1. Modeling all towers, grounding systems and cables of main spans by 3-D cylindrical electrodes, and cables of other spans by the traditional 2-D quadripole model in frequency domain: In this case, only for the main spans (near the striking point) both the effect of sags of cables and the electromagnetic coupling among cables and among cables and towers are accurately considered. In early studies, we have demonstrated the efficiency of this kind of modeling for sections of lines [8], [9]. Hence, for the other spans, the electromagnetic coupling among cables and towers is not included, but only the connections among cables and towers at each span terminals. Besides, as, among many simplifications, the traditional quadripole model considers the cables with infinite length and parallel to the earths surface, we adopted cables average height.

Fig. 2 - Modulus and angle of equivalent grounding system impedance in function of frequency.

3 APPLICATION EXAMPLES 3.1 Single-circuit 138 kV transmission line This line has one ACSR cable code linnet per phase and one EHS shield wire code 3/8, as depicted in Fig. 3(a). The tower grounding system basic dimensions are depicted in Fig. 3(b), and the span length is equal to 300 m . More details about this line can be found in [9].

P 0.65 m P 2.55 m A1 B1 A2 B2 C1 C2 T1 T2 40 m 4.5 m T4 (a) T3 (b) T1 T2 T3 T4 (c) 17.85 m 3.80 m T1 T4 T2 T3 2.25 m 1.20 m 0.5 m depth ZT = 180 ; v = 280 Mm/s l = 3,45 m A1 ZT = 180 ; v = 280 Mm/s l = 1,90 m B1 ZT = 180 ; v = 280 Mm/s l = 1,90 m C1 ZT = 180 ; v = 280 Mm/s l = 17,85 m

frequency voltage at the instant the lightning stroke hits the line, eventual soil ionization effects and corona effects on electrodes surface, and also the eventual connection of arresters in the line. Additional reading about these aspects, including the effect of considering the discharge channel, more application examples and other types of stroke incidence (e.g. near midspan, at a phase cable, or at a point at the earths surface near the line) can be found in [6-9]. To analyze all alternatives, we employed the computer program FDETP (Frequency Domain Electromagnetic Transients Program) [8], [9]. In order to obtain the above-commented equivalent circuits for alternative 3, we also used the program FDETP to model initially towers and grounding systems by 3-D cylindrical electrodes. Doing so, the obtained equivalent modeling for each tower is presented in Fig. 3(c), whereas the frequency response for the equivalent impedance for the grounding system of each tower, Zg , was presented in Fig. 2. It is also interesting noticing that, for each tower, despite the presented fixed values of wave impedance ZT and wave propagation velocity v , if the relation ZT / v (which has the sense of an equivalent wave inductance) is maintained around 180/280 H/m , there are other pairs of parameters ZT and v that also proportionate satisfactory results. We also observed this tendency for other line examples, as presented in [8]. For instance, for the following 230 kV line example, this relation is around 160/280 H/m , whereas for the last example herein presented, a double circuit 500 kV line, this relation is around 215/270 H/m . We might establish a typical range for general studies between 0.5 and 1.5 H/m . These conclusions allows establishing simple equations for wave impedance ZT and velocity v for any tower in function of its basic dimensions (e.g., towers height, distance between phases, etc). The computed values are therefore presented in Fig. 5 to 7. We can observe clearly the reasonable agreement among all alternatives of modeling, especially during the front time. After this time, as expected, comparing to alternative 1, the more accurate one, some higher peaks occur with simpler alternatives of modeling 2 and 3. Also as expected, it occurs a phase-shift effect with alternatives 2 and 3 . This is mainly in function of the above-commented depreciation of electromagnetic coupling among towers and cables with these two alternatives. However, at this point, it is valuable confronting accuracy and total computation time among alternatives, so as to provide the user the best alternative to choice. For this line example, the total computation time is presented in Table 1, considering the alternative 1 as

Fig. 3 - 138 kV Transmission Line: (a) tower basic dimensions; (b) grounding system; (c) tower equivalent circuit.

We considered only the incidence of representative first negative strokes, and, for each stroke simulated, we adopted the stylized waveform depicted in Fig. 4. For simplicity, the amplitude Io was postulated equal to 1 A , and the front time tf was supposed equal to 1 , 5 or 10 s .

i(t) Io

-4 -2 =0 2 4 6

used value: = 2

tf

20 s

100 s

The soil was modeled frequency dependent according to [1], [2], considering its low frequency electric conductivity 0 equal to 0.5 mS/m , and using an example of median values of parameters and i equal to 0.706 and 11.71 mS/m , respectively. As depicted in Fig. 1, we also employed expressed impedance matching in both terminals of the section of the line, to reduce reflection and refraction effects in these points. We comment that, for the scope of this paper, the lightning discharge path was not represented, being therefore assumed the current injection directly at shield wire near tower. We also did not consider the power

basis. It is notorious that alternative 3 demanded a minimum computation time. Finally, despite this comparison, we have to keep in mind that alternatives 2 and 3 are inadequate for studies that demand 3-D electromagnetic fields computations, e.g. for computing step and touch voltages near towers, transferred voltages, induced voltages in electric structures near the line, the electric field in the external media, etc. Another special case is when one intends to model adequately the discharge channel and its interaction with the line. Therefore, if some of these cases are to be solved, the alternative 1, or even its variant modeling all cables by cylindrical electrodes, must be employed.

25

Modeling 1

Table 1: Total computation time for each alternative. Alternative 1 2 3 Time (p.u.) 1 0.25 0.0062

3.2 Single-circuit 230 kV transmission line This line has two ACSR cable code rail per phase and two EHS shield wires code 3/8, as depicted in Fig. 8(a). The span length is equal to 400 m . More details are presented in [5,8]. The equivalent circuit depicted in Fig. 8(c) was also obtained by previous 3-D modeling using the program FDETP.

6m P1 A1 A2 B1 B2 7m P2 C1 C2 6m 2.2 m 3m 0.5 m depth P1 P2 ZT = 160 ; v = 280 Mm/s l = 2.2 m A1 B1 A1 T1 T2 T3 ZT = 160 ; v = 280 Mm/s l = 30 m

20 Voltage (V) 15

1

Modeling 2 Modeling 3

10 5

2, 3

21 m T4

0

30 m

4 6 Time (s)

10

8m T1 , T4 T2 , T3

T1 T2 T3 T4

10 8 Voltage (V)

1

(a)

(b)

(c)

Fig. 8 - 230 kV Transmission Line: (a) tower basic dimensions; (b) grounding system; (c) tower equivalent circuit.

6

2, 3

4 2 0 0 2 4 6 Time (s) 8 10

Modeling 1 Modeling 2 Modeling 3

We analyzed this line similarly to the previous line example. The obtained results for tf equal to 5 s are presented in Fig. 9. Similar agreement among all alternatives of modeling was obtained for tf equal to 1 and 10 s , corroborating all comments described above for the 138 kV line example.

12 10 Voltage (V) 8 6 4 2

2, 3

Modeling 1 Modeling 2 Modeling 3

10 8 Voltage (V)

2, 3

0 0 2 4 6 Time (s) 8 10

6 4 2 0 0 5 10 Time (s) 15 20

Modeling 1 Modeling 2 Modeling 3

3.3 Double-circuit 500 kV transmission line This last example is based on actual data presented in [11]. We considered the line formed by four ACSR cable code lapwing per phase and two EHS shield wires code

5/8, as illustrated in Fig. 10(a). The span length varies between 166 and 449 m . According to [11], by injecting in the shield wire of index P2 a current which front waveform is characterized by a time front with 3 s and amplitude around 3.4 A , it was measured the consequent induced voltages across insulator strings of phases of index A , B and C . It is also informed in [11] the equivalent tower grounding impedance equal to 17 . Considering these data, we exploited the efficiency of alternatives of modeling 2 and 3 . For alternative 3 each tower was modeled by the equivalent circuit presented in Fig. 10(b). This circuit was also obtained analyzing previous modeling results obtained by program FDETP. The computed values for phase A (between points A1 and A2) are presented in Fig. 11, where we can observe the excellent agreement obtained by both computer simulation and measurements, proving once again the efficiency of the present modeling for towers, cables and grounding systems. The same order of agreement was obtained for phases B and C .

20.8 m

4 CONCLUSION In this paper we investigated three alternatives for modeling sections of overhead transmission lines for surge propagation studies. The goal was to evaluate the effect of substituting accurate three-dimensional field models (cylindrical electrodes) to represent cables, towers and grounding systems by simple typical circuit models (RLC elements, ideal lines, etc). From the gotten results, associated with the induced voltages across insulator strings in the event of direct stroke incidences in the line, it is clear that reasonably accurate modeling can be obtained by simulating the section of the line by a very simple circuital approach. This simple modeling is really low time-demanding, besides being fully and easily implemented in most EMTP-type codes. It is recommend, though, only for those studies not requiring directly the computation of electromagnetic fields, where the partial or full threedimensional modeling is required. 5 REFERENCES

P1 P2 P2 A1 A2 B1 B2 C1 C2 ZT = 215 ; v = 270 Mm/s l = 11.1 to 13.9 m A1 D1 ZT = 215 ; v = 270 Mm/s l = 12.7 m B1 E1 ZT = 215 ; v = 270 Mm/s l = 12.7 m C1 F1 ZT = 215 ; v = 270 Mm/s l = 26 to 40 m

P1 D1 D2 E1 E2 F1 F2

[1]

[2]

[3]

10.8 m

T1 T2 T3 T4

[4]

(a) (b)

Fig. 10 - 500 kV Transmission Line: (a) tower basic dimensions; (b) simplified representation of 500 kV towers (average heights).

70 60 Voltage (V) 50 40 30 20 10 0 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 Time (s) 2.0 2.5

Measured Modeling 2 Modeling 3

[5]

[6]

[7]

[8]

C. Portela, Frequency and transient behavior of grounding systems; I physical and methodological aspects; II practical application examples, Proceedings of the IEEE Int. Symp. Electromagnetic Compatibility, pp. 379390, Austin, TX, 1997. C. Portela, Soil electromagnetic behavior in frequency domain and its influence in lightning effects, Proceedings of the Ground2002 Int. Conf. Grounding and Earthing, pp. 211-216, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, Nov. 2002. J. C. Salari and C. Portela, Frequency dependent behaviour of grounding systems. Proceedings of the VII International Symposium on Lightning Protection (SIPDA), pp. 75-81, Curitiba, Brazil, Nov. 2003. J. C. Salari and C. Portela, A new approach to the calculation of distribution and transmission lines performance for direct lightning flash incidence, Proceedings of the VII International Symposium on Lightning Protection (SIPDA) pp. 433-438, Curitiba, Brazil, Nov. 2003. J. C. Salari and C. Portela, Development of a frequency domain electromagnetic transient program, Proceedings of the VIII International Symposium on Lightning Protection (SIPDA), pp. 243-248, Sao Paulo, Brazil, Nov. 2005. J. C. Salari and C. Portela, Grounding systems modeling considering soil ionization effects, Proceedings of the Ground2006 International Conference on Grounding and Earthing, pp. 243-248, Maceio, Brazil, Nov. 2006. J. C. Salari and C. Portela, Computation of transmission lines short-circuits caused by direct and nearby-ground lightning incidence, Proceedings of the Ground2006 International Conference on Grounding and Earthing, pp. 345-350, Maceio, Brazil, Nov. 2006. J. C. Salari, Effect of lightning flashes in transmission lines performance time and frequency domain

[9]

methodologies (in Portuguese), D.Sc. Thesis, COPPE/UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro, 2006. Available in: http://www.pee.ufrj.br/teses/textocompleto/2006120601.p df. J. C. Salari and C. Portela, A methodology for electromagnetic transients calculation an application for the calculation of lightning propagation in transmission lines, IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, v. 22, n. 1, pp. 527-536, Jan. 2007.

[10] B. Gustavsen and A. Semlyen, Rational approximation of frequency domain responses by vector fitting, IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, v. 14, n. 3, pp. 10521061, July 1999. [11] M. Ishii, T. Kawamura, T. Kouno, et al., Multistory transmission tower model for lightning surge analysis, IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, v. 6, n. 3, pp. 1327-1335, July 1991.

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